Kashira, Russia

Kashira is located in the south of the Moscow region. The city is the administrative center of the Kashira district. It stands on the high right bank of the Oka River. One of the oldest cities in the Moscow region. The first mention dates back to 1356 in the spiritual charter of Moscow Prince Ivan II the Red. The city survived the raids of the Crimean Tatars and the plague epidemic. It was ruined in 1618 by the Cossacks of Hetman Sagaidachny, who were in Polish service. Now on the site of the old city are the villages of Staraya Kashira and Gorodishche. In 1619, Kashira was rebuilt on the right bank of the Oka. An earthen rampart with a wooden fortress was also erected (it has not survived to this day). In the 1930s, a village was built near the power plant, which was later included in Kashira. The center of the village is built in an avant-garde style.



Church architecture

1  Nikitsky Monastery, st. Svoboda, 25. In the 17th century, on the site of the future monastery there was a wooden Nikitsky church. The new stone church was built at the expense of the merchant Fyodor Rudnev in 1855. At the same time (1845), the church bell tower was built, which later became the monastery bell tower. The Church of the Transfiguration was built under it in 1855 (in 1906 it was reconsecrated as the Church of the Icon of the Mother of God of the Burning Bush). Since 1843, an almshouse was opened at the temple, which in 1862 received the status of a women's community. After transformation in 1884, the community received the status of a convent. In the period 1884 - 1920, a three-altar cathedral Church in the name of the Transfiguration of the Lord was built on the territory of the monastery (1889 - 1894), and a refectory was added to the bell tower (1902 - 1906). In 1920, the monastery was closed. Nikitskaya and Transfiguration churches were converted into industrial premises, the upper tiers of the bell tower were broken. After the war, the monastery premises were used by a hosiery factory. Today the surviving buildings are:
Nikitsky Temple
Transfiguration Church

2  Vvedenskaya Church, Sovetskaya St., 18. The architectural complex of the Church of the Entry into the Temple of the Blessed Virgin Mary consists of a temple and the building of a former parish almshouse, and was built in the period 1802-1817. During Soviet times, the church was closed. The premises were converted into a warehouse and then workshops. The interior decoration and paintings were lost. In 1991, the temple was consecrated and services began. edit
3  Assumption Cathedral, pl. Volodarskogo 3.
4  Church of the Ascension, st. Karl Marx, 23.
5  Church of Frol and Lavra, Shkolny lane, no. 4.
6  Church of the Life-Giving Trinity, st. Sovetskaya, 41A.


Civil architecture

The city has preserved several interesting buildings of the 18th-19th centuries, mainly on Sovetskaya Street. In the historical center there are houses from the end of the 19th century with a stone ground floor and a wooden mezzanine.

7  Water tower, Sovetskaya str. 2. Water tower of the early 20th century, to serve the prison. Architectural monument of federal significance.



In the eastern part of the city there is the Kashira-2 district. It began to be built in the 1920s as a settlement for power plant workers. The central part is built up with houses in the constructivist style.

8  Club named after. Lenin. Built in the late 1920s. Large curved glass walls. Mosaics from the 1970s on the theme of the electrification plan.
9  Factory kitchen. Constructivist building with characteristic plastic facades. It looks different when viewed from different facades. The cobblestone pavement has been preserved in the courtyard.
10  College building.



Kashira Museum of Local Lore, st. Sovetskaya, 46 (From the railway station, bus 1, to the stop "Sovetskaya St."). Every day from 10.00 to 17.00, except Monday and Friday.


How to get there

The city is located 115 km southeast of Moscow. It is a railway junction. The M4 and E115 highways are also nearby.

By plane
The closest Moscow airport to the city is Domodedovo.

By train
From Moscow from Paveletsky station, about 20 trains a day. Also at the Kashira station, trains heading to Uzunovo and Ozherelye make a stop. Travel time from Moscow is about 2 hours; on the REX express from the Kolomenskoye (Varshavskaya) station the train takes 1.5 hours).

Railway station Kashira-Passenger.

By car
From Moscow along the M4, E115 highway.

By bus
Bus routes from Moscow depart from the Krasnogvardeyskaya metro station, 9 trips per day (August 2014). Travel time from Moscow is 3 hours.

Bus station.

On the ship
Although the city is located on a river, there is no passenger river transport.


Transport around the city

There are 4 city routes in the city.



According to M. Vasmer, the name of the city comes from the Tula dialect koshir “sheep barn” (cf. koshara).

According to V.N. Toporov, Kashira owes its name to the Kashirka River, near the confluence of which with the Oka on the left, gentle bank of the Oka the city was originally located. The name of the river has parallels in Baltic hydronymy.

Another version is reported by E.M. Murzaev. In the chronicles of the 14th century, Kashira is referred to as Koshira. Therefore, the toponym is associated either with the Turkic “kosh” (hut, parking lot, dairy farm, camp), or with “keshir” (river crossing), since it was here that there was a convenient and guarded crossing across the Oka River.



Old Kashira (until the beginning of the 17th century)

Kashira was first mentioned in 1356 in the spiritual charter of the son of Ivan Kalita, Moscow Prince Ivan II the Red, as a village bequeathed by him to his son Dmitry. And in 1355, Bishop Afanasy of Kolomna was also titled “Kashirsky”.

In 1480, Kashira was already a city that Ivan III ordered to burn, not hoping to protect it from the expected raid of the Tatar Khan Akhmat. In 1483, according to an agreement between the Ryazan and Moscow princes, Kashira finally came under the authority of Moscow.

In 1498, the Trinity Belopesotsky Monastery was founded west of Kashira. In 1497-1526, Kashira was owned by the former Kazan Tatar kings, who supported the Moscow prince.

In 1517, the first raid of the Crimean Tatars was made on the city, after which Kashira survived more than 20 raids until the end of the century. In 1531, a fortress was built in Kashira (now the settlement of Old Kashira): an earthen rampart with wooden fortifications. The most destructive raid of the Crimean Tatars occurred in 1571.

After the raids, the plague epidemic and military operations of 1607-1611. Kashira became deserted (in 1609 the city recognized the power of False Dmitry II). In 1618, the city was ravaged by the Cossacks of Hetman Sagaidachny, who were in Polish service. Now on the site of the old city are the villages of Gorodishche and Staraya Kashira.


XVII-XVIII centuries. County period

In 1619, Kashira was rebuilt again - already on the right bank of the Oka River, where by 1629 an earthen rampart with a wooden fortress was erected, which served as one of the strongholds of the Bolshaya Zasechnaya Line. In the second half of the 17th century, Kashira's defensive role gave way to trade.

In 1717, Kashira became the center of Kashira district.

From 1708 to 1777 it was part of the Moscow province, from 1777 it was a district town of the Tula governorship, and from 1796 it was part of the Tula province.

In 1779, Kashira received a regular plan with a rectangular grid of blocks, while the main street was oriented towards the ensemble of the Belopesotsky Monastery, located beyond the Oka. It was not possible to carry out regular grading on steep slopes.


19th century

In the first half of the 19th century. Kashira was an important trading center. Stone and wood construction began in the city, churches and residential buildings were built in the classicist style.

Residents are engaged in gardening and vegetable gardening, as well as small-scale handicraft production.

In 1884, the Nikitsky Convent was founded in the city.

Conducted in the 1860s. aside from the Kashira Kursk and Ryazan railways, trade in the city decreased greatly. The development of the city resumed only in 1900, when the Paveletskaya railway was built in the immediate vicinity and the Kashira station was built.


Beginning of the 20th century. After the revolution

In the fall of 1918, in the vicinity of Kashira, there were unrest among peasants dissatisfied with the forced seizure of grain. In 1919-1922, the Kashirskaya State District Power Plant was built 5 km from the city. In May 1923, Kashira was transferred to the Moscow province.

In 1929 it became the center of the Kashira district of the Moscow region.



During the Great Patriotic War in November 1941, after German troops bypassed Tula, Kashira found itself in a war zone. As a result of the German breakthrough on November 24, by the end of the next day, the advanced units of the 2nd Tank Army of Army Group Center appeared 3 km from the city near the Zendikovo state farm. The city was subjected to German air raids. However, they failed to gain a foothold, and on November 27-29, under counterattacks from the 1st Cavalry Corps of General P. A. Belov and the 173rd Infantry Division, the Germans were forced to retreat to the village of Mordves. At the beginning of December 1941, as a result of the Tula offensive operation, German troops were driven back from Kashira.


Second half of the 20th century

In 1963, the city of Novokashirsk became part of Kashira. As a result of the development of the city in the 1950-1970s. 4 separate districts were identified: Old Kashira (Kashira-1), Kashira station, Kashira-2 and the “microdistrict” Kashira-3 (“grandfather’s hill”).



On April 30, 2015, by resolution of the Moscow Regional Duma, the city was awarded the honorary title “Settlement of Military Valor.”

On December 7, 2015, Kashira, until this point a city of regional subordination, was classified as a city of regional subordination. Before this, the city of Ozherelye was included in Kashira. The Kashira district as a municipal entity and administrative-territorial unit was also abolished, the city began to form the Kashira urban district (created on October 11, 2015).



According to the climatic zoning of Russia, Kashira is located in the Atlantic-continental European (forest) region of the temperate climate zone. Seasonal fluctuations in air temperature are significant: on January 31, 2014, the air temperature was -30°C, and on August 15, 2014 - +36°C