10 largest cities of Russia
How often, dumb with separation,
In my nomadic exile, then,
Moscow, I dreamed of you again!
Moscow….what depths of fascination
Live in that name, what echoes start,
And sound in every Russian heart!
Moscow is the capital of the Russian Federation, a
city of federal importance, the administrative center of the Central
Federal District and the center of the Moscow region, which is not
included in the region itself. It is the largest city by population
in Russia with a total of 12,506,468 people. (2018), it is the most
populated of the cities fully located in Europe, is among the top
ten cities in the world in terms of population, the largest
Russian-speaking city in the world.
Moscow is historical capital of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Russian kingdom, the Russian Empire (in the years 1728-1730), Soviet Russia and the USSR. Moscow is home to several federal government bodies of the Russian Federation (with the exception of the Constitutional Court), embassies of foreign states, and the headquarters of most of the largest Russian commercial organizations and public associations.
Moscow was found on the Moscow River in the center of the East European Plain, in the interfluve of the Oka and Volga. As a subject of the federation, Moscow borders with the Moscow and Kaluga regions.
Moscow is a popular tourist center of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin, Red Square, the Novodevichy Convent and the Church of the Ascension in Kolomenskoye are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. It is the most important transportation hub. The city is served by 6 airports, 9 railway stations, 3 river ports (there is a river connection with the seas of the Atlantic and Arctic Ocean basins). Since 1935 Moscow has been working underground. Moscow is the country's sports center. In 1980, the XXII Summer Olympics were held in Moscow, and in 2018 the city became one of the hosts of the 2018 World Cup.
The climate of Moscow is moderately continental
with cold long winters and warm (sometimes hot) summers. In winter,
the humidity is high, in summer - moderate.
Winter (the period with temperatures below 0 ° C) begins in mid-November and ends in late March - early April; The average temperature during this period is −5 ° C. The average temperature of the coldest month, February, is −7 ° C (average minimum −10 ° C, average maximum −4 ° C), thaws in December – January (up to +5 ° C) and severe frosts in January – beginning are quite frequent February (to −25 ° C). Snow falls in early November and melts completely by mid-April. March is usually a winter month with an average temperature of around -2 ° C.
Spring begins in April, when the average temperature exceeds 0 degrees. By mid-May, summer sunny weather is established with an average temperature above +15 ° C. Summer (the period with temperatures above +15 ° C) lasts on average from mid-May to late August; average temperature: +18 ° C. But often temperatures from +15 ° C to +20 ° C can be in May and in September. The average temperature of the hottest month - July is +19 ° C (average minimum +14 ° C, average maximum +24 ° C). Recently in the summer in the capital region (mostly in July) the temperature often exceeds +30 ° C, such heat can sometimes last 1-2 weeks. In early-mid-September, autumn begins, the weather becomes gloomy and cloudy. October is a purely autumn month with an average temperature of + 6 ° C. In early to mid-November, steady snow cover is established, the temperature in November rarely exceeds +6 ° C and falls below −10 ° C, averaging a month -2 ° C. December is different: temperatures are possible around 0 ° C (and sometimes even higher), but there are frosts around −20 ° C.
Moscow, on the Moscow River in western Russia, is the cosmopolitan capital of the country. In its historical core is the Kremlin, the complex in which the president of the Russian Federation works, and also the royal treasures are kept in the Armory. Behind its walls is Red Square, the symbolic center of Russia. Here is the Lenin Mausoleum, an extensive collection of the State Historical Museum and St. Basil's Cathedral, known for its colorful domes in the shape of a burning candle.
Moscow acquired a number of epithets, most of
which refer to its size and outstanding status within the nation:
the Third Rome, White Stone, First Throne, Forty Forty. “Forty”
today translates as forty, but historically it is the old name of
the district or parish, and “forty” in the old Russian means “a
lot”. In the old Russian language, the word "Forty" also meant the
church administrative district, in which there were about forty
churches. Moscow is one of the twelve hero cities, a status ot
acquired for heroic defense against German Nazi forces and their
Click on the part of the map that interests you.
Moscow is a huge city, and at first somewhat confusing with its
size and the activity of life. Nevertheless, some simple
observations will help to begin to navigate at least a little.
Moscow is a city with a traditional radial-ring structure, which,
until recently, has been built up with almost religious loyalty.
However, recently there have been plans to build chord roads, which
can slightly change the direction of movement. The central rings
appeared in Moscow historically - as the city’s fortifications as
they grew. Starting from the center, they go in the following order:
The ring of central squares - in place of the walls, limiting the oldest part of the city, Kitay Town. The remainder of the fortress walls is preserved in the area of Kitay-Gorod metro station. Like the next ring, it is rather a semiring that rests on the Moscow River, however, the Moscow River embankment can be represented by the closure of this ring. The names of the squares are clockwise: Borovitskaya (Borovitsky Gate of the Kremlin, the entrance to the Armory), Manezhnaya, where it is easiest to get to Red Square, Teatralnaya (Bolshoi Theater), Lubyanka, Novaya, Staraya.
Boulevard ring - a half ring, around Moscow River. It takes place at the site of the borders of the so-called White City, and is so named because all the streets have boulevards. Among them we can mention Chistoprudny Boulevard, as a favorite vacation spot of Muscovites, but all the other boulevards are not at all inferior to him in this.
Garden Ring - named for the dachas (resort homes), which were broken outside the Garden Ring during its formation. The garden ring roughly limits the city to what it was at the beginning of the 20th century, and most of the historical monuments are located within its borders, while beyond its borders, the vast majority of the territory are residential areas, industrial areas and parks. Now the Garden Ring is a transport highway, with a large number of interchanges, which, however, do not save it from traffic jams. As a controversial tourist route, we can recommend to drive the entire Garden Ring in a circle on trolleybus B, while it should be noted that it is clockwise, the terminus is located on Zubovskaya Square (between Metro 5 Park Kultury and Metro Smolenskaya), and opposite Kursk railway station, so you need to either wait some time (up to 10 minutes), or change to another trolley bus. Alternatively, you can take a trolley bus 10, which goes around the ring approximately from the bridge over Yauza along the northern part of the ring to Leninsky Prospect. Taking into account traffic jams, a full circle may take 2-3 hours, in the evening less.
The metro ring line is the only line of the Moscow Metro that moves in a circular direction, roughly the same as the Garden Ring, but makes several departures from it (to the outside) in order to reach most of the Moscow railway stations. It should be noted that the workload of the central train cars on this line is extremely high at almost any time of the day.
The Third Transport Ring is a transport highway built at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries to unload the center. As practice has shown, for the Moscow movement this was not enough, and traffic jams also exist on the third ring. As a rule, the third ring passes at a distance of one metro station from the Koltsevaya metro line, and also past the Riga and Savyolovsky railway stations. In Lefortovo passes through the Lefortovo tunnel.
Moscow Central Ring (ISC) (formerly the “Small Moscow Railway Ring”) - since September 2016, passenger traffic has been open.
The Moscow Ring Road (MKAD) is the boundary of the city until about the 1980s, after which they began to attach territories to the city behind the ring. In the 90s of the 20th century, it was completely rebuilt, so it became in fact the best highway in Russia. When traveling long distances in Moscow, as a rule, movement through the Moscow Ring Road, despite the increasing distance, is the fastest and most comfortable.
Moscow Red Square
The citadel of kings, the headquarters of the Soviet Union and now the residence of the president of Russia, for centuries, the Kremlin has been a symbol of state power. In 1156, Prince Yuri Dolgoruky chose the confluence of the Moscow and Neglinnaya rivers as a place for the first wooden Kremlin (the Kremlin means “fortress” in Russian). At the end of the 15th century, Tsar Ivan III invited several leading Italian architects to build a new luxurious complex. They designed the Assumption Cathedral and the Faceted Palace, in a fascinating fusion of early Russian and imported Renaissance styles. The Kremlin did not escape the architectural vandalism of the 1930s, when it was closed, and several of its churches and palaces were destroyed by order of Stalin. Only in 1955, two years after his death, was the Kremlin partially open to the public.
State Armoury (Оружейная палата) (Moscow)
Location: Moscow Kremlin
Tel. (495) 921 4720
Subway: Alexadnrovskiy sad, Biblioteka imeni Lenina, Borovitskaya
Admission: 10am, 12pm, 2:30 pm, 4:30pm Fri- Wed
Church of the Deposition of the Robe (Церковь Ризоположения) (Moscow)
Location: Moscow Kremlin
Arsenal (Арсенал) (Moscow)
Location: Moscow Kremlin
Closed to public
State Kremlin Palace (Государственный Кремлевский дворец) (Moscow)
Location: Moscow Kremlin
Presidential Administration (Администрация Президента) (Moscow)
Location: Moscow Kremlin
It is believed that the name "Arbat" is derived from the Mongolian word meaning suburb, and was first applied in the 15th century to the entire territory west of the Kremlin. It was originally inhabited by royal artisans and craftsmen. Although they are still noted in street names, artisans moved elsewhere in the late 18th century. The aristocracy took their place, and it was followed by the professionals, intellectuals and artists of Moscow, attracted by the unsophisticated streets of the district, dilapidated cottages and overgrown courtyards. On the Old Arbat, the main pedestrian street of the district, there are historical churches, wooden houses and mansions from the beginning of the 19th century around Sivtsev Vrazhek lane. Nevertheless, not far from the stalls of small cafes there are several huge tenement houses of the Soviet era and the shops of Novy Arbat.
Museum of Private Collections
Ulitsa Volkonka 14
Tel. (495) 203 1546
Open: 12- 6pm Wed- Sun
Tverskaya is located around the road of the same name, which initially led to St. Petersburg, it was a technological route used by the kings. Now being the main shopping street of Moscow, Tverskaya Street underwent a major reconstruction in the 1930s during a huge reconstruction of Moscow, by order of Stalin. At that time, many buildings were demolished or pushed aside (at night with sleeping residents) so that the street could be expanded, and massive new houses were built for the workers. These impending gray buildings make the street a showcase of the monumental style of architecture that Stalin loved. The surprisingly quiet streets of the district were home to many famous artists, writers and actors, and, despite Stalin’s best efforts, there are still some interesting pre-revolutionary houses here.
Moscow Old University (Moscow)
Mokhovaya ulitsa 9
Subway: Okhotnyy Ryad, Biblioteka imeni Lenina
Manezhnaya ploshad 1
Tel. (495) 926 2828
Subway: Okhotnyy Ryad, Biblioteka imeni Lenina
House of Friendship (Дом Дружбы) (Moscow)
Vozdvizhenka ulitsa 16
Tel. (495) 690 2069
Subway: Arbatskaya, Biblioteka imeni Lenina
Chekhov House- Museum (Дом- музей А.П. Чехова) (Moscow)
Sadovaya- Kudrinskaya ulitsa 6
Tel. (495) 691 3837
Open: 2- 8pm Wed and Fri, 11am- 6pm Tue, Thu, Sat
Closed: last day of month
Pushkin Square (Пушкинская Площадь) (Moscow)
Subway: Puskinskaya, Tverskaya, Chekhovskaya
Moscow Conservatory (Московская консерватория) (Moscow)
Bolshaya Nikitskaya ulitsa 13
Tel. (495) 629 9401
Subway: Arbatskaya, Pushkinskaya
Stanislavskiy House- Museum (Moscow)
Leontevskiy pereulok 6
Tel. (495) 629 2855
Subway: Arbatskaya, Tverskaya
Open: 11am- 5pm Thu, Sat, Sun, 12- 7pm Wed, Fri
Morozov Mansion (Дом З. Г. Морозова) (Moscow)
Ulitsa Spiridonovka 17
Museum of Contemporary History (Музей Современной Истории) (Moscow)
Tverskaya ulitsa 21
Kitay Gorod (Moscow)
The first suburb of Moscow, Kitay Gorod, was settled in the 12th century by merchants and craftsmen hired by the tsar. It is believed that the word Kitay (sounds like "China" in russian) refers to the wattle used to build ramparts around the suburbs. Red Square was created as a market square near the Kremlin in the late 15th century. Behind it were installed shopping arcades, each street with rows of wooden houses specializing in certain craftsmanship, such as working with metal, working with leather or producing hats and others. In the 16th century, a number of boyars, including the future rulers of Russia, the Romanovs, built their estates nearby, while the presence of merchants from Novgorod and as far away as England was actively encouraged. Later, in the 19th century, Kitay Gorod became a financial district of Moscow, where the stock exchange and large banks are located.
Mayakovsky Museum (Moscow)
Lubyanskiy proezd 3/6
Lubyanka Square (Moscow)
Church of the Archangel Gabriel (Moscow)
Arkhangelskiy pereulok 15
Subway: Chistye Prudy
Perlov Tea House (Moscow)
Myasnitskaya ulitsa 19
Polytechnical Museum (Moscow)
Novaya Ploshchad 3/4
Choral Synagogue (Moscow)
Bolshoy Spasoglinishchevskiy pereulok 10
Sandunovskiy Baths (Moscow)Neglinnaya ulitsa 14, building 3- 7
Tel. (495) 625 4631
Open: 8am- 10pm daily
Subway: Kuznetskiy Most, Trubnaya
Convent of the Nativity of the Virgin (Рождественский Монастырь) (Moscow)Ulitsa Rozhdestvenka 20
Tel. (495) 621 3986
Open: 6am- 8pm daily
Subway: Kuznetskiy Most, Trubnaya
At first Zamoskvorechye was settled in the 13th century. Zamoskvoreche (literally "beyond Moscow river") acted as an outpost against the Mongols. Its main road, Big Ordynka, was the route to the Horde, or the Golden Horde, the Mongolian capital on the Volga. Later, under Ivan the Terrible, the barracks of the archers (the royal guard) stood here. The craftsmen who served at the court also moved, living in areas according to their professions, each of which was sponsored by the church. These historical churches are currently in different states of preservation. The fact that this territory of Moscow was hardly affected by the redevelopment of the 1930s, which gives it a more old-fashioned atmosphere than the center dominated by massive Soviet architecture. In the 19th century, rich merchants settled here, many of whom, such as Alexey Bakhrushin and Pavel Tretyakov, were patrons of the arts. Based on its acquisitions, the Tretyakov Gallery is the most important collection of Russian art in the country.
Convent of Saint Martha and Mary (Moscow)
Ulitsa Bolshaya Ordynka 34
Tropinin Museum (Moscow)
Shchetininskiy pereulok 10
Church of the Resurrection in Kadashi (Moscow)
2-oy Kadashevkiy pereulok 7
Church of the Consolation of All Sorrows (Moscow)
Ulitsa Bolshaya Ordynka 20
Church of Saint Clement (Moscow)Klimentovskiy pereulok 7
Open: 10am- 6pm
Church of Saint Catherine (Moscow)Ulitsa Bolshaya Ordynka 60/2
Open: 10am- 6pm daily
Church of Saint Nicholas in Puzhy (Moscow)Ulitsa Bolshaya Ordynka 27a/8
Open: 7:30am- 8pm daily
Bakhrushin Theatre Museum (Moscow)
Ulitsa Bakhrishina 31/ 12
Around Moscow Suburbs
The Moscow region of suburbs or Podmoskovye, as a rule, is rather gloomy, but they hide an amazing amount of attractions, all accessible from the metro. To the south of the center is a series of fortified monasteries built to protect the city from the Mongols and the Poles. The most spectacular of these is the Novodevichy Convent, an 16th-century Orthodox shrine with a magnificent cathedral, but the Donskoy Monastery is also worth a visit. Danilov Monastery, with its beautiful cathedral, is the oldest in the city. Visitors to Moscow are often surprised at the beauty and diversity of Moscow’s green areas. Gorky, Izmailovo and Pobedy Parks are ideal places to relax, while Sparrow Hills offer fantastic views. Nevertheless, the best secrets of Moscow are the luxurious mansions in the former countryside. The Sheremetev family built two elegant neoclassical dachas: Kuskovo and Ostankino. Both have beautifully preserved gardens and palaces with beautiful paintings and period furniture.
The oldest evidence of humans on the territory of Moscow dates from the Neolithic (Schukinskaya site on the Moscow River). Within the modern bounds of the city other late evidence was discovered (the burial ground of the Fatyanovskaya culture, the site of the Iron Age settlement of the Dyakovo culture), on the territory of the Kremlin, Sparrow Hills, Setun River and Kuntsevskiy forest park, etc.
In the 9th century, the Oka River was part of the Volga trade route, and the upper Volga watershed became an area of contact between the indigenous Finno-Ugric such as the Merya and the expanding Volga Bulgars (particularly the second son of Khan Kubrat who expanded the borders of the Old Great Bulgaria), Scandinavian (Varangians) and Slavic peoples.
The earliest East Slavic tribes recorded as having expanded to the upper Volga in the 9th to 10th centuries are the Vyatichi and Krivichi. The Moskva River was incorporated as part of Kievan Rus into the Suzdal in the 11th century. By AD 1100, a minor settlement had appeared on the mouth of the Neglinnaya River.
Early history (1147–1283)
The first known reference to Moscow dates from 1147 as a meeting place of Yuri Dolgoruky and Sviatoslav Olgovich. At the time it was a minor town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality.
In 1156, Knjaz Yury Dolgoruky fortified the town with a timber fence and a moat. In the course of the Mongol invasion of Rus, the Mongols under Batu Khan burned the city to the ground and killed its inhabitants.
The timber fort na Moskvě "on the Moscow river" was inherited by Daniel, the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky, in the 1260s, at the time considered the least valuable of his father's possessions. Daniel was still a child at the time, and the big fort was governed by tiuns (deputies), appointed by Daniel's paternal uncle, Yaroslav of Tver.
Daniel came of age in the 1270s and became involved in the power struggles of the principality with lasting success, siding with his brother Dmitry in his bid for the rule of Novgorod. From 1283 he acted as the ruler of an independent principality alongside Dmitry, who became Grand Duke of Vladimir. Daniel has been credited with founding the first Moscow monasteries, dedicated to the Lord's Epiphany and to Saint Daniel.
Grand Duchy (1283–1547)
Daniel I ruled Moscow as Grand Duke until 1303 and established it as a prosperous city that would eclipse its parent principality of Vladimir by the 1320s.
On the right bank of the Moskva River, at a distance of five miles (8.0 kilometres) from the Kremlin, not later than in 1282, Daniel founded the first monastery with the wooden church of St. Daniel-Stylite. Now it is the Danilov Monastery. Daniel died in 1303, at the age of 42. Before his death he became a monk and, according to his will, was buried in the cemetery of the St. Daniel Monastery.
Moscow was stable and prosperous for many years and attracted a large number of refugees from across Russia. The Rurikids maintained large landholdings by practicing primogeniture, whereby all land was passed to the eldest sons, rather than dividing it up among all sons. By 1304, Yury of Moscow contested with Mikhail of Tver for the throne of the principality of Vladimir. Ivan I eventually defeated Tver to become the sole collector of taxes for the Mongol rulers, making Moscow the capital of Vladimir-Suzdal. By paying high tribute, Ivan won an important concession from the Khan.
While Khan of the Golden Horde initially attempted to limit Moscow's influence, when the growth of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania began to threaten all of Russia, the Khan strengthened Moscow to counterbalance Lithuania, allowing it to become one of the most powerful cities in Russia. In 1380, prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow led a united Russian army to an important victory over the Mongols in the Battle of Kulikovo. Afterwards, Moscow took the leading role in liberating Russia from Mongol domination. In 1480, Ivan III had finally broken the Russians free from Tatar control, and Moscow became the capital of an empire that would eventually encompass all of Russia and Siberia, and parts of many other lands.
In 1462 Ivan III, (1440–1505) became Grand Prince of Moscow (then part of the medieval Muscovy state). He began fighting the Tatars, enlarged the territory of Muscovy, and enriched his capital city. By 1500 it had a population of 100,000 and was one of the largest cities in the world. He conquered the far larger principality of Novgorod to the north, which had been allied to the hostile Lithuanians. Thus he enlarged the territory sevenfold, from 430,000 to 2,800,000 square kilometres (170,000 to 1,080,000 square miles). He took control of the ancient "Novgorod Chronicle" and made it a propaganda vehicle for his regime.
The original Moscow Kremlin was built during the
14th century. It was reconstructed by Ivan, who in the 1480s invited
architects from Renaissance Italy, such as Petrus Antonius Solarius,
who designed the new Kremlin wall and its towers, and Marco Ruffo
who designed the new palace for the prince. The Kremlin walls as
they now appear are those designed by Solarius, completed in 1495.
The Kremlin's Great Bell Tower was built in 1505–08 and augmented to
its present height in 1600.
A trading settlement, or posad, grew up to the east of the Kremlin, in the area known as Zaradye (Зарядье). In the time of Ivan III, the Red Square, originally named the Hollow Field (Полое поле) appeared.
In 1508–1516, the Italian architect Aleviz Fryazin (Novy) arranged for the construction of a moat in front of the eastern wall, which would connect the Moskva and Neglinnaya and be filled in with water from Neglinnaya. This moat, known as the Alevizov moat and having a length of 541 metres (1,775 feet), width of 36 metres (118 feet), and a depth of 9.5 to 13 metres (31–43 feet) was lined with limestone and, in 1533, fenced on both sides with low, four-metre-thick (13-foot) cogged-brick walls.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, the three circular
defences were built: Kitay-gorod (Китай-город), the White City
(Белый город) and the Earthen City (Земляной город). However, in
1547, two fires destroyed much of the town, and in 1571 the Crimean
Tatars captured Moscow, burning everything except the Kremlin. The
annals record that only 30,000 of 200,000 inhabitants survived.
The Crimean Tatars attacked again in 1591, but this time were held back by new defence walls, built between 1584 and 1591 by a craftsman named Fyodor Kon. In 1592, an outer earth rampart with 50 towers was erected around the city, including an area on the right bank of the Moscow River. As an outermost line of defence, a chain of strongly fortified monasteries was established beyond the ramparts to the south and east, principally the Novodevichy Convent and Donskoy, Danilov, Simonov, Novospasskiy, and Andronikov monasteries, most of which now house museums. From its ramparts, the city became poetically known as Bielokamennaya, the "White-Walled". The limits of the city as marked by the ramparts built in 1592 are now marked by the Garden Ring.
Three square gates existed on the eastern side of the Kremlin wall, which in the 17th century, were known as: Konstantino-Eleninsky, Spassky, Nikolsky (owing their names to the icons of Constantine and Helen, the Saviour and St. Nicholas that hung over them). The last two were directly opposite the Red Square, while the Konstantino-Elenensky gate was located behind Saint Basil's Cathedral.
The Russian famine of 1601–03 killed perhaps 100,000 in Moscow. From 1610 through 1612, troops of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth occupied Moscow, as its ruler Sigismund III tried to take the Russian throne. In 1612, the people of Nizhny Novgorod and other Russian cities conducted by prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin rose against the Polish occupants, besieged the Kremlin, and expelled them. In 1613, the Zemsky sobor elected Michael Romanov tsar, establishing the Romanov dynasty. The 17th century was rich in popular risings, such as the liberation of Moscow from the Polish–Lithuanian invaders (1612), the Salt Riot (1648), the Copper Riot (1662), and the Moscow Uprising of 1682.
During the first half of the 17th century, the population of Moscow doubled from roughly 100,000 to 200,000. It expanded beyond its ramparts in the later 17th century. By 1682, there were 692 households established north of the ramparts, by Ukrainians and Belarusians abducted from their hometowns in the course of Russo-Polish War (1654–1667). These new outskirts of the city came to be known as the Meshchanskaya sloboda, after Ruthenian meshchane "town people". The term meshchane (мещане) acquired pejorative connotations in 18th-century Russia and today means "petty bourgeois" or "narrow-minded philistine".
The entire city of the late 17th century, including the slobodas that grew up outside the city ramparts, are contained within what is today Moscow's Central Administrative Okrug.
Numerous disasters befell the city. The plague epidemics ravaged Moscow in 1570–1571, 1592 and 1654–1656. The plague killed upwards of 80% of the people in 1654–55. Fires burned out much of the wooden city in 1626 and 1648. In 1712 Peter the Great moved his government to the newly built Saint Petersburg on the Baltic coast. Moscow ceased to be Russia's capital, except for a brief period from 1728 to 1732 under the influence of the Supreme Privy Council.
After losing the status as capital of the empire,
the population of Moscow at first decreased, from 200,000 in the
17th century to 130,000 in 1750. But after 1750, the population grew
more than tenfold over the remaining duration of the Russian Empire,
reaching 1.8 million by 1915.
By 1700, the building of cobbled roads had begun. In November 1730, the permanent street light was introduced, and by 1867 many streets had a gaslight. In 1883, near the Prechistinskiye Gates, arc lamps were installed. In 1741 Moscow was surrounded by a barricade 25 miles (40 kilometres) long, the Kamer-Kollezhskiy barrier, with 16 gates at which customs tolls were collected. Its line is traced today by a number of streets called val (“ramparts”). Between 1781 and 1804 the Mytischinskiy water-pipe (the first in Russia) was built. In 1813, following the destruction of much of the city during French occupation, a Commission for the Construction of the City of Moscow was established. It launched a great program of rebuilding, including a partial replanning of the city-centre. Among many buildings constructed or reconstructed at this time were the Grand Kremlin Palace and the Kremlin Armoury, the Moscow University, the Moscow Manege (Riding School), and the Bolshoi Theatre. In 1903 the Moskvoretskaya water-supply was completed.
In the early 19th century, the Arch of Konstantino-Elenensky gate was paved with bricks, but the Spassky Gate was the main front gate of the Kremlin and used for royal entrances. From this gate, wooden and (following the 17th-century improvements) stone bridges stretched across the moat. Books were sold on this bridge and stone platforms were built nearby for guns – "raskats". The Tsar Cannon was located on the platform of the Lobnoye mesto.
The road connecting Moscow with St. Petersburg, now the M10 highway, was completed in 1746, its Moscow end following the old Tver road, which had existed since the 16th century. It became known as Peterburskoye Schosse after it was paved in the 1780s. Petrovsky Palace was built in 1776–1780 by Matvey Kazakov as a railway station specifically reserved for royal journeys from Saint Petersburg to Moscow, while coaches for lesser classes arrived and departed from Vsekhsvyatskoye station.
When Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812, the Moscovites were evacuated. It is suspected that the Moscow fire was principally the effect of Russian sabotage. Napoleon's Grande Armée was forced to retreat and was nearly annihilated by the devastating Russian winter and sporadic attacks by Russian military forces. As many as 400,000 of Napoleon's soldiers died during this time.
Moscow State University was established in 1755. Its main building was reconstructed after the 1812 fire by Domenico Giliardi. The Moskovskiye Vedomosti newspaper appeared from 1756, originally in weekly intervals, and from 1859 as a daily newspaper.
The Arbat Street had been in existence since at least the 15th century, but it was developed into a prestigious area during the 18th century. It was destroyed in the fire of 1812 and was rebuilt completely in the early 19th century.
In the 1830s, general Alexander Bashilov planned the first regular grid of city streets north from Petrovsky Palace. Khodynka field south of the highway was used for military training. Smolensky Rail station (forerunner of present-day Belorussky Rail Terminal) was inaugurated in 1870. Sokolniki Park, in the 18th century the home of the tsar's falconers well outside Moscow, became contiguous with the expanding city in the later 19th century and was developed into a public municipal park in 1878. The suburban Savyolovsky Rail Terminal was built in 1902. In January 1905, the institution of the City Governor, or Mayor, was officially introduced in Moscow, and Alexander Adrianov became Moscow's first official mayor.
When Catherine II came to power in 1762, the city's filth and smell of sewage was depicted by observers as a symptom of disorderly life styles of lower-class Russians recently arrived from the farms. Elites called for improving sanitation, which became part of Catherine's plans for increasing control over social life. National political and military successes from 1812 through 1855 calmed the critics and validated efforts to produce a more enlightened and stable society. There was less talk about the smell and the poor conditions of public health. However, in the wake of Russia's failures in the Crimean War in 1855–56, confidence in the ability of the state to maintain order in the slums eroded, and demands for improved public health put filth back on the agenda.
Following the success of the Russian Revolution of
1917, Vladimir Lenin, fearing possible foreign invasion, moved the
capital from Saint Petersburg back to Moscow on March 5, 1918. The
Kremlin once again became the seat of power and the political centre
of the new state.
With the change in values imposed by communist ideology, the tradition of preservation of cultural heritage was broken. Independent preservation societies, even those that defended only secular landmarks such as Moscow-based OIRU were disbanded by the end of the 1920s. A new anti-religious campaign, launched in 1929, coincided with collectivization of peasants; destruction of churches in the cities peaked around 1932. In 1937 several letters were written to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to rename Moscow to "Stalindar" or "Stalinodar", one from an elderly pensioner whose dream was to "live in Stalinodar" and had selected the name to represent the "gift" (dar) of the genius of Stalin. Stalin rejected this suggestion, and after it was suggested again to him by Nikolai Yezhov, he was "outraged", saying "What do I need this for?". This was following Stalin banning the renaming of places in his name in 1936.
During the Great Patriotic War, the Soviet State Committee of Defence and the General Staff of the Red Army were located in Moscow. In 1941, 16 divisions of the national volunteers (more than 160,000 people), 25 battalions (18,000 people) and 4 engineering regiments were formed among the Muscovites. In November 1941, German Army Group Centre was stopped at the outskirts of the city and then driven off in the course of the Battle of Moscow. Many factories were evacuated, together with much of the government, and from October 20 the city was declared to be in a state of siege. Its remaining inhabitants built and manned antitank defences, while the city was bombarded from the air. On May 1, 1944 a medal "For the defence of Moscow" and in 1947 another medal "In memory of the 800th anniversary of Moscow" were instituted.
Both German and Soviet casualties during the battle of Moscow have been a subject of debate, as various sources provide somewhat different estimates. Total casualties between September 30, 1941, and January 7, 1942, are estimated to be between 248,000 and 400,000 for the Wehrmacht and between 650,000 and 1,280,000 for the Red Army.
During the postwar years, there was a serious housing crisis, solved by the invention of high-rise apartments. There are over 11,000 of these standardised and prefabricated apartment blocks, housing the majority of Moscow's population, making it by far the city with the most high-rise buildings. Apartments were built and partly furnished in the factory before being raised and stacked into tall columns. The popular Soviet-era comic film Irony of Fate parodies this construction method.
The city of Zelenograd was built in 1958 at 37 kilometres (23 miles) from the city centre to the north-west, along the Leningradskoye Shosse, and incorporated as one of Moscow's administrative okrugs. Moscow State University moved to its campus on Sparrow Hills in 1953.
In 1959 Nikita Khrushchev launched his anti-religious campaign. By 1964 over 10 thousand churches out of 20 thousand were shut down (mostly in rural areas) and many were demolished. Of 58 monasteries and convents operating in 1959, only sixteen remained by 1964; of Moscow's fifty churches operating in 1959, thirty were closed and six demolished.
On May 8, 1965 due to the actual 20th anniversary of the victory in World War II Moscow was awarded a title of the Hero City. In 1980 it hosted the Summer Olympic Games.
The MKAD (ring road) was opened in 1961. It had four lanes running 109 kilometres (68 miles) along the city borders. The MKAD marked the administrative boundaries of the city of Moscow until the 1980s, when outlying suburbs beyond the ring road began to be incorporated. In 1980, it hosted the Summer Olympic Games, which were boycotted by the United States and several other Western countries due to the Soviet Union's involvement in Afghanistan in late 1979. In 1991 Moscow was the scene of a coup attempt (known as pootch) by conservative communists opposed to the liberal reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev.
When the USSR was dissolved in the same year, Moscow remained the capital of the Russian SFSR (on December 25, 1991 the Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation). Since then, a market economy has emerged in Moscow, producing an explosion of Western-style retailing, services, architecture, and lifestyles.
The city has continued to grow during the 1990s to 2000s, its population rising from below nine to above ten million. Mason and Nigmatullina argue that Soviet-era urban-growth controls (before 1991) produced controlled and sustainable metropolitan development, typified by the greenbelt built in 1935. Since then, however, there has been a dramatic growth of low-density suburban sprawl, created by a heavy demand for single-family dwellings as opposed to crowded apartments. In 1995–1997 the MKAD ring road was widened from the initial four to ten lanes. In December 2002 Bulvar Dmitriya Donskogo became the first Moscow Metro station that opened beyond the limits of MKAD. The Third Ring Road, intermediate between the early 19th-century Garden Ring and the Soviet-era outer ring road, was completed in 2004. The greenbelt is becoming more and more fragmented, and satellite cities are appearing at the fringe. Summer dachas are being converted into year-round residences, and with the proliferation of automobiles there is heavy traffic congestion. Multiple old churches and other examples of architectural heritage that had been demolished during the Stalin era have been restored, such as Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. In 2010s Moscow's Administration has launched some long duration projects like the Moja Ulitsa (in English: My Street) urban redevelopment program or the Residency renovation one.
How to get there
Moscow has four passenger airports. All of them are taken far beyond the Moscow Ring Road:
Sheremetyevo (SVO) - trains from Belorussky railway station, minibuses and buses from the metro station 2 Rechnoy Vokzal or 7 Planernaya
Domodedovo (DME) - trains from Paveletsky railway station, minibus and buses from 2 Domodedovo
Vnukovo (VKO) - trains from Kievsky Station, minibuses and buses from 1 Yugo-Zapadnaya (South-West)
Zhukovsky (ZIA) - buses from 7 Kotelniki, by bus to the railway platform Otdyx and to Kazan station
The airport Bykovo is closed, the passenger terminal is demolished.
Trains are the most convenient, although far
from the cheapest way to get to the three main airports. From
Paveletsky (to Domodedovo), Belorussky (to Sheremetyevo) and Kievsky
(to Vnukovo) railway stations, Aeroexpress trains depart from Moscow
railway stations and continue to the airport without stopping. In
essence, these are modified electric trains, in which chairs and
luggage racks are installed. Some trains have air conditioning and
slow Wi-Fi. Aeroexpress runs at intervals of 30–60 minutes from 5 am
to 1 am. At peak hours, they are packed to capacity, sometimes you
have to go standing up. Although the speed of travel and the level
of comfort do not correspond well to the rather large price of a
ticket, there is simply no reasonable alternative to Aeroexpress
(except Domodedovo, where regular trains go at long intervals):
taxis and minibuses get stuck in Moscow traffic jams, making the
trip to the airport unpredictable. For Moscow city buses, the
problem of Moscow traffic jams was largely solved by creating
dedicated lanes on the Leningradsky, Kievsky and Kashirsky highways.
Aeroexpress usually go on schedule. If they are late, they do not
exceed 5-10 minutes. On the Paveletsky direction it is also possible
to get to Domodedovo Airport by a regular and cheaper train.
Tickets are sold at live ticket offices and ticket machines that accept credit cards. The machines sell one-way tickets (500 rubles), round-trip tickets (1000 rubles, a trip back within 30 days; they have no practical sense) and a business class (1000 rubles: a ticket with a seat in a separate luxury carriage). The ticket offices also have family tickets (990 rubles for two adults and three children) and various combinations of Aeroexpress + Metro, which are slightly more expensive than Aeroexpress and Metro separately, but will be useful to those who do not want to waste time on the inevitable turn in the station ticket offices. Do not buy season tickets for 10-20-50 trips. They are designed only for one person and operate for 30-60-90 days, and therefore do not make any sense, unless, of course, you do not go to the airport three times a week. Tickets at a reduced price of 420 rubles are sold on the Aeroexpress website, through the mobile application and when paying with a PayPass card on the turnstile.
Taxi - the eternal problem of Moscow airports. At the exit you will be attacked by private traders offering and even imposing their services. You need to bargain hard and unceremoniously with private traders: in this case you will leave for 1,500–2,000 rubles, depending on the area. Drivers themselves will call arbitrary, usually exorbitant amounts, which are often purchased by gullible foreigners. Be sure to negotiate the price before the trip, and better - right in the terminal.
Cheaper to order a taxi from the city. All companies offer fixed fares to the airport, amounting to 700-1500 rubles, depending on the area. To this amount will add a fee of 200-300 rubles, if you want the driver to wait for you at the airport. Usually, drivers prefer to call up to the client and drive up to the terminal after you go outside. This is somewhat inconvenient and delays the process. There is no centralized taxi service at airports. Racks "official taxi" will save you from frank sell, but the prices there are still above average. In any case, Moscow airports are far from the city, so you should always pay at a fixed rate: time-based or meter-to-month payment simply does not make sense. Moscow taxi drivers know a thousand and one ways to get around traffic jams, but they still get into them, so it's better to use the metro and Aeroexpress during peak hours.
Transit between Moscow airports is a pleasure below average. All three airports are approximately equidistant from each other, the distance between them is 80-90 km, so even at night a taxi will travel for more than an hour, and it costs at least 1,500 rubles (2014) when ordering from the city. At the airport, they usually ask for from 2500 rubles. Considering Moscow traffic jams, it is better to use a longer and more tiresome, but reliable, route Aeroexpress — metro — Aeroexpress, which takes a little less than two hours and will cost you about 1,000 rubles.
Moscow is the largest railway junction. From here you can go by
train to almost any city in Russia, most of the CIS countries, a
number of European countries, as well as to Mongolia, North Korea
and China. However, international trains (with the exception of
Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova and, for lovers of the beautiful, Central
Asia) are deprived of practical meaning, since the plane will be
slightly more expensive, inexpressibly more comfortable and many
times faster. The same applies to the Far East.
In addition to long-distance trains, the largest network of electric trains in Russia is tied to Moscow. Among them there are both regular and express trains to the cities of the Moscow Region and neighboring regional centers. All trains, except for express trains, stop at stations combined with metro stations.
In Moscow, 9 railway stations. Seven of them are combined with the metro stations of the Koltsevaya line and serve the vast majority of long-distance directions. Lightly loaded Rizhsky and Savyolovsky railway stations are removed from the Koltsevaya metro line by one station. The names of many stations immediately give an idea of where to go from them, but there are a number of unobvious moments. Moreover, the city does not have a rigid system that binds the station to a certain direction: trains to the south can even go from Belorussky railway station, if there is no free space for others. Be sure to check which station is listed on the ticket.
5 Leningradsky railway station. Located on Komsomolskaya Square
(the so-called Three Station Squares), 1 5 Komsomolskaya, trains
coming from the north-west direction (Tver, St. Petersburg,
Petrozavodsk, Murmansk, Pskov, Novgorod and others) arrive at the
station. International trains come from Helsinki (Finland) and
Tallinn (Estonia). Electric trains direction to Tver, Konakovo, Klin
6 Kazan station. Located on Komsomolskaya Square, 1 5 Komsomolskaya, trains coming from the east and southeast (Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Penza, Ulyanovsk, Ufa, Orenburg, Barnaul, Chelyabinsk and other cities) arrive at the station. Also, trains arrive from BAM stations. International trains come from Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. Trains to Ryazan, Kolomna, Yegoryevsk, Shatura and other direction stations.
7 Yaroslavsky station. Located on Komsomolskaya Square, 1 5 Komsomolskaya, trains arriving at the station follow from the north (Arkhangelsk, Syktyvkar, Vologda, Vorkuta, Kirov and others) and east from Siberia and the Far East (Transsib and BAM stations). International trains come from Ulan Bator (Mongolia), Beijing (China) and Pyongyang (DPRK). Trains to Mytishchi, Sergiev Posad, Aleksandrov, Rostov and Yaroslavl.
8 Kursky Station, st. Zemlyanoy val, 29 (3 5 Kurskaya, 10 Chkalovskaya). The most difficult of the Moscow stations. From it, trains depart at once in several directions: Kursk, Gorky, Leningradsky (passing trains from St. Petersburg), as well as Smolensk and Riga (through trains through Moscow-Kalanchevskaya). For this reason, the railway station has through paths and dead ends, and with independent numbering, i.e. 5 way and 5 dead end - not the same thing. From the dead ends, to the south of the station building, train trains of the Gorky direction are sent.
The old building, built in 1896, during the years of stagnation, was supplemented with a faceless gray box that looks towards the Garden Ring, and the old building, respectively, is drawn to the paths. Inside it is one big and long building, but the difference between the old and the new is clearly visible. On the ground floor (0 floor) suburban ticket offices and a huge number of inexpensive (by Moscow standards) eateries with pies, pancakes, potatoes. On the first floor of the long-distance ticket office, and behind them, in the old building, are several large waiting rooms. Here, the 24-hour dining room Dobroe Delo, located in one of the old halls with stucco work, is, if not the best, then certainly the most interesting place for a snack, the hottest here is 150-200 rubles (2014). On the second floor, which is a "balcony", there are several beautiful and expensive places like the restaurant Il Patio and even a wine bar. Manual lockers are located on the ground floor (170 rubles / day), there are also modern automatic cells in one of the waiting rooms (110 rubles / h, 250 rubles / day). In addition to everything already listed at the Kursk railway station, there are such uncharacteristic objects for Russian railway stations as a laundry and a shoe store. In general, the situation is more pleasant and well-groomed than at most other Moscow railway stations. Free wifi.
From the second floor, the gallery leads to the Atrium shopping center, located in front of the station, which is a typical Moscow shopping center with expensive shops. On the lower floor there is a supermarket "Crossroads", on the 3rd floor there is a food court with all the options of fast food you can think of. There are several restaurants there.
9 Kievsky Station. Located near the metro station 3 4 5 Kievskaya. Serves trains of the south-west direction from the direction of Bryansk. On international trains you can get from the territory of Ukraine (Kiev, Odessa, Lviv and others), Moldova, Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia. Electric trains go to Naro-Fominsk, Maloyaroslavets, Kaluga and other direction stations. The station is served by aeroexpress to Vnukovo airport.
10 Savyolovsky station. One of the two stations located on the side of the Koltsevaya metro line, metro station 9 Savyolovskaya. Recently, the station does not serve long-distance trains. On trains, including express trains, you can come to Moscow from the northern direction from Dubna, Dmitrov, Savyolovo.
11 Belorussky Station. Located near the metro station 2 5
Belorusskaya. Serves trains mainly western directions. The most
"international" station of the capital. From the territory of Russia
to Belorussky railway station you can come from Smolensk and
Kaliningrad. After the transfer of trains from Savyolovsky station,
passenger trains leave from here to Uglich and Rybinsk. The station
is the final destination for trips from Berlin, Warsaw, Paris, Nice,
Prague, Minsk, Brest and other European cities, often trains are
formed from trailer cars from different directions. From the
station, trains also depart in the direction of Odintsovo, Kubinka,
Zvenigorod, Mozhaisk, Gagarin and Vyazma. The station is served by
Aeroexpress to Sheremetyevo-2.
12 Paveletsky railway station. Located on the square of the same name on the Garden Ring, near the metro station 2 5 Paveletskaya. Long-distance trains go to the southeast to the Volga region (Saratov, Volgograd, Astrakhan), to the Caucasus (Stavropol, Baku, Makhachkala). By train you can get to Kashira, Necklaces, Uzunovo. Aeroexpress follows to Domodedovo Airport (journey time: 40-45 minutes).
13 Riga station. One of the two stations located on the side of the Koltsevaya metro line, metro station 6 Rizhskaya. Recently, the station has a small number of serviced long-distance trains. It is the final destination for trains from Velikie Luki, Posini and Riga (Latvia). From the Rizhsky railway station, electric trains head westward toward Volokolamsk, Shakhovskaya and other stations.
Sometimes it is convenient to get on electric trains not at train stations, but at distant metro stations: Dmitrovskaya and Tushinskaya for the Riga direction, Timiryazevskaya for Savelovsky, Elektrozavodskaya, Aviamotornaya and Vykhino for Kazan and Ryazan, Nagatinskaya and Warsawavskaya for Paveletsky, Textile workers and Tsaritsyno for Kursky, Begovaya and Kazan Fili for Belarusian. Long-distance trains, as a rule, depart from the stations, while for nearby directions, there are through trains from the Kursk direction to Riga and Belarus, as well as from Belarus to Savyolovsky.
The main point of departure of buses in Moscow is the Central Bus
Station (3 Schelkovskaya), in addition, buses leave from most
railway stations (the directions roughly coincide with the most
popular railway routes, for example, Lipetsk, Voronezh, Volgograd
from Paveletsky Station, Rostov-on-Don, Stavropol from the Kazan
International bus routes cover the nearest countries: Ukraine (Kiev, Odessa), Poland, the Baltic States, Belarus, etc.
Part of the suburban routes goes from the metro stations, among which should be noted station 6 VDNH (Yaroslavl direction), 1 South-West and some others.
Bus stations in Moscow:
14 Mezhdunarodny Avtovokzal - International Bus Station (South Gate), MKAD, 19th km (2 Krasnogvardeyskaya, 2 Alma-Atinskaya, 2 Domodedovskaya, 2 Tsaritsyno, 10 Bratislavskaya, 10 Marino, 7 Kotelniki (travel by free route taxis)). ☎ +7 (499) 940-08-43, 8 (800) 200-08-41. The new project of the metropolitan government, aimed at optimizing passenger traffic. As of 2015, the development of the bus station is at an early stage.
15 Central Bus Station (Schelkovsky), Schelkovskoe Highway 75 (3 Schelkovskaya). ☎ +7 (495) 468-04-00. The main bus station in Moscow and the largest in Russia.
16 Krasnogvardeyskaya Bus Station, 46 Orekhovy Boulevard (2 Krasnogvardeyskaya 10 Zyablikovo). ☎ +7 (495) 395-54-87, +7 (495) 395-89-35, +7 (495) 395-88-35.
17 Teply Stan Bus Station, Novoyasenevsky Avenue, 4 (6 Teply Stan). ☎ +7 (495) 753-55-55.
18 Bus station at Paveletsky railway station, Dubininskaya street, 7 (2 Paveletskaya).
19 Bus station "VDNH", Mira Avenue, VDNH (VVC), Northern entrance (6 VDNH). ☎ +7 (495) 760-27-44.
20 Bus station Kotelniki, Novoryazanskoye Highway 1 (7 Kotelniki). ☎ +7 (495) 371-98-60.
21 Domodedovskaya Bus Station, Orekhovy Boulevard, 14g (2 Domodedovskaya). ☎ +7 (495) 397-06-00, +7 (495) 399-90-27. Buses and route taxis depart from the bus station to Domodedovo Airport.
22 Partizanskaya Bus Station, Izmailovskoye Highway 71 (3 Partizanskaya). ☎ +7 (495) 166-11-79.
23 Kuzminki Bus Station, Zhigulevskaya Street, 7 (7 Kuzminki). ☎ +7 (495) 657-74-70.
24 River Station Bus Station, Festivalnaya Street 2a (2 Rechnoy vokzal). ☎ +7 (495) 457-11-11. Buses and route taxis depart from the bus station to Sheremetyevo Airport
25 Bus station "Tushinskaya", travel Stratonautov, 9 (7 Tushinskaya). ☎ +7 (495) 490-24-24.
26 Glider Bus Station, 7 Planernaya (7 Planernaya). Buses and route taxis depart from the bus station to Sheremetyevo Airport
27 Bus Station Yugo-Zapadnaya, Vernadsky Avenue, 86 (1 Yugo-Zapadnaya). ☎ +7 (495) 434-82-27. Buses and route taxis depart from the bus station to Vnukovo Airport.
International flights are operated from Schelkovskogo bus station, Teply Stan and some others.
Moscow is the beginning of more than a dozen international,
federal and regional routes. However, driving into the capital, you
can probably get stuck in traffic, so you should avoid the most
likely time of their occurrence near the Moscow Ring Road (rush
hours): on weekdays (in the morning to the city, in the evening from
the city), on Saturday morning from the city, Sunday evening to the
city. In order to have time to leave before the formation of the
morning traffic jam, you need to have time to drive until 7 am, in
order to wait out the evening one - you need to go after 10-11 pm.
You can try to drive to the evening traffic (about 17 hours on
weekdays, 15 hours on Friday and Sunday), but the traffic during the
day is not much weakened, so you should count on delays from an hour
to three to reach the Moscow Ring Road from the immediate vicinity.
In addition, a number of tracks, in particular, Yaroslavl highway
has narrowings on the first 10-20 km from the Moscow Ring Road,
which additionally holds back traffic.
The main directions of the routes:
M1 (Minskoe highway) - from Europe, Brest, Minsk, Smolensk
M2 (Simferopol highway) - from the Crimea, Kharkov, Belgorod, Kursk, Orel, Tula
M3 (Kiev highway) - from southern Europe, western and central Ukraine, Bryansk, Kaluga
M4 (Kashirskoye Highway) - from the Caucasus, from Rostov-on-Don, Voronezh, east of the Tula region
Starokashirskoye Highway - from Domodedovo Airport
M5 and M7 - depending on the direction - from Siberia and the Far East
M5 (Novoryazanskoye Highway) - also from Kazakhstan and Central Asia, Chelyabinsk, Ufa, Samara, Saratov, Penza, Ryazan
Ryazan highway - from Lyuberets - old highway M5
M7 (Entuziastov Highway, then Gorky Highway) - from Ekaterinburg, Izhevsk, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Vladimir
M6 (merges with M4 in Kashira) - from Astrakhan, Volgograd, Tambov, the south of the Ryazan region
M8 (Yaroslavl highway) - from the north-west of Russia, from Vologda, Yaroslavl and Kostroma
M9 (Novorizhskoe highway) - from Lithuania, Latvia, Great Bow, Rzhev
M10 (Leningradskoye Highway) - from Finland, St. Petersburg, Veliky Novgorod, Tver
A101 (Kaluzhskoe highway) - from Roslavl, Obninsk, Troitsk
A103 (Schelkovskoe highway) - from Schelkov, Chernogolovka, Fryanova
A104 (Dmitrovskoye Highway) - from the eastern regions of the Tver region, Kimr, Dubna, Dmitrov
If there is no strict need to travel around Moscow by car, it is easier and safer to leave it on the outskirts of the city, at the end metro stations and then use public transport.
Moscow is called the “port of the five seas”, which means that
through the canal systems the Moscow River is connected with the
White, Baltic, Caspian, Azov and Black seas. The city has two ports
- the main North, and the rarely used South.
Passenger shipments from abroad are not carried out. On cruise ships you can get to Moscow mainly from St. Petersburg.
Moscow has several independent, but partially integrated with
each other transport systems:
Metro, Monorail and Moscow Central Ring
City street transport (buses, trolley buses and trams)
There is no official route planner in Moscow. Of the informal ones, the Yandex-maps service works slightly better than others. Yandex-Metro, Yandex-Transport and Yandex-Trains mobile applications are equally in demand, covering various aspects of Moscow transport.
With the exception of early morning, late evening and weekends, Moscow transport is heavily overloaded. If ground transportation is in traffic jams, then in the metro traffic jams arise from passengers, so it is impossible to predict the trip time with confidence, no matter what path you take. If you need to get there on time, and you are not very familiar with Moscow transport, you must get out in advance.
For a long time, ground transportation in all respects was inferior to the metro, and even one station was more convenient to go underground than by bus or trolleybus. The city authorities are trying to remedy this situation by launching the main routes that follow the selected lanes, and on major highways, ground transportation began to go relatively quickly, although it still has no visible advantages over the metro.
Opening hours: Moscow transport operates from 5:30 am to 1:00 am. In the metro at 1:00, the transitions between the lines are closed, and the last train leaves from the last station, so you can get out of the metro after 1 am. At night, you can only travel around Moscow by taxi or special night buses.
Maps and charts: in 2016, a city electric train was launched, and Mosgortrans engaged in a radical reform of land transport routes. For this reason, any maps, charts and atlases have lost all relevance, new ones will not be available until 2017. Use mobile applications and charts in subway cars - in an era of great change, only they are updated in a timely manner.
In Moscow, there are single tickets for all types of transport
except commuter trains. Buying tickets for 1-2 trips is much less
profitable than travel or reusable payment cards. In practice, this
means that by entering the subway or bus, you can always buy a
ticket, but pay substantially more than if you take care of the
ticket in advance.
The main types of tickets (prices 2018):
The Troika card works on the principle of an electronic wallet. Putting money on the card, you can pay for trips at a price of 36 rubles. If you are traveling with a transfer, then pay 36 + 20 = 56 rubles - this is the “90 min” tariff, which includes an unlimited number of trips by land transport and no more than one trip by metro for 90 minutes from the moment of the first passage through the turnstile. Mortgage card value: 50 rubles. This is the most convenient option for those who come to Moscow for a few days and use transport not too often. Also, you can charge travel cards to the Troika card, but they are easier to buy as a separate card (without a deposit value) so as not to get confused.
Daily ticket costs 218 rubles, valid for 24 hours from the time of the first pass; ticket for 3 days - 415 rubles, for 7 days - 830 rubles.
Tickets for 1-2 trips cost 55 and 110 rubles, respectively.
Drivers of land transport sell only tickets for 1 trip for 55 rubles.
Ticket offices operate all the time, from opening to closing. Kiosks selling tickets for ground transportation are found in the city less and less, have unpredictable mode of operation, most often only during the day. Ticket machines are available at all metro stations and city trains, and they gradually appear at major land transport stops. Machines accept cash (bills no larger than 500 rubles) and credit cards, allow you to charge your Troika card or buy a ticket for 1-2 trips.
A ticket for a suburban electric train is easier to buy separately than to try to charge it to the Troika card, although such an opportunity, in principle, exists. The system of electronic wallet and urban travel in trains do not work.