Basmanny District is a district of Moscow in the northeastern part of
the Central Administrative District. The district corresponds to the
intracity municipal formation of the Basmanny municipal district. It
borders on the Krasnoselsky, Tagansky and Tverskoy regions, as well as
on the Sokolniki, Sokolinaya Gora and Lefortovo regions. The area of the
district is 816 hectares. The population for 2017 is 110 thousand
On the territory of the Basmanny district there are ten metro stations, the Kursky railway station, and there are also more than 30 Orthodox churches that are part of the Bogoyavlensky deanery of the Moscow city diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church.
The name of the district comes from the Basmannaya Sloboda, the so-called Basmanniks lived here. According to the dictionary of Vladimir Dahl, palace or government bread was called basman. It can be assumed that palace bakers could have been basmans, but they lived in another district of Moscow - on the site of the present Khlebny Lane. There is another version: basma in Rus' was called thin sheets of metal (silver, copper, gold) with an extruded, embossed relief pattern, used for various decorations, for example, for icons. Therefore, there is an alternative opinion that chasers for metal lived in the settlement.
Red Gate Baumanskaya
1 Epiphany Cathedral in Yelokhovo, Spartakovskaya st. 15. ☎ +7 (499) 267-75-91.
2 Church of the Apostles Peter and Paul in Basmannaya Sloboda, st. New Basmannaya, 11.
3 Garage on Novoryazanskaya street, Novoryazanskaya st. 27. The building in the style of the Russian avant-garde was designed by Konstantin Melnikov and Vladimir Shukhov, built in 1926-29. The garage has a semicircular shape and is made in the shape of a horseshoe, which ensured compact placement of the maximum possible number of trucks and their convenient entry and exit. Currently, a branch of the Novokosinsky bus and trolleybus depot of Mosgortrans is located here.
4 Sloboda Palace.
5 Church of the Ascension on the Gorokhovo Pole, st. Radio, 2, building 1.
6 Blocks between Baumanskaya metro station and Kursky railway station. Pre-revolutionary buildings with narrow streets have been preserved in this region.
Red Gate Komsomolskaya
7 Hotel "Leningradskaya", Kalanchevskaya street, 21/40. ☎ +7 (495) 627-55-50. The hotel is managed by the Hilton company.
8 Administrative and residential building on Red Gate Square, Sadovaya-Spasskaya Street, 21.
9 Polyclinic of the People's Commissariat of Railways, st. New Basmannaya, 5.
10 Usachyov-Naydenov estate.
12 Syromyatnichesky waterworks.
13 Abrikosov House, Malaya Krasnoselskaya st. 7 (on the corner of Malaya Krasnoselskaya street and Lobachika street). The Art Nouveau building was built in 1902 according to the design of the architect B.N. Schnaubert. Currently, the workshops of the Babaevsky confectionery concern are located here. The contours of this building can be seen on many products of this enterprise.
14 Geer Almshouse, Upper Krasnoselskaya st. 15, p. 1. The hospital was built in 1899 and was intended for the elderly, accommodating up to 100 people. After the revolution of 1917 the building was closed. Currently, the entrance to the territory of the object is difficult.
1 Garden them. Bauman. The entrance is free. One of the largest
parks in the north-east of the center of Moscow. It can be accessed both
from Novaya Basmannaya and from Staraya Basmannaya Street. There are few
architectural sights in the park - only a basilisk fountain and a
monument-bust of N.E. Bauman. There are children's and sports grounds,
as well as places for a relaxing pastime. In winter, an ice skating rink
2 Moscow Puppet Theatre, Spartakovskaya st. 26/30. ☎ +7 (499) 261-21-97. from 10:00 to 19:00. The oldest puppet theater in Moscow. He regularly puts on performances designed for both the smallest and the teenage group.
Shopping center "Troika" , Upper Krasnoselskaya st. 3A (at the intersection with the Third Ring Road). 8:00–23:00. A three-story shopping and leisure complex, which includes Auchan, Decathlon and Leroy Merlin hypermarkets, as well as a specialized garden goods store Auchan-Sad. Opened in 2008.
1 Cheburechnaya "Soviet times", Upper Krasnoselskaya street, 2/1,
building 4. ☎ +7 (499) 391-61-70. Mon–Fri 9:00–23:00, Sat–Sun
12:00–23:00. In addition to chebureks, the bar-restaurant offers full
meals (“working afternoon” for 290 rubles), as well as a wide selection
of individual dishes and alcoholic drinks. The interior of the
institution is made in "Soviet" red and yellow colors, the bar has a TV
on which Soviet films are shown, and next to some tables you can see old
items reminiscent of the USSR.
2 Complex of catering establishments (Gastronomic Loft Gastrofarm). 10:30-21:00. At the northern end of Baumanskaya Street, in 2017, an institution was opened immediately with a dozen different catering establishments and common tables
Hilton Garden Inn (****), Upper Krasnoselskaya st. 11A, building 4 (near the Third Transport Ring). ☎ +7 495 2218081. Double room: from 5000 rubles. New hotel, opened in 2017, claimed Wi-Fi. There is a large parking lot for cars (which is not surprising, because the hotel is located next to the exit to the Third Ring Road).
The history of the district begins in the XIV century,
when settlements began to form near the Pokrovskaya road connecting
Moscow with the Vladimir land. On this side were the hunting grounds for
the Moscow sovereigns and the grand-princely orchards, which gave the
name to Starosadsky Lane.
At the beginning of the 16th century, the John the Baptist Monastery was transferred here, after which the hill was named "Ivanovskaya" Hill, and there were the first mentions of the Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. At the end of the 17th century, by decree of Peter I, the construction of a stone Lutheran church of the Apostles Peter and Paul, which has survived to this day, began here, and Alexander Menshikov financed the cleaning of the nearby Pogany Ponds, which have since received the name Chistye. The German settlement on the Yauza became the new aristocratic center of Petrine Moscow. In the 18th century, in honor of the victories over the Swedes in the Northern War, the triumphal Red Gate was erected here.
During the fire of 1812, the German Quarter burned out almost completely, the Catholic area was especially affected. After the fire, only the Church of St. Mikhail, which in 1920 was assigned for the construction of the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute named after Zhukovsky (TsAGI).
In 1830, the Moscow Craft Educational Institution was opened, since 1868 the Imperial Moscow Technical School (IMTU), now the Moscow State Technical University named after N. E. Bauman.
In 1866, in connection with the laying of the Kursk railway, the building of the Kursk railway station was built. In Mruzovsky Lane there was the Mosgaz State Unitary Enterprise, coal for which was brought by rail from near Tula. The facade of the Manometr plant, the largest instrument-making enterprise, overlooked Syromyatnicheskaya embankment. Its history is connected with the name of Fedor Fedorovich Gakental, who founded the first workshops in 1886.
During the First Russian Revolution, the revolutionary N. E. Bauman was killed by an employee of the tsarist guard on Nemetskaya Street. About 300 thousand people came to the "unauthorized" procession in connection with his funeral at the entrance of the Imperial Technical School.
During the Soviet period, a complex of TsAGI buildings designed by architect Alexander Kuznetsov was built here, as well as the Design Bureau by architect Viktor Vesnin, where Andrei Tupolev worked from 1918 to 1972. On both sides of Bakuninskaya Street there were many industrial enterprises that were withdrawn from the city as part of the city program. And in 2000, the German Quarter received the status of a protected historical area.
Alexander Pushkin and Mikhail Lermontov were born in the German Quarter, which is part of the district.
The main source of pollution in the Basmanny district
is motor vehicle emissions, since large industrial enterprises located
on the territory of the district were once moved outside the city, and
the remaining ones no longer pose a threat to the environment, as they
are historical monuments, like the Moscow Gas Plant.
A mobile environmental laboratory in the district recorded the concentration of pollutants in the atmospheric air in a residential area not higher than the maximum allowable concentrations. It was also recorded that the permissible noise level was exceeded, due to the production of construction works and the work of engineering equipment of buildings.
The results of water quality control in the Yauza River near the Elektrozavodsky Bridge and at its mouth indicate a systematic excess of the established cultural and community standards for organic and suspended solids, iron, manganese and oil products. According to annual monitoring data, the level of soil pollution in Basmanny municipality is assessed as moderate and typical for the central part of the city of Moscow.
On August 22, 2011, the Government of Moscow approved a decree prohibiting entry into the central part of the city, limited by the Third Transport Ring, for vehicles that meet the requirements below environmental class 3 in terms of environmental performance.
The total area of green spaces in the Basmanny
district is almost 75 hectares: these are Pokrovsky Boulevard,
Chistoprudny Boulevard, the N.E. hospital named after N. N. Burdenko. On
the territory of the district, an old complex of buildings has been
preserved, supplemented by new buildings with an old layout. Between
them there are several fragments of old park landings. Among the young
plantings there are rare breeds in Moscow - gray spruce, forsythia and
hydrangea. The gardens of the First Military Hospital were originally
created for the cultivation of medicinal plants by the Dutch doctor
Nikolai Bidlow by order of Peter I. The park layout arose during the
restructuring of the hospital by the architect Ivan Egotov in 1798-1802.
The park was created in 1979 and is located on the Hospital Square, its
total area is 16.5 hectares.
In addition to historical squares and park areas, new landscaped public spaces have been created in the Basmanny District. This is, first of all, a square in Bolshoy Spasoglinishevsky Lane (Gorka Park), as well as an amphitheater on Khokhlovskaya Square.
Square in Bolshoi Spasoglinishevsky Lane (Gorka Park) is a landscaped area located in the historical district of Ivanovskaya Gorka. In Soviet times, a school was located in its place, and then a clinic with a small park area. In the 2000s, the building was demolished, and a parking lot was formed on the vacated territory. Green plantings on the site were almost completely destroyed, including the linden alley, planted for the tenth anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War. An initiative group of residents came forward for the revival of the park. The work began in August 2016 and ended in May 2017. The territory of the park is multi-level, the height difference is about 20 meters. Children's playgrounds, sports and athletics zones, an observation deck have been created here. Equipped with a dry fountain. Plants have been replanted in the park, including mature trees.
The amphitheater on Khokhlovskaya Square is a public space created between Pokrovsky and Chistoprudny Boulevards. Opened in 2017. Its main attraction is a fragment of the Belgorod wall, discovered by chance during construction in 2007. At present, the fragment has been museumified. Next to it there is a street amphitheater with walking areas. The space is landscaped.
Rivers and ponds
The Yauza River and its three tributaries - Chernogryazka, Chechera and Olkhovka - flow through the territory of the district. In the area are Chistye Prudy.