Image of Grebnevo


Location: 30 km (18 mi) East of Moscow, Fryazino, Moscow oblast  Map


Description of Grebnevo

Grebnevo is a former country retreat for several powerful aristocratic families (dvoryanin) including Belsky, Trubetskoy and Bibikov. The lands around Grebnevo were initially given to Bogdan Belsky although most of the buildings date back to 1780s to 1830s. Grebnevo residence was constructed in the time of reign of Catherine the Great and Alexander I they have distinct Neoclassical style.



Initial period
The history of the estate can be traced back to the 16th century as the village of Bokhova Stan in the Zamoskovnaya half of the Moscow district[2]. The cadastres of that time (1584-1586) mention that the village belonged to Bogdan Yakovlevich Belsky, Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich's gunsmith. In the Time of Troubles, the estate passes into the possession of the Vorontsovs, who were its owners even before Belsky, and then into the possession of the princes Trubetskoy.

Prince Dmitry Timofeevich Trubetskoy was an associate of Prince Pozharsky, who headed the first Russian government in 1612. It was under him that large hydrotechnical work was carried out on the Lyuboseevka River, adjacent to the village and the estate from the south, consisting in the construction of a dam, which gave rise to the Barsky Ponds system, consisting of a reservoir complex shape and several picturesque islands, some of which have survived to this day.

In the 1720s, the estate was owned by Prince Ivan Yurievich Trubetskoy, father of Nastasya, the second wife of Prince Dmitry Kantemir. Kantemir's daughter from the 1st marriage, Maria Kantemir, buys Ulitkino next to Grebnev.

In 1760, the estate passed to Princess Ekaterina Dmitrievna Golitsyna; since 1772, it was owned by a relative of Golitsyna, Princess Anna Danilovna Trubetskaya; the mother of the outstanding poet of the 18th century - Mikhail Matveich Kheraskov, the creator of the grandiose poem Rossiad.

On December 8, 1769, 12 peasants of the Shchelkova village of the Grebnevsky estate were recorded in the Manufactory Collegium as the first legitimate peasant entrepreneurs who bought tickets for silk weaving mills: Timofey Efimov, Timofey Simionov (for 2), Philip Antonov (for 2), Timofey Petrov ( by 4), Ivan (by 1) and Yakim (by 3) Vakhrameev, Fedor Andreev, Philip Tikhonov (by 5), Nikita Emelyanov (by 3), Kalina Trofimov (by 3), Ivan Borisov (by 2), Fedor Ivanov (by 4).

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Main House built in 1790s. Pictures are from the time then the estate became sanatorium.


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Doric entrance (1821) a monument to owner's modesty is designed after Roman triumph arches.


Image of Grebnevo

A hole in the former fireplace. A common place for storage of owner's treasure this did not disappoint.

    Image of Grebnevo

Church of Theotokos of Grebnevo          



Since 1781, the estate has changed its owners again: this time it passes to Gavrila Ilyich Bibikov through the millionaire Tatyana Yakovlevna Tverdysheva, his first wife, who bought Grebnevo. Tatyana Yakovlevna died in childbirth on August 12, 1782. After some time, the child also died. A year later, Tatyana Yakovlevna's father died, bequeathing his entire fortune to his son-in-law. However, Gavrila Ivanovich took only a seventh part for himself, passing the rest of the inheritance to the nieces of Yakov Borisovich Tverdyshev.

From the previous owner of the Grebnevo estate, Prince Nikolai Nikitich Trubetskoy, an old prison remained. Bibikov ordered the prison to be dismantled and invited Stepan Prokhorovich Zaitsev from the Military Engineering Department to supervise the works. In 1786, construction began on a summer church in honor of the Grebnevskaya Icon of the Mother of God in memory of "the bright soul of Tatyana Yakovlevna." The church was consecrated (according to the name of the village) in honor of the Grebnevskaya Icon of the Mother of God, which was kept in the Church of the Grebnevskaya Mother of God on Lubyanka.

Under Bibikov, the manor begins to take on the appearance that has survived to this day: by the 1790s, the main manor house was being built.

In 1794, Bibikov founded the stone temple of the Church of the Descent of the Holy Spirit in the village of Shkin, the construction of which was entrusted to the famous architect Rodion Rodionovich Kazakov (1758-1803). According to the memoirs of her granddaughter, Ekaterina Raevskaya, during the life of Gavrila Ivanovich and after him, the whole family spent the summer in Grebnevo. “The house there stood huge, stone, surrounded by large gardens, among which there were huge ponds with some islands on them, and gardens were also planted on the islands and pavilions were built. along the wide paths of the garden, crossed the pond by ferry and drank tea in the gazebo.

In 1796, the village of Shchelkova of the Bibikov estate Grebnevo took first place in the Moscow province in the production of peasant textile products, releasing it for 524.4 thousand rubles out of a total volume of 939 thousand rubles, and the share of the entire estate accounted for 60% of peasant textiles of the province.

At the turn of the century, Grebnevo became a notable center of culture - Bibikov set up a theater on the estate, created a ballet troupe and an orchestra under the direction of the talented serf musician Danila Kashin.

After the death of G. I. Bibikov in 1803, his widow Ekaterina Aleksandrovna supported the estate for 7 years, but in 1811 she was forced to sell it. From the description it is clear what works were invested by the Bibikovs: “Gothic exit gates to the courtyard with a stone fence, in this courtyard the main building is stone in 3 floors of civil architecture with two portals, at which portals there are 12 columns of white stone, between which there are 2 balconies with two outdoor porches of wild stone. From the chambers to the two pavilions of the gallery, of which one is covered with sheet black iron, and on the top there is a terrace, in these galleries in a straight line 26 arcades are light, domes of 3 arshins are covered with sheet black iron with pedestals and on them weathercocks made of English tinplate .. 3 stone stores in 2 floors of Gothic architecture for pouring different bread ... Outbuilding for people in the garden of Gothic architecture ... Stable yard, in this courtyard: the first is a stone outbuilding of Gothic architecture for the steward, the second is a stone Gothic office, the third is an outbuilding for grooms stone, the fourth - a stone stable, the fifth - 2 stone carriage sheds ... The garden is regular and English, around the garden there is a stone fence, in the corners of this garden there are 3 Gothic towers for guards and luggage of garden tools, covered with sheet iron. In this garden there is a Chinese gazebo, a pond, a wooden master's soap-house with living rooms ... "


At the last nobleman

In 1811, the estate passed to Anna Stroganova, whose son, Prince Sergei Mikhailovich Golitsyn, starting from 1817, started new large-scale construction work. By 1820-30. two wings are being erected, the main entrance gate, resembling a triumphal arch, and the winter St. Nicholas Church, consecrated in 1823. The ensemble of the estate finally takes on the form that has survived to this day.


In merchant property                                                       

In 1845, the Golitsyns sold the estate to the merchant Panteleev, who set up a vitriol and a distillery in the estate, which led to the death of the interiors of the main estate house, which were restored by the efforts of the next owners of Grebnevo - the silk-weaving manufacturers of the merchants Kondrashevs, who came from the serfs of the village of Fryazino, which was part of the Grebnev estate.

On October 4, 1913, the estate was bought by the famous Moscow doctor Fyodor Alexandrovich Grinevsky, a relative of the outstanding Russian writer Alexander Stepanovich Green, as a branch of his Moscow hospital, located in the former house of Countess Shuvalova, at the corner of Povarskaya and Maly Rzhevsky lane (now the concert hall of the Moscow Conservatory). The new purpose of the estate is a sanatorium near Moscow, which comes in handy in connection with the outbreak of the First World War, which deprived the Moscow intelligentsia of the traditional opportunity to go on vacation abroad.

For four months, electricity, water supply from an artesian well, steam heating, and a telephone were installed in the estate. An elevator was installed in the big house. A tennis court, a library, a hydropathic center, a massage room, a gym, and a laboratory were also equipped. For proper medical nutrition, a farm was used, where potatoes and vegetables were bred, products were obtained from a dairy farm and fish from the Grebnev ponds.

During the war, the sanatorium received refugees, treated the wounded and those who fell under gas attacks at the front.

With the advent of Soviet power, the estate was nationalized, and its future underwent several abrupt and dramatic changes. With each new zigzag of fate, Grebnevo loses its historical appearance: first of all, the interior decoration and interiors disappear forever. In 1919, a sanatorium for tuberculosis patients was built within the walls of the estate.

Until 1940, the sanatorium was headed by Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Kolerov, a wonderful doctor Nikolai Andreevich Zevakin worked here, who, before coming to Grebnevo, maintained his own sanatorium in the Crimea. At various times, the patients of the sanatorium were the widow of the famous general practitioner Alexander Alexandrovich Ostroumov - Varvara Sergeevna; financier and merchant, founder of Elektrostal Nikolai Alexandrovich Vtorov, Russian botanist and biochemist, academician of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences Vladimir Ivanovich Palladin; artist of the Moscow Art Theater Leonid Mironovich Leonidov. On June 7, 1915, the poet Konstantin Dmitrievich Balmont visited the sanatorium. Among those treated at the sanatorium were also the wife of General Alexei Alekseevich Brusilov, historian, director of the Archives of the Ministry of Justice Dmitry Vladimirovich Tsvetaev.


Change of fate

After the Great Patriotic War, the estate housed the Shchelkovsky technical school of electrovacuum devices, after which the estate was occupied by the NPO Platan.

In 1960, Grebnevo was declared an architectural monument of republican significance. Several restoration attempts are made, and by the end of the 1980s, there is hope for the revival of the estate: a historical and cultural center is located on its territory, concerts and exhibitions of paintings by famous masters are held. However, in 1991, when the restoration of the palace was nearing completion, under unclear circumstances, a fire broke out in it, destroying not only the interiors, but also the ceilings with a roof, leaving only bare burnt walls ... Attempts to conserve the palace were unsuccessful, and by the beginning of the 21st century the estate , being in a state of extreme desolation and abandonment, actually turned into ruins.


The architectural ensemble of the estate

The historical and architectural complex of the estate and the village of Grebnevo includes the following buildings:
Main manor house (1780-90)
Temple of the Grebnevskaya Icon of the Mother of God (1791)
Front entrance gate (triumphal arch, 1821)
Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker (St. Nicholas Church, 1823)
East wing (1780-90)
Western wing (1780-90)
Carriage house (XIX century)
Stable (19th century)
Animal Farm (XIX century)
Manor fence (mid-18th century)
"Golitsyn" hospital (1830-32) in the village of Novaya Sloboda

Temples Grebnevo
At the estate, two churches were erected, which have survived to this day, unlike the estate, in a form practically untouched by the Soviet era.

Under Gavril Ilyich Bibikov, a stone church was being built in Grebnevo, which was consecrated in 1791 in the name of the Grebnev Icon of the Mother of God, according to legend, brought to Dmitry Donskoy by the Cossacks after the Battle of Kulikovo. The temple with an unusual for Russia pommel in the form of a figure of an archangel holding a cross on the dome was built by the "care" of the general and twenty peasants, whose names are carved on the bronze temple plaque that has survived to this day. In 1991, the 200th anniversary of this temple was solemnly celebrated and a book dedicated to the history of the temple was published.

At the beginning of 1817, Prince Sergei Mikhailovich Golitsyn attracted the architect Oldelli to the construction in Grebnev, and later the architect N. I. Deryugin. The final accents in the creation of the estate were the construction of the front entrance gate (1821) and the Empire-style Nikolsky Church (consecrated in 1823).


In the 21st century

As of the end of 2006, the monument of architecture and history of federal significance continues to be in an abandoned state and is slowly being destroyed. The palace, the building of the coach house and the stables look the most deplorable. On April 17, 2007, a new fire broke out in the estate, as a result of which the roof of the eastern wing was almost completely destroyed by fire. In July 2013, the fires recurred. As of August 2013, the Grebnevo estate was actually abandoned, its future fate was in question.

In 2014, Grebnevo, which is owned by the Moscow Region, was put up for auction and became the ninth estate rented out under a preferential system (31,243 rubles per year) as part of the Governor's Estates of the Moscow Region program.

Measures to save the monument were not taken. In early May 2016, two floors of the facade of the main house collapsed (in the place where the double-height ballroom was located). After that, the Government of the Moscow Region turned to the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation with a proposal to transfer the monument of federal significance, the Grebnevo estate, to regional ownership.

The landscape park around the estate is a protected area, however, the administration of the rural settlement issued permits for construction on this territory.

In May 2018, the estate was purchased for restoration by entrepreneur Andrey Kovalev. For seven years, the owner is obliged to develop a project for the reconstruction of the entire estate complex, approve it and implement it. The lease is for 49 years, including the period of restoration. According to information as of spring 2020, the scientific restoration project is still being prepared.
I hope that at the end of this summer [2020] we will start restoring the entrance group to the estate - the arches, as well as the historical building, where in the future I plan to place a museum of weapons and armor, the collection of which I already collect at specialized auctions in many countries,
Andrey Kovalev said.

In addition to the territory belonging to the estate, the businessman bought a number of land plots near the estate:

There will be recreational areas, hotels, glampings and campsites, a stable, a museum of carriages, old cars and motorcycles and a craft town for craftsmen, as well as places for lectures and master classes. Much of what is being created has no analogues in Russia.