Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Novgorod region is a subject of the Russian Federation. It is located in the northwest of the European part of the country. The region is part of the Northwestern Federal District.

The administrative center is Veliky Novgorod.

The area of the region is the sixth of the seven regions of the Northwestern Federal District and is 54.5 thousand km². The length of the territory of the region from west to east is 385 km, and from north to south - 278 km. The Novgorod Region borders on the Pskov Region in the west and southwest, on the Tver Region in the south and southeast, on the Leningrad Region in the north and northwest, and on the Vologda Region in the northeast. Population - 575 867 people. (2023). In Veliky Novgorod, according to data for 2021, 225 thousand people live

Formed by decree of the Presidium of the USSR Armed Forces dated July 5, 1944. Historically, the region was preceded by the Novgorod province, formed in 1727.



Veliky Novgorod


Staraya Russa


Other destinations

Khutyn Monastery

Valdaysky Iversky Monastery

Valdaisky National Park


How to get here

The Novgorod region is located between Moscow and St. Petersburg. The federal highways M10 "Russia" (free) and M11 "Neva" (paid) pass through the territory of the region, connecting these megacities.


Physical and geographical characteristics

Relief and flora

The region is located in the north-west of the Russian Plain, occupying the territory of the Priilmenskaya lowland and the northern spurs of the Valdai Upland.

The western part of the region is occupied by the heavily swampy Priilmenskaya lowland, in the center of which is Lake Ilmen, the largest of the lakes in the region.

To the east, the lowland rises and closes with the Valdai ledge, behind which lies the Valdai Upland, one of the most beautiful places on the East European Plain. 52 rivers flow into Lake Ilmen, the largest of them are Msta, Shelon and Lovat with Polist, one river flows out - Volkhov.

About a thousand rivers flow through the territory of the region, more than 800 lakes are located. Almost the entire territory of the Novgorod region lies within the Ilmen-Volkhov basin, a small northeastern part belongs to the basin of the Mologa, a tributary of the Volga, and the western part belongs to the upper reaches of the Luga River.

The territory of the region is divided into two sub-provinces: southern taiga and mixed forests.



The Novgorod region has a temperate continental cyclonic climate and is included in the Atlantic-continental region of the temperate zone, which is characterized by features of both maritime and continental climates.

The main features of the region's climate and weather are determined by its geographic location in the northwest, 100–400 km from the Baltic Sea. The climate is characterized by a moderate amount of heat, excess moisture, four-season rhythms: cool short summers, long warm autumns, mild winters with thaws, and cool long springs.

The main feature of the weather is inconstancy. It is determined by the nature of the circulation of air masses. The area lies in the area of western transfer of air masses and active cyclonic activity. The alternation of cyclones and anticyclones, sea and continental air masses creates unstable weather, frequent changes of cold and warm weather, dry weather and weather with precipitation.

The average annual temperature varies from southwest to northeast from 4.5ºС to 2.5ºС. The average temperature of the coldest month - January - 8 - 10.5ºС, the warmest - July +16 - +18ºС. The annual temperature range is 25-27°C.

The absolute minimum temperatures reach -37... -45°C. Absolute maximums +35... +37°C.

The annual rainfall is 600-800 mm. The snow cover lies for 120-150 days, its thickness increases from southwest to northeast from 25 to 50 cm2.


State and environmental protection

As of 01/01/2019, there are 129 specially protected natural areas in the Novgorod region with an area of 397 thousand hectares (7.3% of the total area of the region). The number of protected areas of federal significance includes the state nature reserve "Rdeisky", the national park "Valdaisky" and the natural monument "Grove of Academician N. I. Zheleznov", protected areas of regional significance are represented by 13 state nature reserves (of which 3 are biological, 10 are complex) and 112 natural monuments, protected areas of local importance - 1 natural monument.

As of November 14, 2022, there are 128 specially protected natural areas of regional significance (10 state natural reserves of regional significance, 3 state natural biological reserves of regional significance, 114 natural monuments of regional significance, 1 protected natural complex of regional significance) with a total area of 229,267 .98 hectares (4.21% of the total area of the region).

The number of protected areas of federal significance located on the territory of the Novgorod region includes: FGU "State Nature Reserve "Rdeysky", FGU "National Park "Valdaisky", natural monument "Grove of Academician N.I. Zheleznov" with a total area of 196,035.3 hectares (3.59% of the total area of the region).



Minerals: deposits of sand, boulder-gravel-sand raw materials, peat, sapropel, brown coal, refractory and building clay, bauxite, etc. The region is rich in mineral and radon springs, therapeutic mud (the resort "Staraya Russa" has been widely known since the 19th century) . According to the degree of development of drinking underground mineral waters, the Novgorod region is the main leader in the North-West region. In recent years, the process of discovering new deposits has been actively going on. As of January 1, 2019, 196 deposits of solid minerals have been explored and accounted for by the state balance in the region.

Of these, the following are currently being developed: building sands and boulder-gravel-sand raw materials - 166, refractory clays - 3, brick and ceramic clays - 3, quartz-containing glass sands - 2, building stone - 4, limestones - 3, natural facing stone ( limestone) - 3, out of 641 peat deposits, 9 are being developed, sapropel - 3, therapeutic mud - 1.

Along with exploited deposits, there are industrial deposits, the raw materials of which are not used for economic reasons (combustible shale, bauxite, brown coal, refractory clay, mineral paints).

The territorial balance of mineral reserves of the Novgorod region takes into account the reserves of the following types of minerals: refractory clays, mineral paints, cement raw materials, kaolins (refractory clays), glass raw materials (quartz sands), sands for concrete and silicate products, sand and gravel material, carbonate rocks for firing on lime, carbonate rocks (building stone), natural facing stones (limestone), brick and tile raw materials (fusible clay), mineral, drinking and technical underground waters, therapeutic mud, peat, sapropel.

Non-metallic minerals (refractory clays, glass sands, building sands and sand and gravel raw materials) are actively demanded and exploited in the Novgorod region. The region is rich in mineral and radon springs, therapeutic mud (the resort "Staraya Russa" has been widely known since the 19th century). According to the degree of development of drinking underground mineral waters, the Novgorod region is the main leader in the North-West region. In recent years, the process of discovering new deposits has been actively going on.

There are 11 deposits of refractory clays with recorded reserves of 145.186 million tons on the territory of Borovichsky, Lyubytinsky and Okulovsky municipal districts of the Novgorod region. Of these, Borovichi Refractory Plant JSC is developing the Malinovetskoye and Okladnevskoye deposits located in the Borovichi municipal district.

Refractory clays are represented by one deposit located in the Lyubytinsky municipal district, which was discovered in 1949 with a total recorded reserves of 2387 thousand tons. This deposit is currently not being developed.

The state balance of stocks of glass raw materials takes into account 6 quartz sand deposits located in the Lyubytinsky municipal district with total recorded reserves of 36.602 million tons. According to the degree of industrial development, explored deposits are classified into groups: developed (4 deposits) and prepared for industrial development (2 deposits).

There are 245 deposits of sand and 115 deposits of sand and gravel material on the territory of the Novgorod region with total recorded balance reserves of 586.66 million m3.

In the Novgorod region, 8 deposits of carbonate rocks for the production of building stone, 3 deposits for firing for lime, 7 deposits for the production of facing stone are explored and accounted for by the balance sheet. The largest deposits of carbonate rocks are concentrated in the Okulovsky municipal district.

There are 17 deposits of brick-tile raw materials (fusible clays) in the Novgorod region.

284 lake deposits of sapropel have been discovered and explored on the territory of the region. In total, the territorial balance of sapropel reserves as of 01.01.2022 included 4 deposits located in the Volotovsky minimal district, Lyubytinsky, Moshensky and Novgorodsky municipal districts, with balance reserves in the amount of 1.323 million tons.

The territory of the Novgorod region is one of the regions richest in peat in the European part of Russia, yielding only to the Leningrad and Vologda regions. Peat resources are available in almost all administrative districts of the region, but they are unevenly distributed over the territory. The territorial balance of peat reserves as of January 1, 2022 included 642 deposits. Subsoil users carry out exploration and extraction of peat at seven deposits.



The Novgorod region is one of the oldest historical and cultural territories of Russia, which is the initial center for the development of Russian statehood, literacy and spirituality.

Three kilometers from the center of the region - Veliky Novgorod, Rurik's settlement is located, the place where the ancient capital of Rus' was located. The first Russian dynasty was born here, which ruled the country for more than seven centuries. Princes Rurik and Prophetic Oleg, Vladimir the Baptist and Yaroslav the Wise, Alexander Nevsky and Dmitry Donskoy, Ivan III and Ivan the Terrible left their mark here. In memory of the calling of Rurik, on the initiative of Emperor Alexander II, in 1862, a grandiose monument "Millennium of Russia" was erected in the center of the Novgorod Kremlin, the composition of which is based on both the "Monomakh's hat" and the veche bell - symbols of Russian statehood and democracy.

Veliky Novgorod, the motherland of Russia, has a special place in the history of the fatherland; ideas about the era of the birth and flourishing of Russian culture are associated with it. Novgorod land is known throughout the world for its unique architectural monuments, iconography, famous frescoes and archaeological finds.

In the historical center of the city - the Novgorod Kremlin - there is the oldest Russian stone church - the Cathedral of St. Sophia. It was here that the first Russian books were written and the first birch bark letters were found, which became a sensation in the field of archeology. Here, under the vaults of the Vladychnaya Chamber, in January 1478, the name of the new state, “Russia”, was first heard.

Novgorod is the oldest center of Russian education and book learning. Since 1030, on the initiative of Yaroslav the Wise, the first school in Rus' appeared here, the creation of which became the initial stage in the history of national education. Numerous birch-bark letters testify to the wide spread of literacy among the population of Novgorod.

None of the ancient Russian cities has preserved such a number of manuscripts as Veliky Novgorod. The library at the Sophia Cathedral was the largest book depository of Ancient Rus'. A third of all ancient Slavic books come from Novgorod. The famous Ostromir Gospel, the Gennadievskaya Bible - the first complete set of biblical books in the Slavic language, Domostroy, all these books are of Novgorod origin. Since the formation of the centralized Russian state, the collection of books from St. Sophia Cathedral has served to prepare numerous state and church reforms in the field of education, publishing and librarianship. For the sake of this, book treasures were exported to Moscow, and later to the new capital of St. Petersburg, forming the basis of the country's largest book collections.

The first information about the formation of domestic science is also associated with Novgorod. Here, in 1136, Kirik, the resident of the Antoniev Monastery, wrote the first mathematical work of Ancient Rus' - "The Teaching about Numbers".

Over the centuries-old history, innumerable artistic and architectural treasures of world significance have been created in Veliky Novgorod, without which it is difficult to imagine the history of national culture.

The region is especially proud of its unique cultural and historical heritage: 37 monuments and architectural ensembles of Veliky Novgorod are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

The attractiveness of Novgorod as a city-museum is extremely high, in which dozens of ancient temples and monasteries have been preserved, including the world-famous Churches of the Savior on Nereditsa (1198) and the Church of the Savior on Ilyina Street (1378). Many of the temples contain priceless frescoes, which are considered examples of ancient Russian monumental art. Only in Veliky Novgorod have preserved frescoes made by the hand of the brilliant Theophan the Greek.

Despite the wartime destruction, the city still retains the ancient rampart and moat ring that surrounds its historic center. The Novgorod Kremlin is one of the oldest stone fortresses in Russia, built at the end of the 15th century. The special historical atmosphere of the city is formed by pristine suburban landscapes and an extensive system of small and large rivers, which earned Novgorod the glory of the "Venice of the North".

The most significant objects of cultural heritage include: the Iversky Monastery, travel palaces in the villages of Korostyn, Shimsky District, in the villages of Edrovo and Yazhelbitsy, Valdai District, the house-museums of F.M. Dostoevsky in Staraya Russa, N.A. Nekrasov and G.I. Uspensky in Chudovo, the estate of A.V. Suvorov in the village of Konchanskoe-Suvorovskoe, Borovichi district, and many others.

It is traditionally believed that in the 6th century the Krivichi tribes came to this territory, and in the 8th century, in the process of the Slavic settlement of the East European Plain, the Ilmen Slovene tribe came. Finno-Ugric tribes lived on the same territory, leaving a memory of themselves in the names of numerous rivers and lakes.

From the VIII-IX centuries (c 862) - Novgorod land (the central part of its pyatins);
882-1136 - as part of Kievan Rus;
1136-1478 - as part of the Novgorod Republic;
in 1478, the Novgorod land was subordinated to the Moscow principality with the preservation of its five (pyatina - county - churchyard) division.
In 1706, through the efforts of Metropolitan Job of Novgorod and Velikolutsk, the first school was opened at the bishop's house in Novgorod - the Greek-Slavonic school, at the origins of which are the Likhud brothers.
Since 1708, as part of the Ingermanland province
Since 1727, the modern territory of the region was the western part of the Novgorod province, and since 1918, parts of the Cherepovets province, and since 1921 both provinces were also part of the North-Western region.
In 1740, by decree of Empress Anna Ioannovna, a theological seminary was founded in Novgorod on the territory of the Antoniev Monastery.
In 1786, Governor-General Arkharov solemnly opened the first secular educational institution in Novgorod - a four-year public school. A year later, similar ones appeared, but small two-class ones in the county towns of Staraya Russa, Valdai, Borovichi.
In 1828, a male and female parish Novgorod school appeared in Novgorod.
In 1834, at the behest of Nicholas I, a cadet corps was created in the village of Novoselitsy near Novgorod with the donations of Count Arakcheev.
In 1865, the Nikolaev women's school of the 1st category was opened, which was renamed the women's gymnasium five years later.
In 1868, the Alexander Teacher's School was opened to deal with the shortage of teachers.
On August 1, 1927, both provinces were abolished, and the territory became part of the Novgorod, Borovichi districts and the western part of the Cherepovets district of the Leningrad region, and the territory of the modern Kholmsky district became part of the Velikoluksky district.
Since July 1930, the district division was abolished: the districts that later became part of the region, as well as the cities of Novgorod and Borovichi, became directly subordinate to the Leningrad Executive Committee ----
July 5, 1944 - By the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Novgorod region was formed as part of the RSFSR from the districts formed in the Leningrad region and the Kalinin region, and the cities of regional subordination of Novgorod, Borovichi and Staraya Russa. The region included all the modern districts of the region, but on August 22, 1944, the Kholmsky district was transferred to the Velikoluksky region, which it was part of until 1958, and Belebelkovsky, Dregelsky, Zaluchsky, Lychkovsky, Mstinsky, Opechensky, Polavsky, Utorgoshsky were abolished at the expense of enlargement with the inclusion of their territory in the current ones, the Molvotitsky district was abolished and re-formed as Marevsky. In addition, in 1956, the Dmitrovsky and Mozolevsky village councils were transferred from the Dregelsky district to the Boksitogorsky district of the Leningrad region.
On February 16, 1967, by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Novgorod Region was awarded the Order of Lenin.

Since the late 1950s and early 1960s, the electronic industry began to develop rapidly in the Novgorod region. In Soviet times, Novgorod was one of the centers of radio electronics.