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Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin

 Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Description of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin

Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin is an original location of the original medieval city. It was erected here in 1221 by Count of Vladimir Principality Yury Vsevolodovich. However present day fortifications date back to the late 15th and early 16th century. Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin has a shape of irregular polygon with towers for further protection against the enemy attacks. The lenth of Kremlin walls is 2045 meters with a height of 12 meters and thickness of 5 meters. Of the original 13 towers 12 survive to this day. Their height ranges from 18 to 22 meters. The most famous and probably most beautiful tower in the ensemble is a Demetrius Towers, which is crowned by a gilded emblem of the city- walking deer. The largest church in the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin is the Archangel Michael Cathedral that was built in the 17th century.

 

Today Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin houses administrative and cultural center of the city. This includes Nizhny Novgorod and regional administration, Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin Museum, Art Museum and a Center of Contemporary Art. Additionally it houses a historic museum of military vehicles that served during World War II. Many of them were constructed in Nizhny Novgorod during World War II.

 

 

 

History Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin

The first attempt to replace the wooden fort with a stone kremlin was recorded in 1374, but construction was limited to a single tower, known as the Dmitrovskaya Tower (this has not survived). Under the rule of Ivan III, Nizhny Novgorod played the role of a guard city, having a permanent garrison; it served as a place for gathering troops for Moscow’s actions against the Khanate of Kazan. In order to strengthen the defenses of the city, construction works on the walls began again.

Construction of the stone Kremlin of Nizhny Novgorod began in 1500 with the building of the Ivanovskaya Tower; the main work commenced in 1508 and by 1515 a grandiose building was completed. The oak walls that formed the old fortifications were destroyed by a huge fire in 1513. The two kilometer wall was reinforced by 13 towers (one of them – Zachatskaya – was on the shore of the Volga; not preserved, but was rebuilt in 2012). This “Stone City” had a permanent garrison with solid artillery weapons. With the fall of Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin lost its military significance, and later it housed the city and provincial authorities.

During the World War II, the roofs of the Taynitskaya, the Severnaya, and the Chasovaya Towers were dismantled and anti-aircraft machine guns were installed on the upper platforms. Thus, the fortress defended the airspace of the city from Luftwaffe. The Luftwaffe attacked bombing the Kanavinsky Bridge and the Fair, but the Kremlin's air defense defended these objects.

The Council of Ministers of the RSFSR issued an order on January 30, 1949 for the restoration of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin.

In October 2018, archaeologists discovered the remains of a medieval settlement and cemetery on the site of the destroyed church of St. Simeon Stylites. The finds belong to the 13th century, and the most ancient cultural layer - to 1221, when Nizhny Novgorod was founded. After all the excavations, the exhibits will be museified, and the church of St. Simeon the Stylite will be recreated at this place.

Towers
Towers of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin
Georgievskaya Tower (Russian: Георгиевская башня, lit. 'St. George Tower')
Borisoglebskaya Tower (Russian: Борисоглебская башня, lit. 'Tower of St. Boris and Gleb') destroyed by a landslide in the 18th century; rebuilt in 1972)
Zachatskaya Tower (Russian: Зачатская башня, lit. 'Conteption Tower') destroyed by a landslide in the 18th century; rebuilt in 2012)
Belaya Tower (Russian: Белая башня, lit. 'White Tower')
Ivanovskaya Tower (Russian: Ивановская башня, lit. 'St. John's Tower')
Chasovaya Tower (Russian: Часовая башня, lit. 'Clock Tower')
Severnaya Tower (Russian: Северная башня, lit. 'Northern Tower')
Taynitskaya Tower (Russian: Тайницкая башня, lit. 'Secret Tower')
Koromyslova Tower (Russian: Коромыслова башня, lit. 'Yoke Tower')
Nikolskaya Tower (Russian: Никольская башня, lit. 'St. Nicholas Tower')
Kladovaya Tower (Russian: Кладовая башня, lit. 'Pantry Tower')
Porokhovaya Tower (Russian: Пороховая башня, lit. 'Powder Tower')

Dmitrievskaya Tower (Russian: Дмитриевская башня, lit. 'Demetrius Tower')
The Dmitrievskaya Tower (Russian: Дмитриевская башня, tr. Dmitrievskaya Bashnya) is the main tower on the southern wall of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin which overlooks the Minin and Pozharsky Square. The tower named after a powerful Prince of Suzdal and Nizhny Novgorod Dmitry of Suzdal. Another version claims that the name gave a church which was sanctified of the name of Saint Demetrius of Thessaloniki. This church was located opposite the tower. The Dmitrievskaya Tower was built between 1500 and 1516 during the construction of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin. Its earliest mention comes in 1516 in the chronicle. After 1782 the Dmitrievskaya Tower began to disintegrate and redevelop. The Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin has been completely renovated between 1785 and 1790. Part of the tower above the gates was completely reconstructed. Wall thicknesses was reduced, loopholes were replaced by rectangular windows. Low slanting iron roof was erected. In the early 18th the Kremlin walls and the Dmitrievskaya Tower were traditionally painted white, in accordance with fashion. Height of the tower decreased by 6 m after back filling of a moat between 1834 and 1837 around the Kremlin. A garrison school for soldierly children occupied the tower at the end of the 18th century and the early the 19th century. The fortress become dilapidated meanwhile. Between 1958 and 1856 the tower was occupied by the provincial government?s archival depository. Then the Dmitrievskaya Tower was abandoned.

 

In 1894-95 the tower was restored upon the project of architect Nikolai Sultanov. He was instructed to transform it into an art and historical museum. The upper level was completely rebuilt. Large windows were installed instead of straight teeth, decorating machicolations. Caravans were built up above the West-European-style. The museum was opened in 1896. At the opening ceremony of the museum, Emperor Nicholas II and his wife attended. In 1913 a big celebration was held in honor of the 300th anniversary of the Romanov family near the Dmitrievskaya Tower. The art and historical museum was located in the Dmitrievsky Tower until 1919. Then the exhibits and paintings were taken out and distributed to other places. Some of them were destroyed. In 1994 the icon of Yuri II of Vladimir was restored above the gate (see picture below).

 

 

 


 

Transportation

 

Hotels, motels and where to sleep

 

Restaurant, taverns and where to eat

 

Cultural (and not so cultural) events

 

Interesting information and useful tips

 

 

 

 

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