Mozhaisk, Russia

Mozhaisk is located in the west of the Moscow region. An ancient Russian city, the administrative center of the Mozhaisk region. Included in the list of historical cities of the Moscow region.

First mentioned in 1231. In the 14th-15th centuries, the center of the Mozhaisk Principality. It suffered greatly after the Lithuanian devastation (16-17 centuries), the Patriotic War (1812) and the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945). Since the mid-20th century, industry has been developing, new residential areas, schools, etc. have been built. Churches in the city center are suitable for inspection. There is little pre-revolutionary civil architecture in the city, and the center is mostly built up with Soviet five-story buildings.



1  Mozhaisk Kremlin. An ancient fortress that once stood on a high hill in a bend of the Mozhaika River. First mentioned in 1231, the city already had a wooden fortress. In the 16th century, the stone Nikolsky Gate was built, and in 1624–1626 the wooden walls of the Kremlin were replaced with stone ones. Only fragments of the foundation and the image on the city’s coat of arms have survived to this day.
2  Novo-Nikolsky Cathedral (1779–1812), Borodinskaya Street, 8. A very remarkable Mozhaisk temple, made in the pseudo-Gothic style, was built on Nikolskaya Mountain on the site of the Nikolsky Gate of the Mozhaisk Kremlin shortly before the invasion of Napoleon. The cathedral is picturesquely located on the cliff of a hill and looks very impressive from the side of the bridge on Moskovskaya Street. Around this place it was first photographed at the beginning of the 20th century by the famous Russian photographer S.M. Prokudin-Gorsky. It is interesting that despite the century separating us from those times, the area around the Kremlin has changed little.
The three-apse pillarless temple was built of red brick with white stone decoration according to the design of A.N. Bakarev (1762–1817), a student of the famous representative of Russian pseudo-Gothic M.F. Kazakova. The Gothic spire of the bell tower, the turrets at the corners of the main volume, the Stars of David, the pyramids with balls - all this does not really correspond to the usual appearance of Orthodox churches. Inside, fragments of paintings have been preserved in places on the walls and columns. The famous wooden carved figure of the city’s patron saint, Nikolai of Mozhaisk, is also kept here - an image of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, with a sword in one hand and a temple in the other. According to legend, it was in this image that the saint appeared to the Tatars besieging the city in the 13th century and put them to flight. The strange appearance of the cathedral, its symbolism and multiple proportions of sizes gave rise to legends around it, connecting it with the Order of the Templars and the Masonic movement. In the basement of the cathedral (now a church museum is located there) the masonry of the wall and gate of the Mozhaisk Kremlin has been preserved.

During the Great Patriotic War, the cathedral was badly damaged and was restored only in recent years. Apr 2023
3  Church of Peter and Paul (Old St. Nicholas Cathedral) (1849), Borodinskaya street, 8. The Old St. Nicholas Cathedral is located a stone’s throw from the Novo-Nikolsky Cathedral, on the territory of the former Mozhaisk Kremlin. The current building was built on the site of an ancient white-stone cathedral of the 14th-15th centuries, of which only the basement has survived. The current four-pillar church repeats the forms of the previous structure.
4  Kremlin chapel for the centenary of the Battle of Borodino (1911-1912), Borodino street, 8. A small chapel in the colors of the Kremlin ensemble was built at the base of Nikolsky Hill on the centenary of the Battle of Borodino. During the Soviet years it was partially destroyed, but restored in 1990.
5  Chapel of Nicholas Mozhaisky (1998), Komsomolskaya Square. The chapel was designed by V.M. Klykov and is dedicated to the patron saint of Mozhaisk - Nikola Mozhaisky, whose image is installed inside the chapel.
6  Church of Joachim and Anna, st. Krupskaya, 6. The name, which the church inherited from the Yakimansky monastery founded in the 16th century, actually refers to two temples. The newer one, built in 1871 according to the design of K.V. Grinevsky in the pseudo-Russian style, attracts attention from afar with a pair of high tents that complete the bell tower and the octagonal drum. Next to it is a small 18th-century church, built mainly of white brick. Taking a closer look, you will notice that part of its southern wall between a pair of buttresses is made of ancient white stone blocks. This part of the wall was once part of the chapel of the former cathedral of the Yakimansky monastery and dates back to the end of the 14th century.
7  Ilyinskaya Church (1846-1852). It was built in the former settlement of the Luzhetsky Monastery, now Ilyinskaya Sloboda, on the site of a wooden church that burned down in 1812.

8  Theotokos of the Nativity Ferapontov Luzhetsky Monastery. The monastery was founded in 1408 by Feropont Belozersky, who in 1397, together with Kirill Belozersky, founded the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery, and a year later left Kirill and laid the foundation for the Feropont Monastery, where he became abbot. The Luzhetsky Monastery was founded by Feropont at the insistence of Prince Andrei Dmitrievich, the son of Dmitry Donskoy. He was the head of the Mozhaisk principality, whose inheritance was the Belozersk principality at that time.
The oldest building of the monastery - the five-domed Cathedral of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary - dates back to the first half of the 16th century. It was erected on the site of the first stone cathedral and lost the galleries surrounding it during alterations in the 18th century. The cathedral preserves frescoes attributed to the disciples of Dionysius.
The three-tiered tented bell tower, under which the funeral chapel is located, appeared at the end of the 17th century and is fully consistent with the trends of its time. The single-domed gateway Church of the Savior, placed above the southern gate of the monastery, is very interesting. It was built in 1590-1610, although the upper part of its walls was rebuilt in the middle of the 18th century, and the domed completion appeared after the events of 1812.
In addition, on the territory of the monastery, the Church of the Entry of the Blessed Virgin Mary with refectory chambers (the existing building dates back to the 17th century), the cell building (XVII-XIX centuries) and the foundation of the Church of St. Feropont have been preserved. The stone monastery fence with towers was built in the 17th century, and the now closed eastern entrance gate appeared in the 18th century. Just outside the enclosure walls, at the southeastern edge of the monastery, there is a one-story abbot's building from the 19th century.



Mozhaisk Museum of History and Local Lore
The Mozhaisk Museum of History and Local Lore was founded in 1920 on the basis of the Zemsky Museum, which existed with the support of P. S. Uvarova since 1905 and was seriously damaged by a fire in 1920. The revival of the museum took place on the initiative of local historian N. I. Vlasyev, who became its first director, and the itinerant artist I. L. Gorokhov. It existed until 1941, when, after the evacuation of exhibits, which was accompanied by their partial loss, it was decided not to revive the museum, but to transfer the collections to the Moscow Regional Museum of Local Lore in Istra (now the New Jerusalem museum and exhibition complex). The new collection began to take shape in 1964 as the museum of secondary school No. 1 in Mozhaisk through the efforts of its teachers A. A. and B. L. Vasnetsov. The museum was opened in 1981 to mark the 750th anniversary of the city of Mozhaisk. Since 1986, it has become a branch of the State Borodino Military Historical Museum-Reserve. The museum's collection includes works by Mozhaisk artists (including I. L. Gorokhov, his son I. I. Gorokhov and grandson Ig. I. Gorokhov), a collection of materials on local history collected by V. I. Gorokhov, materials from archaeological expeditions of the Institute of Archeology RAS, historical and everyday objects of the 18th-20th centuries.

Currently, the museum has an exhibition hall, which hosts rotating exhibitions of paintings and historical and everyday objects from the museum’s collection. The exhibition hall and funds are located in a one-story brick building in the central part of the city, built in 1907 as an outbuilding of the nearby gymnasium.

The objects of excursion display of the Mozhaisk Museum of History and Local Lore are also:
The territory of the former Mozhaisk Kremlin, earthen ramparts, entrance gates,
Novo-Nikolsky Cathedral (1802-1814, pseudo-Gothic; transferred to the Russian Orthodox Church, a functioning church, in the basement there is a museum exhibition on the history of the cathedral and the Kremlin created by the parish),
Church of Peter and Paul (Old St. Nicholas Cathedral), (1849-1852; transferred to the Russian Orthodox Church, assigned to St. Nicholas Cathedral),
Luzhetsky Monastery (founded in 1408, cathedral from the time of Ivan the Terrible with partially preserved frescoes from the same time, bell tower of the 17th century; transferred to the Russian Orthodox Church, active monastery),
Memorial complex dedicated to the memory of the heroes of the Great Patriotic War, the defenders and liberators of the Mozhaisk land in 1941-1942.

House-Museum of the artist S. V. Gerasimov
On September 26, 1985, on the 100th anniversary of his birth, on the initiative of his granddaughter, Lyudmila Leonidovna Gerasimova, the House Museum of the People's Artist of the USSR, academician, Lenin Prize laureate Sergei Vasilyevich Gerasimov was opened in Mozhaisk in the building in which he lived from 1915 to 1964 S. V. Gerasimov, a native of Mozhaisk, a student of V. A. Serov and K. A. Korovin, is known for landscapes, illustrations to the works of N. A. Nekrasov, A. M. Gorky, subject paintings “Collective Farm Holiday” and “Mother of the Partisan” "(now in the collection of the Tretyakov Gallery), and also as a prominent teacher, founder of an art school.

In 1990, the museum became a branch of the State Borodino Military Historical Museum-Reserve as part of the Mozhaisk Museum of History and Local Lore. From October 9, 2009 to November 3, 2015, the museum was closed for reconstruction. Currently, the museum has a permanent exhibition “The Life and Creative Path of the Artist”, which presents the works of S. V. Gerasimov himself, his son L. S. Gerasimov, students, including G. M. Korzhev, P. P. Ossovsky, S.P. and A.P. Tkachev. The memorial furnishings were reconstructed in the workshop of S.V. Gerasimov.

Part of the house, now an attic (in which the artist’s studio was located), was built in 1915 by S. V. Gerasimov himself. In the 1920s, it was raised to the second floor of a newly built house. In 1947, according to the owner’s design, a veranda and a workshop for the artist’s son, Leonid, were also added to the house.

Near the museum building there is a bronze bust of the painter by sculptor Joseph Moiseevich Tchaikov, executed in the 1930s.

Mozhaisk Museum and Exhibition Complex
In January 2016, the Mozhaisk Museum and Exhibition Complex opened in the former building of secondary school No. 5, currently operating as a branch of the Mozhaisk regional cultural and leisure center. Currently, the museum's exhibition includes 5 halls: the history of the city and region, historical and everyday objects of the late 19th - early 20th centuries, the Great Patriotic War on Mozhaisk land, Mozhaisk residents - participants in local wars and conflicts of the late 20th century. (the last two halls are also a museum of the local branch of the “Combat Brotherhood” organization), as well as an exhibition hall.

Mozhaisk House of Artists
In 2014, on City Day, the House of Artists was opened. At the opening, paintings by artists who left their mark on the cultural life of Mozhaisk were presented. Currently, the building hosts rotating exhibitions of new works by Mozhaisk artists.



City estate of Khlebnikov (Rolle)
The history of the estate begins in 1898. The owner and developer of the house was a nobleman of French origin, Leonty Vladimirovich Rolle. The Rolle estate is a monument included in the list of architectural monuments of the Moscow region.

Estate Ilyinskoye (Varzhenevsky)
The estate, 7 km from the city, was founded in 1674 by the steward A.P. Savelov and in the 18th century. was in his family in the middle of the 19th century. The estate was owned by captain captain A.N. Bove and then by her heirs, from the end of the 19th century. - noblemen Varzhenevsky, in 1911 - Sergei and Anna Gavrilovich Varzhenevsky and until 1917 - their family. A small landscape park has been preserved, mostly linden trees, with ponds. The manor buildings and the wooden St. Elias Church from 1872 have been lost. Around 1920, the library and art treasures were removed from the estate. In the post-war years - pioneer camp "Kirovets". In the 1990-2000s, the remains of the estate buildings were completely demolished.

Mass media
The first Mozhaisk newspaper, “New Life,” began publication on April 8, 1918. The newspaper often changed its name - "News of the Mozhaisk Council of Peasant and Workers' Deputies" - "Voice of the Farmhand" - "Red Dawn" - "Zarya" - "Plowman" - "New Plowman" - "For the Collective Farm" - "For the Bolshevik Collective Farms" - " Along the Leninist path."

Local newspapers are also regularly published in the city: “Little Town” (since 2002), “Advertising Week” (since 2002), “Mozhaisk Review” (since 2006), “Mozhaisk News” (since 2011), “Mozhaisk Today" (since 2012).

In 2005, television broadcasting of the Mozhaisk Television channel was launched. In 2012, television broadcasting of the Orbita Plus Mozhaisk channel was launched.

There are cable TV operators in the city - Orbita Plus Mozhaisk, SPIDI-LINE Group of Companies, MKS, Rostelecom, WELLCOM.

In 2014, on the city day, the first issue of a new printed publication was published - the Mozhaisk magazine “Reflection Plus”



Monument to V.I. Lenin (square near the Administration). stands on a 2-meter pedestal made of marble, without a cap, his left hand in his coat pocket. Previously, another monument to Lenin was in Glory Square behind the monument to signalmen, now there is a fountain in this place.
Monument to Nikola Mozhaisky, on Nikolskaya Square. The original carved image of St. Nicholas of Mozhaisk is in Moscow, and there is a metal copy here.
Monument to the Soldier Liberator, on Oktyabrskaya Square. It was probably installed in honor of the liberation of the city from the Nazi invaders.
Monument to Signal Soldiers, on Oktyabrskaya Square. The only monument in Russia to signalmen who died during the Second World War.
Monument to Radio-Locator Warriors, on the corner of Mira and Academician Pavlov streets. located at the site of the RUS-2 radar station.
Monument in honor of the 70th anniversary of the liberation of Mozhaisk on January 20, 1942 (west of Bagrationovskaya Square, on the hillside). opened January 20, 2012
Monument to Internationalist Warriors (Veterans of Local Wars) (west of Bagrationovskaya Square, in a young park). opened in autumn 2011
Monument “Glory to the Armed Forces of the USSR”, Khimik village (behind the railway station).
Monument to the victims of repression (in the park behind the monument to Signal Soldiers). opened in 2000.


How to get there

By plane
The closest airports to the city are in Moscow.

By train
Railway station, Vokzalnaya street, 20. Located near the city center and its main attractions. You can get to it from Moscow from the Belorussky railway station on Lastochka trains (the journey takes just over an hour) going to Smolensk, express trains (the journey takes about 1.5 hours) and regular trains (the journey takes just over 2 hours) going to Mozhaisk or Borodino.

By car
From Moscow along the Minsk or Mozhaisk highway, the distance is about 90 km (from the Moscow Ring Road).

By bus
From Moscow from the Park Pobedy metro station. Bus number 457. Departure from Moscow at 7:35, 9:15 (except Sunday), 10:20, 12:00, 13:20, 14:50, 15:50, 18:30, 20:10. From Mozhaisk at 5:00, 5:40 (except Sunday), 7:30, 9:10, 10:35, 12:00, 13:00, 15:40, 17:20. The journey takes 2-3 hours.

Bus station, Station Square, 1. Buses to Moscow, Ruza, Vereya and around the area.

On the ship
The Moscow River, which flows through the city, is not navigable in this place.


Transport around the city

There are regular buses and minibuses running around the city. There are several taxi services. There is a railway station at the Mozhaisk station, Belorusskoe direction.



Flower shop - st. Mira, 5 (1st floor, entrance on the south side, opposite the entrance to Culinary)
Shopping center Pyramid - Polevaya street, 1.
Shopping center - Polosukhina street, 6A. Children's store "Fidget", grocery store.
Shopping center - Mira Street, 9. "Investtorgbank", Computer Center (basement from the north), "Ellegia" (Clothes) (2nd floor), toy store (2nd floor).
1st Zheleznodorozhnaya Street, 28. (Northern entrance to the city from the station, to the right after the pedestrian bridge). grocery store "Grand", Pharmacy Point, communication salon "Euroset".
1st Zheleznodorozhnaya Street, Bus Station (Northern entrance to the city from the station, to the left after the pedestrian bridge). Cafe, equipment store "Tekhnomag", clothing store, gift store "Present"
1st Zheleznodorozhnaya Street, 54, Clothing Market, southern part. Gift shop, stationery, keys.
“Teremok” - Dmitry Pozharsky Street, 1. Grocery store, clothing store, children's toys.
Shopping center "Prestige" - Dmitry Pozharsky street, 2A. Pet store, furniture store, gift store, children's toy store, flower shop.
Shopping center "Anton" - 1st Zheleznodorozhnaya street, 43. "Dixie", "Pyaterochka", bank "Vozrozhdenie", "Spetssetstroybank", pharmacy "A5", communication stores "Megafon", "MTS", "Svyaznoy", " Euroset", a sausage and meat store, a clothing store, a shoe store, furniture stores "Iskona" and "Lazurit", a pawnshop, a jewelry store.
Red Partizan Street, 40. Grocery store.
20th January Street, 3. Department store No. 26, “Pyaterochka”, “Avicenna” pharmacy, 24-hour grocery store, flower shop, “Alt” communication salon.
RaiPo - Outpatient street, 31/1st Zheleznodorozhnaya street, 40.
Moskovskaya street 12. Grocery store, “Cookware and gifts from Europe”, clothing store “Diana”.
Shopping center "Voznesensky" - Volodarskogo street 1. Clothing stores.
Shopping center "Everything for you" - Moskovskaya street 20. Shop "Everything for fishing" (in the basement in the northern part and on the 1st floor of the western part), clothing store, grocery store, stationery, children's toys.
Shopping center "Kvant" - Moskovskaya street, 24. Supermarket "Gourmet", flower shop, disc store, cosmetics store "L'etoile", jewelry store, clothing store of the company "Frant", goods for children, pharmacy.
Shopping center "40" (Sorokovaya) - Krasnykh Partizan Street 1. Communication salon "Euroset", communication salon "Alt", clothing store "TVOYO", communication salon "Svyaznoy", department store, pharmacy.
Moskovskaya street 30. Grocery 24 hours.
Moskovskaya street 32. Grocery.
Moskovskaya street 34. Disc store "MYTH", "Shoe Center",
Karakozova Street, 40A. Grocery.
Shopping center "Zolotoe Runo" - Akademika Pavlova Street, 13A. "Dixie", goods for children, clothing store, perfumery.
Polosukhina Street 17. Grocery, club (seems closed), furniture store "Furniture Row".
Cake shop and Bun shop - near Moskovskaya street 52 and Makaronka.
Moskovskaya street 52. Megafon communications store, grocery, clothing store, household goods.
RaiPo - Mira Street, 7. Pyaterochka, photo salon, jewelry, Soyuzpechat (kiosk right inside), CD store, cosmetics store, clothing store, children's toys, flower shop, coin store, pharmacy, gift store.



Mozhaisk milk, famous in Soviet times.
Mozhaisk bread.
Until 2011, the meat processing plant operated. Now abandoned.

Cafe-Beer "Taverna", st. Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsky, 30.
Cafe "Bagrationi", st. Chertanovskaya 1 (near the Polygraph Plant).
"Cooking", st. Mira, 5 (1st floor, entrance from the south).

Average cost
Restaurant “Nostalgia”, Komsomolskaya Square, 12 (In the very center). ☎ +7 (49638) 20-205. Full lunch about 500 rubles (2012). An ordinary restaurant, of normal quality, in good weather you can sit outside.
Restaurant "Podmoskovny Dvorik", st. Mira, 5 (2nd floor).
Fast food restaurant "McDonald's", st. Mira, 2 (1st floor).

Restaurant "Golden Fleece", st. Academician Pavlova, 13.



Borodino Club - Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsky street 36.
Billiards - Polevaya street 1 (Pyramid shopping center).
RKDC - Moskovskaya street 9.



Courtyard on Yamskaya - Kaluzhskaya street 32 (near the village of Yamskaya). (Tel. +7(906)053-07-43)

Average cost
Hotel "Yubileinaya", Pionerskaya street, 7. (Tel. +7 (49638) 24-457) (~ 500 rubles per bed)



Megafon branded sales and service salon, Pervaya Zheleznodorozhnaya st., 43 (Anton supermarket, 1st floor). Mon-Fri 09:00-21:00, Sat-Sun 10:00-20:00.
Post office - 143200 (20 January Street, 18) and 143204 (Red Partizan Street, 2. Old Post Office)



The name of the city was mentioned in the 16th century as “the city of Mozhaesk on the river on Mzhay”. The primary hydronym is also mentioned in the forms Mozhai and Mozhai. The name is presumably of Baltic origin. In Lithuanian, “Mažoji” means “small”. This is the name given to the river flowing here and flowing into the large Moscow River. V.V. Sedov speaks about this in his article “Baltic hydronymy of the Volga-Oka interfluve” (1971) - “The name of the Mozhaika river, which gave its name to the city, comes from the Baltic word “Mažoji”, that is, “small” (in relation to Great Moscow River), to which the Russian suffix “k” was added.” A. L. Shilov in his note “On the name of Mozhaisk” reproduces the opinion about the Baltic origin of the city’s name from the language of the Golyad tribe.



Ancient history

In 9700-9600 BC. the last glacial glaciation ended, the glacier is leaving the territory of the present Mozhaisk Territory for good. As a result of this, in 9000-8000 BC a large landslide occurs, as a result of which the current Nikolskaya Mountain (on which the Mozhaisk Kremlin is located) broke away from the main “mainland” (now the city center). It is for this reason that Cathedral Mountain itself is located lower than the main city.

After the retreat of the glacier, there was a slow development by man of the central regions of the Russian Plain. The climate was more severe than today. This area was a cold steppe with small copses of spruce, pine, birch and aspen. The animal kingdom was dominated by now extinct animals such as the mammoth. However, traces of the development of the Moscow River valley by Paleolithic man are very rare. During the Mesolithic, the climate became warmer, but remained colder than today. The leading role began to be occupied by taiga-type forests, mainly mixed. Mammoths became extinct.

The Neolithic era (4000-3000 BC) is represented by the discovery of a flint tool found on the territory of the Kremlin. At this time, there is significant warming in Europe; the Moscow region is covered with deciduous forests. Many finds of this time on the territory of the Mozhaisk region indicate that in the Neolithic era almost the entire territory along the Mozhaisk course of the Moscow River and its tributaries was inhabited.

The existence of a settlement of the Fatyanovo era of the Bronze Age (2500-1500 BC) is indicated by the finds of two axes, which often mark the sites of the Fatyanovo burial grounds. They were found in the city of Mozhaisk - on Vlaseva Mountain and near the police department building. Among the finds of this era, a hoe made of elk horn was discovered in the city on the banks of the Mozhaika River. In the Bronze Age, not only the coastal parts of rivers and lakes were developed, but also the high edges of valleys, individual hills and capes. The high hill on which the Mozhaisk Kremlin is now located was an even more noticeable landscape dominant in the Bronze Age. Therefore, there is a very high probability of discovering artifacts from this time here.

The archaeological monument “Mozhaisk Settlement”, located on the territory of the Kremlin, dates back to 700 BC - 400 AD  This is a typical Iron Age settlement of the Dyakovo culture, around which there are no clusters of ancient Russian monuments. Opposite the Kremlin, finds dating back to 800-900 years were found, which belong to the pre-Slavic Finno-Ugric tribes. This allows us to look for a pre-Slavic burial ground and settlement in this place.


From the ancient settlement to the princely fortress

According to archaeologist I. I. Kondratyev, the original princely churchyard (which later grew into a fortress) on the territory of the Mozhaisk Kremlin was founded in 1097-1113, when Vladimir Monomakh “blazed the path through the Vyatichi.” It was during this period that the city of Vladimir Zalessky was founded (1108), as well as, following this hypothesis, two more fortresses, one of which later became Moscow, and the other Mozhaisk. Since Monomakh needed a path between the friendly Smolensk and Rostov principalities, a “row” was arranged - an agreement between the prince and the Vyatichi who lived in these parts. Attempts to reach agreement with them were made both by the Smolensk principality and by the Rostov principality. Of the four centers that existed in the area, it was not Tushkov town, not the Trinity settlement and not Dolgininskoye, but precisely the mountain in the bend of Mozhaika that was most suitable for controlling the new route “through the Vyatichi”. After all, from the upper reaches of the Mozhaika River it is no more than 1500 meters to the sources of the Mzhut River, which flows into the Protva River, which flows into the Oka. This river route is the shortest route from the unfriendly Principality of Chernigov to the upper reaches of the Moscow River.

According to archaeological finds, the first Slavic settlement and fortified detinets on Cathedral Hill appeared in the 12th century, in the area of the Novo-Nikolsky Cathedral. This small fortress occupied an area of only 50 by 50 meters. The fortifications were similar to the early fortifications of Moscow. They were a wood-humus mound, structured with oak log structures, and covered with a layer of clay. The shaft lining was a “hack” design. A fragment of such a structure, typical of fortification of the 11th-12th centuries, was found by archaeologists inside the Novo-Nikolsky Cathedral in 2006. A complete analogy of this find is the shaft design discovered in 1959 in the Moscow Kremlin. This fact strengthens the hypothesis about a unified urban development program on the path “through Vyatichi”.

A wooden wall made of logs was built along the top of the shaft. There were no towers on the walls for fortresses of this time. To the east of the fortress there was a 12th-century settlement and an Orthodox cemetery. The entrance to the fortress was located on the site of the current Peter and Paul Church and was a zahab equipped with a passage gate. This is probably where the first church was located, the existence of which is confirmed by finds of Byzantine amphorae for wine and oil. By the end of the 1130s. the function of the settlement changes from a princely estate-“place” to a graveyard, which played an important role in the process of feudalization, princedom and Christianization of the local population.

According to I.I. Kondratyev, it is also possible that Mozhaisk owes its appearance to the ancient portage, one of the options for the route from the Varangians to the Greeks.


First mention

Mozhaisk was first mentioned in Russian chronicles (starting with the Moscow Academic Chronicle and including a number of later chronicles, including the Novgorod IV, Resurrection and Nikon chronicles) in 1231 as a city that in that year the Vladimir-Suzdal prince Yaroslav tried to capture during an internecine war. conflict with the Chernigov Grand Duke Mikhail. At the same time, this mention is controversial, since in a number of chronicles (including the Novgorod I Chronicle of the younger edition) the same news mentions not Mozhaisk, but Mosalsk (currently the regional center of the Kaluga region). In addition, further chronicles mention Mozhaisk only as the possession of the Smolensk princes, without also mentioning any events that could lead to its transfer from Chernigov to Smolensk. Historian A.K. Zaitsev, who devoted a special study to this issue, points out that Mosalsk is mentioned in more ancient manuscripts of chronicles that include this news than Mozhaisk. In addition, Mosalsk turns out to be closer to other settlements mentioned when describing the route of this campaign of Yaroslav. Therefore, A.K. Zaitsev suggests a later distortion of the text, replacing Mosalsk with Mozhaisk.

However, the version of the name of the city in the most ancient part of the Novgorod Chronicle sounds like “Mosaisk”, as Zaitsev himself writes about. The historian believes that “Mosaisk” later became “Mozhaisk” by mistake. Thus, the historian Zaitsev pointed out that Mosalsk stands on the Mozhaika River, just like Mozhaisk. Based on this, he concluded that Mosalsk could at that time be called “Mosaisk” after the river. But this conclusion is controversial, since the current Mozhaika River in Mosalsk was previously called the Mosalka River, which can be seen even from sources of the early 20th century. Whereas the Mozhaika River in Mozhaisk in the 16th century was referred to as the “Mzhaya (Mozhaya)” river, and received its modern form “Mozhaika” by the end of the 18th century. Therefore, the dispute about Mozhaisk-Mosalsk in 1231 is still open.

The historical center, the first settlement and fortifications stood on a high hill in the lower reaches of the Mozhaika River. Later, the Mozhaisk Kremlin will be built on this hill. For a better overview of the surrounding areas, the forest was cut down (which contributed to the fact that the Mozhaika River became very shallow and has now turned into a stream). At the same time, the settlements around the fortifications grew so large that they soon reached the Moscow River.


Mozhaisk Principality

In 1237-1238, the first Mongol invasion of Rus' took place under the leadership of Batu. However, the Mozhaisk inheritance of the Smolensk principality, by the will of fate, avoided not only the Tatar defeat, but also the Lithuanian raids on Smolensk.

In the middle of the 13th century, Mozhaisk became the center of an independent principality within the Smolensk Principality. The city was inherited by Fyodor Rostislavich Cherny, who became the first appanage prince of Mozhaisk. The exact date of the emergence of the Mozhaisk principality is unknown, since the fact of the creation of the Mozhaisk inheritance by the brothers for Fyodor Rostislavich was mentioned in the chronicles in 1277 as having occurred sometime before this date.

It would be a stretch to call the small fortress a city. Full-fledged settlements around the princely fortress appeared in the second half of the 13th century, which does not contradict the chronicle. From this year Mozhaisk becomes a real city.

In 1293, the city was captured and devastated during the campaign of Duden's army against Rus'.

In 1303, Moscow Prince Yuri Danilovich attacked the city, captured Prince Svyatoslav Glebovich and annexed Mozhaisk to the Moscow Principality. The city became an important fortified point to the west of Moscow.

In the middle of the 14th century, Mozhaisk was under the rule of Ivan the Red. In 1341 and 1370, the fortress withstood the siege of the Lithuanian prince Olgerd.

In 1352-1354, many people died from a pestilence, and the city was severely depopulated.

In 1380, 60 Mozhai boyars, along with their retinue, died on the Kulikovo field. Taking revenge for this battle, in 1382 the city was burned by the Tatars of Tokhtamysh.

In 1397, Novgorod ravaged Mozhaisk Beloozero.

In the 14th century, Mozhaisk experienced its heyday. It was one of the religious centers of Moscow Rus', thanks to the especially revered icon of St. Nicholas of Mozhaisk. Legend says that one day, when the city was besieged by enemies, St. Nicholas appeared before them with a sword and a fortress in his hands. Frightened by his menacing appearance, the enemy retreated. The earthen rampart that has come down to us was built no earlier than this century.

In 1389-1493, Mozhaisk was the center of the appanage Mozhaisk principality, which included such places as Vereya, Kaluga, Medyn. Since 1389, the estate was ruled by Prince Andrei Dmitrievich, the son of Dmitry Donskoy. Under him, Mozhaisk minted its own coin, built stone churches, and founded the Luzhetsky Monastery by Ferapon Belozersky. Under him, one of the first stone buildings in the city was built - St. Nicholas Cathedral (later Staro-Nikolsky). In appearance it resembled the Assumption Cathedral of the late 14th century in the Zvenigorod town. At the same time, an unknown author made a wooden statue of St. Nicholas of Mozhaisky, which later stood on the St. Nicholas Gate.

The city also built the stone Cathedral of Saints Joachim and Anna (1390), which was demolished in 1867. All that remained of the temple was a white stone wall, built into the later temple of the Akhtyrka Icon of the Mother of God, and the northern wall of the former cathedral became the southern wall of the new temple. The current church of Joachim and Anna was built nearby in 1871-1893.

In 1410, the temnik of the Golden Horde Edigei ravaged the Verei volosts (regions) of the Mozhaisk principality, but did not touch the city itself.

In 1419-1422, there was a terrible famine in the Mozhaisk regions, and in 1427 there was another epidemic.

From 1432 to 1454, the appanage prince of Mozhaisky was Ivan Andreevich, the eldest son of Andrei Dmitrievich, grandson of the Grand Duke of Moscow Dmitry Donskoy. The governor during the reign of Ivan Andreevich was Vasily Ivanovich Zamytsky-Cheshikha. Ivan Andreevich, unlike his father, was more inclined to intrigue and politics than to the development of his own principality. In 1434, Ivan Andreevich Mozhaisky went over to the side of his uncle, Prince Yuri Dmitrievich, a rival of Vasily II. In 1444, Ivan Andreevich burned his boyar Andrei Dmitrievich Mamon in Mozhaisk because he was “pulling” towards Moscow.

1445 - Lithuanian prince Kazimir Jagiellonczyk sends his army to Mozhaisk. The Lithuanians sacked five cities until the forces of Mozhaisk, Vereya and Borovsk stopped them at the Battle of the Sukhodrev River.

On February 12, 1446, Ivan Andreevich Mozhaisky and Dmitry Shemyaka rob the grand ducal treasury and archives in Moscow. The next day, Ivan Mozhaisky will captivate Vasily II in the Trinity-Sergius Lavra. After which, together with Shemyaka, he blinds Vasily II, for which he receives the nickname “Dark”. Vasily the Dark is sent into exile.

In 1454, the city was captured by Vasily II, and Ivan Andreevich fled to Lithuania. After this, the Mozhaisk inheritance was liquidated and began to be governed by the Grand Duke's governor. Since 1462, Mozhaisk was in the inheritance of Yuri Vasilyevich. Later, the city was ruled by governors from Moscow, and the last prince of Mozhaisk was Andrei Vasilyevich Bolshoi (1481-1491). In 1490, Semyon Ivanovich Vorontsov served as governor in Mozhaisk. In 1491, the Nikolskaya Tower was built in Moscow, which received its name from the icon of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker.

In 1492, Alexander Vasilyevich Obolensky, the son of Prince Vasily Ivanovich Obolensky - Kosoy, became the governor in Mozhaisk, and in 1493 the governor was Andrei Fedorovich Chelyadin.

At the end of the 15th century, the white-stone Nikolsky Gate with the Church of the Exaltation on it was built from “Myachkovo” stone. This building is the earliest on the territory of the Kremlin that has reached us. The current Novo-Nikolsky Cathedral was built on the site of the tower, including the old church and the gate itself with 11 meters of the Kremlin wall (now can be seen in the basement of the cathedral).


Rise and decline

Since the 16th century, the city has been a significant trade and craft center. Wooden city structures were often repaired, and some were replaced with stone ones. Among them is the main, Nikolsky, gate of the Kremlin, where a carved sculpture of Nikola was kept in the gate chapel.

In the 16th century, there were about 16-17 monasteries in the city, of which only the Luzhetsky Monastery has survived to this day. In addition to him, there were:

The Annunciation Convent is located on the outskirts opposite the Cathedral Mountain.
Borisoglebsky Monastery - opposite the Trinity Monastery in the area of ​​the street. Pionerskaya and Frunze.
Petrovsky Convent - on the site of the Petrovsky Cemetery.
Peter and Paul Monastery.
Sretensky Monastery - on the site of the city hospital.
Trinity Monastery - the last church of the ensemble was destroyed by the Germans in January 1942.
Assumption-Bogoroditsky Convent - on the site of the Assumption (Nikolskoye) Cemetery.
Yakimansky Monastery - fragments of old buildings inside the later ones have been preserved.
Alekseevsky Monastery - in the area where the Chentsovsky stream flows into the Moscow River.
Vasilyevsky Monastery - on Vasilievskaya Hill. Now they want to revive it as a tourist attraction.
Resurrection Monastery - opposite the Petrovsky Monastery on Resurrection Mountain.
Nastasya Convent - on the banks of the Kushirka River.
Mironovsky (Mironositsky) convent - area of Strelkovaya street.
Mokro-Nikolsky Monastery - Herzen Street on the bank of the Nikolsky Stream.
Pyatnitsky Convent - stone church destroyed by the Germans. Presumably church houses have survived.
Pokrovsky Monastery (presumably)

During the Russo-Lithuanian War, Mozhaisk was a gathering center for Russian governors. At this time, Vasily III often visits Mozhaisk, lives in it, and hunts. In the city there appear 2 sovereign gardens, 2 menagerie parks, the Tsar’s courtyard and an embassy, where Vasily III receives foreign ambassadors, including Herberstein, the author of the famous “Notes on Muscovy”.

In 1526, Abbot of the Luzhetsky Monastery Macarius was nominated to the post of Archbishop of Novgorod and Pskov. Later he would become Metropolitan of All Rus'.

In 1536 and 1538, Elena Glinskaya, the second wife of Vasily III, visited Mozhaisk twice on pilgrimage.

In 1541, the old fortress was rebuilt after a severe fire. The memory of this event was preserved by an inscription on the wall of the Peter and Paul Church: “in the summer of 7049 they made a porch, and they also burned the city in the same summer.” A probable translation is “In 1541 they made a porch and even made a city, since they were burned that year.” The causes of the fire are unknown; archaeologist I. I. Kondratyev connects this with riots and robberies during the reign of Elena Glinskaya and the implementation of the first stage of the provincial reform. After that fire, all that remained of the fortifications of the tree-earth fortress were earthen ramparts and the charred white stone Nikolskaya Tower of the 15th century.

In 1549, the first abbot of the Luzhetsky monastery, Ferapont, was canonized at the suggestion of Macarius.

In 1559, Ivan the Terrible and his wife Anastasia Romanova stayed in Mozhaisk.

In the 1560s, during military operations in Livonia, Tsar Ivan the Terrible made Mozhaisk his headquarters. Here he received Swedish, Danish, German and Polish ambassadors, here he received reports from governors and Cossack atamans from the Polish and Lithuanian border regions of Russia. In 1564, he was present at the consecration of the oak five-domed Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, which he ordered to be built in Mozhaisk opposite his palace[26]. Probably, at this time, Mozhaisk became a place of gathering and concentration of Russian troops before the campaign against Lithuania, and in some cases, due to the relatively short distance from the Coast, against the Crimean Tatars.

In 1562, Dmitry Grigorievich Pleshcheev was appointed okolnichy. He was engaged in the distribution of households in Mozhaisk.

With the beginning of the Livonian War, the life of the townspeople deteriorated sharply. Funds were needed to maintain the army, which resulted in an increase in oppression, especially on the townspeople. The city was not spared by the oprichnina since 1565, due to which the outflow of people to the Volga region increased. The chronicle reports that many people “dispersed” from Mozhaisk and from Volok to Ryazan and Meshchera, and to the Ponizov cities, to Nizhny Novgorod. And the plague epidemics led to the desolation of the city.

In 1566-1572, there was a pestilence in Mozhaisk, from which entire villages in the surrounding area died out. From the very beginning of the epidemic, Ivan the Terrible built an outpost in Mozhaisk to protect the capital from infection. In 1580-1581 the epidemic repeated. Compared to the middle of the century, only 11% of households remained in the suburbs.

In 1586, Patriarch Joachim V of Antioch passed through Mozhaisk and was solemnly greeted here for the first time. In 1593, the ambassador of the Roman Emperor Nikolai Varkoch visited Mozhaisk and called it the “Holy City of the Russians.”

In 1592, Tsar Feodor I visited Mozhaisk for the only time on a pilgrimage.

The scribe books of the Mozhaisk district of 1596-1598 contain the first detailed painting of the Kremlin fortress:

The Kremlin had the shape of an irregular hexagon measuring 269 fathoms. From the north it was surrounded by the Mozhaika River, an artificially raised dam, and from the east, west and south by a deep, partly natural, in some places dug to 10 arshins depth, ditch. The fortress was connected to the settlement in the trading area on the south-eastern side by a wooden “vzrubekh” bridge. The fortress had two gates: stone Nikolsky with the Church of the Exaltation from the south and wooden Petrovsky from the north with a steep descent running along the slope of the rampart parallel to the wall, to the Mozhaika River and the city piers. On the Nikolskaya Tower there was a tower for striking clocks, to which a watchmaker was assigned. In addition, there were 4 towers in the fortress: Naugolnaya from the Mozhaika River, near the chapel (White), opposite Torg (Red) and Naugolnaya opposite the Joachim-Annensky Monastery. By the time of painting, the wooden walls and towers had fallen into disrepair - “the wooden wall covered with clay had collapsed, and the roof of the city had rotted.” The armament of the fortress was in dire straits.

Mozhaisk is also described in the same scribe books. The city is divided into 60 settlements, streets, alleys and more. Includes 30 households of average people, 175 minors, 127 empty households, and 1446 courtyard places, 4 monastery settlements with 45 yards, a market consisting of 304 1/4 shops, 41 barns, 3 shelves, 69 benches, 12 benches and 5 barns, 21 forges. In the fortress there were 8 huts, public places, 4 cells, 2 almshouses, 2 prisons, 1 barn, 7 granaries, 7 courtyards. There were 30 churches in the city (5 of them in the fortress), not counting 16 monastery churches. Population: 13 nobles and boyar children, 1 janitor, 60 military men, 2 gunners, 5 collars, 6 messengers, 1 gardener, 1 fisherman, 1 watchmaker, 48 coachmen, 204 black townspeople, 30 monks of the black clergy, 80 white monks, 25 church watchmen, 2 monastery gatekeepers (collars), 1 monastery servant and 1 cab driver. In the monastery settlements: 70 people, 7 living on church lands, 145 beggars, 153 merchants. There are 244 artisans in the city. There are 56 shops selling food, 49 - clothing and materials, 61 - household items. The books indicate a sharp outflow of the city's population to the outskirts of the state.


Time of Troubles

In 1601, Boris Godunov consecrated the tented Borisoglebskaya Church in Borisov-gorodok and visited Mozhaisk.

In 1603, Mozhaisk was captured by robbers under the leadership of Khlopok. Noble detachments from Moscow were sent to destroy the gang.

On May 2, 1606, Marina Mnishek, the wife of False Dmitry I, visited Mozhaisk to look at the Mozhaisk shrine.

In the fall of 1606, Mozhaisk was occupied by the troops of Ivan Isaevich Bolotnikov.

In 1608, the troops of False Dmitry II approached Mozhaisk and besieged it. The fortress garrison resisted them, but the Poles forced it to surrender.

In 1610, Vasily Shuisky (Russian Tsar from 1606 to 1610) bought Mozhaisk for 100 rubles from the Polish-Tushino governor Mikhaila (Nikolai) Vilchek.

On June 21, 1610, the Tsar’s 30,000-strong army with the governor Dmitry arrived in Mozhaisk. Shuisky and meet near the village of Maslovo together with Delagardi’s Swedish allies to battle the troops of Hetman Zholkiewski. On June 24, in the battle of Klushino, the hetman defeated the troops of Shuisky, who was betrayed by the Swedes. Shuisky runs to Mozhaisk and informs the Mozhaisk people that “everything is lost, ask for mercy and mercy from the Poles.” On June 25, defenseless Mozhaisk swears allegiance to the Polish prince Vladislav - the commandant in the city was Nikolai Strus. In 1613, the invaders retreating from Moscow took with them a sculpture of St. Nikola Mozhaisky. Mozhaisk was liberated, but almost completely destroyed.

The patrol book of the governor of Smirny Otrepyev in 1614 reports that of all the streets and settlements described in 1598, only 15 remained. In total, the patrol discovered in the recently populous city only 5 “good” people, 9 “average”, 40 “ thin" and 45 males. At this time, Mozhaisk and the surrounding area are unsafe due to gangs of Poles and various adventurers and easy money. The city governor Nashchokin reports that Lisovsky’s gang wants to come to the city. Prince Yuri Suleshov leaves governors, military men and grain reserves for the siege in Dorogobuzh, Mozhaisk and Vyazma. This order saved the city in 1617 and 1618.

In 1616, the watch books of Mozhaisk governor S.D. Shekhovsky reported the desolation of the city. Of the 99 households in the settlement, 54 remain, of which 19 are Bobyl. What survived from the formerly huge Mozhaisk trade were: a customs hut, a tavern hut at a trading place, 34 benches, 2 huts, 9 benches, 7 tables, 1 closet, 3 cellars, 6 forges in Zaryadye. Tsely on the river In Mozhaika there is a mill and a public bathhouse, and on the Moscow River there is fishing (8 people).


Battle of Mozhaisk

In November 1617, the regiments of Voivode Lykov secretly approached Mozhaisk from Moscow. In December 1617, during his campaign against Moscow, Prince Vladislav tried to recapture the devastated Mozhaisk, but to no avail. The city governors Fyodor Buturlin and Danila Leontyev were ready to meet him. Vladislav goes to Vyazma for the winter.

In 1618, the Battle of Mozhaisk begins. One of the governors was Boris Mikhailovich Lykov-Obolensky. At the beginning of June, the Poles besieged Borisov twice in vain. Cherkassky comes to Lykov’s aid. On June 29, the Poles come to Mozhaisk from Borisov, but the people fight them off and the prince goes back to Borisov. On July 21, Cherkassky came to Mozhaisk and wrote about the appearance of the Poles at the Luzhetsky Monastery in order to stop the communication from Mozhaisk to Ruza. Lykov reports that the Poles decided on a siege. The Boyar Duma developed a campaign plan, according to which, if something happened, Lykov and Cherkassky would retreat to Moscow and leave the governor Fyodor Volynsky in Mozhaisk with the siege people in addition, “so that they could sit fearlessly under siege.” On July 27, D. M. Cherkassky was wounded. On July 29, Lykov writes that Lithuanian people come to the prison every day and “beat the military people.” The Poles are building fortifications behind the Yakimansky monastery, deployed cannons on Brykina Mountain and are firing at the Kremlin and Yakimanka, and are repairing great crowding. During this siege, it survived in 1608-1613. part of the city was finally burned and plundered, and the local population was massacred, tortured and drowned in the Moscow River by angry Lithuanian camps.

In the same 1618, the frontal stone parts of the fortress were blown up - the corner stone tower from the bridge and the market and the powder tent at the fortress altar at the gates of the Vozdvizhenskaya Church. Even during the first attack of Vladislav, part of the monks of the Luzhetsky monastery, headed by Archimandrite Mitrofan, was tortured. The ominous legend of Goat Mountain about the drowning of the entire staff of one of the Mozhaisk monasteries near Igumnovo dates back to this time. At the beginning of August, the defenders of the city Cherkassky and Lykov leave the prisons, and Volynsky’s detachment remains in Mozhaisk. The Poles, having never taken the city, decided to go to Moscow, leaving the city in the rear. However, the campaign is unsuccessful.

On December 14, 1618, the Treaty of Deulino was signed, where a separate clause included the return of the icon of St. Nicholas of Mozhaisk. In 1619, Mozhaisk was freed from the siege, and in early June, Patriarch Filaret (father of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich, exchanged for the captured Colonel Strus (who operated in Mozhaisk) solemnly resides in Mozhaisk. Here he is met by Prince D. M. Pozharsky and Prince G. K Volkonsky Posad, completely destroyed by wars, is being rebuilt again.


The first Romanovs

After the loss of Smolensk, Mozhaisk became a border city. It was decided to build a new stone Kremlin on the site of the ancient wooden fortress. In 1624, Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich sent Alexei Timofeevich Borzetsov to the city, where he was the head of construction. Initially, the project of the Mozhaisk fortress was ordered to the Englishman John Thaler (Ivan Toler), but he executed the project without taking into account the features of the terrain.

The head of the Tsar's Order for Stone Affairs, Ivan Vasilyevich Izmailov, noted the weaknesses of the project and Thaler's agreement with his comments in a letter to the Tsar. Subsequently, construction was carried out under the leadership of Ivan Izmailov. The architects Bazhen Ogurtsov (author of the Terem Palace and the tent of the Spasskaya Tower in the Moscow Kremlin), Mikhail Ushakov (who died during work and was buried in Mozhaisk), as well as the famous Yaroslavl master Fyodor Vozoulin worked with him.

From 1624 to 1626, in record time, Russian craftsmen built a powerful Kremlin in the city in the image of Moscow's China Town. Two gates led to the fortress - Nikolsky and Petrovsky. There was a gate church on Nikolskiye. The builders included the already existing Nikolsky Gate into the new structure. The wall, 2 to 4 meters wide, had bottom, middle and top battlements, as well as towers. The Kitchen Tower was so named because a flour mill and other outbuildings were located next to it. In the north-western corner of the Kremlin stood the Oblique Corner Tower, followed by the Petrovsky Gate (modeled on the Varvarsky Gate in Moscow), the half-tower Surino Kleno, the Deaf and Red Towers, and finally the White Tower, built under Boris Godunov. The height of the towers ranged from 10 to 20 meters. There were plank tents on the roof of the towers. The Kremlin was whitewashed with lime and from a distance seemed entirely made of white stone, although it was built partly from brick and partly from stone, which was mined on the banks of the Moskva River near the current Tuchkovo station. The Mozhaisk fortress replaced the Smolensk fortress, which was in the hands of the Poles.

In 1627, scribe books paint a picture of the complete devastation of the county. Most of the villages and hamlets were completely devastated and burned, often pointing to entire volosts abandoned and desolate due to the Lithuanian pogrom. The decline in the population of the Mozhaisk district was so significant that official scribes could not always accurately complete their task due to the lack of old-timers who could indicate the villages that had turned into wastelands. Therefore, in the scribal books there are omissions and incomplete information.

In 1632, the famous Dmitry Pozharsky was appointed governor of the fortress. There was a strong garrison inside, and stocks of weapons and gunpowder were stored. The same year refers to the indignation of Cossack detachments in the city.

In 1634, Osip Ivanovich Shcherbatov was appointed governor. In 1642, Ivan Timofeevich Vadbolsky served as governor in the city. During the Sovereign's campaign, on May 26, 1654, Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich stayed in Mozhaisk.

In 1683-1685, the St. Nicholas Tower with the gateway St. Nicholas Church was rebuilt by order of Patriarch Joachim. Now the church has become a copy of the Nativity Cathedral in the Luzhetsky Monastery.

In 1686, an eternal peace was concluded with Poland and the Mozhaisk fortress began to gradually decline. Its walls cracked and collapsed. Useless to anyone, the neglected Kremlin attracted only local residents (with its bricks and white stones) and travelers with its unusual appearance.

During the reign of Peter I, during the provincial reform, Mozhaisk received the status of a district city of the Moscow province. At the same time, the voivodeship position was abolished and replaced with a magistrate headed by the burgomaster. In the 18th century, the appearance of Mozhaisk changed - the settlement grew, the construction of which was carried out according to the approved plan, some wooden buildings were replaced by stone houses. Shops, a postal yard, hotels and a two-class school appeared in the city. The main occupation of the residents was maintaining taverns, and trade was concentrated on the needs of those passing along the busy Smolensk road.

At the very beginning of 1702, a message was sent to the Discharge Order about a treasure of 28 altyns found in the city, and a “small hut millstone” was also found during excavations.

In 1704, Voivode Larionov described a bleak picture of the Kremlin. By that time, the fortress had lost its roof, the Oblique and Petrovskaya towers “settled in two” from top to bottom, the Surino Knee half-tower was “broken out by a whirlwind”, instead of it “a log house was installed and that log house rotted”, the water pipe at the Petrovsky Gate immediately became clogged. The doors at the crawl spaces fell out, bricks from the walls were crumbling in places, the water in the Clear Lake has deteriorated, there is scree around the walls of the fortress, the artillery is weak, and the gunpowder is damp, the Filthy Lake has dried up, the wooden bridge to the settlement has rotted and collapsed.

In 1719, Peter I founded the Gzhatsk pier (now the city of Gagarin); by Peter's decree, part of the townspeople's families and merchants from Mozhaisk and a number of other cities around were resettled here.

In 1723, the Mozhaisk glass factory opened. In the 1740s, Maltsov's Mozhaisk plant became one of the most famous in Russia. In 1747, the Senate adopted a decree banning the operation of glass and metallurgical factories near Moscow in order to protect the forest from destruction. Maltsov was forced to move the Mozhaisk factory to a new location. It was decided to locate the plant on the Gus River, and so the famous Gusev Crystal Factory (city of Gus-Khrustalny) was founded.

In 1748, a huge fire raged in the city, and the Kremlin was partially damaged.

In 1765, a two-class school “for the education of youth” was opened in the fortress.

In the 1760s. The famous scientist G. F. Miller visits Mozhaisk.

In 1775, the Petrovsky Gate was closed due to disrepair. In those years, the famous historian Gerhard Miller visited Mozhaisk: “In the city there is a stone fortress, standing on a certain hill, and in which nothing is located except the church and the voivode’s office.”

In 1779, a major reconstruction of Nikolsky on the fortress gates of the cathedral began. The reason for this was the cracks in the cathedral and the dilapidation of the old bridge. But soon, due to the theft of church funds, construction was temporarily suspended.

On December 20, 1781, the first coat of arms of Mozhaisk was approved. The coat of arms depicted “a stone wall with six towers, which actually still exists.”

In May 1782, a government decree was issued giving permission to dismantle the fortress walls in Kolomna, Serpukhov and Mozhaisk “due to their extreme dilapidation,” since falling stones threatened people.

In 1784, a regular plan for Mozhaisk was adopted. A significant part of the center of the old city was moved according to the plan to be divided into blocks and streets of regular rectangular shape: of the 524 houses that existed here at the end of the 1780s, 102 wooden and seven stone were built again according to the plan. New government buildings also appeared: two salt shops, a postal yard, a “public house” with a city magistrate, five government drinking houses.

In 1792, in the center of the city, on the site of an ancient lost monastery, the Trinity Cathedral was built, now made of stone.

In 1802, dismantling of the Mozhaisk Kremlin began. And since it was recommended to use stone and brick to repair old churches, it was decided to rebuild the old gate cathedral (Novo-Nikolsky Cathedral). A few years later, by 1803-1805, the most interesting structure of Russian architecture disappeared from the face of the earth.

For the construction of the New St. Nicholas Cathedral, the fortress St. Nicholas Gate and the gate church were used. It was decided to build the cathedral in the neo-Gothic style. The Vozdvizhensky chapel was dismantled to the ground and rebuilt. The gates of the fortress are sealed on both sides with brickwork. The bell tower was dismantled, like the old five-domed building, and instead a rotunda-dome with four “Moorish” turrets in the corners was built. A new multi-tiered bell tower with a high spire was added to the west. The outside of the cathedral was lined with 2.5 bricks. Construction of the cathedral lasted from 1802 to 1814.

From 1805 to 1812, the judge in the city was Belago, Gavriil (Gavrilo) Osipovich. Shortly before the Battle of Borodino, M. I. Levitsky was appointed commandant of Mozhaisk.

By the beginning of the 19th century, Mozhaisk had more than 300 wooden houses. It is spread out on the hills and has largely retained its medieval layout: its 15 settlements were connected by 18 streets and 5 alleys. In the city there were 60 shops, three drinking houses, 12 forges, five factories, including a tannery, two breweries, two malt factories, and four brick factories.


The Battle of Borodino and the Rearguard Battle of Mozhaisk

At the beginning of the 19th century, the city again became the center of military operations, this time it was Napoleon's Grand Army that had to resist.

But the city ceased to exist as a defensive line - all that remained of the Kremlin were ruins, and sieges ceased to be the dominant type of warfare. The main battle of the Patriotic War of 1812 took place on a field near the village of Borodino.

A few weeks before the battle, columns of refugees and convoys with the wounded stretched through Mozhaisk. Hospitals, military supply stores, warehouses, and armories were created in the city. The townspeople left their homes and went north to Volokolamsk district. The forces of the Russian army accumulated in the city before the Battle of Borodino, and after the battle the wounded were housed.

On August 20, the city forces gathered 1927 soldiers, 5 Jaeger rifles, 1 rifle, 4 pistols, 3 sabers, 101 units of Turkish daggers and a pike with shafts for battle.

At noon on August 27, on the Borodino field, Marshal Berthier ordered Murat's vanguard with the reserve cavalry corps and Dufour's division to pursue the Russians and stop seven or eight versts beyond Mozhaisk. Platov's rearguard took up a position in front of the city. Already at three o'clock the battle began. It lasted almost five hours. The attacks of Murat's corps were courageously repulsed by Platov's rearguard. The Neapolitan king hurried to bring all the regiments of his vanguard into action, and became angry when they explained to him that the Mozhaika River ravine was impassable for cavalry on the way. The battle at Mozhaisk, according to the recollections of the French, was “bloody, hot, very hot, stubborn...”. The French suffered losses. In this battle, General O.D. Bellyar was wounded. By August 27, Napoleon's soldiers entered the Luzhetsky Monastery. Half a mile away from it there were warehouses with provisions (current Proviantskaya Street). In view of the threat of the enemy, the warehouses were set on fire so that they would not fall to the enemy. The daily supply for the 40,000-strong army burned out.

With the onset of darkness, Napoleon arrived at the battlefield and slowly walked towards Mozhaisk. Someone stopped the emperor, reminding him that between him and Mozhaisk there was a Russian rearguard, in front of which were the lights of a 50,000-strong army. Napoleon turned back.

On August 28, from six o'clock in the morning, Platov's rearguard continued to hold the city with six battalions of rangers, regular and irregular cavalry. Kutuzov's main forces moved away from the village of Zhukovo (Kozhukhovo), where his headquarters was located these days. The French deployed batteries, under the cover of which the enemy launched an attack. The fire of the Don Horse Artillery guns located on the hills of Mozhaisk and Chertanovsky Heights could not hold back the enemy’s advance. Platov's rearguard retreated to the village of Modenovo, three kilometers from Kutuzov's main forces. General M. S. Vorontsov noted the long-term consequences of this retreat: “Platov’s quick retreat to Mozhaisk... decided the retreat from Mozhaisk of the entire army, which no longer found a favorable location, and was, perhaps, the reason for the loss of Moscow.” Dissatisfied with Platov’s actions, Kutuzov on the evening of the 28th appointed General M.A. Miloradovich as head of the rearguard.

Due to the rapid retreat, it turned out to be very difficult to evacuate the wounded after the Battle of Borodino. According to French memoirists, the wounded, picked up on the battlefield and left in Mozhaisk, numbered about seven thousand. The numbers of 10 thousand people are also called. “Almost all of them died, not only from lack of help, but also from hunger, to which the French were also subjected. The French treated our wounded in the most inhumane manner."

On August 28, French troops entered Mozhaisk. In Mozhaisk, “on the descent from a huge steep and crooked mountain...”, one hundred and twenty meters from St. Nicholas Cathedral, Napoleon’s headquarters settled for three days. This landmark was marked in the 1880s with a sign on Borodinskaya Street. In that house, the emperor sketched out an order to the chief of staff, Marshal Berthier. The military historian Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky explains the three-day stop of Napoleon's headquarters in Mozhaisk (August 28-30) for four reasons: the emperor's illness (cold); army rest; preparation for a new battle; delivery of artillery shells.

Taking care of the protection of communications, Napoleon left in Mozhaisk the Westphalian corps of General Junot (Duke d’Abrantes), whose headquarters were located in the Luzhetsky Monastery. The Emperor was concerned about unsatisfactory affairs in Russia, despite what he believed was a won battle on the Borodino field. He was worried about the strong reduction in the number of corps. Napoleon hoped for peace proposals from Kutuzov, was ready to enter into negotiations, and at certain moments did not want to go further than Mozhaisk. The occupiers of General Junot made holes in the fence of the Luzhetsky Monastery and installed up to 200 cannons. When retreating from the city on October 10, they set fire to the Nativity Cathedral, its entire interior burned out.

During his retreat from Moscow, Napoleon did not enter Mozhaisk. On October 16, he stopped near the city to find out how the evacuation of the wounded was going and the distribution of rations to them. The Emperor ordered the wounded remaining in Mozhaisk to be seated not only in light carts and carriages, but also on the roofs of wagons, on forage carts, on the backs of carts and on the fronts, on boxes and sawhorses. The city almost did not exist. The captain from the headquarters of the Italian Guard, E. Labom, saw the destroyed Mozhaisk, striking him with the contrast of the black smoking ruins and the whiteness of the recently built and miraculously preserved bell tower, on which the clock continued to chime.

A terrible picture appeared in mid-October before the doctor De la Flise in Mozhaisk: in a field adjacent to the city gardens, there rose a pyramid of naked corpses (up to 800 bodies) collected by order of the city commandant for burning “There were Russians and French.” The memories of the surviving soldiers of the Great Army create a tragic image of the destroyed, burned Mozhaisk, which became a disastrous city for the retreating troops of Napoleon.

The enemy was driven out. To prevent epidemics, the Mozhai leader mobilized the population to clean up the corpses. At the beginning of January 1813, he reported: “... Seventeen thousand nine hundred and sixteen corpses were buried and burned, eight thousand two hundred and thirty-three carrions were buried...”.


Pre-revolutionary period

In 1812, the Polish composer K.K. Kurpinski wrote a composition for orchestra entitled “The Battle of Mozhaisk.”

The War of 1812 caused great damage to the unfinished cathedral. The French burned the iconostases, and the bells fell and were damaged in the fire. However, the icon of St. Nicholas of Mozhaisk and rich utensils hidden in the basements survived. By 1814, the bell tower was completed, and a striking clock was installed at the top. In 1829, the Church of the Savior Not Made by Hands was built in the rotunda.

On February 21, 1818, Alexander I visited the city. The last time Mozhaisk was visited by a Russian ruler was only 150 years ago, it was Alexei Mikhailovich in 1654. As Mozhaisk Archpriest Georgy writes, “... the city here was blessed by the arrival of His Imperial Majesty the All-August Sovereign in the afternoon at 1 o’clock...”. After dinner, the emperor visited Trinity Church, and then “deigned to march” on foot from his apartment to the chapel near the recently completed St. Nicholas Cathedral.

In the 1830s, a chapel was built near the Trinity Cathedral in memory of the slain soldiers of Borodino (in the 1910s it will be demolished, and in its place in 1912 a new one will appear, which will stand until the 1960s).

In 1830, the Old St. Nicholas Church fell into disrepair and required major repairs. The church became so dilapidated that services ceased on August 27. Approvals for its renovation lasted a total of 14 years. While this administrative red tape continued, the temple was destroyed,

In 1844, the 14th-century temple became so dilapidated that when work began, on June 3 at midnight the cathedral collapsed - one of the most ancient stone buildings in Mozhaisk was lost. In 1846-1852, a new cathedral in honor of Peter and Paul was built in its place, repeating the features of the old one and incorporating part of the foundation. Around this time, the building of the parish school appeared, which was located to the right of the cathedral, between the Peter and Paul Church and the bridge (destroyed in 1942).

In 1848, a prison was built in the city center, the building of which at various times housed government offices, a police department with a prison and a zemstvo government.

In 1849, the refectory of the Trinity Cathedral was rebuilt.

In the 1820s, in the village of Marfin-Brod, Prince Gagarin built a weaving and spinning factory, which worked on local raw materials, using the labor of serfs. From 1850 to 1898, the factory belonged not only to different owners, but also changed the profile of its products. In 1918, the factory was nationalized and the equipment was dismantled. The basis of the plant was private handicraft workshops for the production of veterinary instruments. In 1928, private workshops were united into an artel. In 1931, the artel moved to the empty premises of the former factory in the village of Marfin-Brod and received the name “Plant named after the 14th anniversary of the October Revolution.” About 30 types of instruments were produced. In pre-war 1940, the plant produced about 100 items. Along with the production of veterinary instruments, the plant began to develop medical instruments of the simplest design for surgery, gynecology, and dentistry. In February 1941, Gavriil Andreevich Andreev was sent to Mozhaisk to restore the plant. The work of the plant during the Great Patriotic War was subordinated to the needs of the front; along with the production of medical instruments, the production of ammunition was organized. The number of workers increased to 900 in the 1850s. In 1947, the plant was renamed the Mozhaisk Medical Instrument Plant. Mozhaisk MIZ presents up to 500 types of medical instruments.

In the 1850s, the Mozhaisk district leader of the nobility was Nikolai Pavlovich Shipov, and at the end of the second half of the 19th century, this position was held by Vladimir Karlovich Von Meck.

On Schubert's 1860 map you can see the structure of the city.

In 1862-1873, the five-domed church of the Trinity Cathedral was rebuilt (it became wider than before).

In 1870, the Aleksandrovskaya Railway passed through the city, undermining the former importance of the old Smolensk Highway. To supply the railway, a grandiose water supply system is being built from the Moscow River to the station through Trubochka, 3-4 km long. In Mozhaisk, the number of industries and industries is immediately reduced. The Mozhaika River continues to become shallower, as the river bed itself is cut off from the vast swamps south of the city.

During the Russian-Turkish War of 1877-1878, the Black Sea coast was guarded by the Mozhaisk 141st Infantry Regiment.

In 1885, the bell tower of the Trinity Cathedral was rebuilt.

According to N.I. Vlasyev, in 1893, “rafts” stopped sailing along the Mozhaika River, even during high water.

In 1897, Alexander Alexandrovich Petrov was elected Mozhaisk city mayor.

In 1898, the Mozhaisk meat processing plant was founded on the basis of a private French agricultural slaughterhouse (closed in 2013).

In 1905-1907, a series of peasant unrest occurred.

In 1908, the newspaper “Russkoye Slovo” published an article about the Luzhetsky Monastery - “Today the 500th anniversary of the existence of the Luzhetsky Monastery, located two miles from the city, was solemnly celebrated. By 9 o'clock in the morning a religious procession with a crowd of thousands of worshipers arrived from Mozhaisk. At the monastery church, the religious procession was greeted by Metropolitan Vladimir, Bishop Vasily of Mozhaisk and Trifon of Dmitrov. During the solemn liturgy, the Moscow governor V.F. Dzhunkovsky, the Mozhaisk leader of the nobility Varzhenevsky and many Muscovites were present in the church. At the end of the liturgy, a religious procession took place around the temple. Bread and leaflets with a historical description of St. were distributed to the people. monastery."

In 1911, Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorsky visited the city and its surroundings, taking photographs of the Novo-Nikolsky Cathedral, Luzhetsky Monastery and Borodino. Color photographs of Sergei Mikhailovich are included in the collection of landmarks of the Russian Empire.

In 1912, in honor of the centenary of the Battle of Borodino, a chapel was erected at the base of the Kremlin hill (completed by 1913). The city also received additional funds, which were used to build a telephone exchange, water supply and a power plant.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the chairman of the Mozhaisk district zemstvo government, the leader of the Mozhaisk district nobility was Varzhenevsky, Alexey Konstantinovich.

Between the two revolutions of 1905-1907 and 1917, there were no sharp changes in the economic life of the city. Only two large industrial enterprises operated near the city - the Buvier and Gustel silk-spinning factory (now the old part of the MIZ plant) in the village of Marfin Brod and the Talankina brick factory at the Mozhaisk station (later the Pyotr Voikov brick factory). In the pre-war and war years of the First World War, the first organizations of bourgeois and petty-bourgeois parties - the Cadets and the Socialist Revolutionaries - appeared in the city.


Soviet period

Revolutionary years

After the victory of the February Revolution, dual power was established in the country. The power of the provisional government was exercised by the Commissioner of Public Security, a member of the Cadet Party I. Pavlov. The power of the working people was represented by the Council of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies, in which Bolshevik influence predominated.

After receiving the first news in Mozhaisk about the overthrow of the provisional government in Petrograd and the transfer of power into the hands of the Bolsheviks, an emergency meeting of the Bolshevik faction of the Council of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies elected a body of revolutionary power - a revolutionary committee of five people.

On January 21, 1918, a district congress of workers, soldiers and peasants' deputies was created in Mozhaisk. At the congress, a resolution was adopted to dissolve the zemstvo and concentrate all power in the hands of the council. At the congress, an executive committee of 15 people was elected. R. S. Tsarsky became the representative of the executive committee, and A. A. Karavaev became the secretary. From that time on, complete and undivided Soviet power was established in the city and district. This three-story stone building, which housed the Council of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies in 1918, was built in the city center in 1834 and is still standing.

In 1919, after the unification of single artisans from the village of Kolychevo, an industrial artel named after May 1 was formed, numbering 382 people. In the early 1930s, the factory mastered the production of an assortment that was difficult to sew - men's suits, which are now the main product produced at ZAO Frant (located 3 km from the city, in the village of Kolychevo). In 1939, the artel was transformed into a state enterprise - the May 1st Factory. In 1965, the factory named after May 1 initiated the merger of several small factories in Mozhaisk, Ruza, Yudino, as a result of which the Mozhaisk Sewing Production Association arose. In 1990, the company developed and registered a new trademark and approved the new name “Frant”.

On December 15, 1920, V.I. Lenin visited the Mozhaisk village of Modenovo (at that time it belonged to the Bogorodskaya volost of the now abolished Vereisky district).

In 1922, the Luzhetsky Monastery was closed, the main cathedral continued to work as a parish cathedral. On the territory of the monastery there was a furniture factory, a workshop for a medical equipment plant, and in the cell building, soldiers of the guard company were located in the cell building since 1918. In the same year, jewelry was confiscated from St. Nicholas Cathedral, including the chasuble and miter from the icon of St. Nicholas of Mozhaisk.

On December 6, 1924, the Moscow Railway Administration organized a city meteorological station.

In 1926, the Mozhaisk Museum of the local region opened. In the same year, the library, archive and sacristy of the Luzhetsky Monastery were transferred to the new museum.

In 1928, the Trinity Church closed, the Moscow Provincial Executive Committee transferred the premises to the Oktyabr cinema. On the upper tier of the bell tower, the tent was dismantled and a water tank was placed. A food stall was set up in the chapel nearby. In the same year, the Church of St. Ferapont in the Luzhetsky Monastery was dismantled.

In 1929, Mozhaisky district was abolished, and Mozhaisky and other districts were formed on its territory.

On November 11, 1929, the church in the former Luzhetsky Monastery was closed.

In 1930, the artel named after Molotov began its history, later renamed JSC Mozhaisk Reinforcement Plant. In 1931, a regional agricultural technical school, a tuberculosis clinic, a regional radio station were opened, and a telephone network was installed.

In 1933, the city lost its main shrine. The image of St. Nicholas of Mozhaisk was taken by N.N. Pomerantsev to the Central State Museum of Art, the restoration workshop of Igor Grabar, from where in 1934 the sculpture entered the collection of the Tretyakov Gallery. In the same year, the Novo-Nikolsky Cathedral was closed. During these same years, the Peter and Paul Cathedral in the Kremlin was also closed. A little earlier, the Ascension Church was also closed. Thus, only the Elijah Church and the Church of Joachim and Anna remained active churches in the city (they were never closed).


Years of the Great Patriotic War

In the summer of 1941, by decision of the State Defense Committee, construction of the Mozhaisk defense line began. In October 1941, formations of the Center group. directed their main efforts to withdraw their troops to the Minsk highway, along which it was planned to break through to Moscow. Particularly heavy fighting took place in the area of Yelnya and the village of Artyomka. From October 13 to October 18, German troops continuously launched unsuccessful assaults on the positions of the Mozhaisk defense line. Soviet units delayed the advance of German troops in the Mozhaisk direction for five days, thanks to the defensive operation of the Western Front.

But on October 18, having broken through the Soviet defenses, German troops burst into the streets of Mozhaisk. During the German occupation in 1941, a camp for prisoners of war was organized on the territory of the Kremlin, shopping arcades and vegetable storage at the station. At the same time, during the fighting in the fall of 1941, the rotunda of St. Nicholas Cathedral above the central part was destroyed by an aerial bomb.

In 1941, on the anniversary of the October Revolution, the Moscow Circus sent a large group of artists to the front in the areas of Mozhaisk and Volokolamsk.

During the occupation, four partisan detachments operated in the Mozhaisk region. In Mozhaisk there is a street named after them - Red Partisans Street. On November 30, partisan Tolya Shumov was captured by the Nazis in Ostashev. After interrogation, which was accompanied by torture and lasted several hours, Anatoly Shumov was tied to a sleigh and, guarded by six machine gunners, sent to Mozhaisk. In the forest near Mozhaisk, Tolya was shot. The exact place of his death is not known.

On January 17, 1942, troops of the 5th Army of General L.A. Govorov, who took command after D.D. Lelyushenko was wounded, approached Mozhaisk. The main battles took place in the area of the Ilyinsky Bridge (north), Chertanovo and the railway station (south). On the morning of January 20, the city was finally taken by storm from three sides. At 8:30 a.m., a red flag was raised on the city council building. In honor of the liberation of the city from the invaders, the street of January 20th received its name. During the retreat, the Germans blew up the Trinity Cathedral, the Ascension Church, and a number of other buildings. Many stone buildings in the city center were burned to the roof.

On February 18, 1942, near the village of Semenovskoye, in an area that is now called the Valley of Glory, Colonel Viktor Ivanovich Polosukhin died. By the decision of the 8th session of the City Council of People's Deputies of the city of Mozhaisk of the 17th convocation on October 20, 1981, Comrade Viktor Ivanovich Polosukhin (posthumously) was awarded the title of honorary citizen of the city of Mozhaisk. One of the city streets is named after him.


Post-war years

In the post-war years, industry began to be restored in the city.

The history of the KZHI 198 enterprise begins in 1949, when a construction site for the processing of slag waste into blocks was created at the Mozhaisk station of the Moscow Military District. And on its basis, already in 1952, a reinforced concrete plant was formed by a Directive of the General Staff. In 1955, the Mozhaisk PATP began.

In 1961, production began at the Mozhaisk bakery.

In the 1960s, restoration of St. Nicholas Cathedral was carried out. The rotunda was not restored, and the damaged clock was not restored either - its mechanism is stored in the storerooms of the Borodino Museum. After restoration, a knitting factory was opened inside the cathedral. A Park of Culture and Recreation was opened on the territory of the Kremlin. At the same time, during the leveling of Moskovskaya Street, the oldest stone civil building, the Salt Barn, was lost. In addition to it, the chapel of 1912 was demolished.

In 1963, the Mozhaisk Dairy Plant was opened, producing the Mozhaisk Milk brand, which was later renamed the Mozhaisk Sterilized Milk Plant CJSC.

In the same year, CJSC MEMP (Mozhaisk Experimental Mechanical Enterprise) was formed as an experimental base of the Gidrospetsstroy trust of the USSR Ministry of Energy to provide the country's energy construction projects with special construction equipment, tooling and tools. In 1965, on October 1, school No. 2 was opened.

In 1972, the city House of Culture “Yubileiny” was opened, later renamed the “Mozhaisk Regional Cultural Center”.

In the 1970s, at the Leipzig Fair, a set of 24 instruments for ocular microsurgery, manufactured at the Medical Instrument Factory (MIZ), was awarded a Grand Gold Medal.

In 1974, on September 30, the Mozhaisk Printing Plant was opened, which at first specialized in printing literature, primarily political, as well as in foreign languages. In 1997-1998, on the basis of the production facilities of the state enterprise, the open joint-stock company OJSC Mozhaisk Printing Plant was formed, which fully preserved the positive experience and glorious traditions of its predecessor. The production capacity of the plant allows us to produce a variety of printed products, including: books with a binding cover, books with covers, magazines, and advertising products.

In 1979, a decision was made to create a memorial complex in the center of Mozhaisk in memory of the fallen heroes of the Great Patriotic War.

In 1980-1990, a new district “Cheryomushki” was built in the city with a new school, five- and nine-story buildings, kindergartens and shops.

In January 1987, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR Nikolai Ryzhkov signed a decree on the creation of a book depository of the State Press Archive of the USSR in Mozhaisk. In less than two years, two book depositories were built and put into operation. From 1989 to 1996, archives from Moscow were transported to book depositories. The Central State Archives of the Moscow Region (TSGAMO) has been located in the adjacent building since 1990.


Modern period

In the city center on Komsomolskaya Square in 1993, the Spaso-Borodinskie Waters Plant was opened. The first enterprise of the Borodino Group of Companies was founded on the basis of a small regional beverage bottling enterprise.

Since 1993, Mozhaisk has hosted the annual “Makarievsky Readings” - scientific research readings in memory of Metropolitan Makariy of Moscow and All Rus'. Materials from the readings are published annually in collections called “Makarievsky Readings”. One of the initiators of the Readings was Gennady Mokeev.

In 1998, a chapel with a two-meter sculpture of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker was installed on Komsomolskaya Square of the city.

In 1999, Mozhaisky LDK LLC, a sawmill and wood processing plant, was launched.

On September 12, 2001, in the city of Bari (Italy), on the territory of the Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, the first stone of which was laid on May 9 (22), 1913, a monument to St. Nicholas was solemnly opened. The monument, authored by the Russian sculptor Vyacheslav Klykov, is based on the image of St. Nicholas, known from a 14th-century wooden sculpture (Nikola Mozhaisky), kept in the State Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow. The monument is a gift to the city of Bari and its Orthodox community from the International Foundation for Slavic Literature and Culture.

On December 11, 2001, construction of the Bagration Sports Palace began. Opening on June 23, 2004, the Palace became the center of the city's sports and cultural life.

In Mozhaisk, on May 11, 2005, the first monument to signalmen soldiers in Russia was unveiled.

The Ksella-Aeroblock-Center Mozhaisk plant was launched in 2007. It is a subsidiary of Xella Baustoffe GmbH.

In 2008, the city celebrated its 777th anniversary.

On July 10, 2011, in the park near the printing dormitory, a city fountain was opened.

On January 20, 2012, in honor of the 70th anniversary of the liberation of Mozhaisk from the Nazi invaders, a monument was unveiled. In the center of the city there is a memorial complex where an eternal flame burns.

On May 7, 2012, by decree of President V.V. Putin, the city of Mozhaisk was awarded the honorary title “City of Military Glory.”

On July 2, 2012, a commemorative coin with the image of the Luzhetsky Monastery was issued.

On May 27, 2013, Mozhaisk Meat Processing Plant CJSC was declared insolvent (bankrupt).

On September 24, 2013, Mozhaisk was included in the list of “Historical settlements of regional significance in the Moscow region.” A new list of historical settlements has been adopted to preserve landmarks created in past centuries and representing archaeological, historical, architectural, urban planning, aesthetic, scientific and socio-cultural value.

On February 23, 2014, the Mozhaisk regional swimming center was opened in the city.

On October 20, 2014, the construction of the “City of Military Glory” stele began near the Bagration sports complex. The grand opening took place on January 20, 2015, on the day of the 73rd anniversary of the liberation of Mozhaisk from the Nazi invaders.

On February 24, 2015, a postage stamp was issued from the “Cities of Military Glory” series, dedicated to the city. The 20-ruble stamp depicts a U-2VS aircraft, a 12-pounder gun and anti-tank hedgehogs.

On March 16, 2018, the city of district subordination was transformed into a city of regional subordination, becoming, together with the administrative territory, an administrative-territorial unit instead of the Mozhaisky district, which was abolished on the same day.


Physiographic characteristics

Geographical position

Mozhaisk is located in the west of the Moscow region, in the Gzhatsk depression of the Moscow Upland, 4 km southeast of the Mozhaisk reservoir, 110 km west of Moscow. Covers an area of 17.8 km². The coordinates of the center are 55°30′00″ N. w. 36°02′00″ E. d. The Moscow River flows along the northern border of the city. The city stretches from west to east for 6 km, and from north to south for 5 km. The height above sea level is 227 m. It is the largest settlement included in the urban settlement of Mozhaisk.

in the north - with the rural settlement of Klementyevskoye,
in the north-west - the rural settlement of Goretovskoye,
in the east - with the rural settlement of Sputnik,
in the south - with the rural settlement of Borisovskoye,
in the west - with the rural settlement of Borodinskoye.



According to the climatic zoning of Russia, Mozhaisk is located in the Atlantic-continental European (forest) region of the temperate climate zone. Winters are moderately cold, summers are warm and humid. The coldest month of the year is January (average temperature −6.8 °C), the warmest is July (18.7 °C). On June 23-24, 2021, the temperature for the first time in June during the measurement base increased to +33.7°-+33.8° C.

The World Meteorological Organization decided on the need to calculate two climate norms: the climatological standard and the reference. The first is updated every ten years, the second covers the period from 1961 to 1990.



Due to the fact that there are a large number of trees in the district and in the city, as well as a small number of operating factories, the city has a very good environmental situation. Mozhaisk district is one of the most environmentally friendly areas of the Moscow region.



Mozhaisk is located in the time zone designated by international standard as the Moscow Time Zone. The offset from UTC is +3:00.