Ermak Travel Guide

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Russian

 

Russia

 

Russia Destinations Travel Guide

 

 

 

 

Flag of Russia

Language: Russian

Currency: Ruble (RUB)

Calling code: +7

 

Interesting facts 

 

 

 

Travel Destinations in Russia

Map of Russian federal districts

Northwestern Federal District

 

Arkhangelsk Oblast (Russia)

Arkhangelsk
Aleksandro-Oschevensky Monastery
Belushya Guba
Kargopol
Kenozersky National Park
Kholmogory
Kotlas
Mezen
Mirny
Novodvinskaya Fortress
Onega
Pinezhsky National Park
Severodvinsk
Solovetsky Monastery
Solvychegodsk

 

Vologda Oblast (Russia)

Vologda
Belozersk
Cherepovets
Ferapontovo

Ferapontov Monastery

Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery

Kirillov

Tot'ma

Veliky Ustyug

Vytegra

 

Kaliningrad Oblast (Russia)

Curonian Spit
Kaliningrad
Pionerskiy
Primorsk
Sovetsk
Svetlogorsk
Zelenogradsk
Zheleznodorozhniy

 

Republic of Karelia (Russia)

Petrozavodsk
Belomorsk Petroglyphs
Kivach Waterfall
Kizhi
Kem
Kostomuksha
Kostomuksha Nature Reserve

Lake Ladoga

Lake Onega

Olonets

Povenets

Sortavala

Vodlozersky National Park

Valaam Monastery

 

Komi Republic (Russia)

Syktyvkar
Inta
Pechora
Pechora-Ilych Nature Reserve
Ukhta
Usinsk
Yugyd Va National Park
Vorkuta

 

Leningrad Oblast (Russia)

Alexander-Svirsky Monastery

Gatchina Palace

Fabergé's House

Fort Alexander

Fort Ino

Fort Krasnaya Gorka

Ivangorod Fortress

Koporye Castle

Lodeynoye Polye

Pavlovsk Palace

Peterhof Palace

Priozersk

Saint Petersburg

Svetogorsk

Shlisselburg

Staraya Ladoga

Tichvinsky Uspensky Monastery

Tikhvin

Tsarskoye Selo (Pushkin)

Vyborg Castle

White Sea- Baltic Canal

 

Murmansk Oblast (Russia)

Murmansk
Kandalaksha
Kirovsk
The Khibiny Mountains
Polyarny
Severomorsk

 

Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Russia)

Naryan-Mar
Amderma
Novaya Zemlya
Vaigach Island

 

Novgorod Oblast (Russia)

Veliky Novgorod

Kholm

Khutyn Monastery

Valdaysky Iversky Monastery

Staraya Russa
Valday
Valdaisky National Park

 

Pskov Oblast (Russia)

Pskov
Gdov
Izborsk
Izborsk Castle
Ostrov
Pechory
Polistovsky Nature Reserve
Porkhov
Sebezh
Sebezhsky National Park
Velikiye Luki
Pushkinskie Gory

 

  

 

Central

 

Moscow Oblast (Russia)

Abramtsevo Estate Museum

Arkhangelskoe

Borodino Battle Site

Dmitrov

Gorki Leninskiye

Grebnebo

Joseph-Volokolamsk Monastery

Klin

Kolomenskoye

Kolomna

Kuskovo

Losiny Ostrov National Park

Melikhovo

Monino

Moscow

New Jerusalem Monastery

Ostankino Palace

Podolsk

Prioksko-Terrasny Nature Reserve

Sergiev Posad

Serpukhov

S'yani

Tchakovsky House Museum

Tsaritsyno Park

Vasnetsov House Museum

Zaraysk Kremlin

Zvenigorod

 

Belgorod Oblast (Russia)

Belgorod
Les na Vorskle Nature Reserve
Prokhorovka
Shebekino
Stary Oskol

 

Bryansk Oblast (Russia)

Bryansk
Bryansky Forest Nature Reserve
Dyatkovo
Klintsy
Mglin
Novozybkov

 

Vladimir Oblast (Russia)

Alexandrov

Bogolyubovo

Gorokhovets

Gus-Khrustalny

Kirzhach

Kovrov

Murom

Suzdal

Vladimir

Yuryev-Polsky

 

Voronezh Oblast (Russia)

Voronezh
Divnogorye
Khrenovoye
Khopersky Nature Reserve
Kostyonki
Voronezh Biosphere Reserve

 

Ivanovo Oblast (Russia)

Ivanovo
Kineshma
Palekh
Plyos
Shuya
Staraya Vichuga

 

Kaluga Oblast (Russia)

Kaluga
Borovsk
Kaluzhskie Zaseki Nature Reserve
Kozelsk
Maloyaroslavets
Mosalsk
Obninsk
Optina Monastery
Tarusa
Tikhonova Pustyn
Ugra National Park

 

Kostroma Oblast (Russia)

Kostroma

Chukhloma

Galich

Ipatiev Monastery

Soligalich

 

 

Kursk Oblast (Russia)

Kursk
Rylsk
Tsentralno-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve
Zheleznogorsk

 

Lipetsk Oblast (Russia)

Lipetsk
Dankov
Galichya Gora Nature Reserve
Lebedyan
Yelets
Zadonsk

 

Oryol Oblast  (Russia)

Oryol
Livny
Mtsensk
Orlovskoye Polesye National Park
Spasskoye-Lutovinovo

 

Ryazan Oblast (Russia)

Ryazan
Kasimov
Konstantinovo
Meshchyorsky National Park
Mikhaylov
Oksky Nature Reserve
Solotcha

 

Smolensk Oblast (Russia)

Smolensk
Dorogobuzh
Roslavl
Vyazma

 

Tambov Oblast (Russia)

Tambov
Ivanovka
Kirsanov
Michurinsk
Mordovo
Morshansk

 

Tver Oblast (Russia)

Tver

Brosno Lake Monster/Dragon

Bologoe
Central Forest Nature Reserve
Kashin
Kalyazin

Nilov Monastery

Ostashkov

Rzhev

Lake Seliger

Staritskiy Uspenskiy Monastery

Toropets
Torzhok
Volgoverkhovie

 

Tula Oblast (Russia)

Tula
Belyov
Bogoroditsk
Kulikovo Field
Novomoskovsk
Venyov
Yasnaya Polyana

 

Yaroslavl Oblast (Russia)

Yaroslavl

Borisoglebsky

Goritsky Monastery

Mologa

Myshkin

Pereslavl Zalessky

Pleshcheyevo Lake National Park

Rostov

Rybinsk

Tutayev

Uglich

 

 

Volga

 

 Republic of Bashkortostan (Russia)

Ufa
Beloretsk
Bashkiriya National Park
Ishimbuy
Krasnousolsky
Kumertau
Mesyagutovo
Neftekamsk
Oktyabrsky
Salavat
Shulgan Tash Nature Reserve
Sibai
Sterlitamak

 

Kirov Oblast (Russia)

Kirov
Kirovo-Chepetsk
Kotelnich
Zuevka

 

Republic Mari El (Russia)

Yoshkar-Ola
Kozmodemyansk
Volzhsk
Yurino

 

Republic of Mordovia (Russia)

Saransk
Ruzayevka
Temnikov

 

Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (Russia)

Nizhny Novgorod

Arzamas
Balakhna
Bogorodsk
Bor

Dzerzhinsk
Gorodets

Kitezh/Lake Svetloyar

Kstovo
Sarov

 

Orenburg Oblast (Russia)

Orenburg
Gay
Novotroitsk
Orenburgsky Nature Reserve
Orsk

 

Penza Oblast (Russia)

Penza
Kuznetsk
Nikolsk
Serdobsk
Zarechny

 

Perm Kray (Russia)

Perm
Bassegi Nature Reserve
Berezniki
Cherdyn
Kudymkar
Kungur
Kungur Ice Cave
Vishersky Nature Reserve

 

Samara Oblast (Russia)

Samara
Novokuybyshevsk
Syzran
Tolyatti

 

Saratov Oblast (Russia)

Saratov
Balakovo
Balashov
Engels

 

Republic of Tatarstan (Russia)

Kazan

Almetyevsk
Bolghar
Kamaevo
Naberezhnye Chelny
Nizhnekamsk

Raifsky Monastery

Sviyazhsk Island
Yelabuga
Zelenodolsk

 

Udmurt Republic (Russia)

Izhevsk
Glazov
Paravay
Sarapul
Sep
Sundur
Votkinsk

 

Ulyanovsk Oblast (Russia)

Ulyanovsk Dmitrovgrad

 

Chuvash Republic (Russia)

Cheboksary
Kanash
Mariinsky Posad
Novocheboksarsk

 

South

 

Volgograd Oblast (Russia)

Volgograd
Kamyshin
Uryupinsk
Volzhsky

 

Astrakhan Oblast (Russia)

Astrakhan
Akhtubinsk
Kharibali
Znamensk

 

 Republic of Adygea (Russia)

Maykop
Adygeysk
Caucasian Biosphere Reserve
Dakhovskaya
Gornaya Adygea National Park
Guzeripl
Kamennomostsky (Khadzhokh)
Mezmay

 

Republic of Kalmykia (Russia)

Elista
Gorodovikovsk
Iki-Burul
Komsomolsky
Lagan
Tsagan Aman
Zunda Tolga

 

Krasnodar Kray  (Russia)

Krasnodar

Abrau-Dyurso
Adler
Anapa
Armavir
Gelendzhik

Krasnaya Polyana

Labinsk
Novorossiysk

Sochi

Sochi National Park

Taman
Tuapse

 

Crimean Peninsula (de facto Russia, de jure Ukraine)

Adjimuschkay

Ai Petri Mountain

Alushta

Alupka

Bakhchysarai

Balaklava

Chersonesus

Eski Kermen

Feodosiya

Fort Kerch

Kerch

Koktebel

Livadiya

Massandra

Shcholkine

Sevastopol

Simeiz

Simferopol

Sudak

Swallow's Nest

Yalta

Yeni-Kale

Yevpatoria

 

Rostov Oblast (Russia)

Rostov-on-Don
Aksay
Azov
Novocherkassk
Rostovsky Nature Reserve
Shakhty
Starocherkasskaya
Taganrog
Vyoshenskaya Stanitsa

 

North Caucasus

 

Republic of Dagestan (Russia)

Makhachkala
Akhty
Buynaksk
Derbent
Dagestansky Nature Reserve
Gimri
Izberbash
Khasavyurt
Tindi
Kizlyar
Yuzhno-Sukhokumsk

 

 Republic of Ingushetia (Russia)

Magas
Armkhi
Dariali
Erzi
Guloykhi
Historical and Cultural Jeyrakh-Assa Reservation
Karabulak
Nazran
Malgobek
Olgeti
Targim
Tsori
Sunzha
Vovnushki

 

 Republic of Kabardino-Balkar (Russia)

Nalchik
Baksan
Chegem
Mount Elbrus
Prokhladny
Terek
Tyrnyauz

 

Republic of Karachay-Cherkess (Russia)

Cherkessk
Arkhyz
Dombai
Karachayevsk
Teberda
Ust-Dzheguta
Zelenchukskaya

 

North Ossetia- Alania (Russia)

Vladikavkaz
Alaniya National Park
Alagir
Ardon
Beslan
Chikola
Digora
Dzinaga
Mozdok
Zei

 

Stavropol Krai (Russia)

Stavropol
Kislovodsk
Lysogorskaya Stanitsa
Mineralnye Vody
Pyatigorsk
Yessentuki

 

Chechen Republic (Russia)

Grozny
Argun
Gudermes
Shali
Urus-Martan
Vedeno

 

Ural

 

Kurgan Oblast (Russia)

Kurgan Dalmatovo
Shedrinsk

 

Sverdlovsk Oblast (Russia)

Yekaterinburg

Ganina Yama

Irbit

Kholat Syakhl

Nevyansk
Nizhny Tagil

Pervouralsk
Sysert
Verkhoturye

 

Tyumen Oblast (Russia)

Tyumen
Ishim
Pokrovskoye
Tobolsk

 

Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (Yugra) (Russia)

Khanty-Mansiysk
Beryozovo
Nizhnevartovsk
Surgut

 

Chelyabinsk Oblast (Russia)

Chelyabinsk
Arkaim
Magnitogorsk
Miass
Satka
Taganai National Park
Troitsk
Zlatoust
Zyuratkul National Park

 

Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Russia)

Salekhard
Gubkinsky
Gydan Nature Reserve
Kharp
Labytnangi
Muravlenko
Nadym
Novy Urengoy
Noyabrsk
Tarko-Sale
Upper-Taz Nature Reserve

 

Siberia

 

Altai Republic (Russia)

Gorno-Altaysk
Aktash
Chemal
Ust-kan

 

Altai Krai (Russia)

Barnaul
Biysk
Belokurikha
Srostki

 

Buryatia (Russia)

Ulan-Ude
Arshan
Baikalsky Nature Reserve
Barguzin Nature Reserve
Dzerginsky Nature Reserve
Gusinoozyorsk
Khoyto-Gol
Kyakhta
Ivolginsky Datsan
Lake Baikal
Orlik
Severobaikalsk
Tarbagatai
Olkhon
Tunkinsky National Park
Zabaykalsky National Park
Zhemchug

 

Zabaykalsky Krai (Russia)

Chita  

 

Irkutsk Oblast (Russia)

Irkutsk
Angarsk
Baikal-Lena Nature Reserve
Bratsk
Listvyanka
Slyudyanka
Nizhneudinsk
Pribaikalsky National Park
Tayshet
Vitim Nature Reserve
Usolye-Sibirskoye
Ust-Orda

 

Kemerovo Oblast (Russia)

Kemerovo
Anzhero-Sudzhensk
Kuznetsky Alatau Nature Reserve
Mariinsk
Novokuznetsk
Sheregesh
Shorsky National Park
Tashtagol
Yaya

 

Krasnoyarsk Kray (Russia)

Krasnoyarsk
Ergaki
Igarka
Kansk
Minusinsk
Putorana Plateau
Sayano-Shushensky nature reserve
Uzhur
Yeniseysk
Zheleznogorsk

 

Novosibirsk Oblast (Russia)

Novosibirsk
Barabinsk
Berdsk
Iskitim
Karasuk
Suzun
Koltsovo

 

Omsk Oblast (Russia)

Omsk
Bolsherechye
Chernoluchye/Krasnoyarka recreation area
Tara
Tevriz

 

Tomsk Oblast (Russia)

Tomsk
Asino
Narym
Seversk
Strezhevoy

 

Tuva Republic (Russia)

Kyzyl
Ak-Dovurak
Arzhaan Shivilig
Azas Nature Reserve
Chadan
Erzin
Lake Tere-Khol
Shagonar
Uvs Nuur Basin

 

Republic of Khakassia (Russia)

Abakan
Abaza
Chernogorsk
Khakassky Nature Reserve
Sunduki
Sayanogorsk
Shira
Sorsk

 

Far East

 

Amur Oblast (Russia)

Blagoveshchensk
Belogorsk
Khingansky Nature Reserve
Skovorodino
Tynda
Zeysky Nature Reserve

 

Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (Russia)

Anadyr
Bilibino
Big Diomede
El'gygytgyn Lake
Pevek
Provideniya
Wrangel Island

 

Jewish Autonomous Oblast (Russia)

Birobidzhan Kuldur
Obluchye

 

Magadan Oblast (Russia)

Magadan
Kadykchan
Magadansky Nature Reserve
Ola
Susuman
Talaya Resort
Ust-Omchug
Yagodnoye

 

Kamchatka (Russia)

Valley of Geysers
Anavgai
Blue Lakes Nature Park (Golubye Ozyora)
Esso
Kronotsky Nature Reserve
The Komandorsky Nature Reserve
Nalychevo Nature Park
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
Southern Kamchatka Nature Park (Yuzhno-Kamchatsky Zakaznik)
Bystrinsky Nature Park
Kluchevskoy Nature Park
Koryaksky Zapovednik
Palana
Paratunka
Yelizovo

 

Khabarovsk Krai  (Russia)

Sikhote-Alin
Amursk
Ayan
Botchinsky Nature Reserve
Bureinsky Nature Reserve
Bolshekhekhtsirsky Nature Reserve
Dzhugdzhursky Nature Reserve
Khabarovsk
Komsomolsky Nature Reserve
Komsomolsk-on-Amur
Nikolaevsk-on-Amur
Vanino
Sovetskaya Gavan
Vladimirovka

 

Republic Sakha (Yakutia) (Russia)

Yakutsk
Bennett Island
Kyubyume
Lensk

Death Valley

Lake Labyngkyr

Lena Pillars

Mirny
Neryungri
New Siberian Islands
Nyurba
Pokrovsk
Tiksi
Ust-Nera
Vilyuysk

 

Primorsky Krai (Russia)

Vladivostok
Artyom
Khasan
Nakhodka
Terney
Ussuriysk

 

Sakhalin Oblast (Russia)

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky
Kholmsk
Korsakov
Nogliki
Okha

 

 

Short Description

Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. With a territory of 17,125,200 square kilometers, Russia is the largest country in the world in terms of area, covering more than one eighth of the Earth’s territory, as well as the ninth largest population, with a population of over 144 million people as of December 2017, with the exception of the Crimea. About 77% of the population lives in the western, European part of the country. The Russian capital, Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod.

Stretching across northern Asia and most of Eastern Europe, Russia covers eleven time zones and includes a wide range of conditions and landforms. From the north-west to the south-east, Russia borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (in the Kaliningrad region), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. Russia shares the maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of ​​Okhotsk and Alaska, a US state through the Bering Strait.

Eastern Slavs lived in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and controlled by the elite of the Varangian warrior Rurik and their descendants, the medieval state of Russia arose in the 9th century. By the way, the Y chromosomes, which are transmitted from father to son, are present in 5% of Russian men, that belong to the haplogroup of Rurik; in other words, they are simply the direct descendants of Rurik or his relatives on the paternal line. In 988, Russia adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, starting the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures, which determined Russian culture for the next millennium. Russia eventually fell apart into several smaller states; most of the lands of Russia were seized by the Mongolian state and became part of the nomadic Golden Horde in the XIII century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunited the surrounding Russian principalities, achieving independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation expanded significantly due to conquest, becoming the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland in the west to Alaska and California in the east.

After the Russian revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading component of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the first constitutional socialist state in the world. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II and became a recognized superpower and rival of the United States during the Cold War. In the Soviet era, some of the most important technological advances of the 20th century were noted, including the first man-made satellite in the world and the launch of the first humans into space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy in the world, it had the largest standing army in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, 15 independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic countries gained independence: Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia; The Russian RSFSR has reconstructed itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized by the continuing legal personality and legal successor of the Soviet Union. Russia is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic.

The Russian economy ranks twelfth at nominal GDP and ranks sixth at purchasing power parity in 2015. The world's largest oil and energy reserves are the largest in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas in the world. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapon states and has the largest stock of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power, as well as a regional power, and is characterized as a potential superpower. He is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active ASEAN global partner, as well as a member of the Group of Twenty, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the Council of Europe, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being a leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of five members of the Eurasian Economic Commission the Union of Onoms (EEC), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

 

 

General information

Russia is a federal legal state with a republican form of government. The area of ​​the country is 17.1 million km2, Russia is the largest state in the world by area. The territory of Russia is located in 11 time zones: from UTC + 2 to UTC + 12. The climate is varied: from subtropical (Sochi) to arctic (Norilsk), and from marine monsoon in coastal areas to sharply continental in Siberia. Most of the country is located in the temperate climate zone. The lowest temperature is recorded in Verkhoyansk (−67.6 ° C).

About 200 nationalities and ethnic groups live in Russia. The state language is Russian, it is understood throughout the country, and the majority of the population speaks it on daily basis. English is not common in Russia, although it is taught through the secondary school program.

Russia has a huge road network, but many regional roads are of very poor quality. Railway transport is also widespread in Russia - a trip by train for less than a day is considered frivolous.

Household electrical network in Russia 220V / 50Hz. Two-prong Soviet-style sockets, or type F ground sockets widely used in Western Europe. The Soviet sockets are partially compatible with Type F sockets. At present, all Russian institutions and organizations are allowed to use only Type F sockets; but it does not create any significant problems.

 

 

Geography

The territory of Russia is unevenly extended from west to east, and to date it occupies most of the territory of Eastern Europe and the whole of North Asia. The Ural Mountains are defined by the conditional border of the European and Asian parts. The Asian part of the country is several times larger than the European one. The total length of the territory of Russia from west to east is about 10,000 kilometers, from north to south more than 4,000 kilometers.

The relief in the western part of the country is predominantly flat, while in the eastern part it is largely mountainous. About 70% of the territory of Russia consists of plains and lowlands.

About half of the territory is covered by forests, and more than half of the territory is permafrost.

The territory of Russia is limited to:

in the west - Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, Finland and a small section of the border with Norway near the coast of the Arctic Ocean;
in the north - the border of Russia passes through the Arctic Ocean;
in the east - across the Pacific Ocean, the Bering Strait separates Russia from the Alaska Peninsula (USA), the straits separate Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands from Japan,
in the south, a short section of the border with North Korea, except for this by China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, the Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and the coast of the Black and Azov seas.
In addition, the Russian exclave, the Kaliningrad Region, is located between Poland and Lithuania, and has access to the Baltic Sea.

Russia has the longest land and the largest maritime border in the world.

 

 

How to get there

Visa
Citizens of most countries need a visa to visit Russia. Visa-free entry for 72 hours is allowed for passengers of cruise liners of certain lines. In practice, this only makes sense for St. cruises. Peter Line from Helsinki to St. Petersburg. Formally, visa-free tourists are allowed only in the region of arrival, but in fact it is impossible to verify this.

By plane
The main international airports of the country are located in the suburbs of Moscow, it is Sheremetyevo, Domodedovo and Vnukovo, as well as in St. Petersburg - Pulkovo-2 (International). The same airports are hubs for flights throughout the country. International terminals are available in almost all large and not very regional airports.

Now there is a system for buying e-tickets, and for boarding a plane, it’s enough to present a passport, but it’s good to make a paper printout of the ticket.

By train
You can travel to Russia by train without change from Austria, Germany, France, Italy, Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic, Bulgaria, the Netherlands, Serbia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Finland, as well as China, Mongolia, the DPRK and neighboring countries (i.e. countries formerly in the USSR). It should be noted that in most foreign countries (with the exception of Finland, some parts of Poland, formerly part of the Russian Empire and Mongolia), a railway track with a width of 1,435 millimeters is used, whereas in Russia and the countries of the former USSR its width is 1520 millimeters, which makes it somewhat difficult for trains to cross the state border of Russia (rearrangement of wheel pairs of cars is carried out, which takes extra time).

Domestic railways link almost all more or less large cities in Russia, with the exception of the extreme north and northeast.

By car
Road border crossings exist on the border with Kazakhstan (many!), Norway (two), Poland (four), China (17), Finland (many!), Georgia (four), Azerbaijan (four), Ukraine (many!), Estonia (four), Lithuania (four), Latvia (eight).

Crossing the border by car is a separate story. In different places, this process can vary greatly, and can take from 20-30 minutes to infinity, sometimes accompanied by hostility, outright extortion.

By bus
Bus tours are possible from Finland, Ukraine, China, CIS countries, etc. In the opposite direction, organized bus trips are more developed - bus tours are offered to many EU countries, to Georgia, Turkey, China, etc.

Ship
Cruise ports
In Russia, cruise liners accept the following ports:

on the Black Sea - Sochi
on the Baltic Sea - St. Petersburg, Vyborg
Sea of ​​Japan - Vladivostok
Barents Sea - Murmansk
Ferry ports

 

Ferry crossings:
On the border with China: Khabarovsk-Fuyuan, Ushakovo-Hum (car), Poyarkovo-Syunke (car), Pashkovo-Jyayin (car), Nizhneleninskoe-Tongjiang (car), Konstantinovka-Sunu (car), Jalinda-Mohe (car), Blagoveshchensk-Heihe (automobile), Amurzet-Lobei (automobile).

On the border with Lithuania: Sovetsk-Rusne, Sovetsk-Yurbarkas, Rybachy-Nida.

On the border with South Korea: Vladivostok-Donghe (car)