Northwestern Russia


The north-west of Russia is located in the beautiful and harsh taiga regions. More than a quarter of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Russia are located in the northwestern region. The territory of the region and the population make up about 10% of the corresponding indicators of the country. Administratively, the region practically coincides with the Northwestern Federal District of Russia (the Kaliningrad region is not included in it).


Saint Petersburg is the northern capital and the surrounding satellite cities that are part of a single municipality, many of which, together with St. Petersburg, have historical significance. Of the latter, Kolpino, Kronstadt, Peterhof, Pushkin, Sestroretsk, Zelenogorsk, Lomonosov and Pavlovsk should be singled out.


Arkhangelsk Oblast

Vologda Oblast

Kaliningrad Oblast

Republic of Karelia

Komi Republic

Leningrad Oblast

Murmansk Oblast

Nenets Autonomous Okrug

Novgorod Oblast

Pskov Oblast



Mostly Russian. There are also speakers of Finno-Ugric languages ​​(Karelians, Komi, Vepsians, etc.)


How to get there

The main airport in the North-West of Russia is Pulkovo (St. Petersburg). There are also large airports in Murmansk (Murmashi), Arkhangelsk (Talagi), Naryan-Mar, Vologda and Cherepovets, Syktyvkar, Pskov (Crosses). The only regional center of the North-West that does not have an airport is Veliky Novgorod. In Soviet times, this airport existed (Yuryevo), then disappeared. St. Petersburg is also the largest railway junction in the region.


Geography and climate

Most of the Northwestern Federal District is located in the European North. The climate is temperate and subarctic. The air has high humidity. A small amount of precipitation falls, but due to low evaporation, they contribute to the formation of a large number of swamps, lakes and rivers. An important climate-forming factor is the washing by the seas of the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, which is why the climate is characterized by relatively warm winters and cool summers in the north-west of the district, and severe winters and relatively short but warm summers in the north. The climate of the federal district is favorable.

The territory of the district is predominantly flat, located in the zone of mixed forests, taiga, forest-tundra and tundra. About 50% of the forest resources of the European part of Russia are concentrated in the district.

Full-flowing rivers flow on the territory of the district, part of the lowland rivers is of navigable value. The largest rivers are the Northern Dvina with its tributaries the Vychegda and Sukhona, as well as the Pechora. Also on the territory of the Northwestern Federal District, mainly in the western part, there are numerous lakes, including the largest lakes in Europe - Ladoga and Onega. The Northwestern Federal District has almost half of the water resources of the European part of Russia.

In the south, the Northwestern Federal District borders on the Volga Federal District and the Central Federal District, and in the east, on the Urals Federal District. The district has access to the Baltic, White, Barents, Kara seas.

The Northwestern Federal District occupies an advantageous geopolitical position - it borders on Finland, Norway, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus.

One of the subjects of the district (Kaliningrad region) is an exclave that does not have a land border with other subjects and the main territory of Russia (although it has one with other states).



The Northwestern Federal District unites 3 economic regions: Kaliningradsky, Northern and Northwestern.

The main oil and coal production is concentrated in the Komi Republic. Usinskoye and Vozeyskoye fields provide about 88% of oil production in the region. The main gas production falls on the Vuktylskoye field, which provides 90% of the federal district's gas. Oil and gas reserves are available in the Kaliningrad region, as well as in the shelf zone of the Barents and Kara Seas.


Industry and agriculture

The main branches of industry and agriculture of the district:
mechanical engineering, including radio electronics, instrument making, shipbuilding
fuel and energy complex (extraction of oil, gas, coal, shale, power generation)
harvesting and processing of wood
ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy
food and light industry
production of building materials
fishing and fish processing
electric power industry
transport and logistic

The machine-building complex of the federal district includes instrument and machine tool building, electrical engineering and the production of a wide range of equipment for agriculture, shipbuilding and defense engineering. Assembly plants of such major automobile brands as BMW, Ford, Nissan, Toyota, Infiniti are located in the district. The Northwestern Federal District ranks first in Russia in the construction of sea and river vessels.

The largest enterprises of the Northwestern Federal District: OJSC Severstal, OJSC Power Machines, OJSC United Shipbuilding Corporation, OJSC Ilim-Pulp, OJSC Yantarenergo, OJSC Apatit, Kola Mining and Metallurgical Company, OJSC Sevkabel.

Valuable fish are caught in the Barents Sea: cod, herring, sea bass, etc. Fish processing is carried out by fish processing plants in Murmansk, St. Petersburg and Kaliningrad.

The power industry of the district includes two nuclear power plants - Leningrad and Kola, large thermal power plants, hydroelectric power plants and many small power plants and boiler houses.



The transport system of the district is highly developed, which includes all types of transport: sea, river, rail, air, road and pipeline.

The largest ports of Russia are located in the district - Ust-Luga, St. Petersburg, Murmansk and Primorsk. The Murmansk port is mainly associated with the transportation of energy resources, both from Russia and from other countries, in particular Norway, along the Northern Sea Route.

A large railway junction is the capital of the district - St. Petersburg, from which the main lines to Kaliningrad, Moscow, Helsinki, Minsk, Kiev and many other cities originate, providing foreign economic relations with other federal districts of Russia and other countries.