Volokolamsk, Russia

Volokolamsk is located in the Moscow region. Administrative center of the Volokolamsk region.

Volokolamsk is a small town in the western Moscow region. First mentioned in 1135. A large number of historical and cultural monuments have been preserved in the city and region.



Volokolamsk Kremlin
Volokolamsk Kremlin. Its ensemble includes the Resurrection Cathedral (1480s), St. Nicholas Cathedral (1853-1862, now a museum) and the bell tower (1888, functions as an observation deck in the summer), as well as a number of public buildings of the 19th century, including the building of the Government Offices, where the current pre-trial detention center is currently located.

Around town
Church of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary on Vozmishche (1535). Located on the eastern outskirts of the city.
Urban development with civil buildings XIX - early. XX centuries and churches con. XVII-XVIII centuries


How to get there

By plane
The airports closest to the city belong to the Moscow aviation hub (Vnukovo, Domodedovo, Sheremetyevo)

By train
railway station Volokolamsk. Located in the southern part of the city, 7 km from the historical center. City bus No. 5 runs to the center.
From Moscow: By train to Volokolamsk or Shakhovskaya from Kursky station in Moscow (Kurskaya metro station; 2.5-3 hours, more than 20 per day). All these trains stop at Tushinskaya station (Tushinskaya metro station), from which it takes half an hour less to travel, but there will also be less space in the carriage. Also in Volokolamsk, "Swallows" stop Moscow - Rzhev (2.5 hours, 2 times a day on Fridays and weekends).
From Rzhev: On “Swallows” Rzhev - Moscow (2 times a day on Fridays and weekends).

By car
From Moscow: Along the Novo-Rizhskoe highway M9, 124 km.
From Rzhev: Along the M9 highway.
From Tver: Along the highway through Mikulino - Lotoshino.

By bus
Bus station. Located 2 km south of the historical center and 5 km north of the railway station. Some commuter buses also call at the station.
From Moscow: from Tushinskaya metro station by bus to Volokolamsk, Lotoshino, Markovo, Mikulino, Staritsa, Shakhovskaya.
From Rzhev: some passing Rzhev-Moscow buses stop in Volokolamsk.


Transport around the city

City bus No. 5 runs from the railway station to the bus station and the city center.



Geographical position

Volokolamsk is located 100 km from the Moscow Ring Road northwest of Moscow. The area of urban land is 30-35 km². As a result of the expansion of borders, the territory of the city increased significantly - the city stretched in the meridional direction for 14 km.



According to the climatic zoning of Russia, Volokolamsk is located in the Atlantic-continental European (forest) region of the temperate climate zone. Winters are moderately cold, summers are warm and humid. The coldest month of the year is January (average air temperature is −7 °C), the warmest is July (+18.5 °C). The average annual precipitation is 665 mm.

The World Meteorological Organization decided on the need to calculate two climate norms: the climatological standard and the reference. The first is updated every ten years, the second covers the period from 1961 to 1990.



The city was first mentioned in the Suzdal Chronicle according to the Laurentian list in 1135: “Vsevolod went again to Novugorod, and Izyaslav remained on Volots”; with a localizer adjective, it was mentioned in the same source under the year 1178: “Ride to Lamsky Volok.” Thus, Volokolamsk is the oldest city in the Moscow region: according to the officially accepted version, its age exceeds the age of Moscow by 12 years. However, according to monastic legends, the city of Volok was founded more than a hundred years earlier, and presumably in 1024, Prince Yaroslav the Wise moved it to another place - two kilometers from the original one. It was called Volok Lamsky or simply Volok until the last quarter of the 18th century.

The name comes from the ancient Russian geographical term portage, which was already used in the Tale of Bygone Years in describing the route from the Varangians to the Greeks.

Volok Lamsky became an important trading point on the way from Novgorod to the Ryazan and Moscow lands; here the Novgorodians transported (“dragged”) ships from the Lama River, a tributary of the Shosha, which flows into the Volga in its upper reaches - to Voloshnya, a tributary of the Ruza River, which flows into the Moscow River, which in turn is a tributary of the Oka.

Having great military-strategic significance, Volok on Lama already in the second half of the 12th century became the subject of disputes between Novgorodians and Vladimir residents: in 1160 it was captured by the son of Yuri Dolgoruky, Andrei Bogolyubsky; in 1177 it was recaptured by the Novgorodians and given to Prince Yaroslav Mstislavich, the grandson of Yuri Dolgoruky; in 1216, the Vladimir prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich began to rule it; soon expelled from here by the Novgorodians, he returned again 10 years later. In the XII-XIII centuries, Volokolamsk was ruined more than once: in 1178 - by Prince Vsevolod Yuryevich, by whom the city was completely burned; in 1238 - Batu; in 1273 - Prince of Tver Svyatoslav Yaroslavich, in 1293 - Khan Duden).

Since the end of the 13th century, Volok Lamsky was under the “local” control of the Novgorod Republic and Moscow; however, at the beginning of the 14th century, the Moscow governor Rodion Nestorovich, appointed to it by Ivan Kalita, expelled the Novgorodian, completely taking possession of the city. Since 1345, Fyodor Dorogobuzhsky, father-in-law of the Moscow prince Simeon the Proud, began to reign in Volokolamsk. In 1370, Volok, which was then commanded by the Smolensk prince Vasily Ivanovich Berezuisky, withstood a three-day siege of the Lithuanian prince Olgerd, and in 1382 repelled an attack by Tokhtamysh’s troops. In 1393, by order of Vasily I, it was captured by the Serpukhov prince Vladimir Andreevich.

In 1398, Volok Lamsky was given to the Lithuanian prince Svidrigailo and was under his command until 1410. In 1462, the city became the center of an appanage principality (known as the Volotsk Principality), which (in addition to Volokolamsk) included the cities of Ruza (passed to Moscow in 1504) and Rzhev; for a long time (from 1462 to 1494) it was ruled by Boris Vasilyevich), who was replaced by his son Fyodor Borisovich; under him, the Volokolamsk lands finally entered Moscow’s sphere of influence. After the death of Fyodor Borisovich, in 1513, Volokolamsk became part of the Moscow Principality; The Volokolamsk appanage principality was abolished. For some time it was part of the Staritsa principality; at the beginning of the 16th century the city was the volost center of the Moscow principality.

During the Time of Troubles it was occupied by the Poles (1606), and liberated in 1608. Besieged unsuccessfully by Sigismund (1612); A peasant war was fought in the vicinity of Volokolamsk.

In the XVI-XVII centuries. the strategic importance of the city fell; in the 18th century he found himself on the sidelines of new economic ties. However, in 1781 Volokolamsk retained its status as a district town; in 1784 the master plan for its development was approved; in 1790, the first educational institution was opened in the city - a junior public school. On seven streets and several alleys there were 240 houses, 35 trading shops, 6 inns, a tavern, 2 blacksmiths, 5 drinking houses; the number of inhabitants did not exceed 1300 people.

In the “List of Populated Places” of 1862, Volokolamsk is a district town of the Moscow province on the Volokolamsk tract, near the Lama and Gorodnya rivers, 783 versts from St. Petersburg, with 220 houses and 2412 residents (1143 men, 1269 women). The city had six Orthodox churches, parish and district schools, a hospital, a postal station, a factory, two factories and two fairs.

At the end of the 19th century, Volokolamsk had several industrial enterprises; the largest enterprise was the weaving factory of the Starshinov brothers, founded in 1882 in the village of Shchekino, 3 kilometers from the city; in the city itself there were two malt houses, a brewery and two brick factories. Fair trade was carried out. By the beginning of the 20th century, workers made up less than 2 percent of the total population.

In 1904, the Moscow-Vindavo railway approached Volokolamsk; this event, however, did little to contribute to the development of the economy of Volokolamsk, formerly a major trading center. Volokolamsk workers showed high activity in the strike movement of 1905 (in November, the largest enterprise in the city, the weaving factory of the Starshinov brothers, stopped). On October 31, the peasants of the surrounding villages entered the self-proclaimed Markov Republic (named after the village of Markovo, Volokolamsk district, the place where the republic was proclaimed). The Peasant Republic was liquidated only in July 1906.

After the February Revolution of 1917, the most significant positions in the zemstvo government of Volokolamsk were occupied by the Socialist Revolutionaries and Mensheviks. This situation remained until December 22, 1917, when the zemstvo recognized Soviet power. During 1918, almost all Volokolamsk enterprises (including the Starshinov brothers' factory) were nationalized. In 1919, the first issue of the district newspaper “The Voice of the Poor” (later “The Red Plowman”) was published. In 1922, the former Starshinov factory was named after V.I. Lenin. In 1929, the city became the center of the Volokolamsk region.

From October 27 to December 20, 1941, the city of Volokolamsk was occupied by German troops. The city was liberated from Nazi occupation by troops of the 20th Army under the command of Major General Andrei Andreevich Vlasov. Awarded the Order of the Patriotic War, 1st degree (1985).

On March 25, 2010, Volokolamsk was awarded the honorary title of the Russian Federation “City of Military Glory.” On January 30, 2013, the Russian Post issued a postage stamp with a face value of 15 rubles in the “Cities of Military Glory” series. On October 17, 2013, as part of a series of commemorative coins of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation dedicated to cities of military glory, a 10-ruble “Volokolamsk” coin was issued. Since 2013, the city has been included in the list of historical settlements of particular importance for the history and culture of the Moscow region. On December 20, 2014, on the territory of the Volokolamsk garment factory, between Sergachev and Novosoldatskaya streets, the grand opening of the “City of Military Glory” stela took place.


Expansion of city boundaries

By decision of the Moscow Regional Executive Committee of April 15, 1959 No. 377, the settlements of Novaya and Staraya Soldatskie Sloboda of the Suburban Village Council were included within the city limits.

In 1963, the urban-type settlement of Smychka was included in Volokolamsk.

In the early 2000s, the territory of Volokolamsk was significantly expanded at the expense of neighboring settlements. In 2003, the village of Volokolamets and the urban-type settlement of Privokzalny, to which the village of Porokhovo had previously been annexed, were annexed to the city; in 2004 - the village of Kholmogorka, the villages of Matveykovo, Kholstnikovo, Shchekino and the village of Vozmishche, as well as the village of Novopetrovskoye.


Around the city


The place of the legendary feat of 28 Panfilov heroes, 8 km southwest of Volokolamsk. You can get there by train - Dubosekovo platform (the first stop towards Moscow), or by suburban bus No. 42 (runs several times a day).
1  Memorial “Panfilov Heroes” (“Feat 28”) , 2 km from the village of Nelidovo (600 meters from the Dubosekovo railway station). Dedicated to the 28 soldiers of the rifle division of General I.V. Panfilov, who on November 16, 1941, at the cost of their lives, held back the advance of German tanks on Moscow for several hours. Although this feat was questioned: perhaps there were not 28, but 120 people, and not all of them died - the name of the “Panfilov heroes” became firmly entrenched in the legends of the Great Patriotic War, street names and war films. In May 1975, at the site of the battle at the Dubosekovo crossing, a memorial was opened with 10-meter tall warrior-heroes and a red granite star platform for laying flowers. Since Panfilov's division was formed in Central Asia, 6 warrior sculptures were installed - each personifying one of the nationalities of the division. The sculptural composition is divided into three groups. On the left, two soldiers are clutching anti-tank grenades in their hands - the group “Ready for battle!” In the middle, three warriors are determined to fight to the last – the composition “Oath of Allegiance to the Motherland”. On the right stands the “Forward Looker” - political instructor V. Klochkov, to whom the legendary phrase is attributed: “Russia is great, but there is nowhere to retreat - Moscow is behind.” The complex is well maintained and beautifully illuminated at night, there is parking and toilets nearby, and an interactive museum opposite the memorial.
2  Interactive Museum of Panfilov Heroes (Dugout Museum), Opposite the memorial. Tue–Sun 10:00–18:00. 200 rub. A bunker museum with one hall, opened in 2017 and dedicated to the reconstruction of the battle at the Dubosekovo crossing. There is a multimedia zone, archival documents, weapons - almost everything can be touched with your hands. Next to the museum is a small exhibition of military equipment and military trenches. At the top of the bunker building there is a small observation deck from where you can see a panorama of the memorial and the surrounding area.
3  Museum of Panfilov Heroes, Nelidovo, st. Krestyanskaya, 18 (1.5 km from the memorial). ☎ +7 (49636) 6-91-13. Tue–Sun 10:00–18:00. 100 rub. A small museum with authentic wartime exhibits: weapons, documents, photographs of WWII participants, a panorama of the battle of Panfilov heroes and sculptures of soldiers is also presented. The museum was opened in 1968 in the village of Nelidovo, 1.5 km from the memorial. Decorated in a typical Soviet style, without interactive elements.



4  St. Joseph-Volotsky Monastery (by bus to Klin, Teryaevo, Shanino.). Located in the village of Teryaevo, the entire monastery ensemble (walls with towers, churches, residential and utility buildings) from the 16th-19th centuries has been preserved. Dec 2020 edit
5  Yaropolets  (by bus to Lotoshino, Musino, Yaropolets.). the estates of the Goncharovs (manor house, outbuildings, church; restored, with a rest house located inside) and Chernyshevs (manor house, monumental church; in ruins) with an extensive manor park. The building of the first rural hydroelectric power station in Russia (new build). Museum.



6  Moscow Raceway , Sheludkovo village, 39. ☎ +7 (495) 775-38-37. 10:00–19:00. The first race track in Russia of the highest FIA F1 category, allowing for major national and international auto racing competitions. The maximum length of the racing ring is 4070 meters, movement is counterclockwise, which is quite rare in motorsport. The circuit was inaugurated in July 2012. Stages of the Renault World Series, stages of the Russian Circuit Racing Championships and other major competitions in racing cars and motorcycles were held here. On days free from racing, auto racing training takes place on the track; you can rent a sports car with an instructor and the necessary infrastructure. For spectators there are 6 stands for 6 thousand spectators, including a VIP box. Nearby there is a large free parking lot, the “Drive” and “Pompom” cafes. The route is located 22 km from Volokolamsk towards Moscow. The closest public transport station to the circuit is the Chismena railway platform, from where you can take a taxi another 6.5 km. On days of major competitions, free buses run from Chismena station to the circuit and back.