10 largest cities of Russia
Moscow
St. Petersburg
Novosibirsk
Yekaterinburg
Nizhny Novgorod
Kazan
Chelyabinsk
Omsk
Samara
Rostov-on-Don

 

Moscow

Moscow

 

How often, dumb with separation,

In my nomadic exile, then,

Moscow, I dreamed of you again!

Moscow….what depths of fascination

Live in that name, what echoes start,

And sound in every Russian heart!

 

A.S. Pushkin

 

Transportation

 

Description of Moscow

Moscow is the capital of the Russian Federation, a city of federal importance, the administrative center of the Central Federal District and the center of the Moscow region, which is not included in the region itself. It is the largest city by population in Russia with a total of 12,506,468 people. (2018), it is the most populated of the cities fully located in Europe, is among the top ten cities in the world in terms of population, the largest Russian-speaking city in the world.

Moscow is historical capital of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Russian kingdom, the Russian Empire (in the years 1728-1730), Soviet Russia and the USSR. Moscow is home to several federal government bodies of the Russian Federation (with the exception of the Constitutional Court), embassies of foreign states, and the headquarters of most of the largest Russian commercial organizations and public associations.

Moscow was found on the Moscow River in the center of the East European Plain, in the interfluve of the Oka and Volga. As a subject of the federation, Moscow borders with the Moscow and Kaluga regions.

Moscow is a popular tourist center of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin, Red Square, the Novodevichy Convent and the Church of the Ascension in Kolomenskoye are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. It is the most important transportation hub. The city is served by 6 airports, 9 railway stations, 3 river ports (there is a river connection with the seas of the Atlantic and Arctic Ocean basins). Since 1935 Moscow has been working underground. Moscow is the country's sports center. In 1980, the XXII Summer Olympics were held in Moscow, and in 2018 the city became one of the hosts of the 2018 World Cup.

 

Climate in Moscow

The climate of Moscow is moderately continental with cold long winters and warm (sometimes hot) summers. In winter, the humidity is high, in summer - moderate.

Winter (the period with temperatures below 0 ° C) begins in mid-November and ends in late March - early April; The average temperature during this period is −5 ° C. The average temperature of the coldest month, February, is −7 ° C (average minimum −10 ° C, average maximum −4 ° C), thaws in December – January (up to +5 ° C) and severe frosts in January – beginning are quite frequent February (to −25 ° C). Snow falls in early November and melts completely by mid-April. March is usually a winter month with an average temperature of around -2 ° C.

Spring begins in April, when the average temperature exceeds 0 degrees. By mid-May, summer sunny weather is established with an average temperature above +15 ° C. Summer (the period with temperatures above +15 ° C) lasts on average from mid-May to late August; average temperature: +18 ° C. But often temperatures from +15 ° C to +20 ° C can be in May and in September. The average temperature of the hottest month - July is +19 ° C (average minimum +14 ° C, average maximum +24 ° C). Recently in the summer in the capital region (mostly in July) the temperature often exceeds +30 ° C, such heat can sometimes last 1-2 weeks. In early-mid-September, autumn begins, the weather becomes gloomy and cloudy. October is a purely autumn month with an average temperature of + 6 ° C. In early to mid-November, steady snow cover is established, the temperature in November rarely exceeds +6 ° C and falls below −10 ° C, averaging a month -2 ° C. December is different: temperatures are possible around 0 ° C (and sometimes even higher), but there are frosts around −20 ° C.

 

Travel Destinations in Moscow

Moscow MapMoscow, on the Moscow River in western Russia, is the cosmopolitan capital of the country. In its historical core is the Kremlin, the complex in which the president of the Russian Federation works, and also the royal treasures are kept in the Armory. Behind its walls is Red Square, the symbolic center of Russia. Here is the Lenin Mausoleum, an extensive collection of the State Historical Museum and St. Basil's Cathedral, known for its colorful domes in the shape of a burning candle.

 

Moscow acquired a number of epithets, most of which refer to its size and outstanding status within the nation: the Third Rome, White Stone, First Throne, Forty Forty. “Forty” today translates as forty, but historically it is the old name of the district or parish, and “forty” in the old Russian means “a lot”. In the old Russian language, the word "Forty" also meant the church administrative district, in which there were about forty churches. Moscow is one of the twelve hero cities, a status ot acquired for heroic defense against German Nazi forces and their allies.

Click on the part of the map that interests you.

 

Orientation

Moscow is a huge city, and at first somewhat confusing with its size and the activity of life. Nevertheless, some simple observations will help to begin to navigate at least a little. Moscow is a city with a traditional radial-ring structure, which, until recently, has been built up with almost religious loyalty. However, recently there have been plans to build chord roads, which can slightly change the direction of movement. The central rings appeared in Moscow historically - as the city’s fortifications as they grew. Starting from the center, they go in the following order:

The ring of central squares - in place of the walls, limiting the oldest part of the city, Kitay Town. The remainder of the fortress walls is preserved in the area of ​​Kitay-Gorod metro station. Like the next ring, it is rather a semiring that rests on the Moscow River, however, the Moscow River embankment can be represented by the closure of this ring. The names of the squares are clockwise: Borovitskaya (Borovitsky Gate of the Kremlin, the entrance to the Armory), Manezhnaya, where it is easiest to get to Red Square, Teatralnaya (Bolshoi Theater), Lubyanka, Novaya, Staraya.

Boulevard ring - a half ring, around Moscow River. It takes place at the site of the borders of the so-called White City, and is so named because all the streets have boulevards. Among them we can mention Chistoprudny Boulevard, as a favorite vacation spot of Muscovites, but all the other boulevards are not at all inferior to him in this.

Garden Ring - named for the dachas (resort homes), which were broken outside the Garden Ring during its formation. The garden ring roughly limits the city to what it was at the beginning of the 20th century, and most of the historical monuments are located within its borders, while beyond its borders, the vast majority of the territory are residential areas, industrial areas and parks. Now the Garden Ring is a transport highway, with a large number of interchanges, which, however, do not save it from traffic jams. As a controversial tourist route, we can recommend to drive the entire Garden Ring in a circle on trolleybus B, while it should be noted that it is clockwise, the terminus is located on Zubovskaya Square (between Metro 5 Park Kultury and Metro Smolenskaya), and opposite Kursk railway station, so you need to either wait some time (up to 10 minutes), or change to another trolley bus. Alternatively, you can take a trolley bus 10, which goes around the ring approximately from the bridge over Yauza along the northern part of the ring to Leninsky Prospect. Taking into account traffic jams, a full circle may take 2-3 hours, in the evening less.

The metro ring line is the only line of the Moscow Metro that moves in a circular direction, roughly the same as the Garden Ring, but makes several departures from it (to the outside) in order to reach most of the Moscow railway stations. It should be noted that the workload of the central train cars on this line is extremely high at almost any time of the day.

The Third Transport Ring is a transport highway built at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries to unload the center. As practice has shown, for the Moscow movement this was not enough, and traffic jams also exist on the third ring. As a rule, the third ring passes at a distance of one metro station from the Koltsevaya metro line, and also past the Riga and Savyolovsky railway stations. In Lefortovo passes through the Lefortovo tunnel.

Moscow Central Ring (ISC) (formerly the “Small Moscow Railway Ring”) - since September 2016, passenger traffic has been open.

The Moscow Ring Road (MKAD) is the boundary of the city until about the 1980s, after which they began to attach territories to the city behind the ring. In the 90s of the 20th century, it was completely rebuilt, so it became in fact the best highway in Russia. When traveling long distances in Moscow, as a rule, movement through the Moscow Ring Road, despite the increasing distance, is the fastest and most comfortable.

 

Moscow Red Square

Moscow Red Square (Beautiful Square to be precise)

Pokrovskiy Sobor (Holy Virgin Protection) or St. Basil Cathedral

 

Lenin's Mausoleum

GUM (department store)

Lobnoye Mesto

State Historical Museum

Kazan Cathedral

Iberian Gate and Chapel aka Resurrection Gate

 

Moscow Kremlin

The citadel of kings, the headquarters of the Soviet Union and now the residence of the president of Russia, for centuries, the Kremlin has been a symbol of state power. In 1156, Prince Yuri Dolgoruky chose the confluence of the Moscow and Neglinnaya rivers as a place for the first wooden Kremlin (the Kremlin means “fortress” in Russian). At the end of the 15th century, Tsar Ivan III invited several leading Italian architects to build a new luxurious complex. They designed the Assumption Cathedral and the Faceted Palace, in a fascinating fusion of early Russian and imported Renaissance styles. The Kremlin did not escape the architectural vandalism of the 1930s, when it was closed, and several of its churches and palaces were destroyed by order of Stalin. Only in 1955, two years after his death, was the Kremlin partially open to the public.

Moscow Kremlin

Saviour's Tower

Patriarch's Palace

Ivan the Great Bell Tower

Cathedral of the Assumption

Cathedral of Archangel

Terem Palace

State Armoury (Оружейная палата) (Moscow)

Location: Moscow Kremlin

Tel. (495) 921 4720

Subway: Alexadnrovskiy sad, Biblioteka imeni Lenina, Borovitskaya

Admission: 10am, 12pm, 2:30 pm, 4:30pm Fri- Wed

State Diamond Fund

Church of the Deposition of the Robe (Церковь Ризоположения) (Moscow)

Location: Moscow Kremlin

Senate

Arsenal (Арсенал) (Moscow)

Location: Moscow Kremlin

Closed to public

Cathedral of the Annunciation

Trinity Tower

Alexander Gardens

Great Kremlin Palace

Faceted Palace

State Kremlin Palace (Государственный Кремлевский дворец) (Moscow)

Location: Moscow Kremlin

Presidential Administration (Администрация Президента) (Moscow)

Location: Moscow Kremlin

 

Arbatskaya (Moscow)

It is believed that the name "Arbat" is derived from the Mongolian word meaning suburb, and was first applied in the 15th century to the entire territory west of the Kremlin. It was originally inhabited by royal artisans and craftsmen. Although they are still noted in street names, artisans moved elsewhere in the late 18th century. The aristocracy took their place, and it was followed by the professionals, intellectuals and artists of Moscow, attracted by the unsophisticated streets of the district, dilapidated cottages and overgrown courtyards. On the Old Arbat, the main pedestrian street of the district, there are historical churches, wooden houses and mansions from the beginning of the 19th century around Sivtsev Vrazhek lane. Nevertheless, not far from the stalls of small cafes there are several huge tenement houses of the Soviet era and the shops of Novy Arbat.

Arbat Street

Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts

Skryabin House Museum

Pashkov House

Pushkin House Museum

Museum of Private Collections

Ulitsa Volkonka 14

Tel. (495) 203 1546

Open: 12- 6pm Wed- Sun

Subway: Kropotkinskaya

Melnikov House

Cathedral of Christ the Savior

Chaliapin House Museum

Lermontov House Museum

Gallery of 19th and 20th century European and American Art

Bely House Museum

 

Tverskaya (Moscow)

Tverskaya is located around the road of the same name, which initially led to St. Petersburg, it was a technological route used by the kings. Now being the main shopping street of Moscow, Tverskaya Street underwent a major reconstruction in the 1930s during a huge reconstruction of Moscow, by order of Stalin. At that time, many buildings were demolished or pushed aside (at night with sleeping residents) so that the street could be expanded, and massive new houses were built for the workers. These impending gray buildings make the street a showcase of the monumental style of architecture that Stalin loved. The surprisingly quiet streets of the district were home to many famous artists, writers and actors, and, despite Stalin’s best efforts, there are still some interesting pre-revolutionary houses here.

Moscow Bolshoi Theatre

Bulgakov Flat Museum

Patriarch's Pond

Moscow Old University (Moscow)

Mokhovaya ulitsa 9

Subway: Okhotnyy Ryad, Biblioteka imeni Lenina

Manege (Moscow)

Manezhnaya ploshad 1

Tel. (495) 926 2828

Subway: Okhotnyy Ryad, Biblioteka imeni Lenina

Gorky House Museum

House of Unions

House of Friendship (Дом Дружбы) (Moscow)

Vozdvizhenka ulitsa 16

Tel. (495) 690 2069

Subway: Arbatskaya, Biblioteka imeni Lenina

Chekhov House- Museum (Дом- музей А.П. Чехова) (Moscow)

Sadovaya- Kudrinskaya ulitsa 6

Tel. (495) 691 3837

Subway: Barrikadnaya

Open: 2- 8pm Wed and Fri, 11am- 6pm Tue, Thu, Sat

Closed: last day of month

Pushkin Square (Пушкинская Площадь) (Moscow)

Subway: Puskinskaya, Tverskaya, Chekhovskaya

Moscow Conservatory (Московская консерватория) (Moscow)

Bolshaya Nikitskaya ulitsa 13

Tel. (495) 629 9401

Subway: Arbatskaya, Pushkinskaya

www.mosconsv.ru

Upper Monastery of St. Peter

Hotel Metropol

Hotel National

Stanislavskiy House- Museum (Moscow)

Leontevskiy pereulok 6

Tel. (495) 629 2855

Subway: Arbatskaya, Tverskaya

Open: 11am- 5pm Thu, Sat, Sun, 12- 7pm Wed, Fri

Moscow Arts Theatre

Stanislavskiy House Museum

Morozov Mansion (Дом З. Г. Морозова) (Moscow)

Ulitsa Spiridonovka 17
Subway: Mayakovskaya
Closed to public

Museum of Contemporary History (Музей Современной Истории) (Moscow)

Tverskaya ulitsa 21
Tel. (495) 699 6724
Subway: Pushkinskaya, Tverskaya
Open: 10am- 6pm Tue- Sun

www.sovr.ru

 

Kitay Gorod (Moscow)

The first suburb of Moscow, Kitay Gorod, was settled in the 12th century by merchants and craftsmen hired by the tsar. It is believed that the word Kitay (sounds like "China" in russian) refers to the wattle used to build ramparts around the suburbs. Red Square was created as a market square near the Kremlin in the late 15th century. Behind it were installed shopping arcades, each street with rows of wooden houses specializing in certain craftsmanship, such as working with metal, working with leather or producing hats and others. In the 16th century, a number of boyars, including the future rulers of Russia, the Romanovs, built their estates nearby, while the presence of merchants from Novgorod and as far away as England was actively encouraged. Later, in the 19th century, Kitay Gorod became a financial district of Moscow, where the stock exchange and large banks are located.

Old English Court

Church of the Trinity in Nikitinki

Mayakovsky Museum (Moscow)

Lubyanskiy proezd 3/6
Tel. (495) 621 9387
Open: 10am- 6pm Fri- Tue, 1- 9pm Thu
Closed: last Friday of month
Subway: Lubyanka

Lubyanka Square (Moscow)

Subway: Lubyanka

Church of the Archangel Gabriel (Moscow)

Arkhangelskiy pereulok 15

Subway: Chistye Prudy

Perlov Tea House (Moscow)

Myasnitskaya ulitsa 19
Tel. (495) 625 4656
Open: 9am- 9pm Mon- Fri, 10am- 8pm Sat, 10am- 7pm Sun
Subway: Chistye Prudy, Turgenevskaya

Palace of the Romanov Boyars

Cathedral of the Epiphany

Polytechnical Museum (Moscow)

Novaya Ploshchad 3/4
Tel. (495) 625 0614
Open: 10am- 6pm Tue- Sun
Closed: last Friday of month
Subway: Kitay Gorod, Lubyanka

www.polymus.ru

Choral Synagogue (Moscow)

 Bolshoy Spasoglinishchevskiy pereulok 10
Tel. (495) 940 5557
Open: 10am- 6pm Mon- Fri
Subway: Kitay Gorod

www.synrus.ru

Sandunovskiy Baths (Moscow)

Neglinnaya ulitsa 14, building 3- 7
Tel. (495) 625 4631
Open: 8am- 10pm daily
Subway: Kuznetskiy Most, Trubnaya

www.sanduny.ru

Convent of the Nativity of the Virgin (Рождественский Монастырь) (Moscow)

Ulitsa Rozhdestvenka 20
Tel. (495) 621 3986
Open: 6am- 8pm daily
Subway: Kuznetskiy Most, Trubnaya

 

Zamoskvoreche (Moscow)

At first Zamoskvorechye was settled in the 13th century. Zamoskvoreche (literally "beyond Moscow river") acted as an outpost against the Mongols. Its main road, Big Ordynka, was the route to the Horde, or the Golden Horde, the Mongolian capital on the Volga. Later, under Ivan the Terrible, the barracks of the archers (the royal guard) stood here. The craftsmen who served at the court also moved, living in areas according to their professions, each of which was sponsored by the church. These historical churches are currently in different states of preservation. The fact that this territory of Moscow was hardly affected by the redevelopment of the 1930s, which gives it a more old-fashioned atmosphere than the center dominated by massive Soviet architecture. In the 19th century, rich merchants settled here, many of whom, such as Alexey Bakhrushin and Pavel Tretyakov, were patrons of the arts. Based on its acquisitions, the Tretyakov Gallery is the most important collection of Russian art in the country.

Tretyakov Gallery

Convent of Saint Martha and Mary (Moscow)

Ulitsa Bolshaya Ordynka 34
Subway: Tretyakovskaya, Polyanka
Tel. (495) 951 1139
Open: 8am- 8pm daily

Tropinin Museum (Moscow)

Shchetininskiy pereulok 10
Tel. (495) 959 1103
Subway: Dobryninskaya, Polyanka
Subway: 1- 8pm Thu, 10am- 6pm Fri- Mon
Closed: last Monday of the month

Church of the Resurrection in Kadashi (Moscow)

2-oy Kadashevkiy pereulok 7
Subway: Tretyakovskaya
Open: 8am- 7pm daily

Church of the Consolation of All Sorrows (Moscow)

Ulitsa Bolshaya Ordynka 20
Subway: Tretyakovskaya
Open: 7am- 8pm daily

 

Church of Saint Clement (Moscow)

Klimentovskiy pereulok 7
Subway: Tretyakovskaya
Open: 10am- 6pm

Church of Saint Catherine (Moscow)

Ulitsa Bolshaya Ordynka 60/2
Subway: Tretyakovskaya
Open: 10am- 6pm daily

Church of Saint Nicholas in Puzhy (Moscow)

Ulitsa Bolshaya Ordynka 27a/8
Subway: Tretyakovskaya
Open: 7:30am- 8pm daily

Bakhrushin Theatre Museum (Moscow)

Ulitsa Bakhrishina 31/ 12
Tel. (495) 953 4470
Subway: Paveletskaya
Open: 12- 7pm Wed- Mon
Closed: last Monday of the month

 

Around Moscow Suburbs

The Moscow region of suburbs or Podmoskovye, as a rule, is rather gloomy, but they hide an amazing amount of attractions, all accessible from the metro. To the south of the center is a series of fortified monasteries built to protect the city from the Mongols and the Poles. The most spectacular of these is the Novodevichy Convent, an 16th-century Orthodox shrine with a magnificent cathedral, but the Donskoy Monastery is also worth a visit. Danilov Monastery, with its beautiful cathedral, is the oldest in the city. Visitors to Moscow are often surprised at the beauty and diversity of Moscow’s green areas. Gorky, Izmailovo and Pobedy Parks are ideal places to relax, while Sparrow Hills offer fantastic views. Nevertheless, the best secrets of Moscow are the luxurious mansions in the former countryside. The Sheremetev family built two elegant neoclassical dachas: Kuskovo and Ostankino. Both have beautifully preserved gardens and palaces with beautiful paintings and period furniture.

Novodevichy Convent

Danilov Monastery

Donskoy Monastery

Moscow's Subway

Stalin's Bunker

Moscow's Underground

 

History of Moscow

Prehistory
The oldest evidence of humans on the territory of Moscow dates from the Neolithic (Schukinskaya site on the Moscow River). Within the modern bounds of the city other late evidence was discovered (the burial ground of the Fatyanovskaya culture, the site of the Iron Age settlement of the Dyakovo culture), on the territory of the Kremlin, Sparrow Hills, Setun River and Kuntsevskiy forest park, etc.

In the 9th century, the Oka River was part of the Volga trade route, and the upper Volga watershed became an area of contact between the indigenous Finno-Ugric such as the Merya and the expanding Volga Bulgars (particularly the second son of Khan Kubrat who expanded the borders of the Old Great Bulgaria), Scandinavian (Varangians) and Slavic peoples.

The earliest East Slavic tribes recorded as having expanded to the upper Volga in the 9th to 10th centuries are the Vyatichi and Krivichi. The Moskva River was incorporated as part of Kievan Rus into the Suzdal in the 11th century. By AD 1100, a minor settlement had appeared on the mouth of the Neglinnaya River.

Early history (1147–1283)
The first known reference to Moscow dates from 1147 as a meeting place of Yuri Dolgoruky and Sviatoslav Olgovich. At the time it was a minor town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality.

In 1156, Knjaz Yury Dolgoruky fortified the town with a timber fence and a moat. In the course of the Mongol invasion of Rus, the Mongols under Batu Khan burned the city to the ground and killed its inhabitants.

The timber fort na Moskvě "on the Moscow river" was inherited by Daniel, the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky, in the 1260s, at the time considered the least valuable of his father's possessions. Daniel was still a child at the time, and the big fort was governed by tiuns (deputies), appointed by Daniel's paternal uncle, Yaroslav of Tver.

Daniel came of age in the 1270s and became involved in the power struggles of the principality with lasting success, siding with his brother Dmitry in his bid for the rule of Novgorod. From 1283 he acted as the ruler of an independent principality alongside Dmitry, who became Grand Duke of Vladimir. Daniel has been credited with founding the first Moscow monasteries, dedicated to the Lord's Epiphany and to Saint Daniel.

Grand Duchy (1283–1547)
Daniel I ruled Moscow as Grand Duke until 1303 and established it as a prosperous city that would eclipse its parent principality of Vladimir by the 1320s.

On the right bank of the Moskva River, at a distance of five miles (8.0 kilometres) from the Kremlin, not later than in 1282, Daniel founded the first monastery with the wooden church of St. Daniel-Stylite. Now it is the Danilov Monastery. Daniel died in 1303, at the age of 42. Before his death he became a monk and, according to his will, was buried in the cemetery of the St. Daniel Monastery.

Moscow was stable and prosperous for many years and attracted a large number of refugees from across Russia. The Rurikids maintained large landholdings by practicing primogeniture, whereby all land was passed to the eldest sons, rather than dividing it up among all sons. By 1304, Yury of Moscow contested with Mikhail of Tver for the throne of the principality of Vladimir. Ivan I eventually defeated Tver to become the sole collector of taxes for the Mongol rulers, making Moscow the capital of Vladimir-Suzdal. By paying high tribute, Ivan won an important concession from the Khan.

While Khan of the Golden Horde initially attempted to limit Moscow's influence, when the growth of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania began to threaten all of Russia, the Khan strengthened Moscow to counterbalance Lithuania, allowing it to become one of the most powerful cities in Russia. In 1380, prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow led a united Russian army to an important victory over the Mongols in the Battle of Kulikovo. Afterwards, Moscow took the leading role in liberating Russia from Mongol domination. In 1480, Ivan III had finally broken the Russians free from Tatar control, and Moscow became the capital of an empire that would eventually encompass all of Russia and Siberia, and parts of many other lands.

In 1462 Ivan III, (1440–1505) became Grand Prince of Moscow (then part of the medieval Muscovy state). He began fighting the Tatars, enlarged the territory of Muscovy, and enriched his capital city. By 1500 it had a population of 100,000 and was one of the largest cities in the world. He conquered the far larger principality of Novgorod to the north, which had been allied to the hostile Lithuanians. Thus he enlarged the territory sevenfold, from 430,000 to 2,800,000 square kilometres (170,000 to 1,080,000 square miles). He took control of the ancient "Novgorod Chronicle" and made it a propaganda vehicle for his regime.

 

The original Moscow Kremlin was built during the 14th century. It was reconstructed by Ivan, who in the 1480s invited architects from Renaissance Italy, such as Petrus Antonius Solarius, who designed the new Kremlin wall and its towers, and Marco Ruffo who designed the new palace for the prince. The Kremlin walls as they now appear are those designed by Solarius, completed in 1495. The Kremlin's Great Bell Tower was built in 1505–08 and augmented to its present height in 1600.

A trading settlement, or posad, grew up to the east of the Kremlin, in the area known as Zaradye (Зарядье). In the time of Ivan III, the Red Square, originally named the Hollow Field (Полое поле) appeared.

In 1508–1516, the Italian architect Aleviz Fryazin (Novy) arranged for the construction of a moat in front of the eastern wall, which would connect the Moskva and Neglinnaya and be filled in with water from Neglinnaya. This moat, known as the Alevizov moat and having a length of 541 metres (1,775 feet), width of 36 metres (118 feet), and a depth of 9.5 to 13 metres (31–43 feet) was lined with limestone and, in 1533, fenced on both sides with low, four-metre-thick (13-foot) cogged-brick walls.

 

Tsardom (1547–1721)

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the three circular defences were built: Kitay-gorod (Китай-город), the White City (Белый город) and the Earthen City (Земляной город). However, in 1547, two fires destroyed much of the town, and in 1571 the Crimean Tatars captured Moscow, burning everything except the Kremlin. The annals record that only 30,000 of 200,000 inhabitants survived.

The Crimean Tatars attacked again in 1591, but this time were held back by new defence walls, built between 1584 and 1591 by a craftsman named Fyodor Kon. In 1592, an outer earth rampart with 50 towers was erected around the city, including an area on the right bank of the Moscow River. As an outermost line of defence, a chain of strongly fortified monasteries was established beyond the ramparts to the south and east, principally the Novodevichy Convent and Donskoy, Danilov, Simonov, Novospasskiy, and Andronikov monasteries, most of which now house museums. From its ramparts, the city became poetically known as Bielokamennaya, the "White-Walled". The limits of the city as marked by the ramparts built in 1592 are now marked by the Garden Ring.

Three square gates existed on the eastern side of the Kremlin wall, which in the 17th century, were known as: Konstantino-Eleninsky, Spassky, Nikolsky (owing their names to the icons of Constantine and Helen, the Saviour and St. Nicholas that hung over them). The last two were directly opposite the Red Square, while the Konstantino-Elenensky gate was located behind Saint Basil's Cathedral.

The Russian famine of 1601–03 killed perhaps 100,000 in Moscow. From 1610 through 1612, troops of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth occupied Moscow, as its ruler Sigismund III tried to take the Russian throne. In 1612, the people of Nizhny Novgorod and other Russian cities conducted by prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin rose against the Polish occupants, besieged the Kremlin, and expelled them. In 1613, the Zemsky sobor elected Michael Romanov tsar, establishing the Romanov dynasty. The 17th century was rich in popular risings, such as the liberation of Moscow from the Polish–Lithuanian invaders (1612), the Salt Riot (1648), the Copper Riot (1662), and the Moscow Uprising of 1682.

During the first half of the 17th century, the population of Moscow doubled from roughly 100,000 to 200,000. It expanded beyond its ramparts in the later 17th century. By 1682, there were 692 households established north of the ramparts, by Ukrainians and Belarusians abducted from their hometowns in the course of Russo-Polish War (1654–1667). These new outskirts of the city came to be known as the Meshchanskaya sloboda, after Ruthenian meshchane "town people". The term meshchane (мещане) acquired pejorative connotations in 18th-century Russia and today means "petty bourgeois" or "narrow-minded philistine".

The entire city of the late 17th century, including the slobodas that grew up outside the city ramparts, are contained within what is today Moscow's Central Administrative Okrug.

Numerous disasters befell the city. The plague epidemics ravaged Moscow in 1570–1571, 1592 and 1654–1656. The plague killed upwards of 80% of the people in 1654–55. Fires burned out much of the wooden city in 1626 and 1648. In 1712 Peter the Great moved his government to the newly built Saint Petersburg on the Baltic coast. Moscow ceased to be Russia's capital, except for a brief period from 1728 to 1732 under the influence of the Supreme Privy Council.

 

Russian Empire (1721–1917)

After losing the status as capital of the empire, the population of Moscow at first decreased, from 200,000 in the 17th century to 130,000 in 1750. But after 1750, the population grew more than tenfold over the remaining duration of the Russian Empire, reaching 1.8 million by 1915.

By 1700, the building of cobbled roads had begun. In November 1730, the permanent street light was introduced, and by 1867 many streets had a gaslight. In 1883, near the Prechistinskiye Gates, arc lamps were installed. In 1741 Moscow was surrounded by a barricade 25 miles (40 kilometres) long, the Kamer-Kollezhskiy barrier, with 16 gates at which customs tolls were collected. Its line is traced today by a number of streets called val (“ramparts”). Between 1781 and 1804 the Mytischinskiy water-pipe (the first in Russia) was built. In 1813, following the destruction of much of the city during French occupation, a Commission for the Construction of the City of Moscow was established. It launched a great program of rebuilding, including a partial replanning of the city-centre. Among many buildings constructed or reconstructed at this time were the Grand Kremlin Palace and the Kremlin Armoury, the Moscow University, the Moscow Manege (Riding School), and the Bolshoi Theatre. In 1903 the Moskvoretskaya water-supply was completed.

In the early 19th century, the Arch of Konstantino-Elenensky gate was paved with bricks, but the Spassky Gate was the main front gate of the Kremlin and used for royal entrances. From this gate, wooden and (following the 17th-century improvements) stone bridges stretched across the moat. Books were sold on this bridge and stone platforms were built nearby for guns – "raskats". The Tsar Cannon was located on the platform of the Lobnoye mesto.

The road connecting Moscow with St. Petersburg, now the M10 highway, was completed in 1746, its Moscow end following the old Tver road, which had existed since the 16th century. It became known as Peterburskoye Schosse after it was paved in the 1780s. Petrovsky Palace was built in 1776–1780 by Matvey Kazakov as a railway station specifically reserved for royal journeys from Saint Petersburg to Moscow, while coaches for lesser classes arrived and departed from Vsekhsvyatskoye station.

When Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812, the Moscovites were evacuated. It is suspected that the Moscow fire was principally the effect of Russian sabotage. Napoleon's Grande Armée was forced to retreat and was nearly annihilated by the devastating Russian winter and sporadic attacks by Russian military forces. As many as 400,000 of Napoleon's soldiers died during this time.

Moscow State University was established in 1755. Its main building was reconstructed after the 1812 fire by Domenico Giliardi. The Moskovskiye Vedomosti newspaper appeared from 1756, originally in weekly intervals, and from 1859 as a daily newspaper.

The Arbat Street had been in existence since at least the 15th century, but it was developed into a prestigious area during the 18th century. It was destroyed in the fire of 1812 and was rebuilt completely in the early 19th century.

In the 1830s, general Alexander Bashilov planned the first regular grid of city streets north from Petrovsky Palace. Khodynka field south of the highway was used for military training. Smolensky Rail station (forerunner of present-day Belorussky Rail Terminal) was inaugurated in 1870. Sokolniki Park, in the 18th century the home of the tsar's falconers well outside Moscow, became contiguous with the expanding city in the later 19th century and was developed into a public municipal park in 1878. The suburban Savyolovsky Rail Terminal was built in 1902. In January 1905, the institution of the City Governor, or Mayor, was officially introduced in Moscow, and Alexander Adrianov became Moscow's first official mayor.

When Catherine II came to power in 1762, the city's filth and smell of sewage was depicted by observers as a symptom of disorderly life styles of lower-class Russians recently arrived from the farms. Elites called for improving sanitation, which became part of Catherine's plans for increasing control over social life. National political and military successes from 1812 through 1855 calmed the critics and validated efforts to produce a more enlightened and stable society. There was less talk about the smell and the poor conditions of public health. However, in the wake of Russia's failures in the Crimean War in 1855–56, confidence in the ability of the state to maintain order in the slums eroded, and demands for improved public health put filth back on the agenda.

 

Soviet period (1917–1991)

Following the success of the Russian Revolution of 1917, Vladimir Lenin, fearing possible foreign invasion, moved the capital from Saint Petersburg back to Moscow on March 5, 1918. The Kremlin once again became the seat of power and the political centre of the new state.

With the change in values imposed by communist ideology, the tradition of preservation of cultural heritage was broken. Independent preservation societies, even those that defended only secular landmarks such as Moscow-based OIRU were disbanded by the end of the 1920s. A new anti-religious campaign, launched in 1929, coincided with collectivization of peasants; destruction of churches in the cities peaked around 1932. In 1937 several letters were written to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to rename Moscow to "Stalindar" or "Stalinodar", one from an elderly pensioner whose dream was to "live in Stalinodar" and had selected the name to represent the "gift" (dar) of the genius of Stalin.[32] Stalin rejected this suggestion, and after it was suggested again to him by Nikolai Yezhov, he was "outraged", saying "What do I need this for?". This was following Stalin banning the renaming of places in his name in 1936.

During the Great Patriotic War, the Soviet State Committee of Defence and the General Staff of the Red Army were located in Moscow. In 1941, 16 divisions of the national volunteers (more than 160,000 people), 25 battalions (18,000 people) and 4 engineering regiments were formed among the Muscovites. In November 1941, German Army Group Centre was stopped at the outskirts of the city and then driven off in the course of the Battle of Moscow. Many factories were evacuated, together with much of the government, and from October 20 the city was declared to be in a state of siege. Its remaining inhabitants built and manned antitank defences, while the city was bombarded from the air. On May 1, 1944 a medal "For the defence of Moscow" and in 1947 another medal "In memory of the 800th anniversary of Moscow" were instituted.

Both German and Soviet casualties during the battle of Moscow have been a subject of debate, as various sources provide somewhat different estimates. Total casualties between September 30, 1941, and January 7, 1942, are estimated to be between 248,000 and 400,000 for the Wehrmacht and between 650,000 and 1,280,000 for the Red Army.

During the postwar years, there was a serious housing crisis, solved by the invention of high-rise apartments. There are over 11,000 of these standardised and prefabricated apartment blocks, housing the majority of Moscow's population, making it by far the city with the most high-rise buildings. Apartments were built and partly furnished in the factory before being raised and stacked into tall columns. The popular Soviet-era comic film Irony of Fate parodies this construction method.

The city of Zelenograd was built in 1958 at 37 kilometres (23 miles) from the city centre to the north-west, along the Leningradskoye Shosse, and incorporated as one of Moscow's administrative okrugs. Moscow State University moved to its campus on Sparrow Hills in 1953.

In 1959 Nikita Khrushchev launched his anti-religious campaign. By 1964 over 10 thousand churches out of 20 thousand were shut down (mostly in rural areas) and many were demolished. Of 58 monasteries and convents operating in 1959, only sixteen remained by 1964; of Moscow's fifty churches operating in 1959, thirty were closed and six demolished.

On May 8, 1965 due to the actual 20th anniversary of the victory in World War II Moscow was awarded a title of the Hero City. In 1980 it hosted the Summer Olympic Games.

The MKAD (ring road) was opened in 1961. It had four lanes running 109 kilometres (68 miles) along the city borders. The MKAD marked the administrative boundaries of the city of Moscow until the 1980s, when outlying suburbs beyond the ring road began to be incorporated. In 1980, it hosted the Summer Olympic Games, which were boycotted by the United States and several other Western countries due to the Soviet Union's involvement in Afghanistan in late 1979. In 1991 Moscow was the scene of a coup attempt (known as pootch) by conservative communists opposed to the liberal reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev.

 

Recent history (1991–present)

When the USSR was dissolved in the same year, Moscow remained the capital of the Russian SFSR (on December 25, 1991 the Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation). Since then, a market economy has emerged in Moscow, producing an explosion of Western-style retailing, services, architecture, and lifestyles.

 

The city has continued to grow during the 1990s to 2000s, its population rising from below nine to above ten million. Mason and Nigmatullina argue that Soviet-era urban-growth controls (before 1991) produced controlled and sustainable metropolitan development, typified by the greenbelt built in 1935. Since then, however, there has been a dramatic growth of low-density suburban sprawl, created by a heavy demand for single-family dwellings as opposed to crowded apartments. In 1995–1997 the MKAD ring road was widened from the initial four to ten lanes. In December 2002 Bulvar Dmitriya Donskogo became the first Moscow Metro station that opened beyond the limits of MKAD. The Third Ring Road, intermediate between the early 19th-century Garden Ring and the Soviet-era outer ring road, was completed in 2004. The greenbelt is becoming more and more fragmented, and satellite cities are appearing at the fringe. Summer dachas are being converted into year-round residences, and with the proliferation of automobiles there is heavy traffic congestion. Multiple old churches and other examples of architectural heritage that had been demolished during the Stalin era have been restored, such as Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. In 2010s Moscow's Administration has launched some long duration projects like the Moja Ulitsa (in English: My Street) urban redevelopment program or the Residency renovation one.

 


Transportation

How to get there

By plane
Moscow has four passenger airports. All of them are taken far beyond the Moscow Ring Road:

Sheremetyevo (SVO) - trains from Belorussky railway station, minibuses and buses from the metro station 2 Rechnoy Vokzal or 7 Planernaya
Domodedovo (DME) - trains from Paveletsky railway station, minibus and buses from 2 Domodedovo
Vnukovo (VKO) - trains from Kievsky Station, minibuses and buses from 1 Yugo-Zapadnaya (South-West)
Zhukovsky (ZIA) - buses from 7 Kotelniki, by bus to the railway platform Otdyx and to Kazan station
The airport Bykovo is closed, the passenger terminal is demolished.

 

Trains are the most convenient, although far from the cheapest way to get to the three main airports. From Paveletsky (to Domodedovo), Belorussky (to Sheremetyevo) and Kievsky (to Vnukovo) railway stations, Aeroexpress trains depart from Moscow railway stations and continue to the airport without stopping. In essence, these are modified electric trains, in which chairs and luggage racks are installed. Some trains have air conditioning and slow Wi-Fi. Aeroexpress runs at intervals of 30–60 minutes from 5 am to 1 am. At peak hours, they are packed to capacity, sometimes you have to go standing up. Although the speed of travel and the level of comfort do not correspond well to the rather large price of a ticket, there is simply no reasonable alternative to Aeroexpress (except Domodedovo, where regular trains go at long intervals): taxis and minibuses get stuck in Moscow traffic jams, making the trip to the airport unpredictable. For Moscow city buses, the problem of Moscow traffic jams was largely solved by creating dedicated lanes on the Leningradsky, Kievsky and Kashirsky highways. Aeroexpress usually go on schedule. If they are late, they do not exceed 5-10 minutes. On the Paveletsky direction it is also possible to get to Domodedovo Airport by a regular and cheaper train.

Tickets are sold at live ticket offices and ticket machines that accept credit cards. The machines sell one-way tickets (500 rubles), round-trip tickets (1000 rubles, a trip back within 30 days; they have no practical sense) and a business class (1000 rubles: a ticket with a seat in a separate luxury carriage). The ticket offices also have family tickets (990 rubles for two adults and three children) and various combinations of Aeroexpress + Metro, which are slightly more expensive than Aeroexpress and Metro separately, but will be useful to those who do not want to waste time on the inevitable turn in the station ticket offices. Do not buy season tickets for 10-20-50 trips. They are designed only for one person and operate for 30-60-90 days, and therefore do not make any sense, unless, of course, you do not go to the airport three times a week. Tickets at a reduced price of 420 rubles are sold on the Aeroexpress website, through the mobile application and when paying with a PayPass card on the turnstile.

Taxi - the eternal problem of Moscow airports. At the exit you will be attacked by private traders offering and even imposing their services. You need to bargain hard and unceremoniously with private traders: in this case you will leave for 1,500–2,000 rubles, depending on the area. Drivers themselves will call arbitrary, usually exorbitant amounts, which are often purchased by gullible foreigners. Be sure to negotiate the price before the trip, and better - right in the terminal.

Cheaper to order a taxi from the city. All companies offer fixed fares to the airport, amounting to 700-1500 rubles, depending on the area. To this amount will add a fee of 200-300 rubles, if you want the driver to wait for you at the airport. Usually, drivers prefer to call up to the client and drive up to the terminal after you go outside. This is somewhat inconvenient and delays the process. There is no centralized taxi service at airports. Racks "official taxi" will save you from frank sell, but the prices there are still above average. In any case, Moscow airports are far from the city, so you should always pay at a fixed rate: time-based or meter-to-month payment simply does not make sense. Moscow taxi drivers know a thousand and one ways to get around traffic jams, but they still get into them, so it's better to use the metro and Aeroexpress during peak hours.

Transit between Moscow airports is a pleasure below average. All three airports are approximately equidistant from each other, the distance between them is 80-90 km, so even at night a taxi will travel for more than an hour, and it costs at least 1,500 rubles (2014) when ordering from the city. At the airport, they usually ask for from 2500 rubles. Considering Moscow traffic jams, it is better to use a longer and more tiresome, but reliable, route Aeroexpress — metro — Aeroexpress, which takes a little less than two hours and will cost you about 1,000 rubles.

 

By train

Moscow is the largest railway junction. From here you can go by train to almost any city in Russia, most of the CIS countries, a number of European countries, as well as to Mongolia, North Korea and China. However, international trains (with the exception of Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova and, for lovers of the beautiful, Central Asia) are deprived of practical meaning, since the plane will be slightly more expensive, inexpressibly more comfortable and many times faster. The same applies to the Far East.

In addition to long-distance trains, the largest network of electric trains in Russia is tied to Moscow. Among them there are both regular and express trains to the cities of the Moscow Region and neighboring regional centers. All trains, except for express trains, stop at stations combined with metro stations.

In Moscow, 9 railway stations. Seven of them are combined with the metro stations of the Koltsevaya line and serve the vast majority of long-distance directions. Lightly loaded Rizhsky and Savyolovsky railway stations are removed from the Koltsevaya metro line by one station. The names of many stations immediately give an idea of ​​where to go from them, but there are a number of unobvious moments. Moreover, the city does not have a rigid system that binds the station to a certain direction: trains to the south can even go from Belorussky railway station, if there is no free space for others. Be sure to check which station is listed on the ticket.

 

5 Leningradsky railway station. Located on Komsomolskaya Square (the so-called Three Station Squares), 1 5 Komsomolskaya, trains coming from the north-west direction (Tver, St. Petersburg, Petrozavodsk, Murmansk, Pskov, Novgorod and others) arrive at the station. International trains come from Helsinki (Finland) and Tallinn (Estonia). Electric trains direction to Tver, Konakovo, Klin and others.
6 Kazan station. Located on Komsomolskaya Square, 1 5 Komsomolskaya, trains coming from the east and southeast (Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Penza, Ulyanovsk, Ufa, Orenburg, Barnaul, Chelyabinsk and other cities) arrive at the station. Also, trains arrive from BAM stations. International trains come from Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. Trains to Ryazan, Kolomna, Yegoryevsk, Shatura and other direction stations.
7 Yaroslavsky station. Located on Komsomolskaya Square, 1 5 Komsomolskaya, trains arriving at the station follow from the north (Arkhangelsk, Syktyvkar, Vologda, Vorkuta, Kirov and others) and east from Siberia and the Far East (Transsib and BAM stations). International trains come from Ulan Bator (Mongolia), Beijing (China) and Pyongyang (DPRK). Trains to Mytishchi, Sergiev Posad, Aleksandrov, Rostov and Yaroslavl.
8 Kursky Station, st. Zemlyanoy val, 29 (3 5 Kurskaya, 10 Chkalovskaya). The most difficult of the Moscow stations. From it, trains depart at once in several directions: Kursk, Gorky, Leningradsky (passing trains from St. Petersburg), as well as Smolensk and Riga (through trains through Moscow-Kalanchevskaya). For this reason, the railway station has through paths and dead ends, and with independent numbering, i.e. 5 way and 5 dead end - not the same thing. From the dead ends, to the south of the station building, train trains of the Gorky direction are sent.
The old building, built in 1896, during the years of stagnation, was supplemented with a faceless gray box that looks towards the Garden Ring, and the old building, respectively, is drawn to the paths. Inside it is one big and long building, but the difference between the old and the new is clearly visible. On the ground floor (0 floor) suburban ticket offices and a huge number of inexpensive (by Moscow standards) eateries with pies, pancakes, potatoes. On the first floor of the long-distance ticket office, and behind them, in the old building, are several large waiting rooms. Here, the 24-hour dining room Dobroe Delo, located in one of the old halls with stucco work, is, if not the best, then certainly the most interesting place for a snack, the hottest here is 150-200 rubles (2014). On the second floor, which is a "balcony", there are several beautiful and expensive places like the restaurant Il Patio and even a wine bar. Manual lockers are located on the ground floor (170 rubles / day), there are also modern automatic cells in one of the waiting rooms (110 rubles / h, 250 rubles / day). In addition to everything already listed at the Kursk railway station, there are such uncharacteristic objects for Russian railway stations as a laundry and a shoe store. In general, the situation is more pleasant and well-groomed than at most other Moscow railway stations. Free wifi.
From the second floor, the gallery leads to the Atrium shopping center, located in front of the station, which is a typical Moscow shopping center with expensive shops. On the lower floor there is a supermarket "Crossroads", on the 3rd floor there is a food court with all the options of fast food you can think of. There are several restaurants there.
9 Kievsky Station. Located near the metro station 3 4 5 Kievskaya. Serves trains of the south-west direction from the direction of Bryansk. On international trains you can get from the territory of Ukraine (Kiev, Odessa, Lviv and others), Moldova, Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia. Electric trains go to Naro-Fominsk, Maloyaroslavets, Kaluga and other direction stations. The station is served by aeroexpress to Vnukovo airport.
10 Savyolovsky station. One of the two stations located on the side of the Koltsevaya metro line, metro station 9 Savyolovskaya. Recently, the station does not serve long-distance trains. On trains, including express trains, you can come to Moscow from the northern direction from Dubna, Dmitrov, Savyolovo.

11 Belorussky Station. Located near the metro station 2 5 Belorusskaya. Serves trains mainly western directions. The most "international" station of the capital. From the territory of Russia to Belorussky railway station you can come from Smolensk and Kaliningrad. After the transfer of trains from Savyolovsky station, passenger trains leave from here to Uglich and Rybinsk. The station is the final destination for trips from Berlin, Warsaw, Paris, Nice, Prague, Minsk, Brest and other European cities, often trains are formed from trailer cars from different directions. From the station, trains also depart in the direction of Odintsovo, Kubinka, Zvenigorod, Mozhaisk, Gagarin and Vyazma. The station is served by Aeroexpress to Sheremetyevo-2.
12 Paveletsky railway station. Located on the square of the same name on the Garden Ring, near the metro station 2 5 Paveletskaya. Long-distance trains go to the southeast to the Volga region (Saratov, Volgograd, Astrakhan), to the Caucasus (Stavropol, Baku, Makhachkala). By train you can get to Kashira, Necklaces, Uzunovo. Aeroexpress follows to Domodedovo Airport (journey time: 40-45 minutes).
13 Riga station. One of the two stations located on the side of the Koltsevaya metro line, metro station 6 Rizhskaya. Recently, the station has a small number of serviced long-distance trains. It is the final destination for trains from Velikie Luki, Posini and Riga (Latvia). From the Rizhsky railway station, electric trains head westward toward Volokolamsk, Shakhovskaya and other stations.
Sometimes it is convenient to get on electric trains not at train stations, but at distant metro stations: Dmitrovskaya and Tushinskaya for the Riga direction, Timiryazevskaya for Savelovsky, Elektrozavodskaya, Aviamotornaya and Vykhino for Kazan and Ryazan, Nagatinskaya and Warsawavskaya for Paveletsky, Textile workers and Tsaritsyno for Kursky, Begovaya and Kazan Fili for Belarusian. Long-distance trains, as a rule, depart from the stations, while for nearby directions, there are through trains from the Kursk direction to Riga and Belarus, as well as from Belarus to Savyolovsky.

 

By bus

The main point of departure of buses in Moscow is the Central Bus Station (3 Schelkovskaya), in addition, buses leave from most railway stations (the directions roughly coincide with the most popular railway routes, for example, Lipetsk, Voronezh, Volgograd from Paveletsky Station, Rostov-on-Don, Stavropol from the Kazan station, etc.).

International bus routes cover the nearest countries: Ukraine (Kiev, Odessa), Poland, the Baltic States, Belarus, etc.

Part of the suburban routes goes from the metro stations, among which should be noted station 6 VDNH (Yaroslavl direction), 1 South-West and some others.

Bus stations in Moscow:
14 Mezhdunarodny Avtovokzal - International Bus Station (South Gate), MKAD, 19th km (2 Krasnogvardeyskaya, 2 Alma-Atinskaya, 2 Domodedovskaya, 2 Tsaritsyno, 10 Bratislavskaya, 10 Marino, 7 Kotelniki (travel by free route taxis)). ☎ +7 (499) 940-08-43, 8 (800) 200-08-41. The new project of the metropolitan government, aimed at optimizing passenger traffic. As of 2015, the development of the bus station is at an early stage.
15 Central Bus Station (Schelkovsky), Schelkovskoe Highway 75 (3 Schelkovskaya). ☎ +7 (495) 468-04-00. The main bus station in Moscow and the largest in Russia.
16 Krasnogvardeyskaya Bus Station, 46 Orekhovy Boulevard (2 Krasnogvardeyskaya 10 Zyablikovo). ☎ +7 (495) 395-54-87, +7 (495) 395-89-35, +7 (495) 395-88-35.
17 Teply Stan Bus Station, Novoyasenevsky Avenue, 4 (6 Teply Stan). ☎ +7 (495) 753-55-55.
18 Bus station at Paveletsky railway station, Dubininskaya street, 7 (2 Paveletskaya).
19 Bus station "VDNH", Mira Avenue, VDNH (VVC), Northern entrance (6 VDNH). ☎ +7 (495) 760-27-44.
20 Bus station Kotelniki, Novoryazanskoye Highway 1 (7 Kotelniki). ☎ +7 (495) 371-98-60.
21 Domodedovskaya Bus Station, Orekhovy Boulevard, 14g (2 Domodedovskaya). ☎ +7 (495) 397-06-00, +7 (495) 399-90-27. Buses and route taxis depart from the bus station to Domodedovo Airport.
22 Partizanskaya Bus Station, Izmailovskoye Highway 71 (3 Partizanskaya). ☎ +7 (495) 166-11-79.
23 Kuzminki Bus Station, Zhigulevskaya Street, 7 (7 Kuzminki). ☎ +7 (495) 657-74-70.
24 River Station Bus Station, Festivalnaya Street 2a (2 Rechnoy vokzal). ☎ +7 (495) 457-11-11. Buses and route taxis depart from the bus station to Sheremetyevo Airport
25 Bus station "Tushinskaya", travel Stratonautov, 9 (7 Tushinskaya). ☎ +7 (495) 490-24-24.
26 Glider Bus Station, 7 Planernaya (7 Planernaya). Buses and route taxis depart from the bus station to Sheremetyevo Airport
27 Bus Station Yugo-Zapadnaya, Vernadsky Avenue, 86 (1 Yugo-Zapadnaya). ☎ +7 (495) 434-82-27. Buses and route taxis depart from the bus station to Vnukovo Airport.
International flights are operated from Schelkovskogo bus station, Teply Stan and some others.

 

By car

Moscow is the beginning of more than a dozen international, federal and regional routes. However, driving into the capital, you can probably get stuck in traffic, so you should avoid the most likely time of their occurrence near the Moscow Ring Road (rush hours): on weekdays (in the morning to the city, in the evening from the city), on Saturday morning from the city, Sunday evening to the city. In order to have time to leave before the formation of the morning traffic jam, you need to have time to drive until 7 am, in order to wait out the evening one - you need to go after 10-11 pm. You can try to drive to the evening traffic (about 17 hours on weekdays, 15 hours on Friday and Sunday), but the traffic during the day is not much weakened, so you should count on delays from an hour to three to reach the Moscow Ring Road from the immediate vicinity. In addition, a number of tracks, in particular, Yaroslavl highway has narrowings on the first 10-20 km from the Moscow Ring Road, which additionally holds back traffic.

The main directions of the routes:

M1 (Minskoe highway) - from Europe, Brest, Minsk, Smolensk
M2 (Simferopol highway) - from the Crimea, Kharkov, Belgorod, Kursk, Orel, Tula
M3 (Kiev highway) - from southern Europe, western and central Ukraine, Bryansk, Kaluga
M4 (Kashirskoye Highway) - from the Caucasus, from Rostov-on-Don, Voronezh, east of the Tula region
Starokashirskoye Highway - from Domodedovo Airport
M5 and M7 - depending on the direction - from Siberia and the Far East
M5 (Novoryazanskoye Highway) - also from Kazakhstan and Central Asia, Chelyabinsk, Ufa, Samara, Saratov, Penza, Ryazan
Ryazan highway - from Lyuberets - old highway M5
M7 (Entuziastov Highway, then Gorky Highway) - from Ekaterinburg, Izhevsk, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Vladimir
M6 (merges with M4 in Kashira) - from Astrakhan, Volgograd, Tambov, the south of the Ryazan region
M8 (Yaroslavl highway) - from the north-west of Russia, from Vologda, Yaroslavl and Kostroma
M9 (Novorizhskoe highway) - from Lithuania, Latvia, Great Bow, Rzhev
M10 (Leningradskoye Highway) - from Finland, St. Petersburg, Veliky Novgorod, Tver
A101 (Kaluzhskoe highway) - from Roslavl, Obninsk, Troitsk
A103 (Schelkovskoe highway) - from Schelkov, Chernogolovka, Fryanova
A104 (Dmitrovskoye Highway) - from the eastern regions of the Tver region, Kimr, Dubna, Dmitrov
If there is no strict need to travel around Moscow by car, it is easier and safer to leave it on the outskirts of the city, at the end metro stations and then use public transport.

 

On the ship

Moscow is called the “port of the five seas”, which means that through the canal systems the Moscow River is connected with the White, Baltic, Caspian, Azov and Black seas. The city has two ports - the main North, and the rarely used South.

Passenger shipments from abroad are not carried out. On cruise ships you can get to Moscow mainly from St. Petersburg.

 

Transport Around Moscow

Moscow has several independent, but partially integrated with each other transport systems:

Metro, Monorail and Moscow Central Ring
City street transport (buses, trolley buses and trams)
Suburban train
There is no official route planner in Moscow. Of the informal ones, the Yandex-maps service works slightly better than others. Yandex-Metro, Yandex-Transport and Yandex-Trains mobile applications are equally in demand, covering various aspects of Moscow transport.

With the exception of early morning, late evening and weekends, Moscow transport is heavily overloaded. If ground transportation is in traffic jams, then in the metro traffic jams arise from passengers, so it is impossible to predict the trip time with confidence, no matter what path you take. If you need to get there on time, and you are not very familiar with Moscow transport, you must get out in advance.

For a long time, ground transportation in all respects was inferior to the metro, and even one station was more convenient to go underground than by bus or trolleybus. The city authorities are trying to remedy this situation by launching the main routes that follow the selected lanes, and on major highways, ground transportation began to go relatively quickly, although it still has no visible advantages over the metro.

Opening hours: Moscow transport operates from 5:30 am to 1:00 am. In the metro at 1:00, the transitions between the lines are closed, and the last train leaves from the last station, so you can get out of the metro after 1 am. At night, you can only travel around Moscow by taxi or special night buses.

Maps and charts: in 2016, a city electric train was launched, and Mosgortrans engaged in a radical reform of land transport routes. For this reason, any maps, charts and atlases have lost all relevance, new ones will not be available until 2017. Use mobile applications and charts in subway cars - in an era of great change, only they are updated in a timely manner.

 

Tickets

In Moscow, there are single tickets for all types of transport, except for suburban electric trains on directions that are not included in the MCD network. Tickets for 1-2 trips are very disadvantageous. If you use transport only once, pay for the fare with a contactless card, and for all those who use Moscow transport at least occasionally, it is better to immediately purchase a Troika card.

The main types of tickets (prices 2022):
The Troika card works on the principle of an electronic wallet. By putting money on the card, you can pay for trips at a price of 46 ₽. If you are traveling with a transfer, then pay 46 + 23 = 69 ₽ - this is the “90 minutes” tariff, which includes an unlimited number of trips by land transport and no more than one trip by metro within 90 minutes from the moment of the first passage through the turnstile. The deposit value of the card: 50 ₽. Troika is the most convenient option for those who come to Moscow for a few days and do not use transport very often. You can also charge travel cards on the Troika card, but it’s easier to buy them as a separate card (without a deposit value) so as not to get confused.
A daily pass costs 265 ₽, it is valid for 24 hours from the moment of the first pass; ticket for three days - 500 ₽.
Payment by contactless bank card: 51 ₽ per trip
Tickets for 1-2 trips cost 61 and 122 ₽, respectively

Land transport drivers sell only tickets for 1 trip for 61 ₽.

Metro ticket offices are open all the time, from opening to closing. Kiosks selling tickets for land transport are less and less common in the city, they have an unpredictable mode of operation, most often only during the day. There are ticket machines at all metro and city train stations, and they are gradually appearing at major ground transport stops. The vending machines accept cash (notes no larger than 500 rubles) and credit cards, allow you to charge a Troika card or buy a ticket for 1-2 trips.

You can top up your Troika balance at Aeroexpress ticket offices, ticket offices and vending machines at suburban train stations (including those in the Moscow region), some ATMs and payment terminals. You can also replenish the balance of Troika and write any tickets to it from Android phones with NFC support: there are already several applications for this, of which Troika. Verification and replenishment. For everyone else, online payment is also possible, but it requires the procedure of “data recording” at special terminals in metro lobbies, which is of no practical use.

Underground
The Lenin Moscow Metro is not only transport, but also an architectural landmark that is not obvious to tourists, and you need to take at least a couple of hours to see it. Almost all central stations are architectural monuments.

As of October 2021, there are 16 lines in the metro, distinguished by numbers (from 1 to 15 plus line 8A) or by colors on the diagrams: the first option is actively used for navigation, and the second - in oral speech. Most of the lines are radial, but there are also circular ones: the 5th - ring (ordinary underground metro), 11/11A - forklift line, called the Big Circle Line (BKL), which potentially by 2023 will become the largest circular metro line in the world; 14 - also ring, but ground (Moscow Central Ring, it is also a "city train"). There are also exotic: the 13th line is a monorail in the north of the city, the 12th line is a ground ("light") metro in the southern regions.

Traffic intervals: during peak hours from 95 to 150 seconds, during peak times - 2.5-3 minutes, late in the evening - 5-6 minutes. Approximate estimate of travel time between stations: 2.5-3 minutes per stage, 3-4 minutes per transition. Morning rush hour in the Moscow metro is from 7:00 to 9:30, evening - from 17:00 to 19:30. If you ride the subway at rush hour not on weekends, think over your route in advance, otherwise you will simply be blown away by the flow of people, and you run the risk of leaving not at all where you were going.

Entrance and exit to the metro is carried out through turnstiles. Tickets must be applied only at the entrance. Exit turnstiles are designed to prevent entry into the subway through them. Metal detectors are installed at most stations, and on rare occasions, police officers briefly check the contents of backpacks and large bags.

When using escalators, stand on the right and walk on the left. During rush hours on the escalators going up, it is recommended to occupy both sides - i.e. stand on the escalator both to the right and to the left, this increases the overall capacity of the escalators. The attendant at the escalator at this time regularly gives the appropriate instruction.

 

Most metro trains follow a route from one terminus to another, making it easy to navigate. The exception is the Filyovskaya line - trains from the center after the Kyiv station diverge into different branches, so before boarding the train, you should make sure that it is traveling in the right direction. A feature of the Filyovskaya line is also the fact that the turnover at the end stations of both of its branches takes place directly at the stations without stopping at the turnaround dead ends, therefore, along it, as well as along the circle line, you can continuously ride and stay in the car until the train leaves at the depot.

All metro trains have free Wi-Fi with authorization by mobile phone number. 3G and 4G networks are available only at the stations and in the tunnels of the Circle Line.

One of the significant disadvantages of the subway compared to other modes of transport is the ban on the transport of bicycles, with the exception of folding or disassembled (for example, with the wheel removed). As a rule, the guards in the booths at the turnstiles and the police behind the turnstile line strictly monitor and do not allow the passage of cyclists. Bicycles can be transported on the MCC. Scooters can be transported without restrictions.

In the metro, photography is allowed without a flash and a tripod, which does not interfere with the movement and flow of people. Video filming formally requires permission, but in practice it does not cause claims if it is carried out with ordinary cameras or small cameras.

The Moscow Central Ring (MCC) is part of the metro structure, but is completely ground-based and is served by Lastochka electric trains. Most transfers are overland: you need to exit the metro, and then go through the turnstiles again - in this case, the ticket remains valid for 90 minutes, a new ticket is not needed. Not all transfers indicated on the map are equally convenient. In some cases, the MCC station and the metro lobby are really close to each other, but sometimes you need to walk 5-10 minutes, which makes the “transfer” rather conditional.

Trains run at intervals of 4-5 minutes during rush hours, 6-10 minutes outside rush hour. A full circle around the ring takes about 90 minutes. Although the MCC route passes through not the most touristy places in Moscow, a trip around the ring provides an interesting opportunity to see the city from an unusual angle: along the way there will be many beautiful views of Moscow skyscrapers, the Moscow City complex and other attractions. Also pay attention to the old station buildings of the beginning of the 20th century: now they are not used for passenger traffic, but remained from the Moscow District Railway opened in 1908, along the route of which the MCC passed.


Moscow Central Diameters (MCD) are electric train lines connecting the suburbs through the center of Moscow. At the end of 2019, the first two diameters were launched, indicated on the diagrams and signs in Latin letters D-1 (Lobnya-Odintsovo) and D-2 (Nakhabino-Podolsk). Their operating mode coincides with the MCC and the metro, comfortable Ivolga trains run at a frequency of 6 to 15 minutes without day breaks, transfer to the metro and the MCC is free for 90 minutes.

The Moscow monorail was opened in 2004 as an experimental project and has not yet recovered from this state. The only line with six stations is suitable only for looking at the Ostankino Tower and VDNKh from a height. Trains run from 8:00 to 20:00 with an interval of half an hour.

City street transport
In Moscow, street passenger transport is widespread: diesel buses, electric buses and trams. It operates under the Moscow Transport brand: routes are operated by different carrier companies, and the rules of travel and payment are the same. Most of the buses and all trams in Moscow are operated by Mosgortrans.

Entrance to all doors. The ticket must be affixed to the NFC sign (not the display) on the validator (trip cancellation information can be checked by controllers via a portable validator). Validators are located at the doors.

There are two tariff zones A and B in the service area of ​​Moscow Transport: zone A covers Moscow itself within the Moscow Ring Road and some adjacent areas of Moscow and the region; zone B - administratively related to Moscow, the southwestern part of the Moscow region (Troitsky district) and the city of Zelenograd. Tickets for each zone are not valid in the other, but there are universal tickets for both. In the city of Zelenograd, belonging to zone B, tickets and zones A are valid.

From time to time, controllers may visit the bus or tram. Controllers are of two types - controllers-cashiers of Mosgortrans and state controllers-auditors of the GKU "Organizer of Transportation". Controllers of the first type sell tickets to stowaways and, in case of refusal to purchase, are asked to get off the bus. Controllers of the second type do not sell tickets and have the authority to impose fines for ticketless travel in the amount of 1,000 rubles; when using someone else's preferential card, it is confiscated and a fine of 2,500 rubles is carried out.

 

Bus
The bus is the most common type of public transport in Moscow. In Moscow and the Moscow region, there are two networks of bus routes that differ in the payment system. All Moscow buses operate under the Moscow Transport brand - in most cases they are dark blue in color. Regional buses always connect Moscow with the cities of the Moscow region and are operated by Mostransavto or other carriers. Tickets for each network are different: for Moscow Transport - Troika and United, for Mostransavto - Strelka or single roll tickets.

Some highways have dedicated lanes for buses, which allows them to travel faster, but often these lanes are occupied by cars during peak hours, and taxis are allowed to use the dedicated lanes at any time of the day. In the late 2010s, bus traffic jams decreased, now they are only noticeable during peak hours, and not the whole working day.

There are several accelerated radial routes that pass along the largest roads and connect the central part with the outskirts of the city. These buses pass by a significant number of stops, their numbers begin with the letter "e" (a Cyrillic letter, but it means express).

At night, about twenty bus and electric bus routes run in Moscow. The numbers of these routes, as a rule, begin with the letter "n", and have intervals usually every half an hour. It is convenient to use such buses as an alternative to the closed metro, since there are no traffic jams at the moment.

There are no turnstiles and inspectors on Mostransauto buses, the Strelka card with the possibility of replenishment for a certain number of trips or for a month is purchased at bus stations, single tickets are purchased from the traveling inspector-cashier or, in his absence, from the driver at the entrance. Also, you can often pay for the fare with a regular bank card.

At some stops (marked “on demand”), buses stop only if there are people on them or when a passenger who is about to get off gives a signal to the driver (exit signal buttons are located on the handrails and above the doors). At the same time, some accelerated bus routes always pass by some stops, and on demand, the bus will not stop at them anyway.

In addition to Mosgortrans and Mostransavto buses, there are also special buses and fixed-route taxis connecting metro stations with various shopping centers. These buses usually carry advertising of this shopping center, travel in them in most cases is free. Also, in the event of the closure of metro stations for repairs, there are temporary free bus routes (usually “KM” or “M”) that run between the closed and the nearest open station.

Tram
Tram routes have historical roots. Some lines with the development of Moscow cease to exist, others are reborn again. The tram forms two isolated networks: the main network and the Strogino network in the northwest, served by the Krasnopresnensky tram depot. The advantage of the tram is its independence from traffic jams, if the tracks are laid separately from the roadway, but it should be remembered that trams can also stand en masse in case of problems or accidents on the line.

Some tram lines run in the middle of highways and do not have a right of way for pedestrians between the tram tracks and the highway, while the tram traffic area is often used as a carriageway for vehicles, and tram stops on such lines are on the sidewalk. In this case, there is a threat of being hit by vehicles, so you should not cross the road to board the tram before it arrives, making sure that there are no moving vehicles, and before leaving the tram at such a stop, you should look out of it and also make sure that the cars are not moving.

It is advisable to bypass trams when crossing double-track lines with multidirectional traffic from the front, so that the driver would see you, and at the turning end stations, where several unidirectional tracks pass in parallel, from behind. In any case, before crossing multi-track lines near the car, you should carefully look at the other track and make sure that there is no moving tram or other transport.

commuter trains
Electric trains departing from Moscow railway stations to the region can also be used as an efficient means of transportation around Moscow. For the most part, electric trains run in radial directions from dead-end stations, but there are also transit trains between Kursk and Riga and Belorussky-Savyolovsky directions. Within the city there are about 8-10 stations in each direction.

 

The Troika card is not valid on suburban trains, you need to buy single tickets. The fare within the city is 32 rubles (2016). The price of tickets from the Moscow tariff zone to a station outside the region is determined by the number of tariff zones crossed, and in some cases, if you are traveling from a station within Moscow near its border, it is more profitable to buy a longer ticket to the region (for example, a ticket from Novaya to Lyubertsy will be 20.5 rubles against 32 to the nearest Frazer platform). There are both ordinary electric trains and twice as expensive "satellites" and express trains.

The entrance and exit to many suburban platforms, especially those located near metro stations, is equipped with turnstiles. High-speed trains have their own turnstile pavilions, which, as a rule, do not allow passengers on regular tickets to pass. Some suburban stations do not have a free transition between platforms, so in order to avoid buying extra tickets or crossing the tracks, it is better to check the correct platform before entering the station. There are also stations without turnstiles and without working ticket offices. If you do not have a ticket, you can buy it from the controllers, but with an additional surcharge (50 rubles on regular and 100 on fast trains), which is not charged only if you did not sit at the station without a working ticket office. If you arrive at a station with turnstiles without a ticket, to enter the city through the turnstiles, you can buy an exit ticket at a special exit ticket office, however, its price at some of these ticket offices (especially station ones) is speculative and can significantly exceed the price of travel within the city .

A one-time ticket for an electric train is a thin piece of paper with a barcode or barcode for passing through the turnstiles (the barcode is pushed up under a red light), similar to a store receipt. As a result, it often gets lost. However, it should be kept until the end of the trip, because without a ticket, you will not pass through the exit turnstile (if any). At the entrance ticket office, you can also buy a mourner's card for a 100 ruble deposit, which allows you to pass through the turnstiles for free with the ability to exit the same station within 30 minutes. To return the deposit, you must return the card to the cash desk of the station no later than 1 hour later.

There is a frequent MCD service on some lines, and some stations accept some Moscow Transport tickets, but the fare system is still unclear, for reliability, buy a single ticket as for a regular train.

By car
Travelers are unlikely to need to travel around Moscow by car, since all areas of interest (as well as areas of no interest) are accessible by public transport. On weekdays, the city is entirely in traffic jams, starting as early as 7 am and ending closer to midnight. On Saturdays the situation is better, but there are also enough traffic jams. Sunday is the most favorable day for car trips, but this does not mean that the roads are free.

There are three large ring highways in Moscow - the Garden Ring, the Third Transport Ring (TTK) and the Moscow Ring Road (MKAD). The last two do not have a single traffic light, which, however, does not save you from traffic jams. All radial highways contain at least 3-4 lanes, sometimes they are urban freeways with tunnels and overpasses, in other cases they are ordinary wide avenues with traffic lights. Traffic congestion can be unpredictable even for local residents. If you need to go somewhere, use the Yandex.Traffic service, which is quite accurate. On the main highways, screens are placed showing traffic congestion (for the same Yandex.Traffic) and suggesting alternative routes. An ordinary navigator will also be useful, since there are many complex interchanges in the city - the Third Ring is especially rich in them.

The speed limit on most Moscow roads is 60 km/h, on the TTK it is mainly 80 km/h, and on some radial highways there are also sections with a limit of 80 km/h. On the Moscow Ring Road, the speed limit is 100 km / h, but the actual speed can be ten times lower. There are a lot of cameras in the city that record speeding and driving into dedicated lanes intended for public transport. These lanes - most often the extreme right ones - are closed to all private cars on weekdays around the clock (at the same time, you can change lanes for a right turn, but only in places marked with markings), but are open on weekends. Fine - 3000 rubles. Some highways - especially Kutuzovsky and Leninsky Prospekts - often block the passage of the first persons of the state and those who travel in it as guests: this introduces additional difficulties into the already difficult traffic situation.

 

Parking is another difficulty that awaits every Moscow driver. Within the Third Ring Road, and more recently outside it, parking is paid. This is indicated by large signs with the parking number and information on how to pay: at the parking machine or from a mobile phone. Even when paying with a mobile phone, an advance payment is required, i.е. you need to specify the duration of the parking in advance. If the money is not spent to the end, the system remembers how much money you have left on your account, but they will not be returned to your mobile phone account. Parking in the wrong place or on the grass is fraught with evacuation or a fine at the request of a passerby, and the road services have mastered this procedure better than anyone else - be careful! There are few paid parking garages in Moscow, they are only in the city center, but there are many open parking lots and garages at shopping centers where you can leave your car for a few hours for free.

Taxi
Yandex.Taxi, Gett, Uber. Uber has comfortable cars, but they don’t drive far from the Moscow Ring Road, and are slightly more expensive than Yandex and Gett. Usually cars are served within 5 minutes and in most applications you can pay by card. The price is different, but generally cheaper than the "bombs", especially if you go from the airport or railway station. And in the case of the application, drivers care about the rating that you put after the trip, so there will definitely not be open rudeness or neglect.

Water transport
The navigable Moskva River crosses the city from northwest to southeast. In the north, through a network of reservoirs and the Moscow Canal, it connects with the Volga in the Dubna region, in the south it flows into the Oka. Transport communication by water during the navigation period within the city is of a walking and entertaining nature and is concentrated around three water areas:

from Kievsky bridge (near the railway station of the same name) to Novospassky bridge or Pechatniki
from Kolomenskoye to Maryin
from Strogino to Trinity-Lykov
Transport functions on the routes are carried out by river buses (small motor ships).

 

Food

Eating out in Moscow is not a problem: there are a large number of cafes, restaurants, fast foods, street-style catering establishments, it is somewhat more difficult with the format of cheap canteens. Near almost any metro station outside the Garden Ring there is a large shopping center (often more than one), where there is a large food court. Most likely, there will be several fast food chains, a coffee shop and, if you're lucky, a regular cafe. Such shopping centers work from early morning until late evening and close at night. There are not very many bars and pubs in Moscow. There are quite a few establishments bearing this name, but often they are ordinary restaurants with a full-fledged cuisine that have come up with an unusual name for themselves. Bars in the Western sense of the word are only in the city center.

There are premium gastronomy chains such as Globus Gourmet (Seasons) and Azbuka Vkusa.

Some problem is the purchase of alcoholic beverages after 23:00 - their nightly sale is prohibited everywhere in Moscow. Some small shops, however, still violate the ban. If you can't find a pliable seller, buy takeaway alcohol in bars or use semi-legal delivery through online stores (both are quite expensive), although it's better not to abuse it.

Cheap
Street trade: stalls offering pancakes, pies, ice cream, drinks, hot dogs, shawarma, fast food chains "Baby Potato" and "Stardogs". In general, it is quite easy to distinguish a decent place by external signs. Goods in factory packaging, as a rule, are of high quality and not expired.
Fast foods: dumplings and pancakes, BURGER KING fast food chain, KFC fast food chain, Pronto pizzeria chain
Coffee houses: Costa Coffee, Traveler's Coffee
Cafe: "Mayak", "MuMu"
Beer bars: Kruzhka chain, Kolbasoff chain
Drinking houses: "Second wind" (Pyatnitsky per., 10) - one of the most atmospheric places that keeps the taste of a bygone era: only standing places, cheap vodka with a simple snack and an indispensable addition in the form of visitors lying right under their feet

Average cost
Fast foods: Mu-mu network, Rake network, Brothers Karavaev network
Coffee houses: Shokoladnitsa chain, Coffee House chain, Starbucks chain, Coffee Bean chain, Coffeeshop Company chain, Kapuchinoff
Beer bars: "5 turnovers" network, "Starina Muller" network, "Durdin" network
Sushi bars: Tanuki chain, Yakitoriya chain
National cuisines: Ukrainian cuisine - the network "Taras Bulba", oriental cuisine - the network "Shesh Besh", "Chaihona No. 1"

Expensive
Coffee houses: "Coffeemania"
Beer bars: John Bull Pub restaurant chain, Molly Gwins chain, Temple Bar chain, Pilsner chain, Schwarzwald chain, Bavarius chain, Lisya Nora chain
Restaurants: Bosco chains (Red Square and Arbat)
National cuisine: "Pushkin"

 

Night life
A large number of entertainment establishments are open around the clock or close around 5-6 in the morning. Traffic jams in the center of Moscow, for example, on Tverskaya, on weekend nights resolve only by 3.00 am.

 

Hotels, motels and inns

Moscow is experiencing a large shortage of hotel rooms, especially economy class. A hotel room, even a 4-5-star level, is very expensive by world standards and requires an order well in advance. At the same time, hotels with hourly rates have recently become popular, but it is worth considering certain specifics of the clientele. For young travelers, hostels can be a way out, where you can stay inexpensively in the very center of Moscow in rooms for 4-16 people. Due to the fact that Russian conservative tourists are not accustomed to settling in such places, a significant part of the hostel residents are young foreigners.

 

Connection

In Moscow, you can easily use all modern communication technologies.

mobile connection
Cellular networks of the "big four" GSM operators operate in Moscow: MTS, Beeline, Megafon and Tele2. All of them provide communication in 3G and 4G (LTE) standards. The networks of operators within Moscow have full coverage, telephones work at almost all metro stations and in some hauls. It is believed that MTS has the highest quality connection with the best coverage area, but this operator is considered quite expensive. To buy a new mobile number, you need a passport.

Internet
The city is shrouded in wireless Wi-Fi connections (hot spots in certain places or a distributed network of Beeline Wi-Fi). Post offices have several terminals for accessing the Internet. Free Wi-Fi can be found in almost any restaurant, including fast food: McDonald's, KFC, Coffee House. If you need Wi-Fi near the "subway" restaurant, but it will be password protected, you can try the "SubwayMoscow" password.

Wireless internet access is also available on all metro lines. When connecting for the first time, in accordance with the legislation of Russia, it is necessary to pass identification by SMS.

 

Precautionary measures

Moscow has a very fast rhythm of life, and Muscovites, in general, are busy people who are always in a hurry. A gaping or confused visitor may not be greeted very cordially: if you try to ask for directions on the street, you will probably be ignored, and in the worst case, you may be given the wrong direction.

At stations and in the subway, you need to be collected and attentive. It is recommended to move around the stations in a fast and decisive style in order to give the impression of a collected, knowledgeable person. As a rule, it is the visitors who suffer from thefts and fraud, whom both the police and criminal elements identify by their relaxed and absent-minded manner of movement.

In Moscow (as, indeed, in other regions of Russia), it is necessary to register at the place of stay no later than 90 days from the date of arrival (in relation to Moscow, this rule applies to residents of all Russian regions with the exception of the Moscow region). When moving around the city, it is advisable to have a passport with you. In the case of checking documents by police officers, it is useful to have travel tickets with you indicating the date of arrival in Moscow, in the absence of such, you can insist on the version that “I arrived in Moscow today as a passenger in a friend’s car. I'll stay in a hotel for a while, then I'll leave. I will buy a ticket before leaving. Politely asking a police officer to recommend a good cheap hotel nearby can turn a conversation about check-in into a friendly conversation about hotel prices.