Moscow Oblast, Russia

The Moscow Region is a constituent entity of the Russian Federation, which is part of the Central Federal District. The administrative center of the Moscow region is the city of Moscow (not part of the region), part of the administrative authorities of the region is located in Krasnogorsk. In terms of population, it surpasses all other subjects of the federation, second only to Moscow.

The region is located in the central part of the East European Plain in the basin of the Volga, Oka, Klyazma, and Moscow rivers. It borders on the northwest and north with the Tver region, in the northeast and east - on the Vladimir region, in the southeast - on the Ryazan region, in the south - on the Tula region, in the southwest - on the Kaluga region, in the west - on the Smolensk region, in in the center - with the city of federal significance, the capital of Russia, Moscow. There is also a small northern section of the border with the Yaroslavl region.

The Moscow Region was formed on January 14, 1929. Historically, the region was preceded by the Moscow province, formed in 1708. The region was part of the Central Industrial Region, formed in the course of consolidation of units of the administrative-territorial division of the RSFSR, and on June 3, 1929, it was renamed the Moscow Region.

The region consists of 52 cities of regional subordination (with their administrative territories), 3 urban-type settlements of regional subordination (with their administrative territories) and 5 closed administrative-territorial entities. In terms of municipal division, the region consists of 60 urban districts.

The region got its name from Moscow, which, however, is a separate subject of the Russian Federation and is not part of the region. The bodies of state power of the Moscow region are located on the territory of the city of Moscow and the Moscow region. In 2007, most of the executive authorities were moved to the new Government House of the Moscow Region, located on the territory of the city of Krasnogorsk, 350 meters from the border with Moscow.



Capital of the Russian Federation, city of federal significance

West of the Moscow region
Volokolamsk, Istra, Krasnogorsk, Lotoshinsky, Mozhaysky, Naro-Fominsk, Odintsovo, Ruzsky and Shakhovskoy urban districts
Here are the historical cities of Volokolamsk, Ruza, Istra, Zvenigorod, Mozhaisk and Vereya.

North of the Moscow region
Dmitrovsky, Dolgoprudnensky, Klinsky, Mytishchinsky, Pushkinsky, Sergiev-Posadsky, Solnechnogorsky, Taldomsky, Khimki and Shchelkovsky urban districts
Here are the historical cities of Sergiev Posad, Dmitrov and Klin.

East of the Moscow region
Balashikhinsky, Voskresensky, Egorevsky, Kolomna, Lukhovitsky, Luberetsky, Noginsky, Orekhovo-Zuevsky, Pavlovo-Posadsky, Ramensky and Shatursky urban districts
Here are the historical cities of Yegorievsk, Kolomna, Ozyory, Pavlovsky Posad, Orekhovo-Zuevo, Balashikha, Noginsk and Bronnitsy.

South of the Moscow region
Domodedovsky, Zaraisky, Leninsky, Podolsky, Kashirsky, Serebryano-Prudsky, Serpukhov, Stupinsky and Chekhov city districts
Here are the historical cities of Podolsk, Serpukhov, Chekhov, Zaraysk and Kashira.



Dmitrov is a city of the same age as Moscow, with a Kremlin and temples of the 16th century and wooden urban buildings of the 19th century.
Zaraysk is one of the most well-preserved Kremlins of the 16th century in Russia.
Zvenigorod, famous for the production of musical instruments and frescoes by Andrey Rublev in the Assumption Cathedral
Istra - the patrimony of Patriarch Nikon, conceived as the New Jerusalem
Klin - house-museum of P. I. Tchaikovsky
Kolomna is an ancient city with a preserved Kremlin and the Church of John the Baptist of the 14th century.
Likino-Dulyovo is a city where the famous Dulyovo porcelain and the equally famous LiAZ buses are produced.
Mozhaisk is the center of a specific principality of the 15th century with the Novo-Nikolsky Cathedral of the 18th century in a pseudo-Gothic style rare for Russia
Mytishchi is the birthplace of the first Moscow water pipeline
Pavlovsky Posad
Sergiev Posad - the city of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, the spiritual center of Central Russia
Serpukhov, which preserved the urban development of the XVIII-XIX centuries


Other destinations

Abramtsevo Estate Museum


Borodino Battle Site

Gorki Leninskiye


Joseph-Volokolamsk Monastery



Losiny Ostrov National Park



New Jerusalem Monastery

Ostankino Palace

Prioksko-Terrasny Nature Reserve


Tchakovsky House Museum

Tsaritsyno Park

Vasnetsov House Museum

Zaraysk Kremlin



Getting in

By train
Most cities in the Moscow region can be reached by trains. Electric trains run from Moscow railway stations: Yaroslavsky, Kazansky, Kursky, Leningradsky, Belorussky, Savelovsky, Paveletsky, Rizhsky, Kievsky. A one-way train ticket is valid for one trip during the date indicated on it, as well as for one hour of the next day. You can not make stops at an intermediate station and again go further on the same ticket. With such a ticket, the turnstile will not let the passenger through. A return ticket is valid for one trip from 00:00 of the day indicated on the ticket, at least until the end of the next day.

Tickets are sold at the box office and vending machines at the respective stations, both cash and non-cash payment is possible. In addition, a ticket can be bought in the official application “TsPPK Schedule and Tickets” or “Yandex. Electric trains, payment by credit card. Through the application from the CPPK, you can also buy non-cash tickets for federal beneficiaries. When buying a ticket through the application for the boarding pass, you will need to find a turnstile with the inscription "For mobile applications" and perform a two-stage procedure: activation of the ticket using a QR code + reading an electronic ticket with a scanner. Passengers have the opportunity to buy subscription and discount tickets, benefits are valid for labor veterans, children, schoolchildren, etc.

By car
By car, the cities of the Moscow region can be reached along many highways diverging from Moscow. In recent years, part of the highway has been reconstructed, expanded, and junctions are being made. A central ring road is being built in the region.

By bus
From the terminal stations of the Moscow metro, you can transfer to buses to the region. SUE MO "Mostransavto" serves most bus routes.


Getting around

The main carrier is Mostransavto. It serves intercity and intracity routes in the Moscow region. The official website has historical maps for the mid-2000s, and current schedules. Schedules on the site may not coincide with the schedules at the bus stations, those that are written on the signs are considered priority. There are also private carriers in the cities that also accept the Strelka card. Some routes may be operated jointly by several carriers. Private carriers usually do not have websites or maps, but only signs at stops.

Trolleybus and tram
Managed by city organizations. The payment system is the same as on buses.

Fare payment
The easiest way to pay for travel is through PayPass:
Enter the front door
Find a green tap in/tap out terminal and attach a bank card
If not found, then pass the card or money to the driver, and say the name of the stop.
Attach the card to the terminal when exiting

On advertisements on buses, it is recommended to purchase the Strelka card at the ticket offices of bus stations. It operates in the electronic wallet mode. Top-ups can be made through TsPPK machines, Sberbank ATMs in the Moscow Region and through the website. But since 2018, when they began to accept Pay wave, they are not relevant for tourism.

Since June 2022, cash payment in the region's public transport has become impossible, and now it is also impossible to buy a ticket from the driver. If you did not buy a ticket before boarding, then you can use bank cards, as well as Troika and Strelka cards to pay for the fare.

At bus stations, sometimes you need to buy a ticket at the box office, sometimes on the bus, in each city in its own way, but there payment is only in cash. Some random routes may have conductors, or a tap in-tap out system for Strelka.

Tariff for the summer of 2021: around the city along the Strelka 37 rubles.



Cities have McDonald's and Burger King fast food chains, often with one establishment per city. In all settlements, except for villages, there are chain grocery stores Pyaterochka, Magnit and Diksi. They can also warm up or cool down under the air conditioner.



History until the 18th century

The territory of the modern Moscow region was inhabited more than 20 thousand years ago (see Zaraisk site). At the Minino 2 site near the village of Minino on the Zabolotsky peat bog, layers of the final Paleolithic Ressetian and Mesolithic Butovo cultures were revealed. Bronze Age burial grounds of Fatyanovo, numerous burial mounds, and settlements of the Iron Age (mainly the Dyakovo culture) are known within the region. Burial mounds of the 10th-12th centuries are widespread. Until the 9th-10th centuries, the territory of the Moskva River basin and the adjacent lands were inhabited mainly by the Finno-Ugric tribes of the Meryan and Meshchera, as well as the Baltic golyad. Active development of these lands by the Slavs began only in the 9th-11th centuries. The population was engaged in hunting, beekeeping, fishing, farming and cattle breeding.

In the middle of the 12th century, the lands of the present Moscow region mainly became part of the Vladimir-Suzdal principality (the territories adjacent to the Oka were part of the Chernigov principality, and from the lower reaches of the Moscow River they then entered the Ryazan principality that separated from it; west and south-west of the upper reaches of the Moscow rivers and Protva were part of the Smolensk principality; in the north-west, in the Volok Lamsky region, there was an enclave of the Novgorod Republic until the middle of the 15th century). The foundation of the first cities on this territory dates back to the same time (Volokolamsk, 1135; Moscow, 1147; Zvenigorod, 1152; Dmitrov, 1154; Kolomna, 1177). Crafts and trade were concentrated in cities, they became strongholds of princely power.

In the first half of the 13th century, the entire Vladimir-Suzdal land, including the lands near Moscow, was conquered by the Mongol-Tatars; During the Tatar-Mongol yoke, the territories near Moscow were repeatedly plundered. Of the specific principalities of the Vladimir-Suzdal land, during the years of the Tatar-Mongol yoke, the Moscow one rose most; it was the center of the unification of Russian lands in the XIV-XVI centuries and a stronghold of the struggle against the Mongol-Tatar yoke. Cities retained a defensive function until the 18th century. Monasteries played a significant role in the economic and cultural development of the territory of the present Moscow region, especially the Trinity-Sergius Lavra founded in the middle of the 14th century, which became one of the important centers of national revival. After 1521, the entire territory of the present Moscow region was part of the unified Russian state. The history of the Moscow region is inextricably linked with the military events of the Time of Troubles - the Bolotnikov uprising, the Trinity siege, the first and second militias. The Moscow region recovered from the consequences of the ruin only by the middle of the 17th century; at this time, the development of industry began (the ironworks of Boris Morozov in the village of Pavlovskoye, the shipyard in the village of Dedinovo, etc.). As a result of the split of the Russian Orthodox Church in Guslitsa and in the vicinity of Orekhov-Zuev, areas of compact residence of the Old Believers were formed.


Russian empire

In 1708, by decree of Peter I, the Moscow province was established, which included most of the territory of the present Moscow region. With the transfer of the capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg, the importance of the Moscow region as an economic center began to decline, in the 18th century the light industry, mainly the textile industry, began to play a decisive role in the economy. In the 18th century, manufactory, and then the factory industry, developed in Moscow and the cities of the Moscow region. In particular, in the 18th century, silk and cotton production became widespread in the Moscow province; finishing, dyeing-spinning, spinning factories were built. Waterways played a significant role in the development of trade - for example, the Oka was an important trade artery, the ports of Serpukhov and Kolomna had a large trade turnover. The construction of the Vyshnevolotsk water system contributed to the strengthening of trade relations with the Baltic. The geography of trade relations, characteristic of the 18th century, was preserved in the next century - the role of the center belonged to Moscow. In 1781, there were significant changes in the administrative division of the Moscow province: Vladimir, Ryazan and Kostroma governorships were separated from the former territory of the province, and the remaining territory was divided into 15 counties. This scheme lasted, without undergoing major changes, until 1929.

Many important events of the Patriotic War of 1812 took place on the territory of the Moscow province. On September 7, one of the largest battles of the war, the Battle of Borodino, took place on the Borodino field near Mozhaisk. On September 14-18, the Russian army under the command of M. I. Kutuzov, after leaving Moscow, undertook the famous march maneuver.

In the second half of the 19th century, especially after the peasant reform of 1861, the Moscow province experienced a strong economic upswing. By this time, the formation of the railway network. In 1851, the first railway line appeared on the territory of the province, connecting Moscow and St. Petersburg; On the eve of the First World War, the 11th beam of the Moscow hub, Lyubertsy - Arzamas, was put into operation. Settlements located near railways received a powerful incentive for development, while the location of settlements away from railways often contributed to their economic decline.

The main industry of the province in the second half of the 19th century continued to be textile. Mechanical engineering also developed, the development of which was greatly facilitated by intensive railway construction. So, in the second half of the 19th century, a large Kolomna machine-building plant was opened, in the same period a car-building plant in Mytishchi began to operate. At the same time, the size of arable land in the Moscow province was reduced (for example, in 1860-1913, the arable area decreased by 37%). Such branches of agriculture as horticulture, suburban gardening, and dairy farming have risen. The population of the Moscow region has grown significantly (and if in 1847 1.13 million people lived in the province, then in 1905 it was already 2.65 million); Moscow, on the eve of the First World War, was a city with a million inhabitants.



In November 1917, Soviet power was established in the Moscow province.

The transfer of the capital from Petrograd to Moscow in 1918 contributed to the economic recovery of the province. After the Civil War, most businesses were rebuilt; the sectoral structure of the industry as a whole was preserved, however, along with the textile industry, the knitwear and clothing industries developed, and heavy industry enterprises appeared. The electric power industry began to develop - in 1922, the Kashirskaya GRES gave its first current; in the 1920s, a large plant "Elektrostal" was formed. In the 1920s - 1930s, in the course of the anti-church activities of the state, many churches near Moscow were closed, later religious buildings performed various functions not related to their original functions (warehouses, garages, vegetable stores, etc.), many were empty and destroyed, some cultural monuments were completely lost; the restoration of most of the affected temples was started only in the 1990s.

On January 14, 1929, in the course of consolidation of units of the administrative-territorial division of the RSFSR, the Central Industrial Region was formed. A few months after the establishment, on June 3, the region was renamed Moscow. In 1931, a significant event took place in the history of the Moscow region - by the decision of the Politburo, the city of Moscow was separated into an independent administrative and economic unit. In the 1920s and 1930s, other administrative transformations were also carried out. Many settlements were given urban status, the category of urban-type settlements was introduced; new cities and urban-type settlements were formed mainly near industrial enterprises (Krasnogorsk, Dolgoprudny, Fryazino, Elektrostal, etc.).

Since the 1930s, the restructuring of the sectoral structure of the economy of the Moscow region began. The branches of heavy industry (primarily mechanical engineering) have received the greatest development. The importance of the chemical industry increased (for example, a large plant for the production of mineral fertilizers and a cement plant "Gigant" were built in Voskresensk), the production of building materials, and the defense industry. Peat extraction developed in the east of the region. At the same time, the development of cities proceeded slowly, where industry was poorly developed even before the revolution.

In 1941-1942, one of the most significant military operations of the Great Patriotic War, the Battle for Moscow, took place on the territory of the Moscow Region. It began in late September - early October 1941. The Mozhaisk line of defense was put into action. Industrial enterprises were evacuated to the east. The western, northwestern, southern and southwestern territories of the region were under occupation. In the north, German troops approached Dmitrov and Krasnaya Polyana (modern Lobnya), in the south - to Kashira and Zaraysk. With particular force, the fighting near Moscow flared up from mid-October. Tens of thousands of residents of the Moscow region went into the militia. The advance of the enemy was stopped. However, already in mid-November, the general offensive of the German troops continued; the fighting was accompanied by heavy losses on both sides. On December 5-6, the Red Army launched a counteroffensive. During December, most of the occupied cities of the Moscow region (Solnechnogorsk, Klin, Istra, Volokolamsk, etc.) were liberated from fascist troops. Moscow managed to eliminate the immediate threat, the front line was moved 100-250 km from the capital. Military actions caused significant damage to the population and economy of the region. During the fighting, 584 settlements were completely destroyed, and 2280 were partially destroyed. The cities of Istra, Volokolamsk, Klin, Naro-Fominsk, Ruza, and Vereya were badly damaged. It took several years to restore the economy. During the war, some cultural monuments were also damaged (for example, significant damage was inflicted on the New Jerusalem Monastery, where, in particular, in 1941, the largest architectural structure, the Resurrection Cathedral, was blown up).

In the postwar years, the growth of the region's economic potential continued; ties between production and science intensified, a number of science cities were founded (Dubna, Troitsk, Pushchino, Chernogolovka). The main branches of industry that actively developed in the postwar period were chemistry, mechanical engineering, precision instrumentation, and the electric power industry. Since the 1960s, the Moscow Region has become one of the important centers for the development of astronautics in the country - large enterprises and the Mission Control Center were located in Kaliningrad (now Korolev), and the Cosmonaut Training Center was organized in Star City. By the beginning of the 1980s, the leading branches of specialization in the Moscow Region were manufacturing and science. The development of transport continued: a system of main gas pipelines and high-voltage power lines was created, electrification of main railway lines was carried out, a network of main roads was being formed (one of the largest projects was the construction of the Moscow Ring Road). The population of cities grew rapidly; a powerful Moscow urban agglomeration was formed. In 1960, 1984 and 1988, parts of the districts located near Moscow were annexed to the capital.

By the second half of the 1980s, a restructuring of the structure of employment began - there was a drop in employment in the traditional industrial sectors of the economy, accompanied by an increase in employment in the service sector. The service sector was concentrated in the core of the agglomeration - Moscow; as a result, commuting became an important demographic phenomenon in the Moscow region. The countryside gradually lost its agricultural functions, while its recreational value increased; the permanent rural population was involved in pendulum migrations, the temporary, seasonal population increased significantly.


Russian Federation

Now the Moscow region is a subject of the Russian Federation.

The economy of the Moscow region experienced a deep crisis in the 1990s; in 1996, the volume of industrial production amounted to only 30% of the volume of 1990; the number of employed decreased by almost 500 thousand people; The manufacturing industries suffered the most losses. Science is also in deep crisis. The sectoral structure of industry has changed: the food industry and the construction industry have been actively developing, light industry has declined, and mechanical engineering has maintained its leading position. The economic growth that began in 1997 was halted by the 1998 crisis. However, since the first half of the 2000s, a rapid recovery of the economy after the crisis began, the gross regional product of the subject grew at a high rate, in 2003 the region ranked 4th in Russia in terms of GRP. At the same time, a full recovery of the volume of industrial production relative to the pre-crisis level did not occur (in 2002, the volume was only 58% of the 1990 level).

By the end of the 2000s, the debt of the regional government and companies of the region increased (and reached 82% in August 2008) due to the inefficient management of financial resources by the regional government - in particular, due to corruption related to the illegal transfer of land to private ownership, and embezzlement of budgetary funds; fraud cases were filed against a number of former officials of the regional government. The total amount of damage caused to the regional budget was estimated at 27 billion rubles. In December 2009, the public debt of the Moscow Region amounted to 160 billion rubles (second place in Russia), by the beginning of 2012 it was reduced to 106.3 billion rubles.

Since the 1990s, due to the motorization of the population and commuting, the traffic situation in the Moscow region has deteriorated significantly; traffic jams have become commonplace on the area's roads. In the same years, the functional restructuring of the Moscow agglomeration began; some functions of the "core" (consumption, entertainment, production) began to move to the periphery, to the Moscow region. As a result, belts of shopping, entertainment and logistics complexes have formed around the Moscow Ring Road in the Moscow Region. New factories oriented to the Moscow market were placed by manufacturers in the Moscow region. There was an active development of the service sector, and already in the early 2000s, in some areas, the service sector accounted for the bulk of the gross product (for example, in the Khimki district - over 90%). For 10 years, from 2001 to 2010, the Moscow region has become one of the most attractive regions for investors in Russia; investments during this period increased by 28 times, foreign investments in 2011 amounted to 2.6 billion dollars (2nd place in Russia after Moscow). Since the end of the 1990s, in the cities of the Moscow Region closest to Moscow, a boom in integrated residential development has begun (the indicator of housing commissioning per capita in 2006 was almost three times higher than the Russian average), since 2004 the region has been ranked first in the country . Some of the cities closest to Moscow (like Odintsovo, Krasnogorsk, Mytishchi) actually became sleeping areas of the capital.

In the 2000s, as a result of administrative transformations of existing urban-type settlements and villages, new cities were formed (Moskovsky, Golitsino, Kubinka, etc.). On July 1, 2012, a significant part of the territory of the Moscow Region, including three cities (Troitsk, Moskovsky and Shcherbinka) was transferred to Moscow; as a result of this transfer, the territory of the Moscow region decreased by 144 thousand hectares, and the population - by 230 thousand people.


Physical and geographical characteristics

Geographical position

The Moscow Region is located in the Central Federal District of the Russian Federation, in the central part of the East European (Russian) Plain, in the basin of the Volga, Oka, Klyazma, and Moscow rivers. The region stretches from north to south for 310 km, from west to east - for 340 km.



The relief of the Moscow region is mostly flat; the western part is occupied by hilly uplands (heights over 160 m), the eastern part by vast lowlands.

From the southwest to the northeast, the region crosses the boundary of the Moscow glaciation; to the north of it, glacial-erosion forms with moraine ridges are common, and to the south, only erosional landforms. The process of modern relief formation in our time is associated with erosion, while other exogenous processes (karst, landslide, eolian) are of secondary importance.

Almost the entire west and north of the Moscow region is occupied by the moraine Moscow Upland with well-defined river valleys, which has the highest average height (about 300 m, in the Dmitrov region) within the Klin-Dmitrov ridge, and the highest point (310 m) near the village of Shapkino, Mozhaisk district. The northern slope of the Moscow Upland is steeper than the southern one. Within the upland, there are frequent lakes of glacial origin (Nerskoe, Krugloye, Dolgoe). To the north of the named upland there is a flat and heavily waterlogged alluvial-outland Upper Volga lowland, the height of which is no more than 150 m; includes the Shoshinsky and Dubninskaya lowlands (heights less than 120 m).

In the south of the region, the hilly moraine-erosion Moskvoretsko-Okskaya plain extends, which has the highest height (255 m) in Moscow in the Yasenevo district near the Tyoply Stan metro station, with clearly defined (especially in the southern part) river valleys and flat interfluves; within its limits there are karst landforms. The latter are especially common in the Serpukhov region. In the extreme south of the region, beyond the Oka, there are rather high (more than 200 m, maximum height 238 m) northern spurs of the Central Russian Upland with numerous ravines and gullies. These are the Zaokskoye erosional plateau and the Zaosetrinskaya erosional plain.

Almost the entire eastern half of the Moscow region (from the conditional line Shchelkovo-Chernogolovka-Kirzhach in the north to the Oka in the south) is occupied by the vast Meshcherskaya lowland, which is significantly swampy in its eastern part; its highest hill (on the ancient moraine hill in the Yegorievsk region) has a height of 214 m above sea level; heights of 120-150 m prevail; river valleys are weakly expressed. Almost all the large lakes of the Meshchera Lowland (Chernoe, Svyatoe, and others) are of glacial origin. Here is the lowest natural height in the region - the water level of the Oka - about 97 meters.


Geological structure and minerals

The territory occupied by the Moscow Region is located in the central part of the East European Platform; the latter, like all platforms, consists of a crystalline basement, which does not come to the surface within the Moscow region, and a sedimentary cover. The crystalline basement contains granites and gneisses of the Archean and Proterozoic age, and the sedimentary cover contains deposits of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras. The foundation forms a large depression - the Moscow syneclise - and lies in its axial zone at 2-3 thousand meters. - to the east of Sergiev Posad (in the north-east of the region).

Within the Moscow region, deposits of the Tertiary period are almost absent, deposits of the Carboniferous and Jurassic periods are much more widespread. Deposits of the Carboniferous period in the Moscow region are represented by dolomites, limestones and marls. Quaternary deposits are also widespread in the Moscow region; their thickness decreases from northwest to southeast. The periods between glaciations correspond to the Likhvin, Odintsovo, Mikulin and Mologo-Sheksna interglacials. Glaciers left behind moraine loams with pebbles and boulders of various rocks (granites, gneisses, quartzites; dolomites, limestones, sandstones); especially noticeable traces on the territory of the region were left by the Dnieper glaciation (the thickness of the moraine reaches 15 m).

The Moscow region is not rich in minerals.

Sands found in deposits of various periods (mainly Quaternary and Cretaceous) are of high quality and are widely used in construction; quartz sands are used in the glass industry; they have been mined since the end of the 17th century in the Lyubertsy region; part of the deposits is currently mothballed for environmental reasons, only two glass sand deposits are being developed - Eganovskoye and Lyuberetskoye, with total reserves (in category A + B + C1) of 40.3 million tons.

Numerous within the Moscow region and clay deposits. Refractory clays are developed at the Timokhovskoye, Prizavodskoye deposits in the Noginskoye and Vlasovo-Gubinsky deposits in the Orekhovo-Zuevsky district; the total reserves of raw materials in these deposits are estimated at 11 thousand tons.

In the Moscow region there are also deposits of limestone (the most famous is Myachkovskoye, where mining is currently stopped), phosphorites (Egorievskoye and Severskoye deposits, both of which are not developed), peat (mainly within the Meshcherskaya lowland, the largest of the active deposits is Ryazanovskoye "and" Radovitsky moss "), sand and gravel mixtures and building sands (mainly in the north and west of the region), cement carbonate and clay rocks, carbonate rocks for construction, natural facing stones (Korobcheevskoye deposit), metallurgical dolomites, tripoli, brown coal, sapropel. There are also numerous mineral springs, especially ferruginous ones (near Zvenigorod, Serpukhov, Klin); most of the sources are located in the west of the region.

In the south of the region, near the village of Mirny (Serpukhov), there is a monument of geology Serpukhov tier.



The climate of the Moscow region is temperate continental (according to Alisov), temperate continental humid with warm summers, Dfb (according to Köppen), seasonality is clearly expressed; summers are warm, winters are moderately cold. In the eastern and southeastern regions, the continentality of the climate is higher, which is expressed, in particular, in lower temperatures in winter and higher temperatures in summer. So, the village of Cherusti in the extreme east of the region is unofficially considered the “pole of cold” near Moscow, the average January temperature there is −13 ° C. The lowest temperature in the history of meteorological observations was recorded in Naro-Fominsk: -54°C, and the highest temperature +39.7°C was recorded in the summer of 2010 in Kolomna.

The period with an average daily temperature below 0°C lasts 120-135 days, starting in mid-November and ending in mid-late March. The average annual temperature in the region ranges from 3.5 to 5.8°C. The coldest month is January (average temperature in the west of the region is −9°C, in the east −12°C). With the arrival of arctic air comes severe frosts (below -25°C) that last up to 30 days during the winter (but usually frost periods are much shorter); in some years, frosts reached -45°C (the lowest absolute minimum temperature was recorded in Naro-Fominsk -54°C). In winter (especially in December and February), thaws are frequent due to Atlantic and (rarely) Mediterranean cyclones; they are usually short-lived, their average duration is 4 days, the total number from November to March is up to 50. In the summer, arctic air intrusions contribute to the establishment of clear, cloudless, usually warm weather. In cases of a long delay of the anticyclone, a strong heating of the surface and an increase in air temperature occur, which is the cause of severe drought, the occurrence of forest and peat fires (as, for example, in 2010). In summer, penetration of tropical air masses from the south is also not uncommon. In general, the nature of summer can change significantly from year to year: with increased cyclonic activity, summer is cool and humid, with stable anticyclones (both of arctic and tropical origin) - dry and hot.

Snow cover usually appears in November (although there were years when it appeared at the end of September and in December), disappears in mid-April (sometimes earlier, at the end of March), and lasts 135-153 days. Permanent snow cover is usually established at the end of November; snow cover height - 25-50 cm; the highest snow depth is in the east of the region, in the area of Orekhov-Zuev and Shatura, the lowest is in the west (near Volokolamsk) and in the south (south of the Oka). Soils freeze to a depth of up to 75 cm, occasionally up to 150 cm.

The warmest month is July (average temperature +18°C in the northwest and +20°C in the southeast). The average annual precipitation is 500-700 mm, the north-western regions are the most humid, the south-eastern regions are the least humid. In each of the summer months, an average of 75 mm of precipitation falls, however, once every 25-30 years, severe droughts occur in the Moscow Region, when precipitation can practically not fall in summer. Precipitation in all seasons of the year is mainly associated with cyclones that form over the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, the Arctic, or - due to the interaction of moist air masses coming from the west and continental air - directly over the Russian Plain. In summer, in addition to cyclonic precipitation, convective precipitation can also occur. The growing season lasts 125-140 days.



There are about 2 thousand rivers in the Moscow region, of which over 300 have a length of more than 10 km. All rivers of the Moscow region belong to the Volga basin (the Volga itself flows through the territory of the region in a small area, along which the border with the Tver region passes). The slopes of the riverbeds of the Moscow region are low (a few centimeters per kilometer of length), the valleys are often wide, with asymmetric banks (as a rule, the right bank is steep, while the left one is flat, terraced). The rivers are fed mainly by snow, with the largest runoff in spring. In summer and especially in winter low water, the rivers almost completely switch to underground feeding.

All rivers have a calm flow, well-developed valleys, floodplains; the flood occurs in April-May (33-60 days). In summer, the water level in the rivers of the Moscow region is low and rises in summer and autumn only in cases of prolonged rains. The rivers of the region are covered with ice from late November to mid-April (103-144 days). Of the rivers, only the Volga, Oka and Moscow are navigable.

The northern part of the region, including the entire Upper Volga lowland, is irrigated by the tributaries of the Volga (Shosha, Lama, Dubnaya, Sestroy, Yakhroma), while the southern part is irrigated by the tributaries of the Oka (Lopasnya, Nara, Protva, etc.), which is the largest river of the Moscow region after the Volga. The tributaries of the Moskva River, which flows within the Moscow Region for most of its length, also belong to the Oka basin. The eastern and northeastern regions of the region, including a significant part of the Meshchera, are irrigated by tributaries of the Klyazma, which is one of the main tributaries of the Oka and originates within the Moscow region.

The northern part of the Moscow Region is crossed by the Moscow Canal, which passes through the Ikshinskoye, Klyazminskoye, Pyalovskoye and Pestovskoe reservoirs. The Ozerninskoye, Mozhayskoye, Istrinskoye and Ruzskoye reservoirs are also formed in the Moskva River basin, providing Moscow and the Moscow Region with drinking water. There are over 1 thousand ponds on the territory of the region.

There are many lakes in the Moscow region (more than 2000), almost all of them are shallow (5-10 m), many are of glacial origin (mainly near the border of the Moscow glaciation, where the hilly-morainic relief has been preserved). The largest are Svyatoe (12.6 km²) and Dubovoe (Klepikovskoe), both in the Shatursky district. The deepest are Beloe (Deaf) (34 meters), located in the Shatursky district, and Deep (32 meters) in the Ruzsky district. Swamps are not uncommon on the territory of the region, especially within the Meshcherskaya and Upper Volga lowlands.



The population of the region, according to Rosstat, is 8,594,454 people. (2023). Population density - 193.88 people / km2 (2023).

In the Moscow region, there is a steady increase in the population (for example, from 2002 to 2019, the increase was 14.8%). Mortality in the Moscow region exceeds the birth rate, but in the 2010s, the natural population decline decreased (from -8.5 ‰ in 2005 to -0.4 ‰ in 2018). Population growth in the region is mainly due to an increase in the number of urban residents - this trend has been observed since the 1970s. The overall growth of the population is provided by external migrations. Of the total number of arrivals in the Moscow region in 2006-2010, about 22% were foreign citizens, and the number of employed foreign citizens in the region's economy is growing: in 2010, the number of foreign workers was 230.7 thousand people. - 1.6 times more than in 2005. A feature of the Moscow region is a significant amount of pendulum migrations of labor. A significant part of the economically active population of the Moscow region finds a job in Moscow. Odintsovo (316.6 thousand people), Ramensky (256.3 thousand people), Sergiev Posadsky (225.3 thousand people) and Balashikhinsky (225.3) were leaders in absolute population numbers in 2010 areas.

The average population density - 193.88 people / km² (2023) - is the highest among Russian regions (excluding Moscow and St. Petersburg), due to the high proportion of the urban population - 77.99% (2022) 80.1%. The highest density occurs in the districts closest to Moscow (Lyubertsy, Balashikhinsky, Krasnogorsk, etc.) and urban districts (Khimki, Dolgoprudny, Reutov, etc.), the lowest - in the outlying districts - Lotoshinsky, Shakhovsky, Mozhaysky, where in 2010 it was about 20 people/km²; the eastern part of the Meshchera lowland is also sparsely populated (less than 20 people/km2).

The proportion of women in the population is 53.8% (2017); at the same time, in the age group from 0 to 24 years, the male population prevails over the female. In cities, the predominance of the female population over the male population is more pronounced (844 men per 1,000 women) than in rural areas (902 men per 1,000 women). The average age of the population is 40.3 years (male - 37.3; female - 42.9); thus, the population of the Moscow region is slightly older than the Russian average (39 years). 25.1% of the population is of working age (over 16).

By nationality, the majority of the population (92.92%, 6202 thousand people) are Russians; the second largest population is Ukrainians (119.4 thousand people), in third place are Tatars (56.2 thousand people). The Moscow region is also home to a large number of illegal labor migrants, mainly from neighboring countries; in some cities, places of their compact residence are formed, which contributes to increased interethnic tension. The level of registered unemployment is traditionally low, in 2012 there were 2.7% of the unemployed in the region. The subsistence minimum in the fourth quarter of 2019 amounted to 12,272 rubles.

In the Moscow region for 2019, there are 74 cities (excluding the cities of Moscow with Zelenograd subordinate to it, Skhodnya, which became part of Khimki in 2004, Troitsk, Shcherbinka and Moskovsky, which became part of Moscow on July 1, 2012), 21 of them have a population over 100 thousand people On the territory of the Moscow region, there are two types of settlements that formally belong to urban-type settlements - summer cottages and workers' settlements; the latter are more numerous, the 2010 population census in the region counted 60 workers' settlements (four of which, being ZATOs, form urban districts; the remaining 56 form urban settlements), and only 12 dacha settlements were counted (all of them form urban settlements). A characteristic feature of settlement in the Moscow region is seasonal suburbanization. The number of garden settlements in the subject significantly exceeds the number of rural settlements (in 2008, 10.6 thousand and 6.2 thousand units, respectively).

The Moscow region is part of one of the largest agglomerations of the world - Moscow (depending on the methods of counting the population, it occupies 15-18th place). At present, the Moscow agglomeration on a broad scale means not only Moscow with its immediately adjacent settlements, but Moscow with two suburban belts and the entire Moscow region (capital region) with a third zone. The suburban zone of Moscow, the borders of which pass at a distance of 50-70 km from Moscow, according to the geographer V. G. Glushkova, is the Moscow agglomeration proper (including Moscow).



The economy of the Moscow Region is the third among the subjects of the Russian Federation in terms of GRP (2016). The volume of the gross regional product of the region in 2017 amounted to 3.8 trillion rubles; the most significant shares in the GRP structure are occupied by wholesale and retail trade (25%), manufacturing industry (20.2%), real estate transactions (11.9%), transport and communications (8.6%).

The labor force as of January 1, 2017 was 4.078 million people. The registered unemployment rate in 2017 was 3.2%. The average monthly nominal salary of employees of organizations in 2017 amounted to 46.9 thousand rubles, 7.3% of the population had incomes below the subsistence level.

An important feature of the economic and geographical position of the region is its proximity to Moscow: on the one hand, the proximity of the capital contributes to the development of industry and science in the region, makes the region a migration-attractive region, on the other hand, Moscow "intercepts" the labor resources of the region, taxes are paid to the Moscow budget a significant part of the region's population working in Moscow. In 2010, 224.2 thousand enterprises and organizations were registered in the subject; at the same time, the largest number (66.0 thousand) belonged to the service sector, the number of enterprises in the manufacturing industry (24.2 thousand) and construction (21.2 thousand) was also significant. The turnover of enterprises and organizations in 2010 amounted to 4,589.3 billion rubles. (3rd place in Russia after Moscow and the Tyumen region), while the largest turnover, again, was in the service sector (2,428.9 billion rubles). 88.2% of enterprises in 2018 were privately owned.



The budget of the Moscow region for 2022 amounted to:
income - 759 billion rubles
expenses - 805 billion rubles

The budget deficit is 5.7% of expenditures. The main income items are taxes on corporate profits (38.7%) and on personal income (35.3%), as well as excises (7.4%) and gratuitous receipts from the budgets of other subjects of the Russian Federation (9%). The concentration of the tax base for the subject is not typical (for example, the largest taxpayer - SUE Mosoblgaz - annually transfers less than 1% of the region's own income to the budget) Over 60% of the regional budget expenditures have a social orientation (24% of expenditures are allocated to education, politics, 14% for healthcare). Large items of expenditure are also national issues (15%), the national economy (14%, including 9% - road infrastructure), housing and communal services (4%) The public debt of the Moscow Region as of January 1, 2019 amounted to 128 billion rubles.

A significant impact on the economy of the Moscow Region and, in particular, on the size of its budget was provided by the transfer from July 1, 2012 of a part of the territory of the Moscow Region to Moscow; Thus, according to the former governor of the Moscow region, Sergei Shoigu, due to the expansion of Moscow, the Moscow region may annually lose 35 billion rubles in taxes.



In terms of industrial production, the Moscow Region occupies the second place among the regions of Russia (after Moscow), dozens of enterprises of all-Russian significance operate in the region. The cost of industrial production in 2018 amounted to 2995.4 billion rubles; 86.8% accounted for manufacturing industries. The industry of the region uses mainly imported raw materials; it is based on a powerful scientific and technical base and highly qualified labor resources; closely connected with the industry of Moscow. The geography of the location of the industry of the Moscow region is connected with the radial-ring system of transport routes: industrial cities are "strung" on the radii of railways diverging from Moscow; the rings are formed by cities located at approximately the same distance from Moscow. The first ring is formed by satellite cities of Moscow (Mytishchi, Lyubertsy, Balashikha, etc.), among the cities of the second ring of the city, located at a distance of more than 50 kilometers from the Moscow Ring Road (Klin, Orekhovo-Zuyevo, Kashira, etc.). Another feature of the location of the region's industry is its highest concentration in the direction northeast of Moscow (the conditional boundaries of this sector can be considered the Dmitrovskoe highway and the M5 Ural highway). In the east of the region, light industry enterprises, machine-building plants, enterprises of the defense complex were historically located; many of these businesses went out of business in the 1990s. In the course of a new wave of industrialization that began in the 2000s, enterprises were created mainly aimed at satisfying consumer demand (food industry, furniture and building materials production); often these productions were created with the participation of foreign investors.

Among the municipalities of the Moscow region, the leaders in terms of the volume of shipped products are the Stupinsky, Mytishchi, Ramensky, Shchelkovsky, Ruzsky and Chekhov districts. The leading industries in 2018 are the food industry (24.6% of production), mechanical engineering (22.3%), the chemical industry (18.3%), metallurgy (14.7%), publishing and printing (10, 5 %). Volokolamsky district stands out in terms of industrial production growth rates (185% in 2011).

Mechanical engineering and metalworking are developed in the Moscow region. Equipment for thermal and nuclear power (ZiO-Podolsk), nuclear fuel (Elektrostal - TVEL) is produced; space and rocket technology (Korolev - RSC Energia, Khimki - NPO Lavochkin, Reutov - NPO Mashinostroeniya, Dzerzhinsky - MKB Gorizont, etc.); main diesel locomotives (Kolomensky Zavod), metro cars (Mytishchi - Metrovagonmash), electric trains (Demikhovskiy Machine-Building Plant); cars (SeAZ), buses (Likino-Dulyovo - Likinsky Bus Plant, Golitsyno and Yakhroma); agricultural machines, excavators and cranes (Lyubertsy, Dmitrov, Balashikha); high-quality steels (Electrostal); equipment for light industry (the main centers are Kolomna, Klimovsk, Podolsk); cables (Podolsk); optical devices (Krasnogorsk plant named after S. A. Zverev, Lytkarinsky plant of optical glass).

On the territory of the region, there is a special concentration of enterprises of the defense complex (the Russian Center for the Demonstration of Weapons, Military Equipment and Technologies in Krasnoarmeysk, the MiG Corporation Aircraft Manufacturing in Lukhovitsy, Kamov OJSC, Zvezda Research and Production Enterprise, the State Research Institute of Aviation Systems, Fazotron-NIIR and a lot others).

One of the leading branches of specialization of the Moscow region is construction. In terms of housing commissioning in recent years, the Moscow Region has significantly exceeded the average Russian level. As a result, the industry of building materials is developed. There are cement production facilities in Voskresensk and Kolomna (Shchurovsky Cement Plant), a dry mortar plant in Krasnogorsk, and many ceramic production facilities. The woodworking industry is developed (in Bronnitsy, Shatura, etc.). A plant for the production of innovative cellulose insulation ecowool (Promekovata) operates in Mytishchi. The Moscow region has one of the highest volumes of production of bricks, as well as prefabricated concrete structures and parts.

The chemical industry operates mainly on imported raw materials. Acids are produced (Schelkovo), mineral fertilizers (Voskresensk - production associations "Phosphates" and "Minudobreniya"), synthetic fiber (Serpukhov and Klin), plastic products (Orekhovo-Zuevo), varnishes and paints (Sergiev Posad, Odintsovo), pharmaceutical products (Old Kupavna), etc.

In many cities there are food industry enterprises. The region occupies one of the leading (in 2010 - 2nd) places in Russia in the production of meat and offal of food slaughter animals, as well as poultry meat. In terms of vodka production, the Moscow Region is a leader among the constituent entities of the Russian Federation (in terms of the production of alcoholic beverages with an alcohol content of up to 25%, the region occupies a more modest 12th place). An important place in the structure of the food industry of the region also belongs to the production of whole-milk products (in 2010, the volume of production of whole-milk products was the third in Russia after Moscow and the Krasnodar Territory).

Previously, the leading industry was light industry (it accounted for over 35% of the gross industrial production of the region), which began to develop in the vicinity of Moscow already in the 18th century. Thus, light industry is the oldest industrial sector in the region. Cotton (in the cities of Yegorievsk, Noginsk, Orekhovo-Zuyevo) and woolen (in the cities of Pavlovsky Posad, Pushkino) production have been preserved. Knitwear is also produced (in Ivanteevka, Dmitrov). In 2010, the region ranked only 11th in Russia in the production of fabrics (while in the production of footwear - 2nd).

About half of Russian science cities are concentrated on the territory of the region, where research, development and experimental developments are carried out (Dubna, Zhukovsky, Korolev, Protvino, Pushchino and others). Investment projects in the field of nanotechnologies are being implemented in Dubna, Krasnoznamensk, Khotkovo; in the city of Fryazino, a research and production cluster "Photonics" is being formed, the total volume of investments in the creation of which is estimated at $150 million.

Artistic crafts are developed (Gzhel ceramics, Zhostovo trays, Fedoskino lacquer miniature, toy craft). There are faience and porcelain factories in Likino-Dulyovo (Dulyovo Porcelain Factory) and Verbilki ("Verbilok Porcelain").



The Moscow Energy System is part of the United Energy System of the Center and serves consumers in Moscow and the Moscow Region. The key features of the Moscow energy system are a strict environmental policy, a high concentration of generating capacities in a small area, and the predominance of thermal power plants in the structure of generating capacities (over 80%). The total installed capacity of the region's power plants in 2010 was 8.2 MW. Electricity is generated by: Shaturskaya GRES (1500 MW), Dzerzhinskaya CHPP No. 22 (1300 MW), CHPP-27 (1060 MW), peak Zagorskaya PSP (1200 MW) and Elektrogorskaya GRES (623 MW), Kashirskaya GRES (410 MW), and also several smaller power plants. The main energy project in the region is the construction of the Zagorsk PSP-2 with a capacity of 840 MW. Despite the high absolute indicators of electricity production, the region is an importer of electricity: in 2010, production amounted to 30.1 billion kWh, consumption significantly exceeded it (45.4 billion kWh); in the structure of consumption, the main consumers are manufacturing industries and the population.

The gas distribution system of the Moscow Region is operated by State Unitary Enterprise MO "Mosoblgaz"; the same enterprise supplies natural gas to the population; gas pipelines are operated by OOO Gazprom transgaz Moscow. Gazprom Mezhregiongaz Moscow is the main supplier of natural gas, independent suppliers account for no more than 15% of supplies. In 2006-2010, the consumption of natural gas in the Moscow Region amounted to more than 108 billion m3, the overall level of gasification of the region in 2010 exceeded 90%.

The Moscow region has one of the most developed oil product supply systems in Russia; annually 2.5-3 million tons of motor gasoline and about 1.5 million tons of diesel fuel are imported into the region, the region's airports are the country's largest consumers of aviation kerosene. Oil products are transported and sold in the region by OAO Mostransnefteprodukt, which serves the ring oil product pipeline, which redistributes the flows of fuel coming from the Moscow, Ryazan and Nizhny Novgorod refineries. In 2010, there were 1.3 thousand commercial filling stations and complexes operating in the region; almost all major Russian oil companies (Rosneft, Tatneft, Gazprom Neft, TNK-BP, Lukoil) are engaged in the sale of petroleum products in the Moscow Region.


Services sector

Trade, financial services and tourism

Trade is well developed in the Moscow region. During the 2000s, there was a process of active deployment of land-intensive forms of large trading business in the territories of the Moscow Region adjacent to the Moscow Ring Road; a number of large (with an area of up to 50 thousand m2) shopping centers of the IKEA, Metro AG, Auchan, etc. chains were built. Chain trade is developed - in most regional centers there are stores of large chains Pyaterochka, Magnit, etc. Offices of numerous companies, providing a variety of services targeted at the population of Moscow and the region, located in the nearest districts in Moscow; There are many warehouse and logistics centers in the region.

The region is well provided with banking services. In 2011, there were 11 credit institutions and 83 branches in the subject. The total amount of deposits of individuals and legal entities (443.8 billion rubles in 2011) is the third largest in Russia (after Moscow and St. Petersburg). The average deposit in ruble accounts with the Savings Bank of the Russian Federation in 2011 amounted to 19.3 thousand rubles. (3rd place in the Russian Federation).

The region also has a developed tourism industry; in 2013, over 180 hotels and more than 800 travel agencies operated on the territory of the subject, the number of tourists visiting the region in 2019 reached 15 million (of which 2 million were foreign). The resort and recreation complex of the Moscow Region includes over 1,700 recreation facilities (sanatoriums, rest houses, boarding houses, children's health camps, etc.). In the vicinity of Yakhroma, on the slopes of the Klinsko-Dmitrovskaya ridge, there are ski resorts (Volen, Yakhroma, Sorochany); There are more than 10 ski resorts in the region. There are a number of sports and entertainment parks in the Moscow Region (Drakino in the Serpukhov District, Ognikovo in the Istrinsky District, etc.). Since the 2000s, the construction of such modern recreation complexes as country hotels specializing in SPA services and country hotels has begun. One of the largest projects in the field of tourism is the construction of the Rossiya theme park in the Domodedovo urban district. The most important problem of the tourism sector in the Moscow region is the insufficient development of tourism infrastructure - in particular, the insufficient number of food facilities, good access roads to sights, the low use of the historical and cultural potential of the historical cities of the Moscow region for tourism purposes.


Communications and media

The main part of the region is covered by the transmitters of the Ostankino tower. In addition, there are several large radio centers: Balashikhinsky, Taldomsky, Shatursky, Zaraisky, Volokolamsky, Elektrostalsky, Shchelkovsky and Lesnoy, broadcasting their own sets of radio and TV channels. In addition to the central channels, the 360° and Radio-1 TV channels are distributed in the region. The largest regional TV channel is 360° (Moscow Region). Local radio and television channels (Dubna, Evening Dmitrov, Kolomenskoye TV and others) broadcast in limited coverage. The largest fixed-line operator is Rostelecom, and there are also numerous broadband access operators. The region is fully covered by mobile communications, more than two hundred commercial telecom operators operate in the subject.

Over 50 news agencies operate in the region, and local municipal, public and advertising newspapers are printed in almost every regional center (in 2018, 146 newspapers and magazines were published). Delivery of periodicals and correspondence is carried out with the help of post offices of the region - 21 post offices and 1.1 thousand post offices (provision of the population with post offices - 1.7 per 10,000 inhabitants). The first automated sorting postal center in Russia was opened in the Moscow region, located in the village of Lvovsky, the former Podolsky district, and with a capacity of up to 3 million mail items per day.

Department of Housing and Utilities
In terms of housing stock, the region ranks second among the constituent entities of Russia after Moscow; in 2010, the total residential area was 144.6 million m². The dynamics of the housing stock is presented in the table below; The growth of the housing stock since 1995 has more than doubled due to the high rates of housing construction in the Moscow Region in recent years.

At the end of 2010, there were 28.8 m² of residential premises per inhabitant, which is higher than the national average (22.6 m²). The volume of communal services provided per capita in the Moscow region is 12.3 thousand rubles. in 2011 - the highest in the Central Federal District and one of the highest in Russia (in 2011 - 8th place). Improvement indicators of the housing stock in the Moscow Region are also high: in 2010, 81.6% of residential premises were provided with running water, 86.2% with heating, and 73.9% with hot water. 69.3% of residential premises are supplied with gas. As of the end of 2010, residential premises were managed by 414 private and 162 municipal organizations, homeowners associations were established in 5% of apartment buildings. The main problems of the housing and communal complex of the region are the severe deterioration of the communal infrastructure (55% in 2010; in some cities and districts up to 80%), the dilapidated state of heat and water supply networks, and a high proportion of unprofitable housing and communal services enterprises.

The Moscow region has one of the most powerful construction complexes in the country - 12-14% of the total volume of housing being built in Russia is commissioned in the subject. There are about 8.6 thousand organizations in the construction complex of the region, which employ 700 thousand people.

The building complex is based on the building materials industry, represented by more than a thousand enterprises and the largest in the Russian Federation in terms of output. The provision of housing for the population in 2011 (28.2 m² per inhabitant) in 2010 was higher than the national average (22.8 m² per inhabitant). Housing being commissioned is mainly high-rise, represented by complex development of cities and districts of the region. The financial and economic crisis, which began in 2008, had a negative impact on the state of the construction complex of the region, as a result of which the volume of housing commissioned and the volume of mortgage lending decreased. The problem of frozen housing construction is acute; in 2012, in the Moscow region, there were over a hundred objects of frozen or discontinued construction, and a number of objects had problems connecting to utilities.

On the territory of the Moscow region, agriculture is carried out, represented by both crop production and animal husbandry. About 40% of the territory of the Moscow region is used in agriculture; the northern, eastern and western outlying areas are the least developed by agriculture. Most agricultural enterprises are located in areas within a radius of 30-100 km from Moscow. In the southern part of the region, especially south of the Oka, more than 50% of the land is used in agriculture. Agriculture has a predominantly suburban specialization (production of vegetables and table greens in closed ground, milk, chicken eggs, broiler meat). Among the leading agricultural enterprises of the region are agricultural holdings (Russian Milk, Dmitrovsky Vegetables, Noginsky Agro-Complex, Dashkovka and others), poultry farms (Petelinskaya, Egoryevskaya, Noginskaya, Zagorskaya and others).

Animal husbandry
Animal husbandry prevails over crop production; Dairy and meat cattle breeding, poultry farming and pig breeding are developed. Production of poultry meat and eggs is profitable, milk is unprofitable. In 2020, the gross milk production in farms of all categories of the Moscow region amounted to 710 thousand tons.

Fish farming
Fish farming is widespread in the reservoirs of the region, the largest farms are located in the Yegoryevsky district on Tsninskiye ponds, on the Biserovsky ponds in the Noginsk district, Narskiye ponds in Odintsovsky, and in the Dmitrovsky district in the village of Rybnoye there is a fishery institute breeding both fish and live eggs and larvae.

Crop production
Plant growing is typical mainly for the southern part of the region.

62% of the area is occupied by fodder crops, 24% by cereals, 9% by potatoes, 6% by industrial crops. Large areas (mainly in the south and south-east of the region) are allocated for grain crops: wheat, barley, oats, rye. Potato growing plays a significant role in the crop production of the region. Greenhouse vegetable growing is widespread. Flowers, mushrooms (champignons, etc.) are also grown.

In 2022, a record 680 thousand tons of grains and legumes were harvested (in 2021 - 469 thousand tons), the harvest of oilseeds set a record of 84 thousand tons (in 2021 - 64 thousand tons). In terms of open ground vegetables (336 thousand tons) and potatoes (400 thousand tons), the Moscow region took 2nd place in the Central Federal District. In 2022, 44 thousand hectares of unused agricultural land are put into circulation.

The crisis of the 1990s dealt a painful blow to agriculture, from which the region still cannot get out. Many lands previously occupied by crops and pastures are now out of circulation. The area under crops decreased from 1224 thousand hectares in 1990 to 579 thousand hectares in 2018