Komi Republic, Russia

The Komi Republic is a subject of the Russian Federation, a republic within it. It is included in the Northwestern Federal District, is part of the Northern Economic Region. Geographically located in the north-east of the European part of Russia.

The capital is the city of Syktyvkar.

Formed on August 22, 1921 as the Autonomous Region of Komi (Zyryan), in 1936 it was transformed into a republic.

Official languages: Komi and Russian.






Other destinations

Pechora-Ilych Nature Reserve

Yugyd Va National Park


Physical and geographical characteristics

Geographical position

The Republic is located in the north-east of the European part of the Russian Federation, within the Pechora and Mezen-Vychegoda lowlands, the Middle and Southern Timan, the western slopes of the Ural Mountains (Northern, Subpolar and Polar Urals).

The territory of the republic extends from Northern Uvalov in the south to Pai-Khoi in the northeast (between 59°12' and 68°25' north latitude), from the Pinego-Mezen interfluve in the west to the watershed of the Pechora and Ob river basins, passing along the Ural Range in the east (between 45°25' and 66°10' E). The area of the region is 416,774 km² (slightly smaller than Sweden), the population is 813,590 inhabitants. The greatest length from northeast to southwest is 1275 km, from east to west - 695 km, from north to south - 785 km. In terms of territory, it ranks 11th in Russia and 2nd in its European part, second only to the Arkhangelsk region, and is also the largest subject in European Russia without access to the sea.

It borders with the Tyumen region (namely, with its constituent Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (northeast, east), Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug (southeast, south)), Sverdlovsk region (south), Perm Territory (south) , Kirov region (south, southwest, west), Arkhangelsk region (including the Nenets Autonomous Okrug; northwest, north, northeast).



Since 1992, Moscow time has been in effect in the Komi Republic; offset from UTC is +3:00. However, most of the republic is located in the UTC + 4 geographic time zone and the possibility of switching to Samara time (UTC + 4, Moscow + 1) or UTC + 5 (MSK + 2) is periodically discussed.



Most of the territory has a temperate continental climate. There are significant differences in the climatic characteristics of the southern and northern regions. The average annual temperature in the south is 0–1 °C, in the extreme northeast from –4 to –6 °C. Winter is long, severe; summers are short but relatively warm.

Average January temperature: from -20 °С in the northeast to -17 °С in the southwest.
Average temperature in July: from 11°C in the northeast to 15°C in the southwest.
Average annual precipitation: from 400-450 mm in the north to 600 mm in the south, on the western slopes of the Urals - up to 1000 mm, within the Timan Ridge - 700 mm. About 70% of precipitation occurs in summer.
Stable snow cover: in the south it lasts about 160 days; in the north - up to 205 days a year or more.
The duration of the frost-free period: from 60 days in the north to 100 days in the south.
Vegetation period: from 100 days in the north (60–70 days in mountainous areas) to 150 days in the south.
The territory of the Komi Republic is located in the northeast of the East European Platform, composed of sedimentary rocks of the Upper Proterozoic, Paleozoic and Meso-Cenozoic platform cover, overlying the basement rocks of the Archean and Lower Proterozoic age. Large tectonic structures stand out here: folded structures - the Timan ridge and the Ural Mountains, the Pechora syneclise (Pechora plate) located between them and the northern part of the Russian plate. The Timan Ridge, which separates the Russian and Pechora plates, is the largest orographically pronounced structure that crosses the territory of the Komi Republic from northwest to southeast. The ridge is formed by a complex of rocks that form a folded basement of the Riphean age and a Phanerozoic platform cover at the base.


Geological monuments

In the Komi Republic, geological monuments began to be identified in 1973. In 2008, 95 natural monuments were established in the republic. Among them:
The ruins of the ancient city on the plateau of Mount Torre Porre Iz;
The karst log of Jordansky on the right bank of the Malaya Pechora River, 16 km above the confluence of the Bolshoi Shezhim (discovered in 1926 by the geologist N. N. Iordansky);
"Upper Gate" on the Bolshaya Synya River (located 55 km above the railway bridge);
"Ring" on the Sharyu River (30 km from Usinsk, "Window to the Usinsk oil");
Kaninskaya Cave, 47 km upstream of the mouth of the Unya River on the right bank of the Pechora;
Unya Cave, 110 km from the mouth of the Unya River;
ice cave;
Tufovaya Cave;
Bear Cave in the Jordan Log (where one of the northernmost sites of Paleolithic man and the largest location of the Pleistocene fauna in the north of Europe - the bones of a mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, cave bear, tiger) were found.


Applicants for the title of Seven Wonders of Russia

In 2007-2008, the Seven Wonders of Russia competition was held in Russia. From the Republic of Komi, several attractions participated in the competition.

Bogatyr-Shchelye is a rock, a geological monument located on the Bolshaya Synya River, 25 km above the Synya state farm, Pechora City Council.
Shchugor, reserved river. "Upper Gate" (located 73 km from the mouth of the river), "Middle Gate" (9 km below the "Upper Gate"), "Lower Gate" (the most picturesque outcrop among the Shchugor "gates" is located 22 km from the mouth, right shore) and the Veldor-Kyrta-Yel waterfall in the rocks of the right bank of the Upper Gate, geological monuments, Vuktyl City Council.
Lyokiz is a group of rocks, a geological monument located on the right bank of the Ilych River, 4 km below the B. Sotchemyol stream, Pechoro-Ilychsky Reserve, Troitsko-Pechorsky District.
Weathering pillars on the Man-Pupu-Ner plateau is a geological monument located between the Ichotlyaga and Pechora rivers, Troitsko-Pechora region, Northern Urals. Weathering pillars are one of the winners of the Seven Wonders of Russia competition.
City of Inta. Kozhimsky and Syvyussky geological monuments, "Stone woman", rock "Reef", rock "Monk", "Kayuk-Nyrd", "Nortnicha-fir", cedar monument "Vadcharty" - natural monuments on the river Kozhim, Inta City Council.
The ancient village of Yb on seven hills (located 50 km south of Syktyvkar), where there are exposures of the Jurassic period on the banks of the Sysola. This geological monument has been known for a long time. Locals find fossils here - for example, belemnites, nicknamed "devil's fingers" (in Komi - gul chun, in the old days they were used as talc and antiseptic). In recent years, due to hot and dry summers and low water levels in Sysol, finds of fossils of prehistoric animals - ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs (discovered by KSPI professor B. Malkov in 2003) - have become systemic, not accidental.



The first information about earthquakes that took place in the European North is recorded in the "Dvina chronicler", which mentions "a terrible coward" that took place on the Dvina "... in 139 (1627) Maya on the 20th day ... at the fifth hour of the night." “And many people saw the shaking of the Earth from people, and other people were sleeping at that time, and God had mercy on people from that coward.”

In 1914-1915, seismic stations recorded earthquakes, the epicenters of which were located on the Pechora River near Mutny Continent and Krasnobor.

On Sysol, an earthquake occurred on January 13, 1939 at about 17:00. It was felt by the inhabitants of many settlements (Yba, Nyuchpasa, Pyeldina, Pustosha). This earthquake manifested itself most strongly in Chukayb, where, according to the local teacher P.V. Kondratiev, “... the force of the shocks was so great that in many houses the doors opened and slammed and cracks formed in the stoves.” According to the residents of Nyuchpas, chimneys fell in a number of houses in the village. (Information was contained in an article on the earthquake in the Urals and in the Urals, published in the proceedings of the Seismological Institute in 1940).

In 1985, scientists from the Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the Komi branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR made an attempt to study the features of this earthquake. Letters were sent to the regions of the Komi ASSR adjacent to the earthquake zone with a request to help find old-timers who would remember this. Based on this information, it was possible to fix the position of the epicenter and calculate the estimated depth of the earthquake source (which turned out to be 7 km). The Sysolsky earthquake (Nyuchpas) turned out to be quite strong - its intensity reached 7 points in the area of \u200b\u200bthe village of Nyuchpas.

5-point fluctuations were felt in Shoshka, Nyuvchim, Yba, Vizing, Kuratov, Kozhim.

In addition to the one that took place on Sysol, on the same day (January 13, 1939), a 6-7-point earthquake was recorded by instrumental methods on the Middle Timan, "... in the fault zone stretching from the northern extremity of the Vymskaya Ridge to the Vychegda River."




Plain, mountain, lake, marsh, karst rivers flow through the territory of the Komi Republic (according to the conditions for the formation of the regime); large, medium and small (in size).

Most of the territory is occupied by the basins of lowland rivers: Vychegda, Mezen, Vashki, left-bank and tundra tributaries of the Pechora and Mustache rivers.

Major rivers
Pechora, the area of the basin within the borders of the republic is 300 thousand square meters. km.;

Typical mountain rivers are the right tributaries of the Pechora River - Unya, Ilych, Podcherem, Shchugor.

There are few rivers with a typical lake regime in the Komi Republic. These include Tansy, originating from Lake Yamozero; Adzva flowing from the Vashutkin lakes; Vis, the source of which is Lake Sindor.

Karst rivers are more widespread. These include rivers flowing from the Timan Ridge, the Lemyu Upland. These are the upper tributaries of the rivers Vychegda, Vym, Mezen, Izhma, left-bank tributaries of the Pechora.

Since ancient times, the rivers of the region have played an extremely important role in the development of the Pechora Territory and adjacent areas. On the territory of the Komi ("Perm" and "Pechora") passed "the great Novgorod through the stone (through the Polar Urals) way to Yugra." This path, starting from the Ustyug, went up and along the tributary of the Vychegda, the Vym, rose to the portage connecting the upper reaches of the Vym with the Ukhta River, a tributary of the Izhma, which flows into the Pechora. Further, by the right tributary of the Pechora, the Usoy, and its tributary, the Sob, it was possible to approach the upper reaches of the other Sob, which flows into the Ob.

In 1786, the construction of the North Ekaterininsky Canal began (connecting the Severnaya Keltma River - a tributary of the Vychegda - with the Dzhurich River - a tributary of the South Keltma, which flows into the Kama) and in 1822 the construction was completed. In 1837, the canal was closed due to silting and overgrowing. For the first time, sterlet entered the Vychegda basin through the canal from the Kama. And the red burnt bricks (very strong), with which the banks of the canal were lined, were used by the local population (in the 1920s - 1950s) for the construction of furnaces and other household needs.

Since 1960, a project was being developed to transfer the flow of the Vychegda and Pechora to the Volga basin, according to which it was supposed to build a dam on the Pechora near Ust-Voya, raise the water level by 125 meters and send water to Vychegda through the canal between North and South Mylva; on Vychegda below Ust-Kulom, it was planned to build a dam 34 meters high, create the Pechora-Vychegodsk reservoir with an area of 15 thousand km² and send water to the Kama through the North Ekaterininsky Canal. If this option, which provided for a complete turn of the Pechora into the Kama basin, were implemented, the Pechora would cease to exist, instead of it the Usa would remain with a small southern tributary-offshoot.

On March 23, 1971, an underground nuclear explosion was carried out (three charges of 5 kilotons; according to the Taiga project) in the Cherdynsky district of the Perm region, 100 km north of the city of Krasnovishersk (on the border of the Komi ASSR), which had the purpose of excavating the connection of the Pechora River with the Berezovka River .

In 1986, the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a resolution on the termination of work on the transfer of the waters of the northern rivers to the south.



There are more than 78 thousand lakes on the territory of the Komi Republic. The total area is about 4.5 thousand km². 98% have a mirror area up to 0.5 km². They are divided according to landscape features: into tundra, mountain, taiga, floodplain; by origin: glacial, karst, peat, relict. The dimensions of the taiga relict lakes are the largest, but the depth is insignificant; in the mountains - a significant depth (up to 50 m) with a small surface area (0.2-1-2 km²).

Lake Donty (Don), floodplain, relic, area - 4.6 km², length - approx. 20 km, depth - 2 m (1948) and 1.5 m (1975). Located in the basin of the Kulemyu and Vychegda rivers, 7 km southeast of the village of Don, Ust-Kulomsky district. The bottom of the Donta is covered with thick deposits of sapropel and peaty silt. The lake is a remnant of an Ice Age reservoir, gradually drained by the Vychegda River after the end of the Great Glaciation. The swamps adjacent to the lake (Donty, etc.) show that once the lake was simply huge and had rounded shapes. The lake is connected to the Kulom-Yu River by the Donvis Canal dug 160 years ago.
Lake Kadomskoe, length about 4 km, width about 3.5 km. Located on the right bank of the Vychegda, 7 km north of the mouth of the Severnaya Keltma River, it is a remnant of an ancient large near-glacial reservoir, Ust-Kulomsky district. The ichthyofauna is represented by perch, crucian carp, pike, and roach. Lakes Don and Kadam are proposed to be included in the list of "7 Wonders of the Komi Republic".
Lake Vad, located 5 km northeast of the village of Isanevo, Sysolsky district. The lake is round in shape (360 × 430 m), in the 1970s, ichthyologists launched a peled fry into the lake, which took root well in the lake, which indicates the purity of the water of this reservoir.
Lake Dodzskoye, located near the village of Dodz, Kortkerossky district.
Lake Veyakoty. Usinsky district, 49 km east of the mouth of the river. I'm crying. Length - 3 km, width - 600 m, lake area - 6.3 km². Sewage, through the river Veyakotyvis connects with the river. Rogozina. It has fishery importance.
Lake Vadybty, located in the Sysolsky district, in the bass. the Sysola River, near the village of Vadyb. The lake is rounded (500×400 m), the maximum depth is 15 m. Pike, crucian carp, roach, perch, ide prevail. Monument of nature (dated 11/30/1978).
Lake Smolnoye, floodplain.

Big lakes
Yam lake, relic type, area - 31.1 km², average depth 1.7 m. Located in the upper reaches of the Northern Timan, Chetlas stone, Ust-Tsilemsky district (very difficult for wildlife lovers). The Black River flows into the lake, Pechora Tansy flows out.
Sindor, taiga, relict lake, length approx. 12 km, width - 2-4 km, area - 28.5 km², average depth - 1.5 m. It is located in the Vym River basin, 13 km southeast of the Sindor railway station, Knyazhpogostsky district. It is a remnant of a vast ancient reservoir, rich in organic matter, the lake is inhabited by: perch, roach, ruff, pike, ide, crucian carp, burbot.


Mountain lakes

Mountain lakes are mainly of the glacial type (moraine, cirque), located in the mountainous regions of the Urals. Food - snow, snowfield. Water is slightly mineralized, transparent, colorless. Karovye lakes are distinguished by their high location (above 800 m), great depth (more than 20 m), rounded shape, stony shores almost devoid of vegetation, and the absence of fish. In the trough valleys there are many dammed lakes formed as a result of the damming of the moraine river. These lakes are characterized by an oblong shape, significant depths (up to 30 m), location below 800 m, the presence of vegetation along the banks and an abundance of fish.

Lake Telpos, one of the highland lakes of the Northern Urals, is located in the square of the northern slope of Mount Telposiz at an altitude of 1081 m. 5 m. The greenish water of Telpos is exceptionally clean, transparent, at a depth of 9 m the rocky bottom is clearly visible.
Lake Goluboe, glacial, lies at the bottom of a vast cara that separates the peaks of Karpinsky and Narodnaya at an altitude of 1139.1 m (Polar Urals). The lake is elongated (length - 1.7 km, width - 400 m, depth - up to 28 m), the water is very clean, transparent, slightly mineralized. The shores are rocky, devoid of vegetation, only mosses and sedges grow on the eastern sloping shore.
Lake Superior Bolbanty and the upper lake. Upper Balbanty (at an altitude of 1007.2 m) is dammed by moraine (huge boulders the size of a bus). The lakes are located in the square of the mountains of the Subpolar Urals (3 km north of Mount Naroda), Inta City Council. The Bolbanyu River originates from Lake Superior Bolbanty (along the eastern source of this river is the Bolbanyu botanical monument - Permian anemone, Lapland poppy, golden root, etc.).
Lake Maloe Balbanty is located at an altitude of 687.6 m, at the bottom of the deep trough valley of the Balbanyu River between the Maldynyrd ridges in the west and Karpinner-Irkusey in the east. The length of the lake is 1.24 km, the width is 0.47 km, the shores are low, swampy in places, overgrown with bushes of polar birch and willow.
Lake Big Balbanty is located 7 km below the lake. M. Balbanty at an altitude of 654.9 m, dammed by a glacial moraine. The greatest length of this lake is 2 km, width - up to 0.7 km, average depth - 19 m. Both reservoirs (M. and B. Balbanty) are rich in grayling, burbot, lake char is caught.
Lake Long, moraine - the bottom of a through valley that cuts through the Torgoveyiz ridge, at an altitude of 612 m (length - 1.49 km, width - 0.4 km, average depth - 14 m), is famous for grayling.
Lake Torgovoe is the largest in terms of area and volume of water in the Subpolar Urals. It is located in a vast circus on the southwestern slope of the Keftylyk peak at an altitude of 721.7 m, it is the source of the Torgovaya River. The lake is dammed by moraine (length - 2.2 km, maximum width - 0.8 km, area - approx. 1 km²). Torgovoe is the deepest of the dam lakes in the Subpolar Urals (28 m). In its clear greenish water at a depth of 8 m, the bottom is clearly visible. It is rich in valuable species of fish (grayling, whitefish, peled, trout). The Nenets name of Torgovaya is Menyailava, meaning “a place of ordinary exchange”.



Marshes in the Komi Republic cover an area of 3.2 million hectares (7.7% of the territory). They are independent ecosystems that affect the surrounding landscape. Wetlands change groundwater levels, accumulate moisture, and purify polluted waters. Each natural subzone corresponds to a certain type of swamp. The main types of swamps found on the territory of the republic are: hilly (tundra, forest-tundra), aapa-bogs (basin of the middle reaches of the Pechora River), upland sphagnum, transitional (mesotrophic) sphagnum and floodplain lowlands.

In the Komi Republic, swamps, after reclamation work, are used for sowing grasses, cultivating vegetables and potatoes, as natural hayfields and pastures, and also for extracting peat for fertilizer.

Wetlands are used as natural resources in their natural state to collect medicinal plants (ledum, watch, sundew, etc.), moss, berries (cranberries, blueberries, cloudberries, etc.).

The most typical bogs with their characteristic flora and fauna, various bog complexes and unique ones, with rare species of plants and birds, have been preserved in their natural state. Since 1978, 113 swamps have been declared reserves and natural monuments, of which 17 have been identified as standards for various natural landscapes, the rest are cranberry. The total area of protected wetlands is 0.5 million hectares (17.3%).

The swamps are also a habitat for birds (white partridge, black grouse, goose, duck, sandpiper; from the "Red Book" - gray crane, white-tailed eagle, whooper swan) and animals (elk, deer).


The largest swamps

Ocean, area - 178,975 hectares, the largest in Europe. This unique swamp, which captures part of the Izhemsky and Ust-Tsilemsky districts of Komi, is very difficult to access and has not yet been fully explored.
Usinskoye, located 7.5 km from the village of Ust-Lyzha, area - 139,190 hectares, sphagnum, riding type, thickness - 4-5 meters, the largest peat bog in Europe. There are about 860 lakes here. Protected as a natural monument (since 1978).
Dzernyur, area - 32,228 hectares, deposits are composed of sphagnum peat, riding type, thickness - up to 5 meters.
Tibyunur, area - 60,042 hectares.
Martyushevskoye, area - 9285 ha, thickness of peat deposits - 7.8 m. The Martyushevskoye Swamp Reserve is important for birds on an international scale and is included in the shadow list of the Ramsar Convention.


Flora and fauna


The vegetation cover of the republic is distinguished by great originality and diversity. In its distribution on the plains, zonal changes are clearly visible, and in the mountains of the Urals, altitudinal zonality. The extreme northeast of the Republic of Komi is occupied by tundra, to the south there is a narrow strip of forest tundra, changing to the south by vast forest spaces. The zone of tundra vegetation accounts for about 2% of the area of the Republic, forest-tundra - about 8.1%, taiga - about 89%, meadow - less than 1%.

A characteristic feature of the tundra is associated with the absence of tree vegetation: the vegetation cover consists of mosses, lichens, perennial herbaceous plants, shrubs and low shrubs, dwarf birch (Betula nana), polar willow, wild rosemary predominate. The vegetation of the forest-tundra, which occupies the north of the republic, is of a transitional nature: along with tundra vegetation, there are Siberian spruce, downy birch, and Siberian larch. The forest-tundra gradually turns into sparse forests, then into the taiga. The predominant species in the forest zone are: Siberian spruce, Scotch pine, downy birch, warty birch, aspen, gray alder. From other species stand out: Siberian fir, Siberian larch, Siberian cedar, the forest-forming role of which increases as we approach the Urals. Many forests are mixed. In the southern part of the republic (subzones of the middle and southern taiga), in places with fertile soils, mainly in the undergrowth or in individual small trees and curtains, occasionally there are: small-leaved linden, smooth elm and rough elm.

The forest in the republic is the main nature-forming factor and provides various types of useful products. Tundra forests, forest areas of watersheds and protective belts along rivers are of particular biospheric climate-regulating importance. In the republic there are separate massifs of primary dark coniferous forests, formed several million years ago. They include not only unique forest stands, but also medicinal, ornamental and other dwarf and herbaceous plants subject to protection.

The total area of the forest fund is 39 million hectares, including 29.7 million hectares covered with forests, of which 28.6 million hectares are under the jurisdiction of the Federal Forestry Service. The remaining areas are mainly part of the Pechoro-Ilychsky Reserve and state farm forests.

The total timber stock is about 2.8 billion m³. However, a significant part of it cannot be considered as operational, as it falls on the tundra forests, young forests and various protected areas.



The forest area in the Komi Republic is 94% 389 thousand km² 38.9 million hectares.

In the Northern Urals, 32,800 km² are covered with virgin forests. A unique territory is the Pechoro-Ilychsky Reserve.

Such virgin forests, not affected by human activity and technogenic impact, have not been preserved in Europe.

In 1985, the reserve was included in the list of biosphere reserves.

Ten years later, by decision of UNESCO, the Pechoro-Ilychsky Reserve with protected and buffer zones and the Yugyd Va National Park, united under the common name "Virgin Komi Forests", were included in the list of World Cultural and Natural Heritage sites.

The Yugyd Va National Park is located in the Northern and Subpolar Urals in the southeast of the Komi Republic. In the south it borders on the Pechoro-Ilychsky Reserve.

Animal world
Currently, about 4400 living species are known in the fauna of the Komi Republic, representatives of 31 classes of 10 types of animals.

Including more than 50 species new to science: nematodes, oligochaetes and dipterous insects in the Pechora and Vychegda basins. The fauna of aquatic animals has a heterogeneous character, reflecting the historical events of the Quaternary period.

In the Cis-Urals, complexes of its relatively older elements, which were formed during the retreat of the maximum glaciation, were discovered. Fauna of aquatic animals of the river. Mustache and r. The Vychegda in the area of the extended valley of the ancient runoff (the territory of the Ust-Kuloma region) has a relict character and was formed during the Vyurm glaciation (Zvereva, 1969).

Separate groups of fauna of aquatic animals (oligochaetes, mollusks, etc.) pp. Vychegdy and Kamy are very similar in composition. It is assumed that the Vychegda fauna is enriched by the arrival of representatives of the Volga fauna through the North Ekaterininsky Canal connecting Vychegda and Kama.

The group of cyclostomes is represented by 2 species of lampreys: European river and Siberian. They are found in the basins of the Vychegda, Mezen and Pechora.

Bony fish are represented in the rivers and lakes of the Komi Republic by 8 orders, 12 families, 47 species. In the Pechora basin, Siberian species predominate, in other basins there are more species penetrating from the south. The relics of the Ice Age include: char-char, Siberian grayling, peled of some mountain lakes and vendace of the Lemvinsky lakes. Taimen is a rare species with a limited range; to the Red Book - sculpin. In the 1960s and 1970s, the white-eye, rudd, sabrefish, pike perch entered the Vychegda basin from the Kama.

The class of birds is represented by 239 species, 44 families, 17 orders.

The following are included in the Red Books: gyrfalcon, peregrine falcon, golden eagle, white-tailed eagle, osprey, red-throated goose, lesser white-fronted goose and lesser (tundra) swan. In addition, the whooper swan, all birds of prey, owls, gray cranes, curlews, nightingales, etc. are protected. mainly woodcock, great snipe, snipe).

The class of mammals is represented by 57 species, 17 families, 6 orders.

Chiroptera (5 rare species): water, whiskered and pond bats, long-eared bats and northern bats. The latter was noted near the village of Kanava, in the upper reaches of the Pechora, on the river. Ilych and B. Son.

Of the insectivores (8 species), the European mole, shrews (shrews) and the common shrew are common.

Rodents (22 species) are the most widely represented order. It includes small rodents (voles, mice, rats) with high abundance and wide distribution. Many of the rodents are valuable commercial species: common squirrel, river beaver, muskrat. The object of fur farming is nutria.

Carnivores are represented by 16 species of wild animals, most of them valuable commercial species: sable, pine marten, European and American mink, ermine, river otter, common fox, arctic fox and other objects of fur farming (blue fox). The wolverine is found in the north.

Artiodactyls (4 species): common elk, reindeer, rarely roe deer. In the 1980s, the wild boar settled in the republic, penetrating north up to the Udorsky, Ukhta and Troitsko-Pechora regions.

The change in the mammalian fauna is currently occurring mainly due to anthropogenic impact. A number of species have been acclimatized: the muskrat was released into the Pechora basin in 1931; raccoon dog - in 1954, 101 individuals were released in the Storozhevsky and Ust-Kulomsky districts. The river beaver has been reacclimatized on the territory of the republic. In 1976, the American mink, acclimatized in Western Siberia, was recorded for the first time; its natural distribution continues in the basins of the Pechora and Letka.



It is not known exactly when the Russians first became acquainted with the lands of Komi, located in the basins of the Pechora and Vychegda. But in the XII century, merchants from Veliky Novgorod and the Suzdal-Rostov Principality constantly came there. In the Middle Ages, the Komi lands were part of the possessions of the Novgorod Republic, at the end of the 15th century they were transferred to the Moscow principality. The most important commodity exported outside the territory was furs. Due to the harsh climate and the lack of year-round communications, the territory remained sparsely populated for a long time, although as early as the middle of the 18th century, artisanal oil production began in the area of the Ukhta River. The locals are called Komi.

The industrial development of Komi and the increase in the population of the republic in the 1930s-1950s is associated with the activities of the Gulag and its subdivisions (Ukhtpechlag and others). In the early 1930s, large reserves of coal were explored in Komi, which began to be mined during the Great Patriotic War to compensate for the loss of Donbass. At the same time, for the export of coal, oil and timber, the Ukhta-Pechora-Inta-Vorkuta railway was laid by the prisoners (1942).

July 22 - August 1, 1953 in Vorkuta, the Vorkuta uprising of prisoners in the Special Camp No. 6 "Rechlag" took place. In the late 1950s, the Gulag system was abolished, but a large number of places of deprivation of liberty in Komi still exist.

With the collapse of the USSR, the Komi industry experienced a crisis, which led to a large outflow of the population from the republic (during 1990-2007, the number of Komi residents decreased by 22%).

On August 29, 1990, the Declaration of Sovereignty and the new name Komi Soviet Socialist Republic were adopted. At that time, the state emblem was depicted on official letterheads with the new name "Komi SSR", the flag remained the same. On May 26, 1992, the name of the national state changed to the Republic of Komi. In the declaration and other documents of that period, the republic was proclaimed a sovereign nation-state. At the same time, the question of complete state independence and secession from the RSFSR, as a rule, was not raised; relations with the federal center were supposed to be settled in the future by concluding agreements with it. In 2001, the Supreme Legislative Body of the Komi Republic announced that the declaration of state sovereignty of this subject of the Federation had become invalid. The deputies of the State Council of Komi made this decision following the consideration of the protest of the prosecutor of the republic, based on the conclusion of the Supreme Court of Russia.

The most important date in the history of the modern Komi Republic
On August 22, 1921, an autonomous region was formed as part of the RSFSR - the Autonomous Region of Komi (Zyryan);
December 5, 1936 was transformed into an autonomous republic within the RSFSR - Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic;
May 24, 1991 was transformed into a republic within the RSFSR - Komi SSR;
January 12, 1993 - Komi SSR was transformed into the Republic of Komi;
February 17, 1994 - the Constitution of the Komi Republic was adopted;
May 8, 1994 - the first election of the Head of the Komi Republic;
June 6, 1994 - the state symbols of the Komi Republic were approved: coat of arms, flag and anthem.

History of administrative-territorial transformations
In the 18th century, provinces, which were divided into counties, became the main administrative units. The Pechora Territory was part of the Arkhangelsk Governorate as part of three counties - Yarensky, Solvychegodsky and Pustozersky (Pechorsky).

In 1780, the Yarensky district of the Arkhangelsk region of the Vologda governorate was divided into Yarensky and Ust-Sysolsky districts. Counties united numerous volosts.

On the eve of the October Revolution, most of the Pechora Territory was part of the Arkhangelsk province, small territories of the region were also part of the Vologda and Vyatka provinces.

On August 22, 1921, the Autonomous Region of Komi (Zyryan) was formed. The region included Ust-Sysolsky district completely, 21 volosts with the Komi population of the Yarensky district, Izhmo-Pechora district (most of the Pechora district). Somewhat later, in 1923, the Verkhnepechora (Troitsko-Pechora, Savinoborsk, Shchugorsk) volosts of the Cherdyn district of the Perm province were transferred to the region, and in 1929 the Sludsk volost and Ust-Tsilma were included in the Komi region.

In 1929, the following were formed: Izhemsky, Priluzsky, Syktyvdinsky, Sysolsky, Udorsky, Ust-Vymsky, Ust-Kulomsky and Ust-Tsilemsky districts;

By decision of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR of January 14, 1929, the Komi Autonomous Region became part of the Northern Territory with the center in the city of Arkhangelsk.

On December 5, 1936, the Komi Autonomous Region was transformed into the Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and became directly part of the RSFSR.

There are 12 administrative regions in the republic, 8 cities of republican subordination with subordinate territories, 2 cities of regional subordination (Emva and Mikun), 37 settlements, 190 village councils.

in 1930 - Syktyvkar City Council;
in 1931 - the Troitsko-Pechora region;
in 1939 - Knyazhpogost and Kortkeros districts;
in 1943 - Vorkuta City Council;
in 1949 - Koygorodsky district;
in 1953 - Ukhta City Council;
in 1957 - Inta City Council;
in 1963 - Pechorsky District (since 1994 - City Council);
in 1975 - Vuktyl and Usinsky districts (since 1994 - city councils);
in 1979 - Sosnogorsk district (since 1994 - city council).



The gross regional product of the Republic of Komi in 2018 amounted to 665.7 billion rubles, in terms of per capita - 796.8 thousand rubles a year.

The modern basis of the economy of the Komi Republic
The Komi economy is associated with the extraction and primary processing of minerals - oil, gas, coal, bauxite, gems, etc., wood processing and paper-making enterprises.

The largest enterprises of the Komi Republic.

JSC "Mondi Syktyvkarsky LPK" is one of the largest pulp and paper mills in Russia.
JSC "Syktyvkar Tissue Group" is one of the leading Russian companies producing sanitary and hygienic products.
Komiteks OJSC is a factory of non-woven materials, the first textile industry enterprise in the republic.
Syktyvkar timber and woodworking plant.
The Syktyvkar industrial complex is the first enterprise in the republic for the production of prefabricated wooden houses.
OAO Syktyvkar Distillery is a leading producer of alcoholic beverages in the Komi Republic.
OJSC Komiaviatrans is the largest airline in the Komi Republic, the only company that includes all airports in the Komi Republic; specializes in the transportation of passengers and cargo to hard-to-reach areas of the Komi Republic, aviation patrolling of forests, aviation support for emergency medical work in hard-to-reach areas of the Komi Republic, emergency rescue operations.
OOO LUKOIL-Komi is the largest oil and gas production company in the south of the Timano-Pechora oil and gas province.
The northern branch of OOO Lukoil-Severo-Zapadnefteprodukt is the largest branch of OOO Lukoil-SZNP, which operates 88 filling stations on the territory of four constituent entities of the Russian Federation: in the Komi Republic, the Arkhangelsk Region, the Nenets and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs.
LLC Lukoil-Ukhtaneftepererabotka (Lukoil) is an oil refinery with a processing capacity of 3.2 million tons of oil per year.
OOO Gazprom transgaz Ukhta is a subsidiary of OAO Gazprom. The length of the gas transmission system of OOO Gazprom transgaz Ukhta in a single-line version is more than 12 thousand km.
The Ukhta branch of OOO Gazprom Burenie is the largest drilling company in the Republic of Komi, operating in the republic and beyond its borders (in particular, in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug and the Yamal Peninsula).
JSC "Northern Trunk Oil Pipelines" AK "Transneft" (Oil pipeline Usa - Yaroslavl): oil pumping station "Ukhta-1" and PSU "Ukhta".
LLC Gazprom Pererabotka is an enterprise for the production, complex processing and transportation of oil, gas and gas condensate
Ukhta Experimental Mechanical Plant.
Vorkutaugol is a city-forming coal mining enterprise.
Vorkuta Mechanical Plant.
Pechorskaya GRES is a power plant with an installed capacity of more than 1 million kW (the capacity of the first stage is 1.26 million kW). Pechorskaya GRES generates about 1/3 of electricity in the Republic of Kazakhstan and is one of the largest electric power companies in the European North of Russia.
The Usinsky Oil Refinery is the northernmost oil refinery in Russia with a capacity of 1.3 million tons per year.
The Intaugol enterprise is a city-forming coal mining enterprise.



According to the features of the geological structure, one can distinguish the Polar-Polar-Ural, Pai-Khoi-South Novaya Zemlya, Pechora, Timan and Vyatka-Dvinsk metallogenic provinces. The state of the general geological knowledge of the territory of the Republic of Komi and the degree of exploration allow us to single out only a limited range of minerals as the most significant for the national economy. These include, in particular: coal, oil, natural gas, bauxite, gold and diamonds.

combustible minerals
Coal deposits, the vast majority of deposits are located within the Pechora coal basin, geological reserves are 213 billion tons, explored - 9 billion tons (19% - brown, 78% - stone and 3% - anthracites).
Oil shales are allocated in 4 basins: Sysolsky, Yarengsky. Izhemsky and Bolshezemelsky.
Asphaltites, the industrial deposit is located on Timan, in the basin of the Izhma River, near the village of Nyamed. The Timan deposits are among the richest in Russia.
Peat, peat bogs occupy an area of more than 10% of the territory of the republic, reserves - 12 billion tons.
Oil and natural gas. The Timan-Pechora oil and gas province is located on an area of 600,000 km², geological reserves of oil reach 4 billion tons, hydrocarbon gases - about 3 trillion cubic meters.

Mining and chemical raw materials
Phosphorites are known in the basin of the Sysola, Vym, Timan, Polar Urals and Pai-Khoi rivers. At Sysol and Timan, phosphorites are associated with Jurassic sediments.
Sulfur, a small deposit of native sulfur is known in the Southern Timan on the Northern Keltma River, where sulfur is associated with Permian deposits.
Rock and potash salt. Salt production in the Komi region has been known since the 12th century. The industrial reserves of the deposit near the village of Seregovo are 2.7 billion tons. Up to 6 thousand tons of edible salt were mined from it annually.
Barite. The largest is the Khoilinskoye deposit, located near the city of Vorkuta. Its reserves are about 40 million tons. A similar Palninskoye field has reserves of about 17 million tons.

Mining raw materials
Fluorite. Large deposits are known within the Ural-Novaya Zemlya province: the South Novaya Zemlya, Amderma, South Pai-Khoi and West Ural plains. Of the explored deposits, the largest is Amderma (the remaining reserves are more than 1.5 million tons).
Rhinestone. Deposits are known in the mountains of the Subpolar Urals (discovered in 1927 by A. N. Aleshkov), where since the beginning of the 1930s it has been successfully developed as a piezo-optical raw material. Small crystals are found in agate tonsils in the Northern Timan.

natural stone materials
Limestones and dolomites. The largest among the fields under development is Belgopskoye (Ukhta region) with reserves of more than 15 million m³.
Gypsum. At the Izhemskoye field, reserves exceed 150 million tons, and at Ust-Tsilemskoye - 70 million tons.
Sandstones, quartzites, crystalline rocks. The Voyskoye deposit in the Middle Pechora has large reserves of quartz glass sandstones of the Carboniferous age.

Gemstone raw materials
Cutting stones - quartz, rubies, garnets, prehnites, amber. Jewelry varieties of quartz are known in the Subpolar Urals. Rubies are found in the Polar Urals. Prehnites have been found in the North Timan, where they often fill voids in Devonian basalts.
Ornamental stones - agate, jasper, marbles, jade, jadeite, serpentinites. Agates are known in Timan and the Polar Urals, where their proven reserves amount to several hundred tons. Small jaspers have been found at Pai-Khoi (banded varieties, reserves of about 20 million tons). Marbles in the composition of deposits of the Proterozoic and Paleozoic eras are found in the Subpolar and Polar Urals and in the Timan; gray marbles in the area of the Seida-Labytnangi railway (reserves of about 4 million tons), gray and yellowish marbles near the Khalmer-Yu station and on the South Timan. Nephrite and jadeite: their deposits are known in the Polar Urals. Manifestations of serpentinites have been established in the Subpolar Urals in the basin of the rivers Vangyr, B. Patok and Kosyu.
Diamonds - these minerals in the Komi Republic are found in the Devonian paleoplacers, less often in the modern. placers in the Middle and Northern Timan, single finds are known in the Northern Urals. The search for primary sources of diamonds is underway.


Ore minerals

titanium ores. The most explored deposit is Yaregskoye. The content of leucoxene reaches 20-30%, the thickness is from 6 to 100 m. The total ore reserves in the deposits of the Komi Republic amount to 30% of the reserves of the CIS.
aluminum ores. In recent years, a large bauxite-bearing province has been discovered in the Southern and Middle Timan. The deposits are associated with carboniferous deposits.
Ores of precious metals. Gold occurrences are widespread in the Subpolar and Polar Urals and on the Timan. Both bedrock and placers are known. Particularly interesting are the industrial gold placers in the basin of the Kozhym River (where alluvial gold mining began in 1989) and on the Timan in the upper reaches of the Tsilma, Pizhma, Nivshera rivers (According to N. M. Karamzin, in 1497 a coin was minted from gold mined on the river Tsilme This coin, with the image of St. Nicholas, was presented by Ivan III to his daughter Theodosia).



As of the beginning of 2021, 1356 power plants and autonomous power sources were operated on the territory of the Komi Republic, the vast majority of which are small power plants serving specific consumers. At the same time, more than 90% of the electricity is produced by several large stations - Pechorskaya GRES, Mondi SPC CHPP, Vorkuta CHPP-2, Sosnogorskaya CHPP. The total capacity of power plants (with a capacity of more than 5 MW) is 2467.8 MW, in 2020 they produced 9.7 billion kWh of electricity.

Agriculture, hunting and forestry
The rural population as of January 1, 2021 is 176.518 people, 22% of the total population of the Komi Republic.

Reindeer breeding is an important traditional industry of the republic; in the 1990s, the number of deer decreased more slowly than in most other regions of the Russian Federation: in 1990, there were 124 thousand deer in the Komi territory, and in 2000 102 thousand heads. Since 2007, a sharp reduction in the number of deer began, and in 2010 there were 82 thousand deer in the republic. As of January 1, 2011, 76.5% of reindeer were owned by agricultural enterprises. They grow fodder crops, as well as potatoes, vegetables and cereals. Animal husbandry specializes in meat and dairy, there is pig breeding and poultry farming. Breed fox, mink, etc.

The number of cattle as of January 1, 2020 in farms of all categories amounted to 29.9 thousand heads (-1.7 thousand), including cows - 13.6 thousand heads (-0.6 thousand); number of pigs - 39.9 thousand (+2.5 thousand), sheep 6.6 thousand (-0.8 thousand), goats 3.9 thousand (-0.5 thousand), horses 2.1 thousand (-0 .2 thousand), reindeer 93.0 thousand (-2.9 thousand).

In 2019, livestock and poultry for slaughter (in slaughter weight) 25.0 thousand tons were produced, potatoes were harvested 42 thousand tons (-12.4 thousand tons), vegetables 14.6 thousand tons (-5.5 thousand tons). In 2020, milk production is 53.4 thousand tons.



The transport network in the Komi Republic consists of:
2.3 thousand km of railway tracks (including 1.7 thousand km of public use),
4.1 thousand km of inland waterways (including 3.1 thousand km of public use, of which the waterways of the Pechora basin - 2.5 thousand km, the Vychegodsk basin - 0.6 thousand km),
11.8 thousand km of roads (including 6.3 thousand km of public roads).

The basis of the public railway network on the territory of the Komi Republic is formed by the railway line Kotlas - Vorkuta, which is part of the Northern Railway, with a total length of 1.7 thousand km and three low-intensity railway lines Mikun - Koslan - Vendinga, Sosnogorsk - Troitsko-Pechorsk and Synya - Usinsk .

Development prospects
Belkomur (White Sea - Komi - Ural) is a planned strategic railway line that will directly connect Perm, Solikamsk, Gayny, Syktyvkar and Arkhangelsk. The planned length of the highway is 1252 km, of which 712 km are new construction, the rest are already existing sections owned by Russian Railways, but requiring major modernization and electrification. In November 1998, the symbolic silver crutch of Belkomur was hammered. Then several kilometers of road were built (about 4 km each near Karpogor and near Vendinga).

Barentskomur (Barents Sea - Komi - Urals) - a project to create a railway line that will directly connect Indiga, Sosnogorsk, Troitsko-Pechorsk, Polunochnoye and Surgut.

As of January 1, 2010, the length of public roads owned by the state of the Komi Republic amounted to 6,041.6 km, including 5,330.9 km of paved roads, or 88.2% of the total length of roads. In the structure of republican roads with a hard surface, asphalt-concrete roads prevail (68.0%). Complementing the network of highways of the Republic of Komi is the federal highway "Vyatka" (Kirov - Murashi - Syktyvkar within the borders of the Republic of Komi) with a length of 283.6 km.

The density of the network of public roads with hard surface (including federal) in the republic is 13.5 km per 1000 sq. km. km. In terms of the density of roads, the Komi Republic is one of the last places among the regions of Russia, having only 60% of the roads from the minimum necessary requirement for the successful and efficient operation of the economy of the republic.

At the same time, the transport structure of the Komi Republic is not of high quality due to the large proportion of transitional roads and dirt roads. Thus, transitional type roads occupy 30.6% of the total length of paved public roads, or 1629.9 km. The length of unpaved roads is gradually decreasing, amounting to 710.7 km as of January 1, 2010, or 11.8% of the total length of roads.

As of January 1, 2010, the road network of the Republic of Komi is equipped with 533 bridges and overpasses, of which 339 units, or 63.6% of the total, are in capital construction, 18 floating bridges. As of January 1, 2010, there were 194 wooden bridges in the republic, or 36.4% of the total number of bridges and overpasses. Wooden bridge structures prevail on the territory of Ust-Kulomsky, Udorsky and Priluzsky districts.

In winter, transport links in rural areas are provided by 25 ice crossings with a total length of 12 km, including unique ice crossings across the Pechora River, each more than 1.5 km long.

35.8% of rural settlements of the Komi Republic do not have a stable transport connection on paved roads with a network of public roads. Settlements of seven municipalities, where more than 300 thousand people live, including the cities of Pechora, Usinsk, Inta, Vorkuta, do not have a stable transport connection with the network of republican highways and neighboring regions.

In the Komi Republic, the construction of the Syktyvkar-Ukhta-Pechora-Usinsk-Naryan-Mar highway with access roads to the cities of Vorkuta and Salekhard continues, as well as the maintenance and repair of sections of the Vyatka federal highway passing through the territory of the republic.

On the territory of the Republic of Komi, the airports Syktyvkar, Vorkuta, Ukhta, Pechora, Usinsk, Inta and Ust-Tsilma operate, which are part of Komiaviatrans.

The following airlines operate on the republican air transportation market: Komiaviatrans, Aeroflot-Russian Airlines, UTair, Nordavia, RusLine, Rossiya. In addition, in the territory of the Republic of Komi there is a subsidiary of the Air Navigation Branch of the Northern Urals, FSUE State Corporation for Air Traffic Management, an enterprise for the use of airspace, air traffic control and radio engineering.

The density of river routes in the Komi Republic is 9.8 km per 1000 sq. km. km.

Activities to provide river transport services on the territory of the Komi Republic are carried out by the Pechora State Basin Administration of Waterways and Shipping, which organizes the operation and development of the waterways of the Pechora Basin (length 2589 km) and the Syktyvkar region of waterways - a branch of the North Dvina State Basin Administration of Waterways routes and navigation, which serves the operation and development of the waterways of the Vychegda basin (601 km long).

The main enterprises of public river transport in the Republic of Komi, which carry out the transportation of passengers, cargo and loading and unloading operations, are OJSC Shipping Company Pechora River Shipping Company, OJSC Pechora River Port, LLC Shipping Company Pechora.

Oil transportation across the territory of the Komi Republic is represented by:
the Kharyaga-Usa interfield oil pipeline system with a total length of 150 km and a throughput capacity of 12 million tons per year (OOO LUKOIL-Komi);
system of main oil pipelines "Usa - Ukhta" and "Ukhta - Yaroslavl" with a total length of 1540 km and a throughput capacity on the section "Usa - Ukhta" 24.2 million tons per year, and on the section "Ukhta - Yaroslavl" - 20.3 million tons per year (JSC Transneft).

The system of main gas transportation across the territory of the Komi Republic consists of four stages of main gas pipelines (7300 km long), branch gas pipelines (1200 km) and condensate pipelines (545 km). The main volume of gas is supplied from the fields of the Tyumen region. The length of the system of main gas pipelines in a single-line design across the territory of the Republic of Komi is 4000 km. Gas is transported through the territory of the Komi Republic by OOO Gazprom transgaz Ukhta (a structural subdivision of OAO Gazprom). The main gas pipelines ensure the uninterrupted delivery of more than 100 million tons of natural gas through the territory of the republic. The share of pipeline transport in the total volume of cargo transportation is 74.5%.

To ensure the transportation of Yamal gas to the Unified Gas Supply System of Russia, it is planned to create a new generation gas transmission system with a total length of more than 2,500 km until 2030. Its integral part is the system of main gas pipelines "Bovanenkovo - Ukhta" with a length of about 1100 km (of which 807 km on the territory of the Komi Republic), the construction of which has been underway since 2007.


Education and science

Secondary education
In the 1990s, the number of children studying the Komi language as a subject in schools increased dramatically: from 19,612 in 1990 to 40,448 in 2000.

Higher education institutions
Syktyvkar State University (Syktyvkar);
Ukhta State Technical University (Ukhta);
Komi State Pedagogical Institute (Syktyvkar) (merged with SyktGU since 2014);
Komi Republican Academy of Public Administration and Management (Syktyvkar);
Syktyvkar Forest Institute - a branch of the St. Petersburg State Forest Engineering University named after S. M. Kirov (Syktyvkar);
Syktyvkar branch of St. Petersburg State University of Service and Economics (Syktyvkar);
Komi branch of the Kirov State Medical Academy of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia (Syktyvkar);
Syktyvkar branch of the Nizhny Novgorod Commercial Institute (Syktyvkar);
Komi branch of the Vyatka State Agricultural Academy (Syktyvkar);
Ukhta branch of the Moscow State University of Communications (Ukhta);
Vorkuta Mining Institute - branch of St. Petersburg State Mining University (National Research University) (Vorkuta);
Vorkuta branch of Syktyvkar State University;
Vorkuta branch of the Ukhta State Technical University (Vorkuta);
Usinsk branch of Ukhta State Technical University (Usinsk);
Institute of Management, Information and Business (Ukhta);
Syktyvkar branch of the Russian University of Cooperation (Syktyvkar);
Syktyvkar branch of the Modern Humanitarian Academy (Syktyvkar);
Ukhta branch of the Modern Humanitarian Academy (Ukhta);
Ukhta branch of the Capital Financial and Humanitarian Academy (Ukhta);
Vorkuta branch of the University of the Russian Academy of Education (Vorkuta);
Vorkuta branch of the Modern Humanitarian Academy (Vorkuta).