Republic of Karelia, Russia

The Republic of Karelia (Karel. Karjalan tašavalta, Liv. Karjalan tazavaldu, Finnish. Karjalan tasavalta, Veps. Karjalan Tazovaldkund; short names: Karelia, Karjala) is a constituent entity of the Russian Federation, a republic in its composition. It is part of the Northwestern Federal District, is part of the Northern Economic Region.

The capital is the city of Petrozavodsk.

The republic was formed in 1920 as the Karelian Labor Commune, on July 25, 1923 it was transformed into the Autonomous Karelian Socialist Soviet Republic within the RSFSR (since December 5, 1936 - the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic). On March 31, 1940, by a decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, it was renamed the Karelian-Finnish SSR and withdrawn from the RSFSR. Since July 16, 1956 - again a subject within the RSFSR. On August 9, 1990, the Supreme Council of the Republic adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty, and on November 13, 1991, established its modern name - the Republic of Karelia.

The western border of Karelia is part of the state border of the Russian Federation and Finland. In the east, Karelia borders on the Arkhangelsk region, in the south - on the Vologda and Leningrad regions, in the north - on the Murmansk region.

National language - Russian. Languages that enjoy state support in the republic: Karelian (not one of the state languages of the republic due to the lack of an alphabet based on Cyrillic), Finnish and Veps.



White Sea Karelia - the northern part of Karelia from the border with Finland to the coast of the White Sea; Karelian Pomorye.
Loukhsky, Kemsky, Kalevalsky, Belomorsky districts and Kostomuksha urban district

Olonets Karelia is a region that includes the central and southern parts of Karelia: Prionezhye, Zaonezhye, Vygoretsia, Segozerye, Kolodozero, Syamozerye, Pryazhinsky inter-lake area.
Kondopozhsky, Medvezhyegorsky, Muezersky, Olonetsky, Prionezhsky, Pryazhinsky, Segezhsky, Suoyarvsky districts and Petrozavodsk city district

Ladoga Karelia or Northern or Karelian Ladoga Region is a region on the northern coast of Lake Ladoga.
Sortavala, Lahdenpokh and Pitkyaranta regions

Pudozhskaya Karelia - The eastern part of Karelia from Lake Onega to the Arkhangelsk region: Vodlozerye, Salmozero.
Pudozhsky district



Petrozavodsk is the capital of the Republic of Karelia, located on the shores of the Petrozavodsk Bay of Lake Onega.
Belomorsk is the administrative center of the Belomorsky region of Karelia. It is located on the western coast of the White Sea, at the mouth of the Vyg River, 376 km north of Petrozavodsk. End point of the White Sea-Baltic Canal.
Kem is the administrative center of the Kemsky district of Karelia. Located on the Kem River, at its confluence with the White Sea
Kondopoga is the administrative center of the Kondopoga region of Karelia. The city is located on the shores of the Kondopoga Bay of Lake Onega, 50 km north of Petrozavodsk.
Kostomuksha is the administrative center of the Kostomuksha urban district. It is located in the north-west of Karelia, 35 kilometers from the Russian-Finnish border.
Lahdenpokhya is the administrative center of the Lahdenpokhya region of Karelia. It is located in the south-west of Karelia, on the shores of the Yakimvar Bay of Lake Ladoga.
Medvezhyegorsk is the administrative center of the Medvezhyegorsk region of Karelia. It is located on the shore of Lake Onega, 152 km north of Petrozavodsk.
Olonets is the administrative center of the Olonets region of Karelia. It is located 140 km southwest of Petrozavodsk.
Pitkyaranta is the administrative center of the Pitkyaranta region of Karelia. Located on the northern shore of Lake Ladoga in the southwestern part of Karelia.
Pudozh is the administrative center of the Pudozh region of Karelia. It is located on the banks of the Vodla River, 25 km from its confluence with Lake Onega, in the southeastern part of Karelia.
Segezha is the administrative center of the Segezha region of Karelia. It is located on the northwestern shore of Lake Vygozero, 267 km north of Petrozavodsk.
Sortavala is the administrative center of the Sortavala region of Karelia. It is located on the northern shore of Lake Ladoga, 240 km west of Petrozavodsk.
Suoyarvi is the administrative center of the Suoyarvi region of Karelia. It is located on the southern shore of Lake Suoyarvi, 130 km northwest of Petrozavodsk.




Other destinations

Valaam is an island on Lake Ladoga that sheltered the Valaam Monastery and the Valaam Archipelago natural museum-reserve.
Cathedrals in Kizhi is an open-air museum on an island in the northern part of Lake Onega, where masterpieces of wooden architecture of Karelia are collected.
The Vodlozersky National Park is a biosphere reserve in the eastern part of Karelia (Pudozhsky district).
Paanajärvi National Park is a national park in the northwestern part of Karelia (Loukhsky district), a specially protected natural area.
Ruskeala is an unremarkable village, on the outskirts of which there are several small waterfalls and the flooded Ruskeala marble quarry. On the basis of the quarry, the Ruskeala mountain park is equipped.
Kalevalsky National Park is located in the northern part of Karelia on the border with Finland.
Kivach is a nature reserve in the Kondopoga region of Karelia, the central object of which is the Kivach Waterfall.
Marcial Waters is a balneological and mud resort in the Kondopoga region of Karelia.
White Sea Belomorsk Petroglyphs are rock art located in the Belomorsky region of Karelia, on the islands of the Vyg River. Dated to IV-III millennium BC
Kuzova is an island archipelago in the White Sea, east of the city of Kem.
The Ladoga skerries are a group of islands and fjords in the northern part of Lake Ladoga.

Kostomuksha Nature Reserve

Lake Ladoga

Lake Onega



The state language of Karelia is Russian. At the same time, national minorities live in the republic: Finns, Karelians and Vepsians, who have their own languages and script.

Karelian, Finnish, Vepsian languages have an official status and can be used in local governments.


What to do

Theaters of Petrozavodsk
Musical Theater of the Republic of Karelia
National Theater of the Republic of Karelia
Puppet theater of the Republic of Karelia
Youth Theater "Creative Workshop"
Non-state author's theater "Ad Liberum"

The international tourist route "Blue Road" passes through the republic, connecting Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. In Russia, it passes only through the territory of Karelia, crossing it from west to east (and following the cities of Vyartsilya A130 (Olonets) - Kolatselga - Palalahta - Kukkoyla - Yurgilitsa - Vedlozero - Shchekkila - Kutchezero - Kroshnozero - Manga - Yarn P21 - Sailors - Half - Petrozavodsk - Kondopoga - Medvezhyegorsk A119 - Povenets - Pudozh).

Main attractions on the route:
Lake Ladoga is the largest freshwater lake in Europe
Valaam Monastery is an Orthodox male monastery located on the islands of the Valaam archipelago.
Petrozavodsk is the capital and largest city of Karelia
Kizhi is a museum of wooden architecture, which has the status of a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Lake Onega is the second largest freshwater reservoir in Europe.
Kondopoga - in the vicinity: the first Russian resort, founded by Peter I in 1719 on the basis of ferruginous mineral springs - "Marcial Waters", as well as the nature reserve "Kivach"
Medvezhyegorsk - in the vicinity: the White Sea-Baltic Canal, connecting the White Sea with Lake Onega, 227 km long and one of the largest burial places in the North-West of Russia for the victims of Stalinist repressions in Sandarmokh (12 km from Medvezhyegorsk)
Pudozh - in the vicinity: rock art dating back to the 4th-3rd millennium BC - Onega petroglyphs, as well as the Vodlozersky National Park

Active pastime
In late spring - early summer, rafting is possible along the main river of the republic - Shuya. Throughout the spring-summer season, rivers throughout almost the entire territory of Karelia are very popular among water tourists, both amateur and commercial groups. In winter, you can visit several republican ski resorts: Yalgora (on the shore of Yalguba Bay near Petrozavodsk), Malaya Medvezhka (in Medvezhyegorsk), Gorka (in Petrozavodsk).

Multi-day and one-day dog sled tours are popular, they are organized by the Kudama sled dog kennel and the Karjala Park complex (30 km from Petrozavodsk).


Getting here

By plane
The main airport of Karelia is located in Petrozavodsk, 12 km north-west of the city, and bears the name of the same name with the city or in old memory Besovets (IATA:PES)[1]. Accepts flights from Moscow, Arkhangelsk, Anapa and Cherepovets. From international flights, air communication is carried out from Helsinki.

By train
The Volkhovstroy 1-Murmansk railway line runs through Karelia from south to north. Main stations: Petrozavodsk, Kondopoga, Medvezhya Gora, Segezha, Nadvoitsy, Idel, Belomorsk, Kem, Engozero, Loukhi. From Moscow, this is the most accessible railway direction.

From St. Petersburg, trains also run to Petrozavodsk through the Karelian Isthmus and the stations of the Northern Ladoga region.

From Arkhangelsk through Belomorsk and Kem, trains transit through Karelia to Murmansk.

Local trains run from Petrozavodsk to stations lying away from the main railway lines, for example, to Kostomuksha.

By car
The main highway passing through the territory of Karelia is St. Petersburg-Murmansk M18, E105. The route crosses the border with Karelia in the south at the Lodeinoye Pole-Olonets section, then goes to Petrozavodsk and Kondopoga, passes not far to the west of Segezha and Kemi, and in the north of Karelia crosses the border with the Murmansk region near Kandalaksha Bay. The roadbed of the track has a surface that is different from most Russian tracks for the better.

You can also enter Karelia using a large number of local roads. It is advisable to use such routes if the traveler wants to get to Pudozh or Ladoga Karelia and drives an SUV.

On the ship
The waterways of Karelia, in part of Lake Onega and the Svir River, are an important part of the Volga-Baltic waterway. The White Sea-Baltic Canal is located entirely on the territory of Karelia.

Ports on Lake Onega: Petrozavodsk, Kondopoga, Medvezhyegorsk, Povenets
Ports on Lake Ladoga: Pitkyaranta and Sortavala
Ports on the White Sea: Kem and Belomorsk
All cruise ships on the routes Moscow-St. Petersburg-Moscow, cruises from Moscow and St. Petersburg to Solovki make a stop at key points in Karelia.

There is no external regular sea communication, there are local lines that carry out transportation along the waters of Lake Ladoga and Onega, and along the White Sea, for example, from Kem to the Solovetsky Islands.


Origin of name

The origin of the name of the republic - Karjala - is not fully understood, but it is assumed that it may come from the Proto-Finnish word *karja "cattle", borrowed from the Proto-Germanic *harjaz ("army, army"); the ending -la means "earth" (cf. Kalevala, Pohjola).

According to another assumption, the word comes from the Baltic fire "mountain".




The Republic of Karelia is located in Northern Europe, in the northwestern part of Russia, bordered by the White Sea in the northeast. From north to south, the length is 660 km, and from west to east - 424 km.

The main relief of the republic is a hilly plain, turning in the west into the West Karelian Upland. The glacier, retreating to the north, greatly changed the relief of Karelia - moraine ridges, eskers, kams, lake basins appeared in many.

The highest point of the Republic of Karelia is Mount Nuorunen.



Summer in Karelia at 21:00 The sun is just starting to set
The Republic of Karelia is located in the time zone designated by the international standard as Moscow Time Zone (MSK). The offset from UTC is +3:00.



Karelian weather is changeable. The climate is mild, with an abundance of precipitation, changing in the territory of Karelia from maritime to temperate continental. Winter is snowy, cool, but usually without severe frosts; if frosts come, then only for a few days. Summers are short and warm, with high rainfall. Even in June, frosts sometimes occur in the republic (very rarely). Heat is rare and occurs for two to three weeks in the southern regions, but due to high humidity, it is noticeable even at 20 ° C. In the northern regions, heat is extremely rare and lasts no more than a few days.



Subsoil resources of Karelia include:
489 explored deposits,
31 types of solid minerals,
386 peat deposits,
14 underground water deposits for household and drinking purposes,
2 deposits of mineral waters (for example, springs in the village of Marcialnye Vody),
10 officially recognized and over 200 recorded geological monuments.

Main minerals: iron ore, titanium, vanadium, molybdenum, precious metals, diamonds, mica, building materials (granites, diabases, marbles), ceramic raw materials (pegmatites, spar), apatite-carbonate ores, alkaline amphibole-asbestos.

As of September 1, 2004, the distributed subsoil fund in the Republic of Karelia included 606 active licenses: for precious metals and diamonds - 14, solid non-common minerals - 16, block stone - 94, building stone for the production of crushed stone - 76, other common minerals ( mainly sand and gravel materials) - 286, groundwater - 120.

More than 600 deposits have been put on the balance sheet. Of these, 378 - peat, 77 - sand and gravel material, 38 - natural facing stone, 34 - building stone, 27 - sheet muscovite, 26 - feldspar raw materials, 21 - building sands, 13 - groundwater, 9 - milky white quartz , 8 - ore raw materials (iron ores, vanadium, tin, molybdenum), 8 - clays, 7 - small-sized muscovite, 3 - kyanite ores, 7 - mineral paints, 4 - sulfur-pyrite ores, 3 - raw materials for mineral wool, 1 - shungite, 1 - raw materials for stone casting, 1 - quartzite, 1 - dolomites for metallurgy, 1 - talcum stone.

In 2004, 47 enterprises of the mining complex produced iron ore (more than 21 million tons), building stone for the production of crushed stone (4.5 million m³), natural stone blocks for the production of facing and ritual products (about 20 thousand m³), high-carbon shungite rocks (about 50 thousand tons), quartz-feldspar raw materials (10 thousand tons), sand and sand and gravel materials (more than 1 million m³), as well as shungite-containing slates, clays for brick production, peat, groundwater in limited quantities.

The unallocated subsoil fund consists of previously or partially studied manifestations of minerals (more than 2.5 thousand objects), as well as reserves of mineral raw materials put on the balance sheet that are not in demand on the market in the conditions of the current price situation (sheet muscovite, mineral paints, kyanite ores, molybdenum, dolomites, sulfur-pyrite ores).

Iron ore, mica, feldspar, quartz, facing stone, as well as various building materials - granites, diabases, marbles - are actively mined. There are gold, silver, diamonds, rare earth metals. Deposits of uranium ores have been explored (“Karku”, “Poultry Farm” - with uranium as the main mineral; “Middle Padma”, “Upper Padma”, “Tsarevskoye”, “Cosmozero”, “Spring” - with uranium as an associated mineral) , titanium, vanadium, molybdenum.

It is planned to develop industrial development of the Pudozhgorskoye deposit of titanium-magnetite ores, the Aganozerskoye deposit of chromium ores and the Shalozerskoye deposit of chromium-copper-nickel-platinum-metal ores of the Burakovsky massif.

As part of the Pudozh megaproject, additional exploration, determination of prospects and, in case of a positive result, industrial development of the following objects is planned:
The Pudozhgorskoye deposit (the main ore mineral is titanomagnetite; useful components of the ores of the deposit are iron (Fe), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), copper (Cu), gold (Au) and platinum group metals). According to the reference book "Mineral resource base of the Republic of Kazakhstan", the content of TiO2 is 8.13%, off-balance ore reserves are estimated at 316.689 million tons, and the forecast ore resources are 200 million tons. Copper reserves (cat. C1 + C2) are estimated at 410 thousand tons with an average grade of 0.13%.
Deposit "Aganozerskoe" (chrome ores). Ore reserves are estimated: for category C1 - 8.111 million tons, for category C2 - 18.476 million tons. The predicted ore resources for categories P1 + P2 are 177.546 million tons.
Manifestation "Shalozerskoye" (several occurrences) of chromium and platinum-metal ores.
Deposit "Aganozerskoe-2" (nickel-bearing serpentinites). Ores are complex. The main useful components of ores are nickel and magnesium. Nickel reserves in category C2 are estimated at 475 thousand tons, forecast resources in categories P1 + P2 - 7569 thousand tons.



There are about 27,000 rivers in Karelia, of which the largest are: Vodla (length - 149 km), Kem (191 km), Onda (197 km), Unga, Chirka-Kem (221 km), Kovda, Shuya, Suna with waterfalls Kivach and Vyg.

There are about 60,000 lakes in the republic. Together with the swamps, they account for about 2000 km³ of high-quality fresh water. Ladoga and Onega are the largest lakes in Europe. Other large lakes of Karelia: Nyuk, Pyaozero, Segozero, Syamozero, Topozero, Vygozero, Yushkozero. Since the territory of Karelia is located on the Baltic Crystalline Shield, many rivers have rapids and are often dressed in stone banks.


Flora and fauna

The fauna of Karelia is relatively young; it was formed after the Ice Age. In total, 63 species of mammals live on the territory of the republic, many of which, for example, the Ladoga ringed seal, flying squirrel and brown eared ear, are listed in the Red Book. On the rivers of Karelia, you can see the huts of European and Canadian beavers. The Canadian beaver, as well as the muskrat, the American mink are acclimatized representatives of the fauna of North America. The raccoon dog is also not a native inhabitant of Karelia, it comes from the Far East. Since the late 1960s, wild boars began to appear, and roe deer enter the southern regions. There is a bear, lynx, badger and wolf.

285 species of birds live in Karelia, of which 36 species are listed in the Red Book of Karelia. The most common birds are corvids. There is upland game - hazel grouse, black grouse, white partridges, capercaillie. Every spring geese come to Karelia from warm countries. Birds of prey are widespread: owls, hawks, golden eagles, marsh harriers. There are also 40 pairs of rare white-tailed eagles. Of the waterfowl: ducks, loons, waders, many gulls and the largest of the diving ducks in Karelia - the common eider, valuable for its warm down.

There are only 5 species of reptiles on the territory of the republic: common viper, snake, spindle, viviparous lizard and agile lizard.

In summer, there are a lot of midges around: mosquitoes, biting midges, midges and horseflies of many species (real horsefly, lacewings, raindrops, deer horsefly, gray horsefly). Ticks are widespread in the south of the republic. In Karelia, you can meet a rare swallowtail butterfly.

Just like the fauna, the flora of Karelia was formed relatively recently - 10-15 thousand years ago. Coniferous forests predominate, to the north - pine forests, to the south - both pine and spruce forests. The main conifers are Scotch pine and Scotch spruce. Less common are Finnish spruce (north of the republic), Siberian spruce (east), extremely rare - Siberian larch (in Zaonezhye, in the areas bordering the Arkhangelsk region). Small-leaved species are widespread in the forests of Karelia, these are: downy birch, warty birch, aspen, gray alder, and some types of willow. Black alder is found mainly in the southern regions of Karelia, less often in the central, usually in small groups in the valleys of rivers and streams, on the banks of lakes and in wet, swampy places (its separate locations are also in the northern regions of the republic), and small-leaved linden, rough elm , smooth elm, Norway maple grow mainly in the undergrowth, individual trees or clumps in areas with the most fertile soils in southern Karelia.

Karelia is the land of berries, lingonberries, blueberries, cloudberries, blueberries, cranberries grow here in abundance, raspberries grow in the forests - both wild and wild, sometimes moving from village gardens. Strawberries and currants grow abundantly in the south of the republic. In the forests, juniper is common, bird cherry and buckthorn are not uncommon. Occasionally, common viburnum is found. In the extreme south-west of the republic (in the north-western Ladoga region), common hazel is also very rare.


Protection of Nature

There are two reserves in Karelia: "Kivach" and "Kostomukshsky", as well as the Kem-Ludsky section of the Kandalaksha Reserve. Ecological routes are laid on their territories, there are museums of nature, and scientific tourism is carried out.

There are three national parks in the republic - "Vodlozersky" (partially located in the Arkhangelsk region), "Paanajärvi" and "Kalevalsky".

There are also two museum-reserves: "Valaam" and "Kizhi".

The Ladoga Skerries Park is at the design and development stage. In addition, in the 2000s, it was planned to create the Tulos National Park in the Muezersky District and the Koitajoki-Tolvajärvi National Park on the basis of the Tolvajärvi Landscape Reserve in the Suoyärvi District, north of Ladoga.



Most of the territory of Karelia (148,000 km², or 85%) is occupied by the state forest fund. The forest fund of the Republic of Karelia has a total timber reserve of 945.7 million m³, of which 826.3 million m³ are coniferous plantations. There are 17 forestries on the territory of the Republic of Karelia. Forest inventory works are carried out by the FSUE “Roslesinforg” branch, a separate structural subdivision “Karellesproekt” (Karelian branch of the state forest inventory of the federal state unitary enterprise “Roslesinforg”).



In the 7th century, in addition to the "proper" Karelian principality, several more Karelian principalities were formed [source not specified 3636 days] (the Saimaa Karelian principality, the Vyborg Karelian principality and the Tiversky Karelian principality), but their formation was interrupted by Swedish expansion. As a result, the Vyborg Principality ceased to exist, and the Tiversky Principality became part of Karelia Proper. By the 10th century, Karelia became a centralized state, although in the 11th century there was another large Karelian principality - Savolaks.

In the first half of the 14th century, according to S.I. Kochkurkina, there was a kind of "Karelian principality", created by Novgorod in order to strengthen the northwestern borders.

At present, Finland has the provinces of North Karelia (since 1960) and South Karelia.

There were also unrecognized Karelian state formations in the north of the republic during the period of military intervention:
from 07/21/1919 to 05/18/1920 - the North Karelian state;
from 03/19/1920 to 1922 - the Ukhta Republic.
From July 8, 1937 to February 25, 1939, there was the Karelian National District - an administrative-territorial unit of the USSR as part of the Kalinin (now Tver) region.

On August 9, 1990, the Supreme Council of the KASSR adopted the Declaration on State Sovereignty of the Karelian ASSR.



The population of the republic, according to Rosstat, is 527,821 people. (2023). Population density - 2.92 people / km² (2023). Urban population - 80.11% (2022).

According to the preliminary results of the Russian population census, which took place in October 2010, the number of resident population of the Republic of Karelia decreased by 71 thousand people compared to the 2002 census and amounts to 645.2 thousand people, including 294.8 thousand men and 350 4 thousand women, while a little earlier data were published that as of January 1, 2010, the resident population was 684,195 people.

A decrease in the population is noted in all regions of the republic, but in some it is especially noticeable. Thus, the population of the Suoyarvsky district decreased by 5.2 thousand people, Pudozhsky - by 5.8 thousand, Medvezhyegorsk - by 6.5 thousand, and Segezhsky - by almost 9 thousand.

503.9 thousand people (about 78% of the population) are urban residents, the remaining 141.3 thousand people (22%) are rural. In Karelia, as in many regions of Russia, there are demographic problems. The death rate in Karelia exceeds the birth rate almost twice.


Settlement and settlements

The most populated is the southern part of the republic, where 73% of the population lives and the density is 8.7 people per square kilometer. In the central part, the number of inhabitants per square kilometer was 2 people (13% of the inhabitants). Less populated is the north of the republic with a population density of 1.5 people (14% of the population). In general, the population density in the republic was 3.6 people per 1 km² (in 2002 - 4.0 people).

According to the results of the 2010 Russian census, out of 776 rural settlements, 110 (14%) are without population. The most sparsely populated region of the republic is Kalevalsky, 6176 people are registered in it. (2021).



In addition to the Russian language, some residents of the Republic of Karelia speak national languages: Karelians - Karelian, Finns - Finnish, Vepsians - Vepsian. April 20 marks the day of Karelian and Vepsian writing.


Status of the languages of Karelia

In the version of the constitution adopted in 2001 in Karelia, only one state language is established - Russian. National languages are taught in elementary school, studied at universities, in preschool institutions. They publish educational and fiction literature, newspapers, magazines, radio and television programs. The centers for the scientific study of languages are the Institute of Language, Literature and History of the Karelian Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Faculty of Baltic-Finnish Philology and Culture of Petrozavodsk State University.

The languages of the Karelians, Finns and Veps are written in the Latin alphabet. The languages of these peoples are not state languages, therefore they are not subject to the requirement of the federal law on the mandatory use of the Cyrillic alphabet. At the same time, the law allows the use as a state language with a script other than Cyrillic, subject to the adoption of a special federal law establishing such use for a particular case.

The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, which considered the issue of introducing the Latin alphabet for the Tatar language in 2004, recognized the right of the federal legislative body to establish the written basis of the languages of the peoples of Russia and noted that the establishment of a unified written basis for the languages of the peoples of Russia (Cyrillic) "provides - in order to preserve state unity – harmonization and balanced functioning of the federal language and the state languages of the republics”. The Constitutional Court noted that changing the graphic basis is permissible if it "corresponds to the historical, cultural, social and political realities and interests of the multinational people of Russia." The solution of such a question by the republic unilaterally, however, may lead "to a weakening of federal unity and restriction of the rights and freedoms of citizens, including those living outside the republic, for whom this language is native."

This decision of the Constitutional Court suspended the process of granting Karelian the status of a state language. Thus, the Republic of Karelia is the only republic within the Russian Federation in which none of the indigenous peoples living on its territory has its own national language as a state language. At the same time, the problems for raising the status of the Karelian language are the low proportion of Karelians relative to the population of other nationalities living in Karelia and, accordingly, the low level of the Karelian language.



In 2009, 194 religious organizations representing 18 confessions and trends were registered in the Republic of Karelia. Believers are mostly Christians: Orthodox, Lutherans and Catholics.

The Orthodox Karelia is united in the Karelian Metropolis, which includes two dioceses: the Petrozavodsk and Karelian eparchies, the Kostomuksha and Kem eparchies.

The Lutherans of Karelia are divided between the Church of Ingria (Karelian Priesthood: 17 parishes) and the Karelian Lutheran Church.

Catholics have one parish of the Perpetual Help of the Mother of God in Petrozavodsk.

In 1997 the Petrozavodsk Jewish religious community was registered.

In 2001, the Islamic organization Spiritual Board of Muslims of the Republic of Karelia was registered in Karelia.

Representatives of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Mormons, are active.

Karelia is the historical homeland of the Old Believer Pomeranian Church. The Old Believer Pomor community "Vygoretskaya monastery" in our time was registered in 1997 in Povenets.


State structure

Political structure
The fundamental law of the Republic of Karelia is the Constitution of the Republic of Karelia. The Republic of Karelia, according to the current Constitution of the Republic of Karelia, is a republic (state) within the Russian Federation with a republican form of government.

The division of powers between the authorities of the Republic and the Russian Federation was established by Law No. 184-FZ adopted in 1999 “On the General Principles of Organization of Legislative (Representative) and Executive Bodies of State Power of the Subjects of the Russian Federation”.

The state authorities of the Republic of Karelia are located in Petrozavodsk.

The Legislative Assembly of the Republic of Karelia is a permanent representative and the only legislative body of state power in the Republic of Karelia. Since 2016, it consists of 36 deputies elected by the inhabitants of the republic according to a mixed electoral system: 18 deputies - according to party lists (proportional system), 18 - in single-member districts (majority system) on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. The term of office of deputies of one convocation is five years.

The current 6th convocation was elected in September 2016 until 2021. Of the 36 deputies, 24 are from United Russia, 3 are from the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, 3 are from the Liberal Democratic Party, 3 are from A Just Russia, 3 are from Yabloko. Elissan Shandalovich ("United Russia") was elected Chairman. Igor Zubarev (United Russia) was elected representative of the Legislative Assembly in the Federation Council.

executive branch
Executive power is exercised by:
The Head of the Republic of Karelia is the highest official of the Republic of Karelia,
The Government of the Republic of Karelia, headed by the Head of the Republic, is the permanent supreme executive body of state power of the Republic of Karelia,
other executive authorities.

The Head of the Republic is the highest official of the Republic of Karelia. Elected by the inhabitants of the republic on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. The term of office is 5 years, while one person cannot hold office for more than two consecutive terms.

The current head of the republic is Artur Parfenchikov (since February 15, 2017, he was appointed by President V. V. Putin; on September 10, 2017, he was elected in the elections from the United Russia party). Alexander Rakitin has been appointed as a representative in the Federation Council.

Judicial branch
Judicial power is exercised by federal courts, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Karelia, justices of the peace of the Republic of Karelia.

Representatives in the Federal Assembly
In the Federation Council, Karelia, like every subject of the federation, has two representatives: one from the legislative assembly and one from the government of the republic.

In the State Duma of the 7th convocation in 2016-2021, 4 deputies were representatives of citizens living in the Republic of Karelia. In the 2016 elections, which were held under a mixed system, Valentina Pivnenko (United Russia) was elected in single-seat constituency 225 (majority system), which was entirely the Republic of Karelia. According to party lists in a single federal district (proportional system) in the regional group "Leningrad Region, Republic of Karelia, Murmansk Region" 3 candidates received mandates: Svetlana Zhurova and Alexei Lyashchenko from United Russia, Igor Ananskikh from A Just Russia.

Political parties
As of March 1, 2010, seven Russian political parties had their branches in the Republic of Karelia: United Russia, Communist Party of the Russian Federation, Patriots of Russia, Fair Russia, LDPR, Yabloko and Right Cause. The socio-political movement of the Russian People's Democratic Union also has its own branch.


The international cooperation

The Republic of Karelia is a full member of the Assembly of European Regions, a member of the Council of the Barents Euro-Arctic Region.

Euroregion "Karelia"
In February 2000, the Euroregion "Karelia" was formed as part of the Republic of Karelia and the regional unions of communes of Finland - North Pohyanmaa, Kainuu and North Karelia. The priority areas of cooperation are the forest industry, agriculture, transport, communications, healthcare, tourism, culture, environmental protection and cross-border cooperation.

Northern Dimension Project
In 2000, at the EU summit, the Northern Dimension project was approved, the purpose of which was the gradual formation of a consolidated strategy for intercountry and interregional cooperation in the North of Europe, including the Russian northern regions - Karelia, the Komi Republic, Murmansk, Kaliningrad, Arkhangelsk, Vologda, Pskov and Leningrad region, St. Petersburg and the Nenets Autonomous Okrug.

The Republic of Karelia develops international cultural and economic cooperation with the provinces and unions of communes of Finland, the Swedish province (Vasterbotten), the Norwegian province (Tromsø), the state of the United States of America (Vermont), the province of Poland (Chekhanovo), the Autonomous Republic of Georgia (Adzharia), the prefecture of Greece ( Elijah), Odessa region of Ukraine and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, the Republic of Belarus, Fujian province (East China).


Interregional cooperation

The Republic of Karelia is a member of the North-West Association, established in January 1991 by representatives of the executive and legislative authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation located within the North-West Federal District. The tasks of the Association include the joint solution of problems of common interest for the territory of the Okrug in the areas of industry, agriculture, transport, communications, education, healthcare, and ecology.

The Republic develops trade, economic, scientific, technical and cultural cooperation, within the framework of separate agreements, with many regions of the Russian Federation, including the Arkhangelsk, Vladimir, Vologda, Voronezh, Kaliningrad, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Murmansk, Nizhny Novgorod, Saratov and Sverdlovsk regions , the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Republic of Dagestan, the Republic of Ingushetia, the Republic of Komi, the Republic of Tatarstan, the cities of St. Petersburg and Moscow.



The republic has an industrial base[82] dominated by metallurgy, mining[83], woodworking and paper industries.

By Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of July 29, 2014 No. 1398-r (as amended on November 24, 2015) “On approval of the list of single-industry towns” included in the list of single-industry towns of the Russian Federation with the most difficult socio-economic situation - Nadvoitsy, Pudozh, Muezersky, Pitkyaranta, Kondopoga and Suoyarvi Segezha, Pindushi, Lakhdenpokhya, Kostomuksha and Vartsila are on the list of those with risks of worsening the socio-economic situation.

The city of Kostomuksha and 4 northern regions of the republic - Belomorsky, Kalevalsky, Kemsky, Loukhsky - have the status of regions of the Far North. The cities of Petrozavodsk and Sortavala, as well as 11 districts of the republic - Kondopozhsky, Lakhdenpokhsky, Medvezhyegorsky, Muezersky, Olonetsky, Pitkyarantsky, Prionezhsky, Pryazhinsky, Pudozhsky, Segezhsky, Suoyarvsky - have the status of areas equated to the regions of the Far North. These statuses provide some benefits to people living and working in these areas.

Industrial sectors that use local natural resources: timber, woodworking, pulp and paper, mining, ferrous metallurgy, building materials industry.

Industries working on imported raw materials: mechanical engineering, non-ferrous metallurgy.

Large enterprises:
"Onega shipbuilding and ship repair plant" - construction of sea and river vessels.
"Vyartsilsky hardware plant" - wire, nails.
Karelsky Okatysh produces iron ore pellets.
Kondopoga produces newsprint.
"Lyaskelsky paper factory".
"Petrozavodskmash" - chemical and paper-making equipment, equipment for nuclear power plants, containers for storing spent nuclear fuel.
"Onega Tractor Plant" - tractors of the TLT-100A type ..
"Segezha Pulp and Paper Mill" - production of sack paper.
"Suoyärvi Cardboard Factory".
Cellulose plant "Pitkyaranta".
"Nadvoitsy aluminum plant".
"Karelian Combine".

Timber industry complex
The timber industry complex of Karelia is represented by 3 pulp and paper enterprises, 10 largest specialized sawmills and more than 30 large logging enterprises.

The timber industry complex of Karelia produces 28% of the republic's industrial output. The enterprises of the complex employ about half of all those working in industry. The republic accounts for 24% of the total Russian production of paper, more than a third of newsprint, about 67% of paper bags, 3.4% of lumber.

The area of forest fund lands in Karelia is 14.5 million hectares. The total wood stock is 970.0 million m³. The annual average growth is 14.2 million m³.

As of January 1, 2010, the area of forest plots leased out for timber harvesting and other types of forest use is 8.9 million hectares (61% of the total area of forest fund lands).

Mining complex
Iron ores, shungite, raw materials for the production of mineral wool slabs and stone-cast products (1 enterprise), building stone for the production of crushed stone and blocks are mined in the republic, deposits of fresh and mineral underground waters are exploited. A number of enterprises develop deposits of sand and sand-gravel material for road and construction purposes.

The structure of the mining and metallurgical complex of the republic in terms of sales volumes (as of 2008) was (in % of the total production volume): iron ores - 80.8%; crushed stone - 17.5%; stone blocks - 1.4%; shungite - 0.3%.

As of the beginning of 2021, 25 power plants connected to the unified energy system with a total capacity of 1178.1 MW were operated in Karelia, including 21 hydroelectric power plants and 4 thermal power plants, as well as 8 small diesel power plants with a total capacity of 3.4 MW and five solar power plants with a total capacity of 61 kW, located in the zone of decentralized energy supply. In 2020, they produced 5,468 million kWh of electricity (excluding the generation of the Kumskaya HPP, located in Karelia, but organizationally part of the energy system of the Murmansk region).

JSC TGC-1 is the leading producer and supplier of electrical and thermal energy. Its Karelsky branch includes:
Petrozavodsk CHPP is the largest in the republic, provides 85% of heat to the city of Petrozavodsk, with an installed capacity of 280 MW.
Cascade of Vygsky HPPs (5 hydroelectric power plants: Matkozhnenskaya HPP, Ondskaya HPP, Vygostrovskaya HPP, Belomorskaya HPP, Palokorgskaya HPP), with an installed capacity of 240 MW.
Cascade of Kemsky HPPs (4 hydroelectric power plants: Putkinskaya HPP, Poduzhemskaya HPP, Yushkozerskaya HPP, Krivoporozhskaya HPP), with an installed capacity of 330 MW.
Cascade of the Sunskiye HPPs (Kondopoga HPP and Paleozerskaya HPP), with an installed capacity of 50.6 MW.
A group of small HPPs (6 HPPs: Pitkäkoski HPP, Hämekoski HPP, Harlu HPP, Pieni-Joki HPP, Suuri-Joki HPP, Ignoila HPP), with an installed capacity of 13.1 MW.
Diesel power plant on the island of Valaam.

HPP cascades unite 17 hydroelectric power plants with a total capacity of 634 MW. They generate about 70% of the electricity produced in the republic.

CJSC Nord Hydro owns the Lyaskelya HPP.

In addition, the pulp and paper industry of the Republic of Karelia has five thermal power plants (CHP) connected to the power grid as block stations:
CHPP-1 and CHPP-2 of OAO Kondopoga (Kondopoga) with an installed capacity of 36 MW and 60 MW, respectively;
CHPP of Pitkyaranta Pulp Mill OJSC with an installed capacity of 24 MW;
CHPP-1 and CHPP-2 of OAO Segezha Pulp and Paper Mill with an installed capacity of 36 MW and 24 MW, respectively.

The total capacity of these power plants is 180 MW. Block-stations of the enterprises OJSC Kondopoga, OJSC Pulp Mill Pitkyaranta, OJSC Segezha Pulp and Paper Mill do not participate in covering the maximum load of the power system, the electricity generated by them is used for the production needs of enterprises.

The branch of PJSC FGC UES Karelian enterprise of backbone electrical networks (Karelian PMES) is a grid company serving electrical networks of 220-330 kV of the Karelian energy system. The Karelian PMES operates 2798.65 km of power transmission lines with a voltage of 220-330 kV, 14 substations with a voltage of 220-330 kV with a total transformer capacity of 5438.2 MVA. The production complex of the company in the Republic of Karelia is represented by 10 substations 35-220-330 kV, with an installed capacity of 1945.1 MVA, as well as power lines 110-220-330 kV, and a 35 kV line on the island. Valaam, put into operation in 2009.

Branch of PJSC Interregional Distribution Grid Company of the North-West (PJSC IDGC of the North-West) Karelenergo is a distribution grid company engaged in the transmission of electric energy and technological connection to 0.4-110 kV networks in the Republic of Karelia.

The length of electric networks of power transmission lines along the circuits is 11424.5 km. The length of the power transmission line along the highway is 10857.3 km, including:
VL 0.4 kV - 2457 km,
VL 6-10 kV - 4164.8 km,
VL 35-110 kV - 4235.5 km.

The total length of cable transmission lines is 92.1 km:
CL 6-10 kV - 36.7 km,
CL 0.4 kV - 55.4 km

Municipal urban and rural electrical networks and heat and gas supply facilities have been transferred to the balance sheet of the Republic of Karelia. For their operation, SUE RK "KarelEnergoHolding" (electric power industry), and SUE RK "KarelKommunEnergo" (heat power and gas supply) were created.

In the housing and communal sector, the main energy carriers at present are oil refinery products (fuel oil, diesel fuel), coal and natural gas, which are supplied to heat supply enterprises from outside the republic. Peat is used in small quantities.



The service of passenger and freight transportation exists in Petrozavodsk and regional centers of Karelia. Appeared in the 1930-1950s. as a service provided by state-owned auto enterprises. In the 1950s there were suburban minibuses that ran from Petrozavodsk to the settlements of the Prionezhsky district. The first city minibus in the form of passenger cars "Volga" in Petrozavodsk appeared in 1968. Later in the 1970-1980s. Petrozavodsk Motor Transport Enterprise and convoys of regional centers were moving in the cities of Kondopoga, Kostomuksha, Segezha.

Roads and rail transport
Due to the low population density in Karelia, the road network is not very extensive. The length of public roads is 7822 km. Only the main highways and small sections of the road along large settlements have been paved. The construction of new tracks and sections of tracks is also actively underway.

List of main roads:
E 105 R21 "Cola": Yalta - Kharkov - Moscow - St. Petersburg - Olonets - Petrozavodsk - Kondopoga - Medvezhyegorsk - Belomorsk - Kem - Murmansk - Kirkenes
A119: Vologda - Vytegra - Pudozh - Povenets - Medvezhyegorsk
A121 "Sortavala": St. Petersburg - Priozersk - Lakhdenpokhya - Sortavala - "Kola (motorway)"
86K-8: Olonets - Sortavala - Ruskeala - Vartsila
86K-13: Pitkyaranta - Loimola - Suoyarvi
A132: Suoyarvi - Porosozero - Yustozero - Medvezhyegorsk
86K-10: Petrozavodsk - Suoyarvi
A134: Kochkoma - Tiksha - Reboly
A135: Kem - Kalevala - Voknavolok
86K-127: Loukhi - Pyaozersky - Suoperya
A137: P21 - Tiksha - Ledmozero - Kostomuksha - border with the Republic of Finland
P17: Medvezhyegorsk - Perguba - Shunga - Tolvuya - Great Guba
R19: Petrozavodsk - Sheltozero - Ascension - Oshtinsky Pogost

Railway transport in Karelia is one of the most important components of the infrastructure of the economy. These are 2,800 kilometers of railway tracks, about 15,000 highly skilled workers, 4 departments of the Oktyabrskaya Railway (Murmansk, Petrozavodsk, Volkhovstroevskoye, St. Petersburg) and the Arkhangelsk branch of the Northern Railway.

Most of the railway lines of Karelia are served by the Petrozavodsk branch of the Oktyabrskaya Railway, which is one of the largest budget-forming enterprises of the Republic.

In 2005, the electrification of the northern course of the Oktyabrskaya Railway (the Svir-Idel section of the St. Petersburg-Murmansk line) was completed. Electrification ensured the reliability of railway communication between the industrial centers of the North-West - Murmansk, Petrozavodsk, Arkhangelsk and Syktyvkar - with other regions of Russia.

The operational length of electrified sections of railway lines in Karelia is increasing. Now the next step is the electrification of the Kochkoma-Kostomuksha-Luttya line, followed by the launch of passenger and freight traffic.

Since January 1, 2011, suburban rail transportation has been carried out by OJSC North-Western Suburban Passenger Company (before that, Karelprigorod). SZ PPK electric trains operate on the Kem - Svir, Kem - Apatity, Kem - Belomorsk - Malenga, Sortavala - Kuznechnoye sections



In general, Karelia has unfavorable natural and climatic conditions for agricultural production. The agro-resource potential of the republic is relatively small: the share of cultivated land accounts for only 1.2% of the total area.

The area of agricultural land is 219 thousand hectares, about 60% of arable land is located on podzolic soils of various compositions.

Agriculture is represented by such sectors as animal husbandry (mainly dairy and beef cattle breeding), pig breeding, trout breeding, poultry farming, fur farming, and plant growing. Grow fodder crops. Fur farming and fishing are developed. According to the Ministry of Agriculture, Fishing and Hunting of the Republic of Karelia, in 2013 the volume of fish caught and commercial fish farming products amounted to 116.6 thousand tons.



The postal operator in the republic is the Administration of the Federal Postal Service of the Republic of Karelia, a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise Russian Post.

Telephone operators and providers:
Karelian branch of OJSC Rostelecom;
Internet provider "" ("Svyazservis");
Internet provider "Citylink";
North-Western branch of PJSC "MegaFon";
North-Western branch of MTS PJSC;
Budget sphere
In 2010, the republic's budget received 24 billion 873 million rubles of income. At the same time, expenses amounted to 25 billion 642 million rubles.

Tax revenues make up the bulk of budget revenues and in 2008 accounted for 64% of operating revenues. The tax concentration is relatively high: the 10 largest taxpayers, mainly industrial enterprises, provided about 38% of all tax revenues in 2008.


Banking sector

Banking services to the population and business entities in the country are provided by 203 banking institutions.

While maintaining traditional forms of banking services, the development of banking infrastructure is characterized by the expansion of remote channels for customers to access payment services, including using the Internet, mobile phones, and the Bank-Client system. Credit institutions provide various forms of out-of-office services to individuals by expanding the network of software and hardware devices: electronic payment terminals, ATMs and imprinters installed in trade and service organizations. The total number of such devices is 3.4 thousand units.

Expansion of the range of banking products that involve the use of payment cards, as well as the infrastructure for servicing them at trade and service enterprises, ensures the growth of the payment card market. The number of issued bank cards is 646 thousand, per 100 residents of the republic - 101 cards.



Traditional active, cultural and ecological (“green”) types of tourism are popular in Karelia.

Karelia attracts tourists with historical and cultural monuments, ecologically clean nature and low population density. Karelia is popular with lovers of water tourism, travelers on bicycles and cars, fishermen and hunters. Cruise ships ply the Ladoga and Onega lakes in summer.

In the winter time in Karelia there is an opportunity to engage in all kinds of skiing, take part in a safari on dog or reindeer sleds, and make a trip on snowmobiles. Travel agencies offer a variety of routes with sightseeing, historical and cultural monuments. In January 2012, the international dog sled race "On the land of Sampo" took place. Equestrian tourism is developing - horseback riding enthusiasts can admire the nature of Karelia on horseback both in winter and in summer. Karelian petroglyphs remain popular - unique rock carvings that are about 6,000 years old.

The sanatoriums of the village of Marcial Waters are open all year round - the first resort in Russia, founded in 1719 by decree of Peter the Great.

Tourists visiting the western part of the republic, declared a border zone, should carry an identity card (civil passports, children - birth certificates) for possible passport control.


Education and science

In the 2012/2013 academic year in the education system of the Republic of Karelia there were 211 preschool educational institutions (33230 students), 221 general education institutions (65435 students), 11 primary vocational education institutions (4150 students), 16 institutions of secondary vocational education (9299 students), 2 state educational institutions of higher professional education and 14 branches of educational institutions of secondary and higher professional education. The Karelian language is not widely taught: in 1990 it was studied in 14 schools (686 students), by the 1997/98 academic year in 57 (2388 students), and in the 2009/10 academic year only in 37 schools (1581 students).

The long-term target Program "Development of Education in the Republic of Karelia in 2011-2015" was adopted.

Every year since 2008, the Summer International Youth Educational Forum "Hyperborea - Battle of Ideas" has been held.

The basis of the scientific potential of the Republic of Karelia is the Karelian Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Petrozavodsk State University.



In the region of the Republic of Karelia, according to data available for 2018, the following is registered annually:
152 patients with HIV infection;
2929 patients with malignant neoplasms; this category of the population receives modern and effective treatment in the best clinics in the region;
219 patients with tuberculosis;
45 patients being treated for drug addiction;
1373 people with chronic alcoholism;
34 patients with syphilis.

In the healthcare system of the Republic of Karelia, there are 24 hospitals (republican and regional hospitals), 5 dispensaries, the Republican Center for the Prevention and Control of AIDS and Infectious Diseases, the Republican Blood Transfusion Station, 3 institutions for the protection of motherhood and childhood, 10 outpatient clinics. polyclinic institutions, 5 health care institutions of a special type, 7 social service institutions, 18 regional institutions of social protection, an autonomous educational institution of secondary vocational education of the Republic of Karelia "Petrozavodsk Basic Medical College".

A regional target program "Improving the demographic situation in the Republic of Karelia for the period 2008-2010 and up to 2015" was adopted.



Karelia is a unique cultural region (area), the formation of which was influenced by the border position between the western and eastern worlds, Germanic and Slavic, Catholic and Orthodox. The main unifying factor in the process of formation of the culture of the region was the Orthodox religion.

A lot is being done in the Republic of Karelia today to support the interests of more than 100 nationalities inhabiting it, including Karelians, Vepsians and Finns. More than 60 national public associations have been registered: unions, congresses, popular movements, autonomies, friendship societies, cultural societies. The regional target program "Karelia - the territory of consent", the republican target program "State support of the Karelian, Vepsian and Finnish languages" are in operation, a public council has been created to coordinate the implementation of these programs.


Arts and crafts

The handicrafts of Karelia, in contrast to the Central Russian ones (Zhostovo, Gzhel, Dymkovo, Gus-Khrustalny and others), have not gained all-Russian fame. Currently, in the Republic of Karelia, only one production facility operates in the field of folk arts and crafts - the private factory "Karelian Patterns", founded in 1929, and several dozen individual craftsmen representing about 20 types of traditional crafts.



The written literature of Karelia was formed at the beginning of the 20th century on the basis of centuries-old traditions of Russian literature, Karelian and Vepsian folklore. In 1940 the Writers' Union of Karelia was created.

Writers of the Republic of Karelia are united in public organizations:
Karelian regional branch of the Writers' Union of Russia;
"Karelian Union of Writers";
Representation of the Union of Russian Writers in Karelia;
Union of Young Writers "Northern Lights".

Literature in the Vepsian language
The creation of Vepsian writing began in 1931, when textbooks for schools, anthologies, and dictionaries were published. But in 1938, the Vepsian-language books were burned, and teachers and other public figures were arrested and expelled from their homes.

The revival of Veps-language literature in Karelia began in the first years of perestroika. In the 1980s, within the walls of the Writers' Union of Karelia, at a meeting of young writers, novice Vepsian writers were represented: Rurik Lonin, Eduard Bronzov, Vyacheslav Sidorov. The poetess Alevtina Andreeva (1938-2001) from the village of Sheltozero wrote in the Vepsian language.

Modern writers: A. V. Petukhov, N. V. Abramov, N. G. Zaitseva.

Literature in Karelian
Karelian writers, poets and translators - Nikolai Laine (1920-1984), Antti Timonen (1915-1990), Perttu Pekka (1917-1992), Vladimir Brandoev (1931-1990), P. M. Semyonov, A. L. Volkov , Z. T. Dubinina, V. S. Ivanov (Veikki), O. F. Mishina, I. S. Savin.

Literature in Russian
Literature in Russian is represented by the works of F. A. Trofimov, A. M. Linevskiy, D. Ya. Gusarov, I. M. Petrov (Toivo Vyahya), Tikhonov A. N., A. I. Avdyshev, V. I. Pulkina, I. A. Kostina, D. M. Balashova, A. I. Mishina (Oleg Mishin), V. F. Morozova, M. V. Tarasova, B. A. Schmidt, E. G. Soini, Yu. V. Linnik, D. G. Novikov, V. N. Firsov, E. E. Pietelainen and other writers and poets.

Literature in Finnish
With the formation of the Karelian Labor Commune in 1920 and then, in 1923, the Autonomous Karelian Republic, the state language in Karelia, along with Russian, also became the Finnish language. Not only Finns wrote in Finnish. As a result, the Finnish-language literature of Karelia turned out to be common for several ethnic groups: for Finns-immigrants who came to the USSR in the 1920s from Finland, the USA and Canada, for local Ingrians and Karelians who understood Finnish.

Famous writers: J. Savolainen, L. Helo (T. Guttari), J. E. Virtanen, H. K. Tikhlya, E. B. Parras, T. K. Summanen, A. N. Timonen, N. M. Yakkola, P. A. Perttu, Ya. V. Rugoev, A. M. Stepanov, U. K. Wikstrom, Otto Oinonen (Likka Kare), Allan Visanen and others.



Icon painters were the first professional artists of Karelia. In the 19th century V. S. Parmakov (author of the paintings “View of the Solomenskaya desert in the vicinity of Petrozavodsk” and “Kivach”), D. F. Panezerov, A. Ya. Andriyanov and K. V. Akkuratov were students of the Academy of Arts who were natives of the region. Karelia has become a source of inspiration for many famous artists of the XIX-XX centuries: I. I. Shishkin, A. I. Kuindzhi, N. K. Roerich.

The formation of professional painting in Karelia is associated with the name of the People's Artist of the KFSSR V. N. Popov (1869-1945). In 1934, the Union of Artists of the Autonomous Karelian SSR was created, the first chairman of which was Yu. O. Rautanen, since 2010 - the Karelian branch of the Union of Artists of Russia. The Association of Young Artists and Art Critics operates as part of the Karelian branch.

The most important contribution to the development of painting and plastic arts in general was made by works of: I. Morozova, A. I. Katseblina, A. Starodubtseva, S. Terentyeva, K. L. Butorova, A. V. Semyashkina, S. Kh. Yuntunena, B. N. Pomortseva, G. A. Stronka, L. F. Langinena, F. E. Nieminena, E. K. Pehovoy, T. G. Yufi, M. Sh. Yufi, V. S. Chekmasova, M. M. Mecheva, A. P. Kharitonova, K. A. Gogoleva, O. P. Borodkina, K. L. Butorova, A. I. Avdysheva, E. A. Akulova, L. G. Davidiana, V. M. Ivanenko, O. S. Yuntunena, photojournalist G. A. Ankudinova, S. A. Meisterman, V. V. Trosheva, bone cutter V. M. Balandina and Yu. E. Pyatakov, scenographer V. O. Polyakova, Kh. G. Skaldinoi, V. A. Skorika, jeweler G. V. Grigorieva.

In 1939, on the initiative of architects K. Ya. Gutina, B. N. Litinsky and A. M. Mitrofanov, the Karelian branch of the "Union of Architects of the USSR", since 2000 - the "Union of Architects of the Republic of Karelia". At different times, famous republican architects were elected as leaders of the Union: A. L. Lukashyn, T. V. Kovalevskaya, A. R. Solomonov, F. I. Rekhmukov, V. P. Orfinsky, V. I. Antokhin, E. V. Voskresensky, A. A. Saveliev, E. B. Frolov.

G. made a significant contribution to the development of architectural and urban planning activities in the republic. A. Lobko, G. A. Pashkov, N. I. Mazur, M. A. Shirokov, S. V. Lavrov, V. N. Tykwenko, E. F. Andreev, N. V. Kuspak, I. I. Berger, N. V. Voskobovich, V. P. Kiselyov, L. I. Kiuru, V. A. Kuznetsov, A. A. Nizovtsev, N. A. Savin, V. A. Samokhvalov, A. A. Borshevsky, V. V. Bugashev, S. M. Isaacson, W. N. Shevlyakov, A. P. Pertyakov, L. Yu. Karma.

The Symphony Orchestra of the Karelian State Philharmonic was founded in 1933. In different years, the orchestra belonged to the Karelian Radio and Television, the Ministry of Culture of Karelia. Since 1997, the orchestra has been working as part of the Karelian State Philharmonic.

In 1935, the Karelian Folk Segozersky Choir (Padany), the Karelian Folk Olonets Choir "Karjalan koivu" ("Karelian birch") were founded.

In 1936, the National Song and Dance Ensemble of Karelia "Kantele", the Veps National Choir, the Karelian National Petrovsky Choir were founded.

In 1937, the Pomeranian People's Choir (Medvezhiegorsk) was founded, and in 1938, the Karelian People's Choir of Vedlozero (Vedlozero).

In 1938, the Petrozavodsk Musical School (now Petrozavodsk Musical College named after K. E. Rautio) was opened.

In 1939, the Karelian State Philharmonic was opened.

In 1937, the Union of Composers of Karelia was founded. In different years, the Union was headed by famous Karelian composers: R. S. Parchment, L. V. Vishkarev, K. E. Rautio, G.-R. N. Sinisalo, A. S. Beloborodov. The responsible secretaries were elected V. P. Sinisalo, G. I. Lapchinsky, A. I. Holland, E. N. Patlaenko, N. I. Samsonov. The musicology section was headed by T. V. Krasnopolskaya, N. Yu. Grodnitskaya, V. I. Nilova. A great contribution to the development of professional musical creativity in Karelia was made by the composer G. A. Vavilov, P. B. Kozinsky, V. A. Konchakov, S. G. Leonchik, A. L. Repnikov, R. F. Zelinsky, V. K. Koshelev, B. D. Napreev, V. V. Sergeenko, A. P. Smirnova, I. A. Subbotin, V. N. Ugrumov; Musician I. N. Baranova, O. A. Bochkareva, Yu. G. Con.

In 1967, the Petrozavodsk branch of the Leningrad State Conservatory (now the Petrozavodsk State Conservatory named after A.K. Glazunov) was opened.

In 1973 L. was awarded the Honored Artist of the Republic of Karelia. P. Karelia-Brass ensemble founded by Budanov.

In 1990, the Karelian folk choir "Oma pajo" was founded.

More than twenty children's music schools operate in the republic, among which:
Petrozavodsk children's musical school No. 1 im. Sinisalo (opened in 1918). The school is the organizer of the international competition "Onega Wave", the international festival of the Barents region "Northern Shine", the festival of music of the northern countries "Sankta Lucia".
Olonets Children's Music School (opened in 1952)
Belomorsk Children's Music School (opened in 1955)
Kondopogi Children's Music School (opened in 1957)
Petrozavodsk Children's Music and Choir School (opened in 1966)
Children's music school named after Kostomukshi. G. A. Vavilova (opened in 1977)
Petrozavodsk children's musical school named after G. V. Sviridova (opened in 1983)
Children's School of Arts in Petrozavodsk M. A. Balakireva (opened in 1991)
Musical groups: family ensemble Sattuma, Leo Sevets, Santtu Karhu & Talvisovat, Myllärit, early music ensemble Drolls, VaTaGa.

State historical-architectural and ethnographic museum-reserve "Kizhi"

National Museum of the Republic of Karelia
Sheltozer Veps ethnographic museum (branch)
Martial Waters Museum (branch)
"Balaam scientific-research, church-archaeological and natural museum-reserve"
Museum of Fine Arts of the Republic of Karelia
Museum of the History of National Education of the Republic of Karelia (as part of the Karelian Institute of Education Development)


District and city

Regional Museum of the Northern Ladoga Region (Sortavala district)
Olonets National Museum of Karelians-Livviks named after I. N. G. Prilukina
Pudozh Museum of History and Local Lore. A. F. Korableva
Medvezhyegorsk Regional Museum
Pitkyaranta Museum of Local Lore V. F. Sebina
Belomorsky Regional Museum of Local Lore "Belomorsky Petroglyphs"
Kemsky regional museum of local lore "Pomorie"
Kondopoga city museum of local lore
Cultural and Museum Center of Kostomuksha
Museum Center of Segezha
Kurkiekos Local History Center
Museum of Industrial History of Petrozavodsk (opened in 2011)

Private, departmental, enterprise museums
Center for Fire Propaganda and Public Relations under the Main Directorate of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia for the Republic of Karelia (Petrozavodsk)
Maritime Museum "Polar Odysseus" (opened on the territory of the Maritime Historical and Cultural Center, Petrozavodsk)
Children's Museum of Local Lore (Palace of Creativity of Children and Youth, Petrozavodsk)
Museum of the History of the Solomensky sawmill named after L. V. Serkina
Postal Museum
School Museum of Local Lore "Karelian Hut" of the Kotkozersky rural socio-cultural complex (Olonets district, Kotkozero village)
Museum of the History of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Karelia (Petrozavodsk)
Historical and demonstration hall of the Federal Security Service of Russia in the Republic of Karelia
Museum of Precambrian Geology of the Institute of Geology KarRC RAS

Musical Theater of the Republic of Karelia
National Theater of the Republic of Karelia
State Puppet Theater of the Republic of Karelia
Youth Theater "Creative Workshop"
Non-state author's theater "Ad Liberum"

In 1973, there were 16 cinemas in the Karelian ASSR. Today, out of 13 cities of the republic, cinemas operate only in Petrozavodsk (12 cinema halls), in Kostomuksha ("House of Youth and Cinema"), in Sortaval (cinema "Zarya"), in Segezha (cinema "Victory"), in Suoyarvi (cinema "Cosmos "). In Kondopoga, in the building of the cinema "October" there is a night club "Galaktika". In 2010, it was planned to reconstruct it. And in the building of the cinema "Mir" - one of the oldest buildings in the city - in 2011 it was planned to create a children's entertainment center with slot machines and a cinema.

In 2009, the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation developed a digital film screening program in cities with a population of less than 500 thousand people, new cinemas are being built in shopping centers.

Film production in Karelia is carried out only by the film studio "Karelfilm", located in Petrozavodsk.



In Karelia, in addition to public holidays celebrated in the Russian Federation, there are two republican ones:

June 8 - Republic Day, celebrated since 1999,
September 30 is the Day of the Liberation of Karelia from Nazi invaders, celebrated since 2009.


Mass media

In 1957, the Karelian branch of the Union of Journalists of the USSR (now the Karelian branch of the Union of Journalists of Russia) was organized. Over the years, the union was headed by F. A. Trofimov, A. I. Shtykov, K. V. Gnetnev, V. N. Kiryasov, V. A. Tolsky, N. N. Meshkova, A. M. Tsygankov. In 1960-1990. the creative work of the best republican journalists was marked by the annual award to them. K. S. Eremeeva. At present, every year on the eve of the Day of the Russian Journalist, the Union of Journalists of Karelia awards two special awards: “For skill and dignity” and “For openness to the press”.

"Karelia". Comes out three times a week. Founder: Legislative Assembly, government of the Republic of Karelia.
Weekly newspaper "TVR-Panorama". Founders: PetroPress Publishing House and Karelian television company Nika.
Weekly newspaper "Karelian province".
Weekly newspaper "Moskovsky Komsomolets in Karelia" Founder: CJSC "Editorial office of the newspaper "Moskovsky Komsomolets"".
Weekly newspaper "Komsomolskaya Pravda in Karelia" Founder: Publishing House "Komsomolskaya Pravda".
Weekly newspaper Arguments and Facts in Karelia. Founder: "Arguments and Facts".
Weekly newspaper "Youth newspaper of Karelia" Founder: JSC "Kondopoga" (Kondopoga Pulp and Paper Mill).
Weekly newspaper "Petrozavodsk University". Founder: Petrozavodsk State University.
"Lenin's Truth". Comes out twice a month. Founder: Karelian Republican Organization of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation.
The Voice is published twice a month. Founder: Association of Trade Union Organizations of Karelia.
"Lyceum" with an insert "My newspaper +". Comes out once a month. Founder: State Institution of the Republic of Karelia "Publishing House "Karelia"".
Newspaper "Karelian sport". Comes out once a month. Founder and Publisher: Majestic Publishing House.
Weekly advertisement newspapers: Medved, etc.

The Legislative Assembly, the government and the publishing house Periodika publish four newspapers in national languages:
the newspaper "Karjalan Sanomat" ("News of Karelia") in Finnish;
newspaper "Kodima" ("Native Land") in Vepsian and Russian.

together with the regional organization Union of the Karelian people:
the newspaper “Oma Mua” (“Native Land”) in the Livvik dialect of the Karelian language;
the newspaper "Vienan Karjala" ("White Sea Karelia") in the proper Karelian dialect of the Karelian language.

Newspapers are published in the regions of Karelia: Novosti Kostomuksha, Prionezhye, Olonia, Novaya Kondopoga, Belomorskaya Tribuna, Ladoga-Sortavala, Novosti Kalevala, Pudozhsky Vestnik, Suoyarvsky Vestnik, "Pripolyarye", "Soviet White Sea", "Novaya Ladoga", "MuezerskLes", "Call", "Our Life", "Trust", "Dialogue".

"Sever" is a monthly literary, artistic and socio-political magazine in Russian. Founder: government of Karelia.
"Carelia" ("Karelia") is a monthly literary and artistic magazine in Finnish, Karelian (Livvik and proper Karelian dialects), Vepsian languages. Founders: Ministry of National Policy and Relations with Religious Associations of Karelia, Ingermanland Union of Finns of Karelia, Union of the Karelian People, Society of Vepsian Culture, Periodika Publishing House.
Kipinä (Sparkle) is a monthly children's illustrated magazine in Finnish. Founders: Ministry of Education of Karelia and publishing house "Periodika".
"Industrial Bulletin of Karelia" is a periodical specialized magazine in Russian.

Nine radio stations are located in Petrozavodsk:

"Radio Karelia" (State television and radio broadcasting company "Karelia")
"Russian Radio on Onego"
"Radio Yunost Petrozavodsk". The radio station is part of the VGTRK holding
"Road Radio". Part of the Nika media holding
"Our radio". Part of the Nika media holding
"Europe plus Petrozavodsk"
"Retro Fm on Onego"
"Second wave"

Three radio stations broadcast in Kostomuksha:
FM radio station of Karelsky Okatysh JSC
"Local Radio"
Kostomuksha city radio editorial office "Radio Kostomuksha"

A television
On April 29, 1959, the television center and the Petrozavodsk television studio were put into operation.

Regional TV companies:
Branch of VGTRK GTRK Karelia
Autonomous institution of the Republic of Karelia RTK "Sampo"
"Nika" (LLC TS "NKM")
TNT-Onego (LLC RIA TV6 Moscow-Petronet)
The TV channel of the State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company of Karelia broadcasts news releases "Viestit - Karjala" in Finnish every day.

Internet publications
According to a sociological study of the regional media market conducted in October 2013, the largest share of the media of the Republic of Karelia in terms of the number of published materials belongs to online publications - 77.3%.

Official portal of state authorities of the Republic of Karelia
Online magazine "Republic"
Online newspaper "Karelia"
Online newspaper "Capital on Onego"
"Center for Political and Social Research"



The largest stadium in Karelia is Spartak in Petrozavodsk. It hosts games and trainings of the football team of the republic, the American football team; athletes are involved in the summer.

From 2013 to 2021 in the government of the Republic of Karelia, there was a ministry of sports (previously there was a committee on sports and youth affairs), in 2021 it was merged with the ministry of education.

Classic rally competitions and rally-raids are held in the Lahdenpokh region in summer. Onega sailing regatta is held on Lake Onega.

The traditional international boxing tournament named after P. Ya. Yatserov is held in Karelia.

Ice hockey is played in Karelia. In 1993-1994 the Pulse team from Petrozavodsk played in the second league of Russia, in 1994-1995. - in the major league of Russia, in 1997-1998. - in the second division of Finland; in 2001-2003 the Russhina-Karelia team played in the second league of the North-West of Russia, becoming the champion there twice; in 2012, the team from Kondopoga "VMF" played in the Higher Hockey League; since 2019 the team from Kondopoga plays in the National Youth Hockey League.

In 2019, the first state school of the Olympic reserve was opened in the city of Kondopoga, one of the main areas of study of which is Ice Hockey.

In 2019, a ski jump K-25 was opened in Sortavala. There is a rowing department in Sortaval as part of the Olympic Reserve Sports School, established in 2019.

Teams of the Sports School No. 7 of Petrozavodsk participate in Russian and international football competitions. Since 2021, SSH-7 has been participating in the competitions of the Youth Football League of the North-West of Russia.

Floorball teams of Karelia participate in Russian competitions.

In Karelia, there are tournaments on the folk game of kuyukka.

One of the most popular competitions in Karelia is the Republican Festival of Sports Games "Onega Starts" (in winter and summer sports); Russian championships in winter swimming and winter triathlon are held in Petrozavodsk.

Since 2016, there has been the Museum of the History of Karelian Sports in Petrozavodsk, located in the Kurgan sports complex. The exposition covers the period from 1918 to 2016.


The state border of the Russian Federation on the territory of the Republic

The total length of the Russian-Finnish state border is 798.089 km, including the land section - 661.1 km, the lake section - 101.89 km, the river section - 30.106 km and is marked with 738 boundary markers.

In 2003, the functions of the Federal Border Service were transferred to the FSB of Russia, under which the Border Service was created. In 2004, the Border Directorate of the FSB of Russia for the Republic of Karelia was formed as part of it.

The border department consists of 3 border detachments stationed in the cities of Kostomuksha (until 2012-2013 it was in the village of Kalevala), Sortavala and Suoyarvi.

In the control zone of the Border Directorate of the FSB of Russia in the Republic of Karelia there are international checkpoints:
automobile: "Vartsilya", "Lutta", "Suoperya"
railway: "Luttya", "Kivijärvi"
airport "Petrozavodsk"

There are five nominal border outposts on the territory of the republic:
"named after the Hero of the Soviet Union I. T. Dotsenko",
"named after the Hero of the Soviet Union Kaimanov N. F.",
"named after Senior Lieutenant Shmagrin M. T.",
"named after Sergeant Busalov A. F.",
"named after I. M. Petrov (Toivo Vyahya)".


Armed Forces of the Russian Federation on the territory of the Republic

Parts of the Western Military District of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation are deployed on the territory of the Republic.

In Petrozavodsk are located:
10th artillery base of weapons (Tomitsy, "First Town");
75th military car repair plant;
The 40th Topographic and Geodetic Detachment (military unit 42396, Pervomaisky Prospekt, 74), was formed on the basis of the 75th Military Automobile Repair Plant.

The 30th base for storing weapons and equipment (motorized rifle brigade) / 30th motorized rifle brigade (Petrozavodsk) located in the city was disbanded on June 1, 2002.

Included in the 1st Air Force and Air Defense Command (and until 2009 in the 6th Army of the Air Force and Air Defense):
159th Guards Novorossiysk Fighter Aviation Regiment (6961st air base, Besovets (Petrozavodsk-15); armed with Su-27, Su-27UB, SU-35 fighters;
170th Guards Radio Engineering Brigade Sands (Petrozavodsk).

The Russian-Finnish border is guarded by the Border Service of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation. Aviation of the FSB of Russia is based on the airfield "Besovets".



The Ministry of Internal Affairs in the Republic of Karelia is part of the system of internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation and is subordinate to the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia.

The Minister of Internal Affairs for the Republic of Karelia is appointed by decree of the President of the Russian Federation.

The structure of the internal affairs bodies of the Republic of Karelia includes:
Ministry of Internal Affairs for the Republic of Karelia;
18 territorial subdivisions:
Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the city of Petrozavodsk;
Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the Kondopoga region;
Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the Medvezhyegorsk region;
Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the Prionezhsky district;
Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the Pudozhsky district;
Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the Olonetsky district;
Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the Segezha region;
Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the Belomorsky district;
Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the Kalevalsky district;
Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the Kemsky district;
Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia in the city of Kostomuksha;
Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the Lahdenpohsky district;
Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the Loukhsky district;
Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the Muezersky district;
Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the Pitkyaranta region;
Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the Pryazha district;
Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the Sortavalsky district;
Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the Suojärvi district.
Petrozavodsk linear department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia on transport.
The day of the creation of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the Republic of Karelia is September 5, 1923.


Penitentiary system

On the territory of the Republic of Karelia, the Federal Penitentiary Service is responsible for:
3 penal colonies:
institution "Correctional Colony No. 1 of the Department of the Federal Penitentiary Service for the Republic of Karelia" in the village of Nadvoitsy
institution "Correctional colony No. 7 UFSIN in the Republic of Karelia" in Segezha
institution "Correctional Colony No. 9 of the Department of the Federal Penitentiary Service for the Republic of Karelia" in Petrozavodsk
medical correctional institutions:
medical institution "Republican Hospital No. 2 UFSIN in the Republic of Karelia" in Medvezhyegorsk
"Medical correctional institution No. 4 UFSIN in the Republic of Karelia" in the Segezha district (Verkhniy village)
2 pre-trial detention centers:
institution "Detention Facility No. 1 of the Federal Penitentiary Service for the Republic of Karelia" in Petrozavodsk
institution "Detention Facility No. 2 of the Federal Penitentiary Service for the Republic of Karelia" in Segezha
institution "Criminal Inspectorate of the Federal Penitentiary Service for the Republic of Karelia"