Orekhovo-Zuevo, Russia

Orekhovo-Zuevo is located in the east of the Moscow region. Administrative center of the Orekhovo-Zuevsky district. The city stands on the Klyazma River.

Orekhovo-Zuevo is located on the Klyazma River not far from the border of the Moscow and Vladimir regions. As you might guess, the city arose as a result of the merger of the villages of Orekhovo and Zuevo, which were also joined by Nikolskoye, which for some reason is not reflected in the name. Until 1917, these three villages were formally independent and were even located in different provinces, but in fact, back in the 19th century, they turned into a single and, at that time, considerable factory town.

All three villages have been known since the 17th century. The first sewing factories appeared in Zuev in the second half of the 18th century. In 1797, Savva Vasilyevich Morozov, the founder of the famous dynasty, and in those years still a simple serf, set up a finishing factory near Nikolskoye, which later turned into a cloth and paper-weaving factory. By 1850, when Savva Morozov transferred the business to his heirs, several factories were already operating in Nikolskoye, and although in the second half of the 19th century the Morozovs built their factories in many cities from Tver to the Urals, their “patrimony” remained right here, thanks to which in Orekhovo -Zuevo built a record number of promarchs, red-brick workers’ barracks, and even public buildings like a hospital and theater by Russian standards.

Although the Morozovs are known as philanthropists and “capitalists with a human face” who cared for their workers, the revolutionary movement did not bypass their factories. In January 1885, a major strike took place in Nikolskoye, later called the Morozov strike. The workers' protests were suppressed with weapons with the participation of the regular army, and Lenin later noted this episode as one of the milestones of the revolutionary movement in Russia. According to Ilyich’s behests, monuments to the Morozov strike appeared in Orekhovo-Zuevo, but no one really protected the wonderful industrial architecture; many buildings were destroyed or rebuilt. Today, none of the old Morozov factories are working; their areas are given over to shops, warehouses, or are simply abandoned. Operating factories remain only on the outskirts. Oxygen devices, sewing threads, and plastics are produced in Orekhovo-Zuevo. The city looks lively and active, combining the rhythm of life and prosperity of the Moscow region with the aesthetics and some neglect of the remote Russian province.



Almost all of the old buildings are located between the river and the railway. When driving from Moscow, you will first find yourself in the Madonsky microdistrict, named after the Latvian sister city, and not the popular singer, as one might think. Next will be the main Morozov factory, and behind it is the Krutoye microdistrict with the largest number of old workers' houses. On the other side of the railway is the Pervaya Sovetskaya microdistrict with a pre-Soviet hospital and theater. Across the river there used to be the village of Zuevo, but now there is a massive Soviet-era residential development and several churches. There is no clearly defined city center in Orekhovo-Zuevo.

A few hours are enough for a full inspection of Orekhovo-Zuevo; a general idea of the city can be obtained in an hour and a half.



A large number of industrial and residential buildings of the 19th century along Lenin Street. In the former factory buildings there are shops and offices, so access to the former factory yards is open.
Views of old factories along Stachki 1885 Street and Babushkina Street.
Multi-storey development in avant-garde style north of the Krutoe platform

Left bank of the Klyazma
1  Nativity Cathedral, st. Volodarsky, 20/1. The squat, five-domed church was built at the end of the 19th century in the Tonov style, but from the dark red brick characteristic of Orekhovo-Zuev. The unnaturally tall bell tower was added in 1906. Rich wall paintings.
2  Old Believer Nativity Church, st. Kuznetskaya, 25. Hidden in the courtyards of high-rise buildings, the church arose in the 1880s as a house of worship, and acquired its modern appearance, inspired by ancient Russian traditions, only in the 1990s. Now the church is jointly used by the Pomeranian and Belokrinitsky Old Believers communities. The massive belfry made of dark red brick, preserved from the end of the 19th century, is curious.
3  Church of the Exaltation of the Cross, Podgornskoye Highway. The squat, five-domed temple with high drums was built in 1882-87. The church stands on a slight hill above Klyazma.
4  Zimin Factory (Podgornaya Manufactory), Fabzavucha Ave., 3.


How to get there

By train
From Moscow, trains from Kursky Station run at least once an hour, the journey takes 1.5-2 hours. Trains to Krutoye, Petushki, Vladimir are suitable. Long-distance trains do not stop. In Orekhovo-Zuevo, the Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod railway intersects with the Great Moscow Ring, along which you can go to Alexandrov 8 times a day (1.5 hours) and only three times a day, and at inconvenient times, to Kurovskaya (50 minutes).

1  Orekhovo-Zuevo station, st. Vokzalnaya. Located in the Madonsky microdistrict next to the bus station. The one-story station building houses only ticket offices, including long-distance ones. There is nowhere to sit. On the station square there are cafes, shops, and a market nearby.
2  Krutoe, st. Volkova. In the microdistrict of the same name, the final train station. Two platforms, a pedestrian bridge and a ticket office. There is no infrastructure.
Turnstiles are installed at both stations.

By bus
Every half hour there are buses to Kurovskoye (1 hour). In other directions it is easier and faster to use the train.

3  Bus station. A separate building on the square next to the Orekhovo-Zuevo station. Inside there are several rows of metal chairs and a cafe with pies (7:00–20:00). The ticket office only sells season tickets; regular tickets must be purchased on the bus.

By car
From Moscow along the M7 Volga highway to the village of Malaya Dubna, the distance is 69 kilometers; near the traffic police post, turn right onto the Big Moscow Automobile Ring A108, the distance is 7 kilometers.


Transport around the city

The city has about one and a half dozen intra-city bus routes and about two dozen suburban routes operating mainly within the district or to neighboring areas. Bus routes and schedules



1  Cafe “Nashe”, st. Lenina, 100a (in the courtyard). The only food outlet in the Krutoe microdistrict. This is a cafe-dining room, and not the most ordinary one. It is located in a room that is clearly not intended for a dining room. Food is given out through the window. The menu is arranged indecently simply on the principle of first, second and, if you're lucky, pies, but the dishes and serving are better than one might think. The establishment is clearly private, and the owners manage to create, if not comfort, then at least some originality, and the manner of their communication with clients is very funny.
2  Catering No. 1, Station Square. 8:00–21:00. Hot: 150–200 rubles (2014). In the same building there is a canteen and a fast food restaurant called Chicken in English, where for some reason they also brew coffee and sell cakes. There is a deli nearby, and it also has tables. Clean, but not very cozy. Wi-Fi.
3  Pirozhkovaya, st. Lenina, 20 (near the station). 9:00–20:00. Hot: 150–200 rubles (2014). A dining room with distribution and not the lowest prices. At a separate counter they sell delicious pies (20-40 rubles/piece), ice cream and milkshakes. Tea is poured for free.
4  Khinkalnaya, st. 1905, 4 (left bank of the Klyazma). 11:00–24:00. Hot dishes: 300–400 rubles (2014). A restaurant of Georgian cuisine, where the walls are lined with logs, as if in a Russian hut. A dozen varieties of khinkali, several types of khachapuri, shish kebab and all the standard dishes of Georgian cuisine, served piping hot in clay pots. Cosy.
5  Coffeebus.



LIAZ, st. Galochkina, 5. ☎ +7 (496) 422-17-98. Jan 2017
Oretex, st. Peat briquette, 6. ☎ +7 (496) 416-94-35.
Central, Oktyabrskaya square, 4. ☎ +7 (496) 412-58-72. Hotel.


Security questions

The city of Orekhovo-Zuevo has an extremely high level of “street” crime. For your own safety, you should never be on the street at night and do not go into remote areas such as Karbolit, Krutoe and Parkovskaya Street.



Megafon branded sales and service salon, st. Lenina, 85 (Akvilon shopping center, 1st floor). Mon-Fri 10:00-22:00, Sat-Sun 10:00-21:00.



Orekhovo-Zuevo was formed as a result of the merger in 1917 (there were earlier attempts at unification in 1889 and 1901) of the village of Zuevo, Bogorodsky district, Moscow province (the oldest, known since the 13th century (first mentioned on March 26, 1209 - Volochyok Zuev)) with the village of Orekhovo and the village Nikolskoye, Pokrovsky district, Vladimir province. In 1929, the village (factory settlement) Dubrovka was also included within the city limits. The city is one of the oldest centers of the textile industry in Russia, which has been developed in Orekhovo since the 18th century (from the beginning of the activities of the Morozov entrepreneurs).

In 1890, there were 17 factories in Orekhov, employing more than 30 thousand workers. In 1862, traffic was opened through Orekhovo on the single-track Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod railway line. Some sources also note Orekhovo-Zuevo as the birthplace of Russian football.


Village Zuevo

In the middle of the 17th century, the village of Zuevo had about 38 inhabitants, and in 1836 there were already 528 people. In the “Economic Notes,” compiled in the 1760s, silk weaving as a men’s trade is not mentioned: peasants are engaged in arable farming, “they plow all the land, and they also travel in carriages to different cities for hire.” But since 1771, peasants began to take permission to weave silk products. In the “Economic Notes” of the late 18th century it is already noted that Zuev peasants work for hire in silk weaving “factories”. In 1796-1797, there were 9 establishments in Zuev, employing 63 people: A. Antonova (founded in 1771), P. Timofeeva (1781), E. Vasilyeva (1786), N. Matveeva (1790) and G. Ignatiev, A. Loganova, F. Nikitin, G. Filippov, F. Kononov (founded in 1791). 15 people worked at Kononov’s establishment.

In 1820, in Zuev there were 8 enterprises with 133 workers. In 1843 there were 6 establishments: A.I. Kononov - 800 workers, production amounted to 150 thousand rubles; N. S. Zimina - 254 workers, 30 thousand rubles; T. P. Novosadova - 226 workers, 30 thousand rubles; P. P. Bryzgalina - 212 workers, 21 thousand rubles; E. M. Elisova - 79 workers, 12 thousand rubles. and V.P. Bryzgalina - 11 workers, 4 thousand rubles; total of 1582 workers, production amount 247 thousand rubles.

In 1859, there were 658 inhabitants in Zuev, but in fact there were 834 people. In 1869, 132 households had only 130 horses. In Zuev there were 15 factories, manufactories and establishments, 16 shops, 7 taverns, an inn and 10 taverns. There were 832 registered residents in the village, but in fact there were already 3,643 people living. Of the 3,643 residents, 2,624 people were engaged in trades: 2,294 textile workers, 316 others, 14 establishment owners. Of the textile workers, 1691 were weavers, 505 were dyers. Only 5 people went to work. In 1883, out of 130 households, 37 households were not engaged in agriculture (according to 1877 - 49), 4 households did not have land, and 18 households farmed land by rent; In total, 59 households, or 45%, got off the ground. Horseless (60 households) and one-horse households together accounted for 91% of all households. There were very few home-based weavers - only 23 people; the number of otkhodniks increased significantly - from 8 in 1869 to 151 people in 1877. Zemstvo surveyors noted that before the appearance of factories, Zuevsky peasants, that is, at the end of the 18th - beginning of the 19th centuries, “were engaged in almost one arable land,” but now they fed on factory farming and renting out “corners.”

In 1884, there were 7 enterprises in Zuev: Heirs of I.N. Zimin, founded in 1812 - 1186 workers, of which 70 people assigned to the Moscow province, 385 people living in factory barracks; Bogorodsko-Glukhovskaya Manufactory Company, founded earlier than 1840 - 841 workers, 62 from the Moscow province, about 600 in the barracks; Brothers Zimin, founded in 1835 - 291 workers, 38 from the Moscow province, 160 in the barracks; M. T. Novosadova, founded around 1840 - 239 workers, 49 from the Moscow province, 150 in the barracks; G. E. Zimin, founded in 1853 - 86 workers, 5 from the Moscow province, two lived at the factory; Shuvanov brothers, founded around 1834 - 70 workers, 14 from the Moscow province, two lived at the factory; M.D. Shuvanova, founded in 1857 - 12 workers, all from other provinces and all lived at the factory. In total, there were 2,725 workers at the enterprises, of which only 238 were assigned to the Moscow province, including 150 people to the Bogorodsky district. About 1,300 people lived at the factories, in a workers' village. Most of the remaining workers were assigned to the nearby districts of the Vladimir and Ryazan provinces.

Zuevo, the local sanitary doctor wrote in his annual report in 1892, “is populated primarily by factory workers, artisans and various commercial and industrial people, while the peasant population makes up no more than 1/10-1/12 of the total population of the village. Most of the factory workers (from neighboring Morozov factories, some from local ones) and artisans live impossibly crowded in various closets, corners and shared bedrooms, rented out for a rather expensive price... The houses themselves are located extremely close to each other, often without any yard at all.” . In 1898, out of 181 families, 92 were not engaged in agriculture (51%), 28 had no land and 4 were farmed by hire; In total, 124 families (68%) broke away from farming. In addition to 160 huts of indigenous residents, there were 188 huts of “outsiders” in the village. Not only did the majority of the indigenous population break away from agriculture, but the village was actively built up by visiting people.

In 1897-1899, there were only 969 registered residents in Zuev, but in fact 9,908 people lived in the village. By 1914 their number had increased to 22,097 inhabitants.


Orekhovo village

The village of Orekhovo began to form near the village of Nikolskoye and the village church after the construction of Morozov factories. Its population consisted mostly of traders who rented land, housing and premises for trade, and the church clergy. In 1859, there were 77 people in Orekhov along with the clergy. In 1868, the Vladimir bishop forbade the Orekhov priest to rent out his houses to traders, and the latter began to build their own on rented land. By the end of the 19th century, Orekhovo had turned into a large commercial and industrial village. In 1897 there were already 7,219 people, in 1914 - 21,593 people.


Nikolskoye village

In the 17th-18th centuries it was a churchyard with the Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker. In 1797, here, on land free from the landowner, S.V. Morozov set up a finishing establishment. Having been freed in 1820, S.V. Morozov moved (in 1830) his enterprise from Zuev to the city of Bogorodsk, and near the churchyard in 1837-1838 he built a cloth factory on the Klyazma reach in the wasteland. In 1841, there were 3 machines on it, 144 people worked, the amount of production was 85 thousand rubles. Then this factory was turned into a paper weaving factory. In 1837, one of the sons of S.V. Morozov, E.S. Morozov, who founded a paper weaving factory in 1840, moved the distribution office and dyeing establishment here. This is how a factory village arose, called Nikolskoye.

In 1848, S.V. Morozov built a paper spinning and weaving factory in Nikolskoye (then it was also called Novozuev and Nikolaevsky). In 1850, the trading house “Savva Morozov’s son and company” was created. In 1852, 1200 people worked at the factory and about 2 thousand in the villages. “At the present time,” wrote the provincial mechanic I. E. Nesytov in 1854, “the town of Novozuevo, or Nikolaevskoe, is ... a purely manufacturing manor ... 24 stone and 25 wooden buildings. From the left bank of the Klyazma River, the town of Nikolaevskoe appears in the form of a small manufacturing town, outlined by 10 chimneys... The manufacturing activity of the town of Novozuevo in 10 years spread to gigantic proportions... There is hope that Novozuevo will eventually be one of the wonderful industrial places in the Vladimir province.”

In 1872, V. E. Morozov, the son of E. S. Morozov, built a paper spinning factory here; in 1874 it employed up to 1,600 people. In 1873, the trading house “Savva Morozov’s Son and Company” was reorganized into the Partnership of the Nikolskaya Manufactory “Savva Morozov’s Son and Company”. In 1882, the factory of V. E. Morozov was transferred to the “Partnership of Manufactories of V. E. Morozov”. At the factory of the Nikolskaya Manufactory Partnership in 1879 there were 8946 workers, in 1890 - 17,252, in 1900 - 11,704, in 1908 - 13,498. At the factory of V. E. Morozov in 1879 there were 2,000 workers, in In 1890 - 9500, in 1900 - 9973, in 1908 - 489. The total number of workers increased from 11 thousand to 25 thousand people. With the expansion of production, outside work at the Morozovs was reduced. The emergence of the working settlement of Nikolskoye can only be approximately dated. It probably arose in 1850 and grew very quickly: in 1859 there were 2,489 inhabitants, in 1897 - 25,973 and in 1914 - 38,026 inhabitants. The construction of barracks for workers began in 1860. At first, peasants from the nearest volosts went to the factories: Zaponorskaya and Dorkhovskaya in Bogorodsky district, Kudykinskaya in Pokrovsky district and “the adjacent volosts of Yegoryevsky and Bronnitsky districts.”

We provide information about the construction and population of the barracks; despite their incompleteness and fragmentary nature, they are of great interest. In 1869, factory workers of the future Nikolskaya manufactory were housed in 34 barracks, including 2 three-story, 24 two-story and 8 one-story, and in the 41st summer “booth.” On January 1, 1879, 1,786 workers and 584 members of their families, a total of 2,370 people, lived in the barracks of V. E. Morozov’s factories; in 1885, 3,379 workers, 1,461 family members, a total of 4,840 people. In 1897, there were 31 barracks at the Nikolskaya manufactory, and 11 barracks at the factory of the Partnership of Manufactories of V. E. Morozov. In total, over 25 thousand people lived in them. At the Nikolskaya Manufactory in 1907, 14,454 people lived in the barracks, housed in 31 buildings with 3,392 closets. For each person living there, there was a room with a volume of only 1.11 m³.


From factory center to city

Orekhovo-Zuevo is the heart of the strike movement of the 19th - early 20th centuries. Here in 1885 the Morozov strike took place, one of the largest in Russia; Orekhovo-Zuev workers took part in the revolutionary movement of 1905. Since 1901, a district committee of the RSDLP existed in Orekhov (headed by Ivan Babushkin).

In the 1880s, Zuevo, Orekhovo and Nikolskoye were a large proletarian center. In 1886, according to a contemporary, “neither Nikolskoye, nor Zuevo, nor Orekhovo resembles in any way what is usually meant by a village. The settlements almost merged and formed a city with a population whose numbers would be the envy of more than one provincial town. In its external character, this city resembles Moscow. The same two-story small stone houses, the same many cheap taverns... the same small shops... the same churches and, finally, the same multi-story and long, like a fortress wall, factory buildings.” Another contemporary reported in 1892 that Nikolskoye is an entire city of exclusively factory nature, consisting of more than 250 stone and 200 wooden “grandiose buildings.” Lenin, who visited Orekhovo-Zuevo in 1895, wrote about it: “These places, often found in the central industrial region, are extremely original: a purely factory town, with tens of thousands of inhabitants, who live only by the factory. The factory administration is the only boss. The city is “run” by a factory office. The split of the people into workers and bourgeois is the sharpest.”

In 1889, the board of the factories of the Partnership of the Nikolskaya Manufactory “Savva Morozov’s Son and Company,” frightened by the strike of 1885, asked the government to administratively annex Nikolskoye to Zuev, citing the fact that the police of the capital province have great capabilities to stop unrest in the factories , “if such arose.” The petition indicated that up to 14 thousand people work in Nikolskoye, and up to 9 thousand people in Zuev, and that “these two significant factory settlements ... in essence, have long since merged into one huge industrial and commercial center.” The request of the manufacturers was supported by the Vladimir governor, who reported that “in the village of Zuevo there are 4 factories (two silk weaving, two woolen), a chemical plant, up to 35 crafts and many trade establishments (34 colonial and manufacturing shops, 22 establishments for trading alcoholic beverages and 7 tea houses shops). The indigenous population is 900 people, up to 2,500 people live in factories, and up to 2,000 people in other establishments, up to 1,500 people in rented apartments, and in total, therefore, up to 7 thousand people.” However, the Minister of Internal Affairs did not agree, and the matter died out. The factory owners' repeated petition in 1900 was also unsuccessful.

In 1907, the Vladimir governor invited the Morozovs to raise the issue of transforming Orekhov, Zuev and Nikolsky into a city. His letter contains a note that apparently expressed the opinion of one of the board members: “We will pay city taxes, but there will be no benefit from such a city.” This consideration turned out to be decisive - the board refused. The population growth of the factory center was as follows: 1859 - 3,400 people, 1897 - 43,100, 1914 - 81,716 people.

In 1898, the first telephones appeared at Savva Morozov’s Nikolskaya manufactory to connect the manager with the manufactory enterprises. At first there were only 10 three-digit numbers, communication was carried out manually by telephone operators. In 1906, the Modern (in Zuev) and Imperial (in Orekhov) cinemas opened, and a new hospital (now the First City Hospital), equipped with the latest technology of the early 20th century, was built in Nikolskoye.

In 1904, under the leadership of Leonid Krasin, a power station was built, factories and municipal services were electrified. In 1916, the first dielectric plates were produced at the Karbolit plant.

On June 3, 1917, the Provisional Government decided to unite the village of Orekhovo, the town of Nikolskoye and the village of Zuevo into a single urban settlement of Orekhovo-Zuevo.

Orekhovo-Zuevo is the birthplace of Russian football. The first football match on the territory of the current city, according to researcher Vladimir Lizunov, took place back in 1888. This date is based on the memoirs of the former vice-president of the Moscow Football League (MFL), the Englishman Harry Garlsfield (Andrei Vasilyevich) Charnock, who worked at the beginning of the 20th century as director of V. Morozov’s factories, published in the December 1946 issue of the British Ally newspaper. Charnock repeatedly made attempts to distract working people from drunkenness, the level of which the factory was leading in the Moscow region, and attracted to Russia, in particular, his brother, a former member of the Blackburn Rovers club, as well as other foreign specialists who knew how to play football. In 1897, Harry Chernock created the first football team at the factory. In 1909, in Orekhovo, the Charnock brothers officially created the football “Sports Club Orekhovo” (KSO), which had previously held games. The team received the nickname “Morozovites”. The owners of the manufactories, the Morozov family, were very conservative Old Believers and demanded that football players come to training in long clothes that covered their ankles. Four-time champions of Moscow (1910-1913). In 1914, the team moved to a new stadium, built according to an English design. Skillful drainage allowed the lawn to dry completely half an hour after a rainstorm, the grass was thick and low, popularly called “pig grass.” For a long time this football arena was considered the best in Russia. Before the 1917 revolution, adult and children's football leagues were created in Orekhov. The highest achievement in the Soviet period of history was reaching the final of the 1962 USSR Cup, where the team lost to Shakhtar Donetsk with a score of 0:2. Now the club is called “Banner of Labor”. Plays in the FNL-2 league group-2 of the Russian championship.

On May 27, 1927, the city’s first radio station, “Kolotushka,” went on the air. She was in the trade union club (in Soviet times, “House of Pioneers”, now the Center for Children’s Creativity “Rodnik” (Lenin St., 93)

On June 12, 1927, the first bus line was opened. Two weeks later, three more buses arrived in the city, and two country routes began operating on weekends.

In 1943, the Big Ring of the Moscow Railway passing through the city was closed, and in the 1960s a marshalling station was built.