Zamoskvorechye is a historical district of the city, located in the
southern part of the center of Moscow from the right bank of the Moskva
River to the Garden Ring. The area also includes the Gorky Park of
Culture and the Neskuchny Garden, which are located along the Moskva
It is characterized by preserved harmonious architectural low-rise buildings. The place of concentration of a large number of embassies of foreign states.
Zamoskvorechye was historically called the area located opposite the Kremlin, that is, beyond the Moscow River. Zamoskvorechye was not included in the fortifications of the White City and for a long time remained a conglomerate of scattered settlements, until at the end of the 16th century it fell into the boundaries of the Earthen City, and after another 200 years it turned into a well-maintained area with dozens of churches and beautiful manor houses. With the expansion of the city, Zamoskvorechye also grew to the south, which by the end of the 19th century confidently went beyond the Garden Ring and dissolved there: it is hardly possible to determine the exact southern border of the region.
In this guide, Zamoskvorechye includes all central districts south of the Moskva River up to the Third Transport Ring: the Zamoskvorechye and Yakimanka microdistricts of the Central Administrative District, as well as Danilovsky and Donskoy, belonging to the Southern District.
The following metro stations are located within Zamoskvorechye:
Zamoskvoretskaya line: Novokuznetskaya, Paveletskaya
Circle line: Paveletskaya, Dobryninskaya, Oktyabrskaya
Kaluga-Rizhskaya line: Tretyakovskaya, Oktyabrskaya
Kalinin line: Tretyakovskaya
Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya line: Polyanka, Serpukhovskaya
Ground public transport
Public transport routes run along the central roads of Zamoskvorechye. However, most of the time, transport is in traffic jams, and all sights can be reached from the metro in no more than 20 minutes, so most likely you will not need ground transportation.
Walking along the quiet streets of Zamoskvorechye is a real pleasure, but they are really quiet only on summer weekends.
The western part of the island formed by the river and the Drainage Canal. Although Bersenevka is located in the center of Moscow, it is hardly visited by tourists. Formally, this is an industrial area, there is only one residential building (albeit a huge one), but there is something to see, besides, Bersenevka offers good views of the banks of both the river and the canal. There is no metro in the vicinity, the easiest way is to walk (10-15 minutes) either from Borovitskaya across Bolshoi Kamenny Bridge, or from Tretyakovskaya along Kadashevskaya Embankment, or from Polyanka along Bolshaya Polyanka across the Maly Kamenny Bridge.
1 Chambers of Averky Kirillov, Bersenevskaya Embankment, 20. A rare example of a residential building of the second half of the 17th - early 18th centuries. Together with the nearby Church of St. Nicholas on Bersenevka, it is part of the ensemble of buildings of the 17th century, which appeared at the behest of one customer - Averky Kirillov. The complex is located in Verkhnye Sadovniki on the lands that once belonged to the boyars Beklemishevs. Their last owner I.N. Bersen-Beklemishev was executed in 1525, and the property was soon donated to the sovereign's gardener Kirill, under whose grandson the entire ensemble was built. The main construction of a residential building was carried out in 1656-1657, the building was placed on the basement of an older structure of the XV-XVI centuries. At the very beginning of the 18th century, the chambers were noticeably rebuilt, and the façade facing the river received an elegant design and a picturesque risalit crowned with a “teremk”. All rooms inside the chambers are covered with vaults.
2 Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker on Bersenevka (1656-1657), Bersenevskaya Embankment, 18. The church that has come down to us is not the first on this site. The wooden church, known since 1475, was noted in the chronicles on the occasion of the fire that burned down the Kremlin in 1493, which began just from the Church of St. Nicholas on Bersenevka. The previous stone temple dates back to 1625. The current five-domed pillarless church in the style of the Moscow pattern was built in 1656-1657 and was initially connected by a stone passage with the adjacent residential chambers. The chapel and the refectory in the style of classicism appeared during the restoration of the temple after the fire of 1812. Until 1932, the church had a four-tier hipped bell tower, erected in the middle of the 19th century. The design of the church echoes the decor of the adjacent chambers. For example, a massive stone porch added from the north repeats the shape of the lost Red Porch of the chambers. Near the church along the river bank, in the late 17th - early 18th centuries, several low buildings were built: the Embankment Chambers, the clergy house and the almshouse. After a fire in 1812, the Embankment Chambers were rebuilt, then in 1871 they were partially dismantled, and the remaining walls of the old buildings were included in a two-story building stylized as the 17th century.
3 House on the embankment, st. Serafimovich, 2. ☎ +7 (495) 959-49-36. Tue, Wed, Fri 10:00–18:30, Thu 11:00–21:00, Sat–Sun 11:00–18:00. A huge 12-storey building built for the party nomenklatura in 1927-31. designed by architect B. M. Iofan. The gray building in the style of constructivism was no less of a challenge for Moscow in the early 1930s than the monument to Peter I of the late 1990s, but since then the house on the embankment has long been accustomed to, and it has become one of Moscow's recognizable landmarks. The structure of the house reflects many trends of early Soviet housing construction, including the placement of a kitchen factory, a cinema and a club (the future Variety Theatre) right inside the building. Nevertheless, the house on the embankment differed from the communal houses built at the same time in that it contained full-fledged apartments, moreover, pre-furnished. By the number of memorial plaques, the house is probably unparalleled - as, indeed, by the number of residents repressed in the late 1930s. A lot of interesting facts and no less number of legends are connected with the house on the embankment, which can be found in a special museum created on the initiative of the residents of the house.
4 Buildings of the Krasny Oktyabr factory, Bersenevskaya nab., 6. Krasny Oktyabr (before the revolution - the Einem factory) was and remains the leader in confectionery production in Russia. Until the early 2000s, the factory was located on the spit of Bolotny Island in bright red buildings of the early 20th century. Then they were turned into a recreation and entertainment area - restaurants, galleries, nightclubs - preserving the industrial surroundings to the maximum. From the outside, it looks like solid industrial architecture, although the main thing here is not outside, but inside: be sure to look into the courtyard and admire the interweaving of pipes, ventilation ducts and other objects sticking out of the walls. During the day it is quite quiet here, but closer to the night the embankments are filled with cars and life is in full swing.
5 HPP-2, Bolotnaya emb. 15. Another monument of pre-revolutionary industrial architecture. The power plant was built in 1904-07. to power the tram network. Initially, it had a pretty tower, echoing the Kremlin ones, but in Soviet times it was rebuilt and, in fact, crushed by a house on the embankment. Since 2018, it has been under restoration with a vague purpose and so far exists in the form of the remains of load-bearing walls.
6 Monument to Peter I (arrow of the Moscow River and Vodootvodny Canal). One of the most controversial Moscow sights. A giant monument 98 meters high was erected in 1997 on the occasion of the 850th anniversary of the city and the 300th anniversary of the Russian fleet, which was celebrated the year before. However, all these dates were of secondary importance, and the addiction of the then mayor of Moscow Yuri Luzhkov to the works of the sculptor Zurab Tsereteli played a key role. Evil tongues claim that the monument to Peter I is a recycled statue of Columbus, which the sculptor unsuccessfully tried to sell to American countries. Be that as it may, Peter I turned out in the form of a colossus, which now adorns Moscow, standing in a tiny boat in front of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior. Despite the stormy protests of Muscovites, the monument stands in its place and will apparently always stand there, symbolizing Moscow's eternal craving for change and the loss of its historical appearance. It is installed on a man-made island, it is impossible to go up to the foot, and it is best to view this giant work of art from the Patriarchal Bridge, although, to be honest, there is not much to look at there.
In the 15th century, the middle part of the Baltschug Island was called Bolot because of the swampy floodplain relief. At the same time, in these places there was a palace settlement Sredny Sadovniki - the habitat of gardeners who looked after the Sovereign's Garden, laid out on the island, which perished in a fire in 1701. In the old days, the Swamp was a marketplace and a place of entertainment, which included the execution of criminals. For example, in 1671 Stenka Razin was executed here, and the last execution - Emelyan Pugachev - took place in 1775. The development of this area has never been stable. At first, the buildings were destroyed by fires and frequent floods, then the buildings were demolished due to the construction and reconstruction of bridges. In the 19th century, many industrial enterprises appeared here, but most of them died during the Soviet period of improvement. Nothing has changed even now: the area opposite the Kremlin, known as the Golden Island, has been given over to the construction of a new commercial facility, and historical buildings are either demolished or brutally rebuilt with only facades preserved, or, at best, are crushed by new large-scale structures.
7 Monument “Children are victims of the vices of adults” , Bolotnaya sq. Mon–Sun 9:00–21:00. The sculptural composition in the eastern (farthest from the Stone Bridge) part of the square was created in 2001 by the artist Mikhail Shemyakin. In the center are a gilded boy and a blindfolded girl, and around them are gray figures of human vices: alcoholism, drug addiction, sadism, ignorance, etc. The monument has been criticized a lot for depicting vices more vividly than children. At the same time, the monument is very expressive, and its idea is non-trivial, especially against the background of modern Moscow sculpture, which is increasingly ugly and mediocre (see the same monument to Peter I nearby). In order to combat vandalism, the monument is surrounded by a fence, which is opened only during the day.
8 Monument to I.E. Repin. The bronze monument to the famous Russian painter, whose works can be seen in the nearby Tretyakov Gallery, was made by the sculptor M.G. Manizer and opened in 1958.
9 The Church of Sophia the Wisdom of God in Srednye Sadovniki, Sofiyskaya Embankment, 32. The church is located in the very center of the city, on Sofiyskaya Embankment, but hides from annoying tourists in the depths of an unsightly courtyard. Its location is easy to determine by the high hipped bell tower, standing directly opposite the Kremlin. The current church cannot boast of outstanding architectural merit, but its bell tower is an integral part of the panorama of the city center. The legend says that a wooden church in the name of Sophia was built on this site by Novgorodians, who were forcibly relocated to Moscow at the end of the 15th century. The first stone church, pillarless and single-domed, appeared in the middle of the 17th century, but at the end of this century it already had five domes crowning a hill of kokoshniks and a hipped bell tower. In 1891-1893, the church underwent significant rebuilding. It was at this time that a new refectory appeared, the shape of the cupolas was changed, and the facades of the quadrangle acquired a pseudo-Russian decor. The current version of the church is the result of restoration work at the end of the 20th century, and here it is worth taking a closer look at the ancient wide decorative belt on the quadrangle - made up of a runner and a curb, it has an archaic pattern of details and composition. A separate bell tower with the Church of the Sacrifice of the Dead was built in 1862-1868 according to the project of N.I. Kozlovsky in the Russian-Byzantine style. Both in scale and stylistically, it is connected not with the church of St. Sophia, but with the ensemble of the Moscow Kremlin.
10 Luzhkov Bridge, Bolotnaya Square. Pedestrian bridge, where there are special trees of happiness, on which the newlyweds hang locks. In the summer season, from the bridge you can watch the play of the fountains of the Vodootvodny Canal, and next to it is one of the benches of reconciliation.
Novokuznetskaya Tretyakovskaya One of the oldest in
Zamoskvorechye, Balchug Street arose at the end of the 14th century on
the swampy bank of the river, and, apparently, its Turkic name, which
means mud, swamp, bog, describes the usual state of the street for that
time. In the 16th-17th centuries, one of the royal Sadovye Slobodas was
located here, and by the 19th century, the former gardens, swamps and
bogs were densely populated by merchants.
11 Church of St. George the Victorious in Endov (1653) st. Sadovnicheskaya, 6. Among the faceless heap of modern buildings, in the back of the courtyard, under the adamant gaze of the vigilant guards of the powerful, is hiding a chamber five-domed church with a pyramid of kokoshniks, made in the style of Moscow ornamentation. The guards, although they look stern, still seem to have been properly instructed and allow you to examine the architectural monument of the 17th century or visit the church, which is now the courtyard of the Solovetsky Monastery.
The wooden St. George Church was already known in the middle of the 16th century, and at the end of the 16th century, a stone church with a main altar was erected in the name of the Nativity of the Virgin. True, the new name did not take root and the church is still known as St. George's. In 1611, the Church of Egoria in Endov was in the thick of events related to the battles between Russians and Poles for the Zamoskvoretsky ford, which served as a crossing over the Moscow River, and it is precisely because of this that it is often mentioned in chronicles. The building stood on a small hill, separated from Balchug by a drainage moat, which passed through hollows filled with flood water - valleys. The current version of the church was built in 1653 by the inhabitants of Nizhny Sadovniki, but over the past centuries it has been remodeled several times. Thus, already at the end of the 17th century, the refectory was substantially rebuilt, and architraves appeared on it, in style close to the Moscow Baroque. The current three-tier belfry in the style of classicism appeared in 1806 instead of the hipped one that was washed away by the flood, and the white stone fence was built in the 1760s. Once it had a gate with a forged lattice, but now part of them lives in the Kolomenskoye Museum. The modern view of the church is a product of the scientific restoration of 1958-1962 according to the project of N. D. Nedovich. It is worth looking inside the refectory and admiring the powerful vault with beautifully outlined formwork opening into the chapel with wide arches resting on a pillar. The painting of the 17th century, greatly distorted by later records, has been preserved on the vault.
12 Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker in Zayaitsky, 2nd Raushsky per. 2. This Baroque church, which looks like a miniature palace, was built in the middle of the 18th century, and before it, here, at the confluence of the Yauza into the Moscow River, there was a wooden Church of the Transfiguration with the St. Nicholas Throne. It is believed that the Church of the Transfiguration appeared no later than the 15th century, at least that is how its temple icon, which ended up in the collection of the Tretyakov Gallery, is dated. In the middle of the 17th century, the first stone St. Nicholas Church was built, behind which, by the 18th century, the addition "in Zayaitsky" was firmly established. Where it came from - scientists argue. There are versions referring to the Ural Cossacks from the Yaik (Ural) River who stood here at the beginning of the 17th century, to the Zayaitsky Tatars, to the image of St. Nicholas from the Zayaitsky Island of the Solovetsky Monastery kept in the church, and even to the mistake of a scribe who once and for all mixed up the words Zayauzsky and Zayaitsky . The original project of the building that has come down to us largely copied the Church of John the Warrior on Yakimanka, but during construction, the two supposed octagonal figures turned into one, which gave the church a very unusual shape. The bell tower and the fence, a fragment of which has been preserved from the side of the 2nd Raushsky Lane, also belong to the middle of the 18th century. The fire of 1812 spared the church, but its decoration was looted. In Soviet times, the church was almost demolished, but, fortunately, they limited themselves to dismantling the domes and demolishing the upper tiers of the bell tower. The building was restored at the end of the 20th century. Opposite the church, one of the two Baroque houses of the 18th century clergy has been preserved.
The main main street of the district, Bolshaya Yakimanka, got its name from the chapel of Joachim and Anna of the Annunciation Church, known since the end of the 15th century and demolished in 1969. In the local buildings, individual historical buildings have been preserved, but most of them have been heavily rebuilt. However, the six-lane street itself bears little resemblance to the old quarters, the remains of which must be looked for in the adjacent lanes.
13 Monument to Georgy Dimitrov. The monument to the famous Bulgarian communist and revolutionary was made by father and son K.M and M.K. Merabishvili and was installed in 1972 at the beginning of G. Dimitrov Street - this is how Bolshaya Yakimanka Street was called in 1956-1992.
14 Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker in Golutvin, 1st Golutvinsky Lane, 14. A church with a difficult fate, now looking as if its entire life since the 17th century has passed absolutely serenely. The village of Golutvino (from "golutva" - clearing, clearing) was known from the end of the 15th century and by the 17th century it had three parish churches, among which was the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin, often called Nikolsky after one of the chapels. In 1686-1692, the existing stone church was erected instead of them, and at first it was a five-domed structure, typical of its time, with rows of kokoshniks and rich decor. In 1772, the church underwent the first restructuring, with the windows slashed, the kokoshniks replaced with a hipped roof, and the refectory remodeled. In the fire of 1812, it was only plundered, but in 1823 a new restructuring took place, depriving the building of decor and giving it empire-style forms that were fashionable at that time. In 1930, the church was closed, after which the domes were demolished and the bell tower was dismantled, and the Geological Prospecting Institute that settled within its walls finished off the remains of the 19th-century murals. By 1980, when the restoration began, only the main volume and vaults with pillars in the refectory remained from the church. The current building is the result of restoration in 1993-1995. In 2011, the Chinese Patriarchal Compound was created on the basis of the temple, which is felt in the unusual design of its courtyard.
15 Church Maron the Hermit in Old Pani, st. Bolshaya Yakimanka, 32 p.2. The small church has been known since 1640 and has been rebuilt many times in a variety of styles. During the last pre-revolutionary alteration of the end of the 19th century, it acquired eclectic features - stylization under the old Russian decor of various times. From the original design, only the cornice and shoulder blades at the corners of the quadrangle have been preserved. In Soviet times, a car repair shop was located here, and the church acquired its current appearance as a result of restoration in the late 1990s.
16 Church of John the Warrior on Yakimanka, st. Bolshaya Yakimanka, 46. Unusual in silhouette, the Baroque church was built in 1709-1717 and is considered one of the most original monuments of its era. The temple was erected instead of the church of the same name, washed away by the flood, which stood on the very bank of the river and, according to legend, its project was approved by Peter I himself. Apparently, thanks to royal patronage, the church had extensive possessions of several blocks for a long time. The shape of the church is in many respects close to domestic temples of the 17th century, and the elements of a well-drawn and masterfully executed decor are drawn from the Western European Baroque. The initial design of the interior was made in the 1770-1790s with the participation of the artist Gavriil Domozhirov and V.I. Bazhenov, who made, among other things, the iconostasis. From this magnificence, only the stucco molding on the vaults has survived to this day. The Bazhenov iconostasis was replaced during repairs in the 1860s, and the current five-tiered iconostasis dates from 1712 and came here in 1928 as part of the campaign to save it, when its former habitat was dismantled - the Church of the Three Hierarchs at the Red Gate. On the western facade of the bell tower, the old tiled relief “Mark the Evangelist” has been preserved, and the fence of the church from the middle of the 18th century is another magnificent monument in the ensemble of the church, although it was somewhat moved when the street was widened in 1984.
17 Igumnov's house, Bolshaya Yakimanka, 43. A spectacular mansion in the eclectic style was built in 1895 by N.K. Pozdeev on the very outskirts of what was then Moscow. The name of the construction customer, the Russian merchant N.V. Igumnov, turned into the running name of the house, although the building itself for a little over a hundred years managed to serve as both a blood transfusion station and a brain institute, and since 1938 it has become the residence of the French ambassador. The building with many picturesque pseudo-Russian elements and a colorful high roof was built of Dutch brick and lined with tiles made at the factories of M.S. Kuznetsov, the main porcelain production of the country at that time. Several urban legends are associated with the house, the most terrible of which claims that the owner immured his unfaithful mistress in the walls of the mansion.
18 Church of Gregory of Neocaesarea in Derbitsy, st. Bolshaya
Polyanka, 29a. It was built in 1662-1679, instead of the wooden parish
church that stood a little to the north, at the expense of confessor
Alexei Mikhailovich Andrey Savinov. However, the king himself invested a
lot of money in it and was interested in the progress of construction.
It is not known exactly who built the church, but it is generally
accepted that they were the royal masters Ivan Grasshopper and Kostroma
Karp Guba. Perhaps, thanks to the latter, the features of the Kostroma
Church of the Resurrection on Debra (1652) are noticeable in the plastic
decoration of the church. The temple is amazing in its architecture. It
is completed by three rows of keeled kokoshniks of "fiery tongues".
Above them rises the traditional five-headed onion with deaf, that is,
without windows, drums. The tiled frieze is the most famous feature of
the magnificent decoration of the temple. Ceramic glazed tiles with a
multi-color pattern "peacock's eye" are made by master Stepan Ivanov
Polubes "associates". 9,000 tiles were used to decorate the temple.
Their colors have retained their original brightness to this day. In the
18th century, two aisles appeared: the facades of the southern one copy
the design of the church, while the northern one is designed in the
style of Empire pseudo-Gothic. The fire of 1812 spared the church.
During the Soviet period, its iconostasis was broken, and the icons of
Simon Ushakov and Georgy Zinoviev were sent to the storerooms of the
Tretyakov Gallery and the Historical Museum. In 1930, they decided to
demolish the hipped bell tower to expand the sidewalk, but fortunately
they limited themselves to a cut passage. A serious restoration of the
building was carried out in 1965, and in 1996 the church was painted in
a bright orange color with whitewash and turquoise highlighting the
details of the decor. The temple played a significant role in the
history of the royal family. In 1671, Alexei Mikhailovich and Natalya
Kirillovna Naryshkina got married here. And some sources also mention
the baptism of Peter I, but this, apparently, is not the case - the
royal children were usually baptized in the Spiritual Monastery.
19 Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin in Kazachey Sloboda , st. Bolshaya Polyanka, 27. An interesting one-domed baroque church of the late 17th century, of the octagon-on-a-quadrutype type, with annexes of the late 18th century in the classical style - a small two-tiered bell tower with a spire and a somewhat disproportionate massive refectory. During the fire of 1812, the church lost all its interior decoration, but by 1818 it was restored. In the 19th century, the refectory and the bell tower underwent alterations, which were eliminated during the restoration of the 1970-1980s. Around the temple, a fragmentary fence of the end of the 18th century has been preserved.
20 Church of the Iberian Icon of the Mother of God at the former Iberian community of sisters of mercy, st. Bolshaya Polyanka, 20. The Iberian community of the Red Cross was founded in 1886, and the temple appeared on its territory in 1896-1901 (architect S.K. Rodionov). The church was made in the pseudo-Russian style and had a form rare for Moscow and an unusual belfry. After the revolution, the community was abolished, and by 1923 the church was also closed, transferring all the buildings to the neighboring children's hospital. The church survived the Soviet years as a warehouse, and the belfry was destroyed and restored in its former forms already in the 1990s. Now the church is functioning, but you can get to it only through the guard, who zealously guards the peace of the commercial offices located nearby.
21 Church of the Resurrection in Kadashi Wikidata item, 2nd Kadashevsky lane, 7/14. The first mention of the Church of the Resurrection dates back to 1493, but the stone church that has come down to us appeared around 1687 and turned out to be so successful that it became a role model in domestic temple building for a long time. It will take some imagination to imagine the original beauty and grace of the Church of the Resurrection. To begin with, you will have to mentally remove the fences and unsystematic heaps of buildings of the last hundred years, having received an open space around the church. Then it is necessary to remove layers from pseudo-Gothic porches with green semi-domes - a legacy of the 19th century. After that, you need to imagine a less massive altar part (it was rebuilt in 1802) and, finally, add three wide stairs leading to the mound, reminiscent of the stairs of the Church of the Intercession in Fili. The result will be a light, elegant building in the Moscow baroque style with a richly decorated quadrangle crowned with an unusual for its time triple crown of white stone combs and traditional five domes. The inimitable six-tier bell tower appeared in 1695 in place of the dismantled stairs, highlighting the silhouette of the church in the general panorama of Zamoskvorechye.
✦ Tretyakov Gallery, Lavrushinsky lane, 10. The old building of the Tretyakov Gallery is basically an architectural monument of the late 19th - early 20th century. The gallery began with a house in Lavrushinsky Lane, acquired by the Tretyakov family in 1851. Later, extensions were repeatedly made to the purchased house, until in 1903 the world-famous facade appeared, made according to the drawings of V.M. Vasnetsov. After the revolution, the gallery continued to expand, taking over neighboring historical buildings, building and building on new buildings, and, judging by the appearance of the surroundings of the Tretyakov Gallery, this process is unstoppable.
22 Monument to P.M. Tretyakov. A granite monument to the founder of the Tretyakov Gallery was installed at the main entrance to the gallery in 1980, the authors are the sculptor A.P. Kibalnikov and architect I.E. Rozhin.
23 Fountain of Arts (Inspiration Fountain) (square at the corner of Lavrushinsky and Bolshoi Tolmachevsky lanes). The unusual fountain was opened in April 2006 on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the Tretyakov Gallery, next to which it is located, giving an opportunity to rest after a rich cultural program or hide from the city noise. Its creators are architects M. Morina, O. Zhiburtovich, O. Aleksandrova and sculptor A. Rukovishnikov. To make it more interesting, in three paintings of the fountain, the authors encrypted the famous paintings by V. Vasnetsov, A. Kuindzhi and I. Mashkov.
24 Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker in Tolmachi, Maly Tolmachevsky Lane, 9. The church on this site has been known since 1625, but its current version was built in 1697 at the expense of the Kadashevites Dobrynins. By the way, until the middle of the 19th century, it was often called by the limit “Dukhovskaya, which is in Kadashev in Tolmachi”. In the fire of 1812, the church survived, but by the 1830s it had deteriorated considerably and was rebuilt according to the project of F.M. Shestakov, who almost did not touch the quarter of the 17th century, but built a new refectory with a three-tiered bell tower, both in the Empire style. In 1929, the church was closed, transferred to the Tretyakov Gallery and beheaded, and after the restoration in 1997, church services began again in it. As a result of all these alterations from the 17th century, only the vaulted quadrangle with a somewhat unusual decoration of the facades has survived: architraves of transitional forms from patterned to Moscow baroque and corner columns with Ionic capitals almost unique for their time.
The area around Bolshaya Ordynka Street, whose name comes from the road to the Golden Horde.
25 Church of the Icon of the Mother of God "Joy of All Who Sorrow", st. Bolshaya Ordynka, 20. ✉ ☎ +7 (495) 951-60-34. It is believed that the first wooden church on this site appeared at the beginning of the 16th century. It was dedicated to the patron saint of warriors, the Novgorod saint Varlaam Khutynsky, and it was built either on the occasion of a campaign against Kazan, or simply by the Novgorodians living here. In 1685, the wooden church was replaced by a stone church quite common for those times - five-domed with a hipped bell tower. The church owes its current very remarkable appearance to two major Moscow architects - V.I. Bazhenov and O.I. Beauvais. According to the project of the first, in 1783-1791, a refectory and a spectacular bell tower were built, both in the style of classicism. The refectory turned out to be so successful that it became a role model for the construction of later Moscow churches, and the round three-tiered bell tower with an Ionic colonnade, unusual for its time, still attracts attention, despite the dense surrounding buildings. In 1823-1836, according to the project of O.I. Beauvais created a rotunda in the late Empire style. He is also the author of the interior design, including embossed cast-iron plates. The internal space of the rotunda is extremely monumental and is created by twelve columns supporting a wide hemispherical dome; the refectory is not so solemn, but attracts with the unusual organization of the internal vaults. In 1933, the church was closed and given to the Tretyakov Gallery, which preserved its interior decoration. In 1948, the temple was reopened, and in the 1950s, a church choir was created here, which received recognition in musical circles. One of the surviving traditions of the choir is the annual performance on November 8 of the liturgy of St. John Chrysostom by P.I. Tchaikovsky, dedicated to the day of the death of the composer.
26 Church of St. Nicholas in Pyzhy , st. Bolshaya Ordynka, 27/6. One of the most beautiful churches of Zamoskvorechye stands between Bolshaya and Malaya Ordynka and appears in different guises from each of the streets. The church was built in the second half of the 17th century (in 1657 or 1672) by the archers of the regiment of Bogdan Pyzhov, after whom both this area and the nearby lane were named. Previously, there was a wooden Church of the Annunciation, known at least since 1635, and the new church at first inherited this dedication, but later turned into Nikolsky - after the name of one of the aisles. The main volume with a pyramid of kokoshniks, crowned with five cupolas with elegant initial crosses, is decorated with brick and white stone carvings, and none of the window casings is repeated. The side apses of the three-part altar part, archaic in form, from the very beginning played the role of aisles, which, however, was widespread in the District of the 17th century. Of the two surviving portals, only the western one has come down to us in its original form. The bell tower, traditional for its time, stands out among its contemporaries for its rare plasticity and good proportions. The interior of the church has been heavily altered, but in some places late painting has survived under the whitewash.
27 Church of the Iberian Mother of God on Vspolye (1789-1802) st. Bolshaya Ordynka, 39/22. The church was built in 1791-1802, presumably according to the project of I.V. Egotova in the style of mature classicism. The “body” of its wide refectory includes two chapels - George the Victorious and John the Warrior. Over the years of its existence, the church was gradually rebuilt, the bell tower was lost during the years of Soviet power and restored only after 1994. Inside, from the original decoration, a stucco cornice in the rotunda and fragments of the decoration of the Tuscan order have been preserved.
28 Marfo-Mariinsky Convent, st. Bolshaya Ordynka, 34. ☎ +7 495 951-1139. Mon–Sun 8:00–20:00. Free admission. The history of the monastery began in 1907, when Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna, after the tragic death of her husband, Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, acquired an estate with four 19th-century houses and a garden on Ordynka in order to establish a monastery of mercy here. In architectural terms, the monastery was lucky: for the work on the arrangement of the monastery, on the advice of M.V. Nesterov was invited by A.V. Shchusev, which led to the creation of this unusual monastery complex. It was Shchusev who came up with the idea of creating a closed space fenced off with spectacular gates, which even today makes the monastery a cozy place for walking, despite the cut down century-old linden trees and the heap of office buildings surrounding the monastery. Shchusev was also the author of the project of the main pearl of the monastery - the Intercession Cathedral, as well as a couple of small buildings in the neo-Russian style, such as a gatehouse or a mortuary.
The Intercession Cathedral was built in 1908-1912 in the Art Nouveau style and is an amazing variation on the themes of Pskov-Novgorod architecture and white-stone Vladimir carvings. The laconic plasticity of the eastern façade, the white-stone carvings by S.T. Konenkov, as it were accidentally preserved, its carved portals with floral ornaments, the corner belfries with massive pillars and the tear-shaped cupolas of the western façade — all these elements make the Pokrovsky Cathedral absolutely unique. His lofty refectory, with a deliberately indefinite line, was shaped to serve from time to time as a place for concerts or secular gatherings. The face of the Savior on the western facade and the interior paintings were made by M.V. Nesterov. Another work of art - the altar part of the interior - is arranged in the likeness of cramped Novgorod churches, and a secret staircase, painted by Pavel Korin, leads to an underground crypt.
In 1926, the monastery was closed, and its premises were occupied by cultural and medical institutions. After the war, the restoration workshops of I. E. Grabar moved into the Pokrovsky Cathedral, who lived here until 2006. Nowadays, the monastery lives its very busy life, but it is calm about strangers and frequent excursions.
29 Urban estate of the Arsenievs, st. Bolshaya Ordynka, 45/8 building 3. The most spectacular part of the estate is a two-story house made in the Empire style - a stone bottom with a wooden top. It is believed that the house has stood on this site since at least 1803, although it did not acquire a mezzanine with a four-columned Ionic portico until 1812. In the 1840s, the estate was expanded from the side of the courtyard, and at the same time picturesque arched elements were added to the facade.
30 Church of the Great Martyr Catherine on Vspolye, st. Bolshaya Ordynka, 60/2. The church is made in the late baroque style, rare for Moscow, with elements of rococo and is distinguished by expressive plasticity and rich stucco decoration. It was built in 1766-1775 according to the project of K.I. Blank in memory of the accession of Empress Catherine II by order of the Empress herself. Before the Baroque version, there was a wooden church, rebuilt in stone in the middle of the 17th century. Part of the first stone church Blank included in the overall composition of the summer Catherine's Church, the old refectory in the role of a winter church and a two-tiered bell tower. In 1872, the winter church was completely rebuilt, and two more tiers were added to the bell tower, which was dismantled in the 1930s. Along the line of Bolshaya Ordynka and Pogorelsky Lane, a unique fence, installed in 1769, has been preserved. For it, the links of the curly lattice, made in 1731 for the Cathedral Square of the Kremlin, were used. In the 1740s, the Kremlin fence was dismantled, and the forged gratings with false rosettes in knots, curly endings and Russian coats of arms on the central bars (knocked down in the 1920s) were preserved and eventually transferred to the Catherine Church. In the Soviet years, the church was decapitated and worked as an office space, but in the 1980s it was restored by the forces of the Grabar Restoration Center that settled here.
Pyatnitskaya Street got its name from the church of Paraskeva Pyatnitsa, demolished in the 1920s, which stood on the site of the pavilion of the Novokuznetskaya metro station. True, this name became the main one only in the 18th century, and before that the old part of the street up to Klimentovsky Lane was called Lazy Torzhok, Lenivka and even Good Street. The layout of Pyatnitskaya took shape in the 17th century, when, after the devastation of the Time of Troubles, this part of the city was actually built anew, but the main features of its ensemble were formed in the 18th-19th centuries. However, there are also later buildings here: houses from the beginning of the 20th century and not the best representatives of late Soviet architecture. After the restoration of the 2010s, the beginning of Pyatnitskaya with its centuries-old low-rise buildings acquired a “commodity” look, and all kinds of cafes and shops make the street a very lively place.
31 Church of Mikhail and Fedor of Chernigov. It is located in Chernigovsky Lane, which, after a recent renovation, has turned into a small but very colorful pedestrian area. The stone church, a typical township temple of its time, has been standing here since 1675, replacing the wooden structure of the 16th century. In the 18th century, the church received a southern chapel and decor on the facades, and in the 19th century it was abolished, and then the hipped bell tower and domes were dismantled, retaining only the lower row of kokoshniks. The external appearance of the church was returned in the 1980s, vaulted rooms and paintings from the 1740s were preserved inside. During the reconstruction, a walking area with good views of the church was equipped around the temple, but it is possible to overcome the metal fence surrounding it only under some rare set of circumstances.
32 Church of the Beheading of John the Baptist near Bor , Chernihiv per. 4/2, p. 8. The current church stands on the site of the ancient Ivanovsky, “that near Bor”, a monastery, first mentioned in the annals in 1415 when describing the circumstances of the birth of Grand Duke Vasily II. The first stone temple in the monastery was erected by Aleviz Novy in 1514. When in 1530 the monastery was moved to Ivanovskaya Gorka, named after the monastery, the former monastery church became a parish church. What happened to the first stone building during the Time of Troubles is unknown, but in the middle of the 17th century the church was mentioned as wooden. The current stone version appeared either in 1658 or in 1675, and from the construction of the 16th century, a white stone basement and fragments of the masonry of the apse made of undersized "Alevizov" bricks have been preserved. Not so little has survived from the 17th century: the shape of the main square, the cornice and the design of the southern portal. The remaining decorative elements of the 17th century were restored from the surviving fragments. The octagonal light drum and the baroque decoration of the quadrangle appeared in the middle of the 18th century. The three-tiered bell tower with elements of order architecture, contrary to accepted canons, is located on the eastern side and is the architectural dominant of the beginning of Pyatnitskaya Street. It was built in the 18th century, and the arched opening in its lower tier, most likely, is the remains of the Holy Gates of the 17th century church fence. Also next to the church are the refectory of the 18th century and the church house of the 18th-19th centuries.
33 Church of the Great Martyr Clement, Pope of Rome (1769), Klimentovsky lane, 7/26. The Church of Pope Clement was first mentioned in 1612 on the occasion of the battle of Russian militia with the troops of Hetman Khodkevich, and it received its rare name from one of the non-main thrones. Its first stone version was built in the middle of the 17th century, but later the church was almost completely rebuilt, adding a refectory and a three-tiered bell tower that have survived to this day in the middle of the 18th century. In 1769, at the initiative of the townspeople, the main volume of the temple was demolished, and by 1774, at the corner of Pyatnitskaya Street and Klimentovsky Lane, a magnificent church appeared, which has no analogue not only in Zamoskvorechye, but throughout Moscow. The building was made in the late baroque style with elements of early classicism, its project is attributed to the St. Petersburg architect Pietro Antonio Trezzini, and the construction is attributed to the Moscow architect I. Ya. Yakovlev. No less magnificent was the design of the internal two-tiered space. By some miracle, until the 1930s, all five iconostases of the temple were preserved, the most luxurious is the central one, decorated with gilded wooden sculpture. The 18th-century fence around the church is partially preserved, but most of it was re-installed during the restoration of the 2010s. At the same time, the overhead pavilion, which played the role of the front gate, was recreated, and the interior of the church was completely restored.
34 Mansion O.P. Korobkova Wikidata element, st. Pyatnitskaya, 33. This spectacular mansion in the style of late eclecticism was built in the 1890s by order of the Korobkov spouses by architect L.N. Kekushev, who included in the northern part of the building the volumes of a two-story building of 1866. The mansion catches the eye with a large bay window and a richly decorated facade, but its interior with an unusual corner hall overlooking the winter garden is also worth attention. According to rumors, you can get into the mansion as part of the annual European Heritage Days program and, apparently, this is the only opportunity to see its interior decoration.
35 Church of the Life-Giving Trinity in Veshnyaki (1804-1824) st. Pyatnitskaya, 51. Designed in the late Empire style, the church is a typical representative of Moscow churches at the turn of the 18th-19th centuries, but it dates back to the beginning of the 17th century. In those days, the outskirts of the Zarechye were inhabited by archery settlements, which first acquired a wooden, and by the end of the 17th century, a stone church. After it was rebuilt several times, the last time - by the beginning of the war of 1812. During the Napoleonic invasion, the church was on fire, but in the 1820s it was completely restored. Around the same time, due to the expansion of Pyatnitskaya Street, the old bell tower was demolished, and a new one was put in its place (designed by F.M. Shestakov and N.I. Kozlovsky), which became the main decoration of the entire ensemble. Nearby, two civil buildings of the 1830s have been preserved - a two-story clergy house and a one-story gatehouse.
36 Mansion M.I. Rekk (House with Lions), st. Pyatnitskaya, 64. Built in 1897 by order of the banker and entrepreneur Yakov Rekk, the founder of a trade and construction company that built and resold mansions and tenement houses in Moscow. The chief architect of this society was S.V. Sherwood, he also became the author of the mansion project, which turned out to be the first commercial project of the organization. At first, the house was registered to the entrepreneur's wife, Minna Ivanovna Rekk, but immediately after the completion of construction, it was sold. The building is decorated with many decorative elements typical of baroque and classicism, and among the sculptural details of the decor, a pair of lions in different poses is especially expressive.
The area around Bolshaya Tatarskaya and Pyatnitskaya streets, historically a place of compact residence of Tatars.
37 Church of the Archangel Michael in Ovchinniki (Protection of the Most Holy Theotokos) , Middle Ovchinnikovsky per., 7.
38 Chambers (late 17th - early 18th centuries), Sredny Ovchinnikovsky per., 10.
39 Residential building of the end of the 18th century, Bolshoi Ovchinnikovsky per., 17.
40 Historic Moscow Mosque, st. Bolshaya Tatarskaya, 28 p.1.
41 Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker in Kuznetskaya Sloboda, Vishnyakovskiy per., 15.
42 Church of the Transfiguration on Bolvanovka, 2nd Novokuznetsky lane, 10.
43 Intercession Cathedral, st. Novokuznetskaya, 38.
44 Shabolovskaya metro station, st. Shabolovka, 30. Although the southern part of the Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya (“red”) metro line was built back in 1962, the Shabolovskaya station was opened almost 20 years later, in 1980, thanks to which it received an original and eye-pleasing design, which cannot be said about the neighboring stations of the same branch. At the end of the station there is a curious stained-glass window depicting the Shukhov tower going into the distance, in the perspective of which the towers of the Kremlin appear.
45 Donskoy Monastery, Donskaya Sq. 1. Arose in 1591 on the site of a walk-city (mobile fortification) after the victory over the army of the Crimean Khan of Gaza II Giray, who raided Moscow. Inside the walk-city was the icon of the Don Mother of God - according to legend, the same one with which Sergius of Radonezh blessed Dmitry Donskoy before the battle on the Kulikovo field. The first stone temple was built almost immediately - this is the so-called small cathedral (1591-93), a single-domed temple with numerous kokoshniks in the spirit of Moscow architecture of the 16th century. A hipped bell tower and a refectory were added to it at the end of the 17th century almost simultaneously with the construction of a large cathedral (1684-96) - a huge, red-painted five-domed church, made in the Baroque style, but not in the then fashionable Naryshkin style in Moscow, but in a more its modest Ukrainian variety. If the Naryshkin style used numerous reliefs, stucco moldings and other decorative elements for the continuous “decoration” of the temple, here the effect is achieved only by plasticity, like the temples of the late 17th century somewhere in Slobozhanshchina: with the only difference that they were not painted red there . Inside you can see frescoes and an iconostasis from the same period. They are also interesting, as they symbolize the transformation of classical Old Russian icon painting towards freer and more realistic Western European traditions of the Renaissance. At least some of the paintings were made by Italian masters.
At the beginning of the 18th century, a monastery wall was built with 12 towers, the massiveness of which still reminds of ancient Russian fortresses, and the jagged neo-Gothic completions are already signs of the New Age. The walls and towers of the Novodevichy Convent in Khamovniki were made according to a similar project. The gate churches - Tikhvinskaya (1713-14) and Zakharia and Elisabeth (1730-55) - belong to the baroque monuments, now in the traditional Moscow style. In addition to them, on the territory of the monastery there are about a dozen churches and chapels that serve as tombs and belong to the necropolis.
46 Necropolis of the Donskoy Monastery. In the middle of the 18th century, the Donskoy Monastery, along with the Novodevichy Monastery, became one of the most “prestigious” burial places. For example, the poet A.P. Sumarokov, the historian V.O. Klyuchevsky, the creator of aerodynamics N.E. Zhukovsky are buried here, and the total number of ancient graves is huge: nowhere else in Moscow is there such a thing, and in all of Russia outside it too. In Soviet times, there were practically no new burials. In the early 2000s, the heroes of the White movement, General A. I. Denikin and the commander-in-chief of the Kolchak army, V. O. Kappel, were reburied in the necropolis. The grave of the writer A. I. Solzhenitsyn is also located here. On the territory of the necropolis there are several churches and chapels of different times and styles. From an architectural point of view, the most interesting is the chapel-tomb of Levchenko in the spirit of northern modernity.
47 High reliefs of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior (near the eastern wall of the monastery). The Moscow Cathedral of Christ the Savior was blown up in 1931, but before that, part of the high reliefs that decorated it were removed and given to the Museum of Architecture, which was then located in the Donskoy Monastery. It is difficult to say why only a part of the high reliefs were preserved, and there are a variety of rumors and conjectures about why they were not used in the restoration of the temple. Be that as it may, the Cathedral of Christ the Savior is now decorated with artsy and rather pretentious high reliefs made of bronze. Their marble predecessors and prototypes are exhibited in the Donskoy Monastery right under the open sky. A total of six high reliefs survive; five of them were made by the sculptor A. V. Loganovsky, and the sixth by N. A. Romazanov. Biblical stories and scenes from the history of Russia are presented, including Sergius of Radonezh blessing Dmitry Donskoy. All high reliefs are very expressive; this is one of the best examples of Russian monumental art of the 19th century.
48 New Donskoy Cemetery and Crematorium (corner of Donskaya St. and Ordzhonikidze St.). The new cemetery was opened at the end of the 19th century to the south of the Donskoy Monastery and was intended for simpler people - the military and the raznochintsy intelligentsia. Among the latter there were many Jews, which is why the people called this cemetery Jewish. They began to build a church in the center of the territory, but they did not have time before the revolution, and the victorious Soviet government ordered the church to be converted into a crematorium, which was done in the first half of the 1920s. in the spirit of constructivism. It was the first crematorium in the Soviet Union, and with it, respectively, the first columbarium: at that time, phenomena and even words were new and unusual for Russia. The columbarium still exists, the crematorium was closed in the early 1980s, after which it was converted back into a church, completely destroying its constructivist appearance. In the late 1930s, the remains of the repressed were actively cremated here, or rather, the remains of the repressed were destroyed, which is now reminiscent of a mass grave and a small memorial.
49 House-commune on Ordzhonikidze, st. Ordzhonikidze, 8/9. Built in 1929-30. designed by architect I. Nikolaev. One of the most radical examples of constructivism, not only in architecture, but also in the organization of housing in general. The house consists of three parts: a seven-story residential building, inside which sleeping cells for 2 people were originally designed, about 6 square meters in size. meters; sanitary building with changing rooms and showers; and a public building with a canteen, a library and study rooms. In plan, the building has the shape of an airplane, which almost became fatal for the author of the project: according to rumors, German pilots used the building as a landmark during air raids on Moscow, because of which the architect was almost shot. There was never an elevator in the building, and it was possible to go upstairs not only along two side stairs made in place of the aircraft propellers, but also along an enchanting spiral staircase-ramp in its “tail section”. At first there was a dormitory of the textile institute, later a dormitory of the institute of steel and alloys. In 1968, the commune house was reconstructed, changing the internal layout to a more humane one. Since the late 1990s, the hostel has been in a deplorable state, but in 2007-2016 it was reconstructed. As a result, the building has been transformed: outwardly, it is very similar to photographs of the original version of the structure, while the inside was arranged in accordance with modern ideas about aesthetics and amenities. To view the interiors, you can go to the dining room or even arrange a tour, during which you will be shown the famous “lazy” (ladder-ramp), spoiled by the elevator, and one room, arranged according to the project of the 1930s. In the courtyard of the building, a fragment of the original frame of the building was exhibited especially for the tourists. Connoisseurs of style will find many other monuments of early 1930s constructivism nearby - pay attention to the quarters on the opposite side of Ordzhonikidze Street and in the area of Lesteva Street.
50 Dovecote House of Count Orlov, 2nd Upper Mikhailovsky Prospect 2. Beautiful three-story rotunda of the late 18th — early 19th century. Generally speaking, no one knows exactly who built it and why. Most likely, it was one of the pavilions of the estate of Count Orlov, and many believe that the pavilion was used as a dovecote. Later, there were art workshops, a library, and now the Graf Orlov restaurant is located in it.
51 Shukhov tower, Shukhov street. Unique hyperboloid design, made in the form of a load-bearing steel mesh shell. Located in Moscow on Shabolovka street. Built in 1919-1922. Architectural monument. The author of the project and the head of the construction of the radio tower is the great Russian engineer, architect, and scientist, academician Vladimir Grigoryevich Shukhov (1853-1939). The tower has been recognized as one of the most beautiful and outstanding achievements of engineering in the world. The first project of the tower on Shabolovka was developed by Shukhov in 1919 with an estimated height of 350 meters. Due to a shortage of metal during the civil war, the design development was implemented on the second project in the form of a structure 148.3 meters high. On March 19, 1922, radio broadcasts began from a unique antenna tower.
52 Apakov tram depot.
53 Church of the Life-Giving Trinity on Shabolovka, st. Shabolovka, 21.
54 Danilov Monastery (600 m northeast of Tulskaya). ☎ (495) 955-67-88, 955-67-90. Danilov Monastery is a male monastery of the Russian Orthodox Church, one of the oldest monasteries in Moscow. It was founded by the Moscow prince Daniil Alexandrovich in the 13th century. It is an object of cultural heritage of the Russian Federation. Danilov Monastery is not a single building, but an ensemble of structures.
55 Church of the Resurrection of the Word in Danilovskaya Sloboda Wikidata item, Bolshoi Starodanilovsky pereulok, 3 (300 m north-east of Tulskaya). The temple is located on the original site of the Danilov Monastery, which was moved to a new location in the 16th century. Opened in 1837, the building was built in the late Empire style.
56 First City Hospital.
57 Hospital of St. Alexis.
The leather settlement is located behind the Garden Ring, between the Paveletskaya railway and the Moscow River. It arose in the 16th century and existed on this site until the beginning of the 20th century, gradually turning into a mixture of residential and industrial buildings.
Known since the 16th century, the Kolomna Yamskaya Sloboda was bounded from the north by the Garden Ring, from the south by the Danilovsky Monastery, from the east by Kozhevniki, and from the west by Serpukhovskaya Street. After redevelopment and renaming, this area includes Dubininskaya Street, which goes to the Danilovsky Monastery, with the adjacent Pavlovsky lanes and streets with the colorful names of Zatsep and Shchipok.
58 Chambers of Kozhevennaya Sloboda, st. Kozhevnicheskaya, 19, building 6 (in the yard). Massive stone building of the late 17th century. In a sense, this is an example of the development of that period: a private two-story house, where production was located below, and living quarters on the second floor. Already in the 18th century, the building was torn away in favor of the state. For a long time it was occupied by the Mytny House, that is, in modern terms, customs. At the beginning of the 20th century, monuments of pre-Petrine architecture were not yet perceived as something unique, so a huge ugly extension was made to the chambers, and all together they turned into a hostel. Now there is a security plate hanging on the building, but its condition leaves much to be desired. Inside there is the editorial office of the magazine "Knowledge-Power", magnificent stone vaults have been preserved. Knock - you may even be allowed to look at this splendor.
59 Trinity Church in Kozhevniki, 2nd Kozhevnichesky per. 4/6. Built in 1686-89. in traditional Moscow style. The belfry of the “octagon on a quadrangle” type was added in 1722, and the influence of the Baroque is already felt in it. The exterior decor was recreated in the early 1990s after the destruction of the Soviet era.
60 Leather baths, st. Kozhevnicheskaya, 15. A monument of constructivism, one of the many public baths built in the early 1930s. Unusual here is a majolica frieze stretching along the facade, under the very roof, with faded and peeling murals in the spirit of socialist realism. A few years later, mosaics similar to them adorned many Moscow metro stations, the Soviet painter Alexander Deineka became especially famous there, and the Tannery Baths are perhaps the first example of the use of this decorative element in Soviet architecture.
61 Church of the Martyrs Flora and Laurus on Zatsep, st. Dubininskaya, 9.
62 Church of the Ascension beyond the Serpukhov Gates, st. Bolshaya Serpukhovskaya, 24.
Gallery, Lavrushinsky per., 10 ( Tretyakovskaya). Thu–Sat
10:00–21:00, other days of the week until 18:00, closed Monday, ticket
offices close one hour before closing. 500 rub. (2017). This is the
largest collection of Russian art in the world, chronologically limited
to 1917 (everything after 1917 is in the building on Krymsky Val).
Accordingly, the exposition contains a collection of Russian icon
painting from all periods, including the Trinity of Andrei Rublev and
the Vladimir Mother of God (for which a special chapel was built as a
compromise with the church) and paintings, graphics and sculpture of the
18th-early 20th centuries. The exposition is chosen very carefully, all
major and a lot of smaller names are presented, and this is precisely
its problem - if you don’t know what to watch, then you can easily spend
two hours on 18th-century painting and get tired without seeing almost
anything interesting. Think in advance what you want to see (or plan a
whole day to view the entire exhibition - even though the building is
relatively small, the paintings are not hung except perhaps on the
ceiling), or start from the 20th century - the period when Russian art
finally closed the gap with Europe and created something original. The
second problem, as in most Russian museums, is the lack of normal cafes
2 Branch of the Tretyakov Gallery on Krymsky Val, Krymsky Val, 10 ( Park of Culture, Oktyabrskaya, Oktyabrskaya). Thu–Sat 10:00–21:00, other days of the week until 18:00, closed Monday, ticket offices close one hour before closing. The permanent collection contains Russian (in the broadest sense - for example, there are several paintings by Pirosmani here) art from 1917 (and sometimes even a little earlier) to the present. The meeting is quite meaningful, and, unlike the building in Lavrushinsky, little visited, in many rooms you will be completely alone. Both avant-garde and interwar art are represented in sufficient numbers. Part of the building is given over to temporary exhibitions, usually of very high quality. There are often crowds there. Combined ticket to the exhibition and the museum.
3 The Lumiere Brothers Center for Photography, Bolotnaya Embankment, 3 building 1. Tue–Fri 12:21–00, Sat–Sun 12:22–00. 230-400 rub.
4 Manor house of A.N. Ostrovsky, st. Malaya Ordynka, 9, building 1 ( Tretyakovskaya). Mon, Tue-out, Wed-Sun 12.00-18.00, after. fri of the month - san.day.
5 Memorial apartment of G.M. Krzhizhanovsky, Sadovnicheskaya st., 30 p. 1 ( Novokuznetskaya). Mon-Fri 9.00-18.00, Sat, Sun.
6 Museum of V.A. Tropinin and Moscow artists of his time , Shchetininsky lane, 10, building 11 ( Dobryninskaya). Tue–Sun 10:00–18:00, Thu 13:00–21:00. 200 rub.
7 Theater State Central Museum. A.A. Bakhrushina, Bakhrushina st., 31/12 ( Paveletskaya).
8 Museum of the Forest , 5th Monetchikovsky per., 4 ( Paveletskaya). Wed–Thursday 11:00–19:00, Fri–Sun 10:00–18:00. 80 rub. The museum is located in a new building specially designed for it, which looks like residential buildings of the early 19th century.
9 Mineralogical Museum. Fersman, Leninsky pr. 18, building 2 ( Leninsky Prospekt, courtyards behind the house 18 along Leninsky pr.). ☎ +7 (495) 954-18-59. Wed–Sun 11:00–17:00. Entrance ticket: 250 rubles (2015), free on Wednesdays. Lost in the backyards of Leninsky Prospekt, the Museum. Fersman contains the best collection of minerals in Russia. The entire exposition is located in a huge hall, which is densely lined with stands with all possible types of minerals: from huge crystals and meteorite fragments to small test tubes with grains of powder. The museum was created as a scientific one and, of course, does not pay due attention to aesthetic aspects: there is neither suitable lighting for shop windows, nor a selection of the most beautiful stones. Instead, the minerals are sorted into groups depending on the chemical composition or method of formation, but due to the compactness of exposure among heterogeneous stones in an hour and a half, it is not difficult to find simply impressive things for amateurs: magnificent placers of amethysts and enchanting colors of fluorite or tourmaline. For those who want to understand the basics of mineralogy, detailed texts are hung on the walls, thanks to which you can spend much more time in the museum. Another exposition for amateurs - products made of precious stones - is also present in the museum, but in terms of richness and beauty it is significantly inferior to the main collection.
10 Institute of Russian Realistic Art, Derbenevskaya embankment, 7, building 31 ( Paveletskaya, Proletarskaya). ✉ ☎ +7 (495) 276-12-12. Tue–Wed 11:00–20:00, Thu 12:00–21:00, Fri–Sun 11:00–20:00. 150 rub. (2015). This is a modern museum and exhibition complex, which opened in 2011 in one of the restored buildings of the former cotton-printing factory. The factory appeared back in 1823 on the outskirts of Moscow at that time and by the end of the 19th century it had grown to a gigantic size, continuing to work during the years of Soviet power, until, finally, it turned out to be unable to compete with Ivanovo enterprises and was closed. In the 2000s, a huge complex of factory buildings was thoroughly restored and turned into the Novospassky Dvor business district - the name was given in honor of the Novospassky Monastery located on the other side of the river. One of the red-brick buildings with a colorful chimney - and, despite the signs, in search of the right building you will have to wander among the huge buildings of the former factory - was given over to the museum.
On three floors of the museum, paintings by Soviet and Russian artists of the XX-XXI centuries, included in the collection of businessman A.N. Ananiev. The first floor of the museum is given over to paintings by contemporary Russian artists. The second exhibited paintings by representatives of the severe style of the middle of the 20th century (Pyotr Ossovsky, Geliy Korzhev, Dmitry Zhilinsky, Igor Popov and others). The most significant part of the collection is located on the third floor, where the works of such famous artists as A.A. Plastov, A.A. Deineka, I.E. Grabar, Yu.I. Pimenov.
11 Museum of the Moscow Railway, st. Leatherworking 2. 150 rub. (2018). The main exhibit of the museum is the red and black funeral train, which delivered the body of V.I. Lenin to Moscow. The train consists of a baggage car and steam locomotive U127, born in 1910, the first steam locomotive-monument of the country. In one of the dead ends of the Paveletsky railway station, the train registered in 1937, and after the war a separate pavilion was built for it. In 1980, a new building with expensive cladding was built for the steam locomotive, and until 1992 it worked as a branch of the Lenin Museum. After the turbulent 1990s, the museum was repurposed and now gives some insight into the development of rail transport in Russia. There is a small park near the museum, but you can walk in it only by paying for the entrance to the museum.
12, Stalin's Bunker 703, 2nd Novokuznetsky lane, 14 building 1 ( Paveletskaya, Novokuznetskaya, Dobryninskaya). 1000 rub. The former secret facility was built in the middle of the 20th century and is designed to store important government documents. In the 2000s, due to groundwater, the documents had to be evacuated, and after several years of restoration work, the object was declassified and turned into a museum of modern fortification, located at a depth of 43 meters. The museum is interesting primarily for its authenticity, but be prepared for a hike after the tour. Visiting is possible only by appointment, registration and additional information on the site.
13 Variety Theatre.
14 Moscow International House of Music, Kosmodamianskaya Embankment, 52, building 8 (metro station Paveletskaya, Riverside). The House of Music was built in 2002 and became the largest concert venue for classical music in the capital. The complex includes three halls - Svetlanovsky, Chamber and Theater, as well as a summer cafe designed for jazz festivals and concerts of popular classical music. The architectural appearance of the house of music causes mixed comments, which, however, is typical for all buildings from the time of Luzhkov's building boom. In 2003, the complex received official recognition in the form of a national architectural award, and critics grumble, including at the height of the Swissotel, which is clearly visible even from Red Square. Be that as it may, the city received a capacious concert venue with excellent acoustics. In the largest Svetlanov Hall, a unique organ (Germany, 2004) is installed, which surpasses all instruments available in the country both in size and in acoustic parameters. Concerts in all halls of the house of music are given daily, tickets are not cheap.
15 Russian Spiritual Theater Glas, Pyatnitskaya str., 60, building 1.
16 Theatre of the Moon under the direction of S.B. Prokhanov, M. Ordynka st., 31, building 1.
17 Theater on Raushskaya (for children), Raushskaya emb., 14.
18 Maly Theatre, stage on Ordynka, st. Bolshaya Ordynka, 69. The stage on Bolshaya Ordynka opened in 1995 and since then has been giving six performances a week (except Mondays). The repertoire is dominated by plays by Russian writers and playwrights, among which A.N. Ostrovsky. However, the long-running plays of the classics do not cause much excitement, and tickets for them can be purchased at the box office right before the performance. It will be more difficult to get to the premieres and to the few plays by the authors of the second half of the 20th century.
19 Drummer, Serafimovich str., 2.
20 Five stars, st. Bakhrushina, 25.
✦ Cinema in the Tretyakov Gallery, Lavrushinsky lane, 10 ( Tretyakovskaya). A new unusual direction in the work of the Tretyakov Gallery is free cinema, often falling under the definition of "not for everyone." Retrospectives of films by domestic and foreign directors, special programs for the gallery's exhibition projects are just some of the events offered by Maxim Pavlov's team. Sessions are held in the Engineering Building of the Tretyakov Gallery, the schedule of current shows is on the website.
21 TsPKiO im. Gorky, Krymsky Val st., 9.
22 Park of Arts "Museon", st. Crimean Val. Free admission. The main entrance to the Museon is located opposite Gorky Park, one of the most visited parks in Moscow. Perhaps that is why the Museon is not so crowded, which makes it a pleasant place to walk with views of the Moscow River and the peaceful rustle of leaves. The main attraction for tourists is a large collection of sculptures. It began spontaneously when, on August 22, 1991, a newly dismantled monument to F.E. Dzerzhinsky. The outbreak of the epidemic, which expelled monuments to Soviet leaders from the streets of the city, quickly replenished this collection. And by January 1992, the authorities decided to turn the resulting rookery of monuments into an open-air sculpture museum. Now the park's collection includes more than 700 sculptures: Soviet monuments, works by avant-garde artists and examples of contemporary art. The park itself is still looking for its face and is subject to frequent bouts of improvement.
23 Neskuchny garden.
There are no large shopping centers in the area, however, shops that are located on the first floors of buildings stretch along the streets of Zamoskvorechye.
Dream laboratory (gift shop), Bolshaya Ordynka st., 68.
LeFutur (gift shop), B.Yakimanka st., 32.
Letter (bookstore), B.Ordynka st., vl.23.
Bookstore "Young Guard", st. Bolshaya Polyanka, 28, building 1.
Kabinet (antique shop), st. Krymsky Val, 10, A-24.
Russian estate (antique shop), st. Krymsky Val, 10.
Magnum Ars (antique shop), Lavrushinsky lane, 6.
Three centuries (antique shop), st. Bolshaya Ordynka, 16/4, building 3.
House of honey, st. Novokuznetskaya, d. 5, building 1. Mon–Sun 9:00–20:00. A large specialty store selling not only countless varieties of honey, but also other bee products. In addition, the store offers beekeeping equipment and equipment for apiaries, as well as a lot of "related" goods: a set of spices, medicinal herbs, teas and even gift items made of wood, glass and porcelain.
Company store at the Rot-Front factory, 2nd Novokuznetsky lane 13/15 building 1 ( Paveletskaya, Novokuznetskaya, Dobryninskaya). Mon–Sun 8:00–20:00. The store sells products of its own confectionery factory, so the prices for all kinds of sweets are minimal here.
Eating in Zamoskvorechye is not a problem. One can
note the concentration of restaurants and cafes along Pyatnitskaya and
Bolshaya Polyanka streets and the lanes adjacent to them.
Cafe "Shokoladnitsa", Bolshaya Yakimanka street, 58/2 ( Oktyabrskaya). ☎ (495) 238-27-34. around the clock. Cafe "Shokoladnitsa" on the Oktyabrskaya metro station is the only place in the capital where for several decades guests have been offered hot chocolate and legendary pancakes stuffed with chocolate, raisins and nuts. The current network "Shokoladnitsa" "grew" from that single cafe, but very little of its prototype remained in it.
McDonalds, Bolshaya Ordynka street, 21, building 2 (opposite the exit from the Tretyakovskaya metro station).
Villa Pasta on Pyatnitskaya, st. Pyatnitskaya, 26. ✉ ☎ +7 (495) 953-16-60, +7 (495) 953-16-47. 24x7. Inexpensive Italian restaurant on the corner of Pyatnitskaya and Klimentovsky lane. Cozy interior, fast and good service, parking and Wi-Fi. The place is popular and in the evening the halls can be on the verge of overflow.
El Asador. ☎ +7 (495) 953-1564, +7 (495) 953-1418. Sat–Thu 12:00–24:00, Fri 12:00–02:00. Cidreria restaurant of Basco-Navarre cuisine.
"Apartment 44" on Malaya Yakimanka, Malaya Yakimanka 24/8. ☎ +7 (499) 238-82-34, +7 (916) 452-45-06. One of the three Moscow piano bars with the name, where small concerts are held in the evenings: on weekdays there will be pianists or accordionists, and on weekends there will be musical groups with a jazz or retro repertoire. The menu includes Russian and European food. Tables are best booked in advance.
Villa Rosa, st. Pyatnitskaya, d.52. Italian Cuisine
T-Bon, st. Pyatnitskaya, 52, building 2. For meat lovers
Momo, st. Pyatnitskaya, 66, building 2. Italian Cuisine
GQ Bar, Balchug st., 5.
Molly Gwins, Novokuznetskaya st.
Pilsner Urquell, B.Polyanka st., 44/2.
Durdin, B.Polyanka st., 56.
Bells, st. Bolshaya Polyanka, 51 a.
Fabrique, Kosmodamianskaya embankment, 2.
Jet Set, st. Malaya Ordynka, 37 building 1.
1 Motor ship "Valery Bryusov", Krymskaya embankment, 10 ( Polyanka). ✉ ☎ +7 929 605-57-87.
2 Warsaw Hotel , Leninsky Prospekt, 2/1 ( Oktyabrskaya). ☎ +7 499 238-41-01, +7 499 238-77-01, +7 499 238-19-70, +7 499 238-89-08, fax: +7 499 238-96-39. Standard room 5 250 rub.
3 Hotel Aquamarine, Ozerkovskaya embankment, 26 (Novokuznetskaya Tretyakovskaya). ☎ +7(495) 580-2828.
4 Swissotel Krasnye Holmy (5*), Kosmodamianskaya embankment, 52, building 6 (Paveletskaya).
5 Hotel Balchug-Kempinski, Balchug st., 1 (metro station Novokuznetskaya, Tretyakovskaya).
6 President Hotel, st. Bolshaya Yakimanka, 24 ( Polyanka).
7 Katerina City, Gateway Embankment, 6/1 (metro station Paveletskaya).
In any cafe, of which there are hundreds, there is wifi.
As a historical area, Zamoskvorechye began to form in
the early 1200s. At that time, along the road leading to the Golden
Horde, on a narrow strip of land opposite the Kremlin, both Russian
people and those who came from the Horde began to build their houses,
and the area began to be called the District. One of the most ancient
buildings - the Church of John the Baptist, near Bor, was erected at a
time when the Kremlin hill covered the forest, that is, at the very
beginning of the birth of Moscow. In the 13th-14th centuries, copses,
swamps, water meadows and lakes were located in the southern part of
Moscow. Ozerkovskaya embankment and Ozerkovskiy lane got their names
from them. The first settlements of Zamoskvorechye spread along the
banks of the Moskva River and along the trade roads of the southeast
direction, which merged into one at Borovitsky Hill. Now it is
approximately the area of Bolshaya Ordynka, Pyatnitskaya,
Novokuznetskaya streets. But the territory of Zamoskvorechye was not
populated very actively, since it was from this side that enemy troops
often attacked Moscow.
In this area, the Danilov Monastery was built, which church legends paint as the oldest monastery on the Moscow River. According to legend, it was founded by the Moscow prince Daniil Alexandrovich in honor of his heavenly patron - St. Daniel the Stylite. Kremlin history researcher Alexander Voronov points to the year 1282, when Daniil Alexandrovich peacefully resolved the conflict between his brothers Dmitry Pereyaslavsky and Andrei Gorodetsky for the Grand Duchy of Vladimir and for the right to reign in Novgorod.
In 1293, Andrei Gorodetsky became the instigator of a new campaign of the Golden Horde commanders against North-Eastern Rus'. The campaign, which is called "Dyudenev's army", was led by the commander Tudan (in the Russian chronicles he is called Duden) and Zamoskvorechye was again devastated, just like all of Moscow.
In 1330, Prince Ivan I Danilovich Kalita, son of Daniel under St. Metropolitan of Kiev and All Rus' Theognost (1328-1353), transferred the archimandrite and part of the monks of this monastery to his princely court. The graveyard of the Danilov Monastery and the villages that belonged to it came under the control of the archimandrite of the Kremlin Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery on the Bor, whose priority was the arrangement of the new grand-ducal monastery. Without proper supervision, he gradually became impoverished, in the XIV-XV centuries. on the site of the monastery, only the wooden church of Daniel the Stylite, and with it the village of Danilovskoe, remained standing.
For a long time, Zamoskvorechye was a Moscow suburb. The first documentary mention of Zarechye dates back to 1365. Since the reign of the son of Dmitry Donskoy, Prince Vasily Dmitrievich, the princely and later royal gardens have been located in this area. Gradually, the main trade routes in Zamoskvorechye shifted, but the old roads did not disappear, but turned into intra-slobodsky and inter-slobodsky transport arteries. It was this inconsistency of the main roads of the District that led to the fact that a complex system of streets and alleys was formed on the flat terrain.
At the end of the 14th century, the territory, located closer to the Kremlin, belonged to the Grand Duke and was already almost completely built up, in contrast to the area beyond the oxbow (the old course of the Moskva River), where monastic and boyar villages were located. It was from here, from the wooden St. Nicholas Church on Bersenevka in 1493, that a grandiose fire began, spreading to the other side of the Moskva River and burning the Kremlin to the ground. In order to continue to protect the Kremlin from such a danger, the buildings of Zamoskvorechye, located along the river opposite the Kremlin, were demolished, and the Sovereign Garden was planted in their place. Thus, three palace garden settlements appeared in Zamoskvorechye, in which gardeners lived, whose duties included caring for fruit trees. These settlements were called: Upper Sadovniki (the area of Bersenevskaya Embankment), Middle Gardeners (the area of the Sovereign Garden) and Lower Sadovniki (the area of Zemlyanoy Val). A square was formed between the settlements, on which public baths were built, and during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the very first Moscow tavern opened here.
Initially, the settlements did not have streets, the links between the properties were located either along the river bank or along the drainage ditches, which were needed to protect against frequent floods and swamping. Gradually, more remote areas of the Zarechye began to be populated. One of the first to appear was the palace village of Kadashevo. Perhaps the name of the village came from the ancient Turkic "kadash" - comrade, community member, or from the profession of residents who made tubs for everyday use of the princely court. On the site of this village, a large Kadashev settlement was formed, in which palace weavers lived. Nearby there was a settlement of sheepskins, who had their own church of Michael the Archangel, and even to the south, on the site of the current Yakimanka and Novokuznetskaya streets, there were settlements of interpreters (translators) and the Horde (tribute carriers). Kazan and Nogai merchants settled on the very outskirts of Zamoskvorechie, who later formed the Tatarskaya Sloboda (now Bolshaya Tatarskaya Street and part of Klimentovsky Lane).
Between the suburbs lay fields and meadows, which are now reminiscent of the streets of Bolshaya Polyanka and Malaya Polyanka, Bakhrushina (formerly Luzhnikovskaya) and others. The gates of the Zarechensky Sovereign Garden overlooked Balchug Street. This street is one of the most famous in Moscow, appeared at the end of the 14th century. Its name comes from the distorted Tatar "Balchyk" - clay, mud. As already mentioned, in order to protect their homes from floods, the inhabitants of the lowland Zamoskvorechye laid numerous ditches (ditches) to the main channel. These ancient ditches gave the name to the Raushskaya (Rovushskaya) embankment.
In addition to floods, the inhabitants of Zamoskvorechye often had to take the blow of enemy troops. The flat landscape, devoid of any natural barriers, created excellent conditions for an attack on the city in this particular place. Most of the attacks on the Kremlin and Kitai-Gorod were made from the Zarechye. Therefore, when the current Kremlin walls began to be built in 1485, the Taynitskaya tower, located from the Zamoskvoretskaya part, was built first of all, it was supposed to protect the Kremlin in case of an unexpected attack.
Over the years, the authority and influence of the
Moscow principality grew, enemy raids happened less and less, and
Zamoskvorechye grew more and more actively. On the border of the 15th
and 16th centuries, Pyatnitskaya Street was born, serving as the
shortest route from the Moskvoretsky Bridge to the Lazy Market with the
Pyatnitskaya Church. Pyatnitskaya at that time was called Lenivskaya
large pavement - after the name of the auction. Trades like the Lazy one
often took place on the border of the settlement along the road, where a
large number of carts could freely accommodate. So it was in the case of
Lazy Bargaining. This version is confirmed by the fact that the temple
of Paraskeva Pyatnitsa, which stood near the square, was also called
Proscha - the place of farewell, that is, the outskirts. At various
times, both Pyatnitskaya Street in Moscow and Novokuznetskaya were
Given the “borderline” location of Zamoskvorechye in relation to the Kremlin, it seems logical that at the beginning of the 16th century the first military settlements arose in this area. In 1535, a detachment of Pishchalnikov from Pskov was stationed in Zarechye, and, starting in 1550, Ivan the Terrible arranged several streltsy settlements in Zamoskvorechye, which were located on the site of the current Klimentovsky Lane. Streltsy settlements significantly increased the security of the area, but until the end of the 16th century there were no defensive structures in Zamoskvorechye. The main protective function was performed by mobile fortresses, they were called walk-towns or "carts". All these attributes were also inherent in the streltsy settlements. It was thanks to such defensive structures that Moscow managed to withstand the invasion of the Giray horde of Gaza in 1591.
In the period 1591-1592, a defensive structure called the Wooden City was built along the perimeter of the Earthen City. Often it is called Skorodom because of the speed of construction. The emergence of this building led to a change in the geography of Zamoskvorechye. Zamoskvorechye with the central Kadashevskaya Sloboda, within which the Sovereign Khamovny Dvor and the Church of the Resurrection were located, at that time looked like a chaotic residential area interspersed with swamps and fields. Part of the uninhabited places appeared in 1571, when Zamoskvorechye suffered significant losses during the next raid of the Tatars. All these factors hindered the development of the urban type of planning. Nevertheless, the proximity to the Big City played its role, and gradually Zamoskvorechye began to be populated by handicraft people, acquiring an orderly pattern of quarters. Until the 17th century, Zamoskvorechye consisted of wooden buildings. The exceptions were the buildings of the Church of John the Baptist, near Bor, Ivanov Monastery, the Church of George in Endov. Many Zarechensk estates included gardens and orchards, which for many years became a distinctive feature of the area.
At the beginning of the 17th century, the Polish
protege False Dmitry I passed through the Serpukhov Gates to
Zamoskvorechye, and then to the Kremlin. Then, in 1612, a center of
resistance to the Polish interventionists was organized in
Zamoskvorechye, and this area of Moscow was almost completely destroyed
during the fighting. On August 24, 1612, in Zamoskvorechye, the troops
of Minin and Pozharsky defeated the Polish army, which determined the
fate of the liberation actions. It is likely that during the battles
with the Poles, the wooden fortifications of Skorodom burned down, and
it was replaced by the bastions of the Earthen City, which were built in
stages from 1628 to 1629 and from 1637 to 1638.
In the 17th century, the population of Zamoskvorechye could be conditionally divided into three groups. The first included residents of the settlements that were associated with the maintenance of the grand duke's court: Sadovnicheskaya, Ovchinnaya, Blacksmithing, Monetnaya, Kozhevennaya and Yamskaya Kolomna settlement. The second group included merchants who moved to Zamoskvorechye, since the land here was very cheap. The third component was the archers, who carried out guard duties, and also performed the functions of firefighters. In addition, many archers were also engaged in trade.
If we try to streamline the data on the settlement of the Zamoskvorechye territories, we can distinguish three stages. At first, the coastal territories at the mouth of the Neglinnaya River were settled, then the area was built up just to the west of the Kremlin's Petrovsky Tower, and by the end of the 14th century, the population density in the northwestern and northern parts of the District increased.
In the XVI-XVII centuries, along the ancient roads of the southeast direction, the current Novokuznetskaya and Bolshaya Tatarskaya streets began to form. Previously isolated streets grew, merging into a single settlement. In 1701, during another fire, the Sovereign Garden died, and its territory also began to be built up. In 1731, Zamoskvorechye was finally divided into the border street Ordynka and the central street Pyatnitskaya, after which the whole part of the Zarechye began to be called.
The defensive function was the main one for Zamoskvorechye until the times of Peter the Great. After the suppression of the Streltsy revolt, the main participants of which were the inhabitants of the Streltsy settlements of Zamoskvorechye, the Streltsy regiments were disbanded. Some of the rebels were executed, and some were distributed among regular military regiments. The capital was transferred from Moscow to St. Petersburg, and the court shepherds, gardeners, blacksmiths and coiners lost their earnings at court. The only ones who hardly suffered from the changes were the merchants, who also lived in Zamoskvorechye. The lands that lost their owners were distributed either to high military ranks or to merchants (mainly those who were engaged in supplies for the army). Gradually Zarechye becomes the habitat of the Moscow merchants. This fact is clearly reflected in the plays of the famous playwright, a native of Zamoskvorechie, A. N. Ostrovsky, and on the canvases of painters P. A. Fedotov, V. G. Perov, I. M. Pryanishnikov. Among the inhabitants of the Zarechye there were many millionaires-socialists, for example, Kozma Matveev, at whose expense the Church of St. Clement was built on Pyatnitskaya. And the nobles also did not shy away from this area, erecting their mansions here.
Until the beginning of the 19th century, this
historical area of Moscow was a collection of large quarters built up
with the houses of merchants and philistines. V. G. Belinsky wrote about
There, the windows are curtained, the gates are locked, when they are struck, the angry barking of a chained dog is heard, everything is dead or, rather, sleepy: the house or little house is like a fortress prepared to withstand a long siege.
It was thanks to the unhurried provincial way of life of Zamoskvoretsky merchants that Moscow began to be called a "big village". The district was, as it were, a separate city with a calm patriarchal atmosphere. A little light, when most of the Muscovites were still asleep, the inhabitants of Zamoskvorechye hurried to their shops. In the evenings, it was customary to have tea at open windows with an indispensable attribute - a large samovar. And they went to bed very early here, when life was still in full swing in the Big City.
Zamoskvorechye still suffered from annual floods, during which the streets turned into riverbeds. Water flooded not only basements, but also the first floors of some houses. The names of Bolotnaya Square and Bolotnaya Embankment remain a reminder of that time. Now, on the site of Bolotnaya Square, a square has been laid out, in which a monument to I. Repin is erected, and in the old days fistfights were held here, at which even sovereigns were present. In addition, executions were carried out on this square. Emelyan Pugachev and his associates were executed on Bolotnaya Square.
In 1783, another flood destroyed not only small wooden shops, but also some stone buildings, as well as the bell tower of the Church of St. George in Endov, after which the city authorities finally took the problem seriously and decided to build a drainage canal. For the construction of the canal, the old bed of the Moscow River (oxbow lake) was used. The design of the Vodootvodny Canal was carried out taking into account the already existing architectural layout, so the configuration of the streets was slightly changed, and mostly wooden houses were demolished. Stone buildings, even if they went beyond the red lines of the plan, were left, and some of them have survived to this day. The Vodootvodny Canal, built in 1783-1786, fixed the natural boundary between the narrow coastal part of Zamoskvorechye and its main territory.
In 1787, a fire broke out in Zamoskvorechye, which lasted 10 hours - Ordynka and Pyatnitskaya suffered, 86 stone and wooden houses and 98 shops burned down.
In 1861, serfdom was abolished in Russia, which led to significant changes in the economic life of the country. More attention began to be paid to factories and factories, there were changes in the sphere of employment. Thanks to these events, the way of life of the Russian merchants also changed dramatically. In the era of late classicism, palace-type houses were no longer built for themselves by representatives of the tribal nobility, but most often by merchants. But the atmosphere of calm, which contributed to peace of mind and comfort, continued to be an important element of Zamoskvorechye. Perhaps due to this feature, in the 19th century representatives of the creative intelligentsia increasingly settled here, whose names entered the history of Russian culture.
The famous Russian playwright A. N. Ostrovsky was born in the house on Malaya Ordynka. In the house on Pyatnitskaya Street in the mid-1850s, L. N. Tolstoy rented an apartment. On Bolshaya Ordynka there is the so-called Kumaninskoye Compound - the aunt of the writer F. M. Dostoevsky lived here, with whom he often visited. The family of the satirist V. Ardov lived in the same house; A. Akhmatova stayed here during her visits to Moscow.
The famous French poet Theophile Gautier wrote about Zamoskvorechye in the 19th century:
The embankment on the other side of the Moskva River, along which there are mansions and magnificent houses of modern architecture, with its straight lines creates, as it were, the foundation for a huge ocean of houses and roofs that stretch after it to infinity. It is impossible to imagine anything more beautiful, rich, luxurious, fabulous than these domes with shining gold crosses ... I stood like this for a long time, in an ecstatic stupor, immersed in silent contemplation.
In the 1920s, Bolshaya Yakimanka was rebuilt - a
highway was created that connected Zamoskvorechye with the city center.
The street has almost completely changed, only the church of John the
Warrior and the house of the merchant Igumnov (the current French
embassy) remained from the old Yakimanka. In 1931, on the spit (nameless
island), formed during the construction of the Vodootvodny Canal,
according to the project of Boris Iofan, the famous House on the
Embankment was built for members of the government - a grandiose
residential complex, with all the necessary services. As conceived by
the architect, the building was dark red, like the Kremlin, but in the
end it was built in gloomy gray. The Udarnik cinema and the current
Variety Theater belong to the Houses on the Embankment complex. Many
celebrities lived in this house, including the Hero of Socialist Labor
A. Stakhanov. In 1934, the Paraskeva Pyatnitsa Church was demolished,
from which the name Pyatnitskaya Street came from. The Novokuznetskaya
metro station was built on the site of the church. In the same years,
the churches of Cosmas and Damian in Kadashi and Peter and Paul in
Yakimanka were destroyed, and the Polyansky market was built up.
In comparison with other districts of Moscow, the architectural appearance of Zamoskvorechye has been preserved quite well. In 1960-1970, Pyatnitskaya, Bolshaya Polyanka, Bolshaya Ordynka, Novokuznetskaya streets, located within the Garden Ring, were recognized as protected areas (although during the reconstruction of Yakimansky passage in 1969, the Yakimanskaya Church, which gave the street its name, was demolished). The main streets of Zamoskvorechye, located behind the Garden Ring: Kozhevnicheskaya, Dubininskaya, Bolshaya Serpukhovskaya, Lyusinovskaya, Pavlovskaya.
In 1997, another attraction appeared - a monument to Peter I (Z. Tsereteli). Initially, it was a monument to Christopher Columbus, and it was created for the Dominican Republic. But the Dominican state refused the monument, and Columbus turned into a Russian emperor. The most famous sights of Zamoskvorechye are churches and museums. The most famous Zarechensky churches include the Church of All Who Sorrow Joy, built by architect Bazhenov in 1790. The Church of Pope Clement (1762), located in Klimentovsky Lane, has survived to this day. And finally, one of the most famous Moscow museums, the Tretyakov Gallery, is located in Lavrushinsky Lane of Zamoskvorechye.