Location: Novgorod Oblast   Map


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Description of Novgorod

Veliky Novgorod (also Novgorod-on-Volkhov) is one of the oldest Russian cities, which left a noticeable mark both in domestic and world history. It existed on the banks of the Volkhov even in the pre-chronic period and became the starting point of all Russian statehood. Having escaped plunder during the Mongol invasion, Novgorod managed to preserve several unique monuments of pre-Mongolian architecture, and about a century ago, ancient frescoes were discovered under the layers of plaster of ancient churches, the oldest of which date back to the 12th century, which brought Novgorod truly worldwide fame. The Great Patriotic War significantly reduced the number of local monuments, but thanks to the efforts of restorers, some of them were saved, so that the ancient temples of Novgorod and its environs were included in the UNESCO list. Nowadays, Novgorod is a large regional center in the north-west of Russia. It is included in the Silver Ring of Russia and is very popular with tourists, including foreign ones.

Founded in ancient times, Veliky Novgorod for several centuries was the commercial, political and cultural center of the entire Russian North. Conducting a lively trade with Western Europe, the city had very close ties with the Hanseatic League, without formally entering it. With the advent of first Kiev, then Moscow, and later St. Petersburg, Novgorod gradually lost its former power and by the 18th century turned into a quiet provincial city with a huge number of monuments reminiscent of its former greatness.

In ancient Novgorod, wooden buildings prevailed, but the most significant religious buildings were built of stone. This, as well as the fact that Novgorod escaped the raids of the Mongol-Tatar army, allows us to see the stages of the formation of the Novgorod style, which went from imitating Byzantine churches in the face of the grandiose St. Sophia Cathedral to the heights of Novgorod architecture of the XIV-XV centuries, represented by the churches of the Savior on Ilyin, Fedor Stratilat on the Creek and Peter and Paul in Kozhevniki. After joining Moscow, the original urban architecture fell under the influence of Moscow canons, although the local flavor is still felt in the monuments of the 16th century. Later, the development of Novgorod went in line with Russian traditions. Like other cities, it has gone through redevelopment, leading to absurd results, the rebuilding of old temples and new construction in all the prescribed styles.

Unfortunately, most of the ancient monuments were destroyed during the Great Patriotic War, and in the first years of restoration work, due to a lack of building materials, many ruins of ancient buildings were dismantled into bricks. Nevertheless, in the project for the restoration of the city - its author was a connoisseur of ancient Russian architecture A.V. Shchusev - it was planned to create an urban environment with harmoniously coexisting ancient monuments and modern buildings. And although the real construction work quickly went beyond the scope of the project, in general, in present-day Novgorod, it was possible to do the almost impossible: in the historical center, modern buildings modestly coexist with majestic churches proudly standing in open spaces, and the lack of residential buildings of the 18th-19th centuries is more than compensated by numerous cozy parks and city alleys.

Novgorod stands on the Volkhov River, which connects Lake Ilmen with Lake Ladoga. In the name Ilmen, the stress is placed on the first syllable.


Features of Novgorod church architecture

Ancient Novgorod was almost completely made of wood. Sophia Cathedral (1045-1050), built by Yaroslav the Wise, became his first stone building. The style of the five-nave cross-domed cathedral, which has come down to us almost unchanged, largely repeats its South Russian counterparts, but it was from it that the formation of the original Novgorod style that existed until the 16th century began. New stone churches appeared in the city only half a century later, their customers were rich princes, which determined their stylistic similarity with St. Sophia Cathedral, as well as with Kyiv churches of the 11th-12th centuries. From this group of churches, the Nikolo-Dvorishchensky Cathedral (1113), the appearance of which was restored by restorers after the war, and St. George's Cathedral of the St. George's Monastery (1119-1130) have come down to us. Close to this type is the relatively small Cathedral of the Nativity of the Virgin in the St. Anthony Monastery (1117-1122), which became the forerunner of later small churches. In their external appearance, reflecting the internal structure, they are characterized by the segmentation of the facades with blades, the use of three equally high apses, a pommel cover and several cupolas.

During the XII century, the shape of churches gradually transformed into a cubic one. This is felt already in the St. George's Cathedral of the Yuriev Monastery, but it is best seen in the last princely building on Novgorod land, the Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior on Nereditsa. Its internal structure still repeats the St. Sophia Cathedral, but the number of naves was reduced to three, and the dome, originally helmet-shaped, was supported by only four pillars.

The formation of the Novgorod Republic led to the disappearance of the princes-customers, therefore, by the end of the 12th century, large and richly decorated cathedrals were replaced by small four-pillar one-domed churches, free from architectural excesses, but with a rare expressiveness of forms and proportions. They were usually built very quickly, in just a few summer months, and the best examples of this type are the Church of the Annunciation at Arkazhi (1179) and a couple of churches with a special three-lobed facade, which apparently came to Novgorod from Smolensk - the pre-Mongolian miniature Church of the Nativity in Perynsky skete (1226) and the Church of St. Nicholas on Lipna (1292). The simplification of architecture not only affected the complete disappearance of decoration from the facades, but also affected the apses: from the three equally high altar semicircles of the Church of the Annunciation, through the intermediate stage of lowered side apses (as, for example, in the Church of the Savior on Nereditsa), by the end of the 13th century, the Novgorodians came to a single apse solution, which has become one of the attributes of the local style.

Until the loss of independence by Novgorod in 1478, the type of a single-domed cubic temple dominated the city, but was creatively rethought by local craftsmen: first, the segmentation of the facades with shoulder blades returned to use, and then to the trademark Novgorod arched belt on the drum - it was already used in St. Sophia Cathedral and, by the way , could have a different scale - decorative decoration of the facades was added. The internal structure of the temples has undergone only one major change: starting with the Assumption Church on Volotovo Field (1352), both in Novgorod and in the related Pskov school, four domed pillars began to be placed closer to the walls, thereby changing the interior of the temples. By the end of the XIV century, real masterpieces appeared in the city. These are the churches of Theodore Stratilates on the Stream (1361) and the Church of the Transfiguration on Ilyina Street (1374): the latter is also famous for the paintings of Theophanes the Greek. In total, more than a dozen such structures have been preserved in Novgorod and its environs. The eight-slope gable covering, often found in these churches, came into use only in the 16th century and is the result of later reconstructions.

After joining the Moscow principality, local architecture gradually absorbed the features of Moscow architecture, as a result of which curious transitional forms of temples arose in the 16th century, where both Moscow and local traditions peacefully coexist in different proportions. Among the best examples of this group are several churches of Yaroslav's court and the pretty church of Boris and Gleb in Plotniki (1536). The term "Novgorod" is almost never applied to later urban architecture, although both the local nature and magnificent examples of ancient architecture made it possible to preserve the originality of the younger temples.



Since ancient times, the city existed on both sides of the Volkhov River: on the Sofia and the Trade sides. The Sofia side has grown around the citadel with St. Sophia Cathedral in the center. Yaroslav's Courtyard is the historical core of the Trade side. The sides are connected by a pedestrian bridge leading from the Prechistenskaya Arch of the Kremlin directly to Yaroslav's Courtyard, and a pair of transport bridges located to the north of the historical center. A huge park is laid out around the Kremlin, and the entire old city is surrounded by an earthen rampart left over from the fortifications of the Roundabout City. Most of the city attractions are concentrated inside the city ramparts or slightly behind them. The railway and bus stations are also not far away, one and a half kilometers west of the Kremlin. The historic core of the city is quite compact and you probably won't need public transportation to see it. Several interesting monasteries are located in the vicinity of the city. Yuryevo is easily accessible by buses that depart regularly from the railway station. It is easier to get to other nearby churches and monasteries by taxi: buses run infrequently and most of the time will be spent waiting for them.

If you are visiting Novgorod for the first time, plan to visit the city for at least one day, and two days should be enough to understand where you actually got to and see not only the historical center, but also a couple of temples in the vicinity.


The historical division of Novgorod into ends:

Nerevsky end
Sofia side

Zagorodsky end
Sofia side

Lyudin end
Sofia side

Carpentry/ Plotnetsky end
Trading side

Slavensky end
Trading side




Red hut, Sennaya sq. 5 (Sofia side, in front of the Kremlin). ☎ +7 (905) 290-86-86. 9:30–18:00. Novgorod is a rare example for Russia of a well-organized tourism industry. The Tourist Information Center's website contains a wealth of reasonably structured information, which you can also get over the phone (it's said to be open almost 24/7) or in the "live" office, which has sightseeing maps and beautifully printed booklets. Near an expensive cafe of Russian cuisine.


Travel Destinations in Novgorod

Sofia side

Novgorod detinets
1 Novgorod Kremlin. According to chronicles, the first wooden fortress surrounded by a moat was built in Novgorod in the 11th century under Prince Vladimir, son of Yaroslav the Wise. In the XIII-XV centuries, the citadel was rebuilt several times, until, finally, first stone towers were erected, and then walls, the construction of which was started from the coastline. The result was a stone fortress, fenced with red-brick walls, about 1.5 kilometers long, 8 to 15 m high and 3.6 to 6.5 m wide. Of the 12 stone towers of the late 15th century, nine survived. Instead of two of them - the Resurrection and the collapsed Prechistenskaya - in the 19th century, passage arches were made, around the same time the Borisoglebskaya tower, washed away by floods, was dismantled. Two towers, round in plan, the Fedorovskaya and Metropolitan towers, as well as Zlatoustovskaya, Pokrovskaya, Kokuy, Knyazhaya, Spasskaya, Palace and Vladimirskaya towers have come down to us. Most of the walls were rebuilt to one degree or another, only the spin between the Knyazha and Spasskaya towers remained unchanged from the 15th century. The wall between a pair of round towers, which were part of the Vladychny Court complex, is notable for the coexistence of two types of battlements. The lower ones, two-horned, date back to the end of the 15th century, while the upper ones, rectangular, appeared a century later with the construction of a two-tier battle. Several towers stand out from the general array:

2 Vladimirskaya tower. The tower, square in plan, standing in the northern part of the embankment, is distinguished by rich decor: it is decorated with a belt of runner and curb, a fresco on the facade and a pair of inset crosses - a Novgorod cross of 1244 and a cross of the 16th-17th centuries.

3  Palace tower. In the arches of the loopholes, frescoes with geometric ornaments have been preserved; the most daring dates date them back to the 15th century. You can get inside the tower by walking along the wall from the belfry of St. Sophia Cathedral. There is a small exhibition of ancient weapons and armor.

4 Kokui Tower. Tue–Wed 12:00–14:30, Tue–Wed 15:30–20:00, Fri–Sun 12:00–14:30, Fri–Sun 15:20–20:00. 100 rubles (2014). Stands out for its height. At the end of the 17th century, the original three-tiered tower was built on with a pair of octagonal structures and covered with “white iron”. In the 18th century it was called Kalanchoy, and the current name took root only at the beginning of the 20th century. The tower houses expositions of the Novgorod museum, and a pair of spyglasses are installed in the upper tier for viewing the surroundings. Once upon a time, the Voivodship Court was adjacent to the tower, from which only the foundations of the Grand Chamber remained.

5  Pokrovskaya tower. In ancient times it had a passage gate, and acquired its present form at the end of the 16th century. Unlike other towers, it protrudes noticeably beyond the line of fortifications and has mounted battles.

6 Holy Sophia (Wisdom) Church (1045-1050). Mon–Sun 8:00–20:00, the current cathedral, but access to it is free. Sophia Cathedral is a completely unique building. Firstly, it is the only church of the 11th century in Russia and the oldest monument of ancient Russian architecture in the country. Secondly, even outside of Russia there are only two ancient Russian buildings older than Novgorod Sofia - these are the St. Sophia Cathedrals in Kiev and Polotsk, both of which were rebuilt beyond recognition, while the Novgorod one was preserved almost in its original form. Like two other Sophia cathedrals, the Novgorod temple was built by Yaroslav the Wise (formally his son Vladimir) in memory of the victory over the Pechenegs in 1045-52, its appearance for many years determined the entire development of ancient Russian architecture not only in Novgorod, but throughout the Kiev region. Rus'. As far as we know, this is the first five-domed ancient Russian temple. True, at the end of the 11th century, the Martirievskaya porch with an additional cupola was added to the cathedral, in fact turning it into a six-domed one. The cathedral was the center of the spiritual and cultural life of the Novgorod Republic: for example, important state decisions were made in it that could not be made at the veche, the bishop was here, the treasury was kept here and money was given out for various kinds of enterprises. No money was spared for decorating the cathedral, and, most surprisingly, a lot has survived to this day. Outside, the cathedral is plastered, but for most of its history it did not have plaster, and there is a section of the wall above the western entrance where masonry and even traces of frescoes are visible. One of the entrances is closed by the forged Magdeburg Gates, once taken out as a trophy from Uppsala and containing a huge number of reliefs, mainly on Old Testament themes. The frescoes of the cathedral were lost, but two remarkable iconostasis survived. The central Uspensky contains icons of the 13th-16th centuries (the latest is 1528). Opposite it stands the carved throne of Ivan the Terrible, made in 1572, on which the tsar prayed after slaughtering half the city's population during a pogrom. In front of the iconostasis stands the two-sided icon of the Sign, which, according to legend, saved the city from the Suzdal army in the 12th century. The Alekseevsky cross to the left of the iconostasis was erected in honor of the victory at Kulikovo Field. The Small Nativity iconostasis, located on the right, contains, among other things, a list from the icon of the Tikhvin Mother of God. To the right of the central iconostasis, in the Martirievskaya porch, fragments of frescoes from 1109, the oldest in Russia, have been preserved, and underneath them is a completely unique thing - graffiti from about the same time, left by ordinary parishioners.

7 Holy Wisdom Bell Tower Church (XV-XVIII). 10:00–18:00 except Wed, break 14:00–15:00; from Fri to Sun: until 20:00; closed from November to May. 170 rub. The snow-white five-span belfry, attracting the eye from the river, was built in 1439 instead of the predecessor that collapsed from the flood. At the entrance to the building there are several heavy bells of the 16th-17th centuries, and smaller bells are on display inside the belfry, for which you need to purchase a ticket. The same ticket entitles you to go up to the observation deck with views of the Yaroslav's Court, walk along the eastern side of the wall from the belfry to the Spasskaya Tower and visit a small exhibition of ancient weapons and armor inside the Palace Tower. Adjacent to the belfry is a two-storey house of the 17th century with stone architraves and a belt of runner and curb.

8  Millennium of Russia (1862). The monument in honor of the millennium of the calling of the Varangians to Rus' was opened in September 1862 and is a real masterpiece of monumental art. The project of the monument was made by sculptors M.O. Mikeshin and I.N. Schroeder and architect V.A. Hartmann, and his first sketch, according to rumors, was drawn by young Mikeshin on a napkin in the dining room of the Academy of Arts. During the years of occupation, the monument was dismantled, the lanterns surrounding it and the bronze lattice were taken to Germany, the sculptures were thrown to the ground. The monument was restored immediately after the liberation of the city, but the lanterns and the grate appeared again only in the 1970s. It is a combination of the royal orb, the Monomakh's cap and the veche bell and is crowned with a kneeling female figure, symbolizing Russia, and an angel blessing her. More than a hundred different figures are located in two tiers below. A few figures of the second tier depict prominent statesmen and symbols of the most important historical events, such as the baptism of Rus', the liberation from the Mongol-Tatar yoke or the victory in the Northern War. The lower tier is given to the best representatives of the country, including military and folk heroes, writers, artists, educators and famous statesmen.

In ancient times, the Vladychny Court, which was the residence of religious ministers, occupied the northwestern part of the citadel and was fenced off from the rest of the fortress by a wall. Exactly in this courtyard, the Novgorodians announced their accession to the Moscow principality, from here Ivan the Terrible gave the signal to start the oprichnina pogrom. In the XIV-XV centuries, the courtyard included many religious, residential and commercial buildings, which arose through the efforts of Archbishops Vasily Kaliki and Euthymius II. But from that time only one civil structure has come down to us - the Vladychnaya Chamber. All other buildings in this part of the citadel appeared later.

9  The Faceted (Vladychnaya) Chamber (1443). 10:00–18:00 except Mon. full / preferential - 150/80 rubles. The oldest building of the Vladychny Court was built in the 1430-1440s and is the oldest civil building in the country. The three-storey brick building appeared due to the efforts of Euthymius II, and German craftsmen gave the building an unusual Gothic look. The upper floors of the chambers were intended for all sorts of festive events, and the basement served as a warehouse or dungeon. The chamber is famous for the rib vaults of the main halls, which form faceted ceilings, hence its second name - the Faceted Chamber. The building currently houses two exhibits. On the second floor, in the Gothic Hall and the Chamber of the Cross, a unique collection of jewelry and arts and crafts of the 5th-17th centuries is presented, and in the one-pillar hall of the first floor, decorated with a monumental portal, there is an exhibition "The Chamber of Archbishop Euthymius II in the Vladychny Court". Adjacent to the chamber is the 19th-century vicars' building, in front of which there is an excavation of the chamber of Archbishop Basil (1350).
10 Church of St. Sergius of Radonezh and the Clock Ringer, Kremlin, Veliky Novgorod. The gate church of St. Sergius of Radonezh (1459-1463) became the first temple in Rus' in the name of this saint - however, a later version of the structure has come down to us. Nearby rises the Chasozvonya, erected in 1673 instead of the collapsed St. Euthymius Pillar. For a slight roll, it is sometimes compared to the Leaning Tower of Pisa.
11 Likhudov Corps. full / preferential - 60/30 rubles. It was built in 1670 on the foundations of a 15th-century building known from historical literature as the "Archbishop's Palace". In fact, it was a huge economic and service complex, which had "amenities" rare for that time - a kind of sewerage and garbage chute that went towards the moat. The building of the Likhudov Corps is made in the spirit of its time, and the name is due to the Likhud brothers, who opened the Greek-Slavonic school here, later transformed into a theological seminary. To the north of the Likhudov Corps, on the same foundations of the 15th century, another similar building was built, which housed the Judgment and Spiritual orders. And even to the north, the ruins of the same “Archbishop's Palace” stretch.
12 Nikitsky building, Novgorod Kremlin, 11 bldg. 1. It got its name from the nearby cells of Bishop Nikita (XI-XII century) and is a multi-temporal building. Its oldest part is the eastern wall, left over from the fortress wall that once separated the Vladychny Court from the rest of the citadel.
13  Entering Jerusalem Church (1759). Not the most interesting building of the citadel, located next to St. Sophia Cathedral. The baroque church was built in 1759 on the site of an older structure from the mid-14th century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the building was rebuilt again, and then destroyed during the war. Restored in 1958 and adapted for a lecture hall.
14 Office building (XVIII - XIX centuries), Novgorod Kremlin, 4. An architectural monument of classicism, built in the 1780s according to the project of architect V.S. Polivanova, meets visitors with a pair of bronze lions. The rooms on the first floor are puzzling with vaulted ceilings made in the spirit of the 17th century. Once the provincial administration was located here, where A.I., exiled to Novgorod, served in 1842-1842. Herzen. Now the building is shared by the Novgorod Museum (see What to do) and the regional scientific library.
15  Regional Philharmonic. One of the “youngest” buildings of the citadel, however, traces its history back to 1716, when, by Peter’s decree, an orphanage and an almshouse were opened in the then existing one-story building. In 1770, the building was built on and given over to the Metropolitan's Chambers, but, by the way, it was almost never used for its intended purpose - the bishops spent most of their time in the capital. The one-story building adjacent to the chambers was built on in 1912 and turned into the Diocesan House, given in 1921 to the theater of the October Revolution, and in the post-war years to the drama theater. Now the regional philharmonic society is located here.
16  Church of the Intercession. The pretty baroque-looking church was built no earlier than 1580, and acquired its present appearance at the end of the 17th century.
17 Church of Andrew Stratelates Church, Novgorod Kremlin. from May to October Thu–Mon 10:00–18:00, from November to May Thu–Mon 10:00–17:00. full / preferential - 30/20 rubles. The southern chapel of the large Borisoglebsky Cathedral of the 12th century that has not come down to us, built by order of the Novgorod rich man Sotko Sytinich. The cathedral burned many times and in the middle of the 15th century, under Euthymius II, it was completely rebuilt. At the same time, the chapel of Andrei Stratilat appeared. In the 17th century, the cathedral collapsed, and it was dismantled to the ground, retaining only the southern aisle. The church was restored in the 2000s, the murals of the 16th-17th centuries have been preserved in the interior.
18  Eternal Flame of Glory. Opened in 1965 on the site of two mass graves. In one, 6 Soviet figures who died in 1923-1937 are buried, in the other - 19 soldiers of the 59th army who laid down their lives in the winter of 1944. The authors of the monument are Leningrad artists and architects Ya. A. Svirsky, V. M. Skorokhodov, E. M. Rapoport and P. Yu. Yushkantsev.


Around the Kremlin

Around the citadel is the Kremlin park, which arose after the war on the territory of the former Summer Garden. In turn, the Summer Garden was laid out at the beginning of the 19th century on the site of the hidden ramparts of the Small Earthen City - one of the rings of defensive fortifications around the fortress of the 16th century. The Kremlin park is suitable for a leisurely walk and pleases with shady alleys, fountains and monuments, not to mention the views of the old fortress.

19  Musical monument to S.V. Rachmaninov. Sergei Rachmaninov was a native of the Novgorod province and in early childhood he often visited his maternal grandmother Sofya Alexandrovna Butakova, who owned a house opposite the Tithes Monastery and a small estate in the vicinity of Novgorod. Here he first heard the ringing of Novgorod bells, which left an indelible mark on his soul and later embodied in wonderful music. True, there is practically nothing left of either the house or the estate, and in general, only the Rachmaninoff Conservatory and a monument erected in 2009 in the Kremlin park remind of the famous countryman in the city. The double-sided monument was made by the sculptor A.I. Rukavishnikov and architects V.V. Zakharkina and I.Ya. Bezlakov. On the one hand, the composer, two human heights in size, sits on the back of a park bench, and on the other, this bench itself is located - its dimensions are such that the legs of those who want to be photographed on it hang funny in the air. But the main feature of the monument is quite different - it sounds! Somewhere in the depths there is an audio equipment that transmits well-known archival recordings of Rachmaninoff's works around the clock, including piano concertos performed by the author.
20 Vazhnya (Sennaya scales), Sennaya Square, 5. A small building of the 19th century, designed by engineer F.I. Rerierga. This is one of the very few civil pre-revolutionary buildings that survived the war in Novgorod. The building is used as a tourist information center.
21 Victory Monument, at the end of the street. Meretskov-Volosov. The memorial complex was installed on the banks of the Volkhov River on Ekaterininskaya Gorka, located in the southern part of the Kremlin Park. It was opened on January 20, 1974 on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the liberation of Novgorod from the Nazis; the authors of the project were sculptors G.V. Neroda, A. Filippova and architects A. Dushkin, A. Saykovsky. The monument, nicknamed by the caustic townspeople the Horse, is arranged very unpretentiously and consists of an eight-meter equestrian statue, behind which rises a thirty-meter brick tower topped with a boat with a balcony. An internal spiral staircase leads to the balcony, whether it is possible for mere mortals to climb there is unknown. Jan 2022 edit
Several more churches / monasteries are located around the citadel no further than one block from the Kremlin park.
22 Trinity Church in Yamskaya Sloboda, st. Troitskaya-Proboynaya, 9. The first version of the church was built in 1365 by order of local merchants who traded with Yugra. After several fires and restorations in 1734, the church was actually rebuilt, retaining only the foundation from the previous building, part of which, to the delight of scientists, has survived to this day. In the 19th century, a stone aisle and a tiered bell tower with a spire appeared, replacing the burned-out wooden buildings. During the Great Patriotic War, the church was badly damaged and was partially restored only in the 1970s. Fragments of frescoes of the 18th century can be seen in the kiot above the northern entrance, and typical Novgorod tiled decor has been preserved on the drum. Across the road from the church is the famous Trinity excavation site, an archaeological site that has become the source of many valuable finds. You can get to the excavation on your own (9:30–19:00) or with a guided tour, which are held from mid-June to mid-September on any day except Monday.
23 Vlasiy Church, Bolshaya Vlasyevskaya street, 2. Closed to the public. Like many Novgorod monuments, the church is well located in an open space, which makes it possible to view it from all four sides. This is a typical single-domed Novgorod church with three-lobed facades, built in 1407 on the site of a burned-out wooden church of 1184. During the Great Patriotic War, the church was almost completely destroyed and after the war it was almost demolished, but the intercession of the "scientific community" of the two capitals saved it. In 1954-1959, according to the surviving fragments of ancient vaults, the remains of domes and parts of perspective portals with lancet completion, the church was restored “in the forms of the 15th century”, the restoration project was carried out by D.M. Fedorov.

24  Desyatinny Monastery (Nativity of the Virgin) , Desyatinnaya Street, 18. 10:00–17:30. The ancient monastery was founded in the 13th century by the mother of Alexander Nevsky, according to legend, on the very spot where in 1170 the Novgorodians defeated the Suzdal army. Nothing has survived from those ancient times, the oldest local monument is a mysterious red-brick pillar in the middle of the monastery, which is actually the ruins of the Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary of 1397. The monastery is visible from afar thanks to the snow-white gate belfry of the early 19th century, however, heavily rebuilt at the beginning of the 20th century and restored after military destruction only today. The walls and most of the buildings of the monastery date back to the 19th - early 20th century. The monastery does not operate and is used for exhibition halls of the Museum of Artistic Culture of the Novgorod Land. There are also artists' workshops and a porcelain museum workshop.
25  Church of the Twelve Apostles on Propastekh , st. Tithe, 6. A miniature, very proportional church, one of the typical representatives of Novgorod architecture. Its first stone version, built in 1455, had a three-lobed, modestly decorated facade, which is easily recognizable in the current appearance of the temple. During the restructuring of the 16th century, the silhouette of the church was simplified by dismantling the belfry and the western narthex, and the roof was replaced with a four-pitched one, converted in 1904 into a modern eight-pitched one. The first wooden church “in Propastekh” is mentioned in the chronicle as early as 1230, when a terrible famine occurred in Novgorod and a special person brought entire dead families to the “church near the skudelni” or “to the abyss”. During the Great Patriotic War, the church almost did not suffer, however, after the war it was restored, strengthened and studied.


South of the Novgorod citadel

26 White Tower (Alekseevskaya). The only stone tower left from the defensive structures of the Round City of the end of the 16th century. The fortifications included a moat filled with water, earthen ramparts with wooden walls on them, and more than forty wooden towers, partially replaced with stone ones over time. The ramparts still encircle the entire old part of the city, but of the towers, only Alekseevskaya, built in 1582-1584, has survived. It may have survived thanks to an unusually strong foundation on bulk soil. Inside the tower is hollow, not even the ceilings between the floors have been preserved. If you want to take a walk along the rampart, you can turn onto the picturesque Oborony Street that runs along it, resembling rather a simple village street. There is nothing unusual in the shaft, except for the fact that it goes right in the middle of a modern city, and you still won’t be able to bypass it when walking around the center.
27  Church of the Apostles Peter and Paul on Sinichya Gora (on Silnishche), Petrovsky Cemetery. The church was built from plinth in 1185-1192. In style and construction techniques, it combines the features of Polotsk and Novgorod architecture. Until the middle of the 18th century, the church was part of the Peter and Paul Monastery, after its abolition it turned into a cemetery. In the 1960s, attempts were made to partially restore the forms of the 12th century to the temple. Its current state is not conducive to visiting.
28  Voskresensky Monastery, Oborony Street, 13, 15 (on foot - on the way from the Kremlin to Yuryev Monastery along Troitskaya Street, after the White Tower, turn to the Volkhov River and along Oborony Street to the end.). Two churches - John the Merciful on Myachina (1422) and the Assurance of Thomas (1463) - all that remains of the Resurrection Monastery, founded in the XII century. Both churches were partially rebuilt in the 17th century. The Church of St. John the Merciful, with an unusual two-span belfry on the facade, suffered during the Great Patriotic War and was restored in the 1960s. The Church of the Assurance of Thomas, which has preserved its original apses of different heights with a runner's girdle, has not yet been fully restored. Due to its remote location and deplorable state, the monastery is not particularly popular with tourists.
29  Church of the Annunciation in Arkazhy (Annunciation on Myachina). The church is good not only for its typical Novgorod forms, but also for its picturesque and secluded location. It stands on the southern shore of Lake Myachino, in the former village of Arkazhi, from where its two common names come from. It is believed that the church was built in 70 days in 1179 on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the victory of the Novgorodians over the Suzdal army. Only the lower half of the original structure survived, while the collapsed vaults and dome were restored in the 17th century. At the same time, an eight-pitched roof appeared. Inside, fragments of the painting of 1189 were preserved, which were almost completely destroyed by the German troops during the war years.


To the north of the Novgorod citadel

30 The Church of Theodore Stratilat on Shchirkov Street with a bell tower (1294), st. Novoluchanskaya, 10. Mon–Sun 8:00–19:00. This stone church was built in 1292-1294 on the site of a wooden one and, surprisingly, its entire lower half has been preserved without later layers. In 1682, new vaults and domes were erected over the remains of the building, and a tiered bell tower appeared at the beginning of the 19th century. The facades of the church are decorated with inset crosses of the 14th-15th centuries - four on the northern and one on the southern facades, and the tiled decoration of the 17th century has been preserved on the drums.
31 Holy Spirit Monastery, st. Dukhovskaya. closed. One of the largest and richest monasteries in Novgorod is mentioned in the chronicle as already existing in 1162. His first stone building was the Church of the Holy Spirit (1357), and the current church with this dedication dates only to the end of the 19th century. But the Trinity Church with a refectory, built in 1557, has been preserved. The five-domed church, finished with red brick, is interesting for its rather intricate decoration of the facades with the upper six-part articulation and gable coating, the drums and apses are framed with belts of pentagonal recesses. Now the monastery is not operating, the churches are closed, but are available for external inspection.

32 The Church of Peter and Paul in Kozhevniki, Zverinskaya Street, 4. Open from April to October Wed–Sun 11:00–16:00. full / preferential - 30/20 rubles. It is located outside the Earthen City in Kozhevniki, the area inhabited by furriers-tanners who were evicted outside the city limits because of the unpleasant odors that accompanied their work. The church was built in 1406 and thanks to the decor of the facades, it is one of the most beautiful city churches. Its original appearance with unplastered walls made of red shell rock and brick decor on the facades was restored during the restoration of 1959. Among the features of the interior is the use of an open stone staircase to enter the choir stalls, instead of the usual staircase in Novgorod in the thickness of the western wall. A museum has been organized inside the church, and its iconostasis must be looked for in the Novgorod historical museum in citadel.
33 Nikolo-Belsky Monastery, Zverinaya (Bredova), 14. It existed as an independent one in the XIV-XVIII centuries and, albeit in a rebuilt form, but retained the ancient church of St. Nicholas the White (1313). Later, the monastery was assigned to the neighboring Zverin Monastery and the rest of the buildings on its territory date back to the 19th century. The Church of Nikola Bely is a representative of traditional Novgorod churches with a minimum of decor; now it houses a center of folk art. There is a museum on the territory of the monastery.
34 Zverin-Pokrovsky monastery, Zverinskaya street, 16 10:00–17:00 except Thu and Fri. Church of Simeon the God-Receiver: full / preferential - 60/30 rubles, admission to the Intercession Cathedral is free. The monastery was founded near the confluence of the Gzen River with the Volkhov in the Zverinets forest, known since the 11th century, where Novgorod princes hunted. The date of foundation of the monastery is unknown, but already in 1148 there was a wooden church of the Intercession in it. Its most ancient buildings are the stone Church of the Intercession of the Virgin (1399) and the Church of Simeon the God-Receiver (1467), built in the Novgorod style, built in one day to get rid of the plague and known for well-preserved frescoes of the 15th century, which can be viewed during the opening hours of the museum. Also in the monastery there is a large, angular and, by Novgorod standards, not very interesting Intercession Cathedral (1901). Near the monastery in 2010, a monument to Peter and Fevronia was erected.
35 Monument to the Novgorod militia of 1812, Velikaya street. Installed in 2012 in memory of the heroic deed of the Novgorod militia during the Patriotic War of 1812. The monument was recreated by the sculptor A.I. Rukovishnikov instead of the destroyed pre-revolutionary monument to A.P. Bryullov.
36 Church of the Assumption of the Virgin in Kolmovo, Pavel Levitt Street 18, bldg. 3. Not the most interesting of the local churches was built in the Kolmovsky Monastery in 1530-1533 on the basis of an earlier stone church. The hipped bell tower standing nearby, most likely, appeared along with the church. The temple was restored at the end of the 20th century; inside there are icons of the 19th century.


Trading/ Torgovaya side

Yaroslav's Court

37  Yaroslav's Courtyard is a section between Volkhov and Bolshaya Moskovskaya Street, where seven ancient churches are located on a small square. Five of them stand in close proximity, and the other two are a little further away - on the other side of Ilyina Street. In ancient times, somewhere here was the residence of Yaroslav the Wise, which, in fact, gave the name to this territory. Once Yaroslav's Courtyard was a very lively place. It was densely built up with shops, barns and shopping arcades, placed right between the churches. Churches also served trade: their thick stone walls were good protection from both thieves and fires. The famous Novgorod veche gathered right there, solving all sorts of serious issues, and at the berths (in Novgorod, vymolov) merchant ships crowded along the coast: at times there were so many of them that a fire could spread from one coast to another.
38 St. Nicholas Cathedral on Dvorishche (Nikolo-Dvorishchensky Cathedral). Wed–Sun 10:00–18:00. full / preferential - 100/50 rubles. The main temple of Torg was built in 1113-1136 by Prince Mstislav, the son of Vladimir Monomakh. It is designed within the framework of the Kyiv architectural tradition of the late 11th-early 12th century and is the oldest not only on the Yaroslav's Court, but also on the entire Trade side. By the end of the 19th century, the cathedral came with one central onion dome. The harmonious helmet-shaped form of the five current chapters is the result of scientific restoration. Inside, incomplete fragments of frescoes from the first half of the 12th century have been preserved, including the Last Judgment, Job's wife and St. Lazarus.
39  Veche Square. It served as a gathering place for free Novgorodians from the moment the princely residence appeared, and before that, the veche gathered in Novgorod Detinets. The square with the veche bell was located near the walls of the Nikolo-Dvorishchensky Cathedral from the side of the Pyatnitskaya Church and was once a very busy place where the pressing issues of the life of the state were resolved. The last time the Veche met in 1478, after which the Novgorod Republic ceased to exist. Now it is a small lawn with a high mound, where nothing reminds of the turbulent past.
40 The Church of John the Baptist on Opoki (1127-1230, 1453). The one-domed massive church was built by Prince Vsevolod, the grandson of Vladimir Monomakh. In 1453 it was re-arranged with the preservation of the forms of the XII century. In the XII-XVI centuries, it was the main church of the association of wax merchants "Ivanovskoe Sto", which included only very rich people. On the lower floors of the building, pre-sale preparation of goods was carried out and control standards of measures were stored. During the war, the church was destroyed, rebuilt in 1952-1956.
41 Church of St. George in Lubyanica at the Market, Yaroslav's Court. 10:00–18:00 except Wed and Thu. full / preferential - 60/30 rubles. This not the most harmonious building in the form of a low octagon on a massive quadrangle arose as a result of "grafting" to the ancient building of the Moscow Baroque. From the first stone church of 1356, the foundation, plinth and masonry of walls to a height of 4.5 meters have been preserved. The rest appeared in the XVII-XVIII centuries. Frescoes of the Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior on Kovalev Field are exhibited inside, do not miss it.
42 Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin at the Market, st. Bolshaya Moskovskaya 5-a. The first stone church was founded in 1135 in memory of the Novgorodians who died in the battle with the Suzdalians near Zhdana Gora. By 1144, the construction was completed, but later the church was rebuilt several times. In 1458, the building was actually rebuilt, although on the old basis. The church is notable for its simple form and rather laconic decoration in the form of segmentation of the facade with shoulder blades and a belt of a runner on a low drum.
43 Church of Paraskeva Pyatnitsa at the Market (1207), Yaroslav's Courtyard. from 1 April to 30 September: 11:00-18:00 except Tue and Wed. 30 rub. Viewing and visiting this unusual church, which has its own recognizable face, gives some idea of the construction methods of ancient Novgorod churches. The current eclectic building is the result of half a century of scientific restoration carried out under the direction of G.M. Stender. In the history of the building, as many as 15 construction periods were identified, and therefore Shtender made some assorted forms from different times out of the building, trying to show the development of Novgorod construction technology. By the way, the eight-pitched roof and a small cupola on a thin drum appeared during the last reconstruction of the building. The very first Church of Pyatnitsa at Torgu was built in 1207 by overseas merchants, as the Novgorodians who traded abroad were called. The general outlines of the new church (the layout of its first version can be seen in the historical part of the museum in Detinets) were completely atypical for the Novgorod churches of that time and repeated the silhouettes of two southern Russian structures - the Smolensk church of Michael the Archangel and the Chernigov Pyatnitskaya church. However, the new type of temple took root perfectly on local soil, and later similar silhouettes repeatedly appeared during the construction of Novgorod churches until the 15th century.
44 Church of the Myrrhbearing Women. The church was built in 1510 on the site of a burned-out wooden one, which replaced the stone church of 1445. The main customer for the construction was the founder of the merchant dynasty Ivan Syrkov, who was sent to Novgorod after the republic joined the Moscow principality. Cold, and then warm aisles appeared in 1537 through the efforts of the grandson of Ivan Syrkov. The church itself became most famous for the fact that at the end of the 16th century a part of the treasury of Ivan the Terrible was stored in its warehouses. During the war years, the building was damaged and was restored in 1958-1960. Now it is the Children's Cultural Center, where exhibitions and concerts are held.
45 Church of Procopius. A small single-domed church with an eight-slope roof was built in 1529 at the expense of Ivan Syrkov's son, Dmitry. The church was used not only as a place of worship, but also as a warehouse, and therefore the inside is divided into three floors and a cellar. In the shape of the building, the influence of the Moscow tradition is noticeable. Refurbished in 1954.
46 Gate tower of Gostiny Dvor (XVII century). full / preferential - 60/30 rubles. A civil building with two passage arches and a small tower with a tent adjoining the tented bell tower of the Nikolo-Dvorishchensky Cathedral. The purpose of the building remained unclear for a long time, but now it is believed that it was the gate tower of Gostiny Dvor, built in 1686. Another surviving fragment of the Gostiny Dvor is a white arcade standing alone on the river bank. It miraculously survived the demolition of the complex in the 1950s, and now, thanks to its prominent location, it is one of the symbols of the city.
47 Church of the Annunciation and Michael the Archangel at the Market, st. Bolshaya Moskovskaya, 4. A pair of churches standing nearby, once part of a single ensemble. The exact date of construction of the unplastered one-domed Church of the Annunciation is unknown. According to one version, it appeared no later than 1466, but it was probably seriously rebuilt in the 16th century. It is connected with the church of Michael the Archangel converted into a civil building (beginning of the 14th century) by a massive gallery crowned with a white hipped bell tower.


East of Yaroslav's Court

48 Church of the Savior on Ilyin, st. Ilyina, 26. Wed–Sun 10:00–17:00, closed in rainy weather. 120 rubles - adult, 60 rubles. - students, children under 16 - free of charge. One of the most interesting local churches, which cannot be ignored, was built in 1374 by the inhabitants of Ilyinskaya Street. The church was erected on the site of a wooden temple, known at least since 1169 - the year of the siege by the Suzdal people and the miraculous salvation of Novgorod thanks to the icon “The Sign of the Mother of God” kept in the church (today the icon can be seen in St. Sophia Cathedral). Compositionally, this is a one-domed, one-apse church typical of Novgorod, which once had three-bladed facades with a roof covering instead of the current vaulted roof of the 16th-17th centuries. From all other local churches, it is distinguished by the noble intricacy of the decor of the facades. One of the highlights of this decor is the asymmetrically arranged sculptural crosses, and of the new decorative elements, a set of three windows and two niches, united by a multi-bladed brow, is used here. But the main thing is inside: these are fragments of murals of 1378, made by Theophanes the Greek. The frescoes, which often suffered from fires and repairs, were cleared of plaster by the 1930s, however, some of the murals suffered during the war years. Now from the famous frescoes you can see the famous domed image of the face of the Almighty Savior, as well as fragments of the Eucharist in the altar. The murals of the Trinity Chapel on the choir stalls in the northwestern corner of the temple are best preserved.
49 Znamensky Cathedral, st. Ilyina, 26. 10:00–17:00 except Tue and Wed. full / preferential - 60/30 rubles. The cathedral was built in 1682-1688 specifically to store the famous local icon of the Mother of God of the Sign, until then located in the nearby Church of the Savior on Ilyin. It was erected by the forces of Moscow archers and Novgorod carpenters on the site of the eponymous church of the XIV century. In 1702, the walls of the cathedral were painted by Kostroma masters, later their frescoes were recorded and cleared only during the post-war restoration. During the war years, the cathedral was damaged by the Germans, who set up barracks in it, and was restored only in the 1970s. The four-pillar cathedral with its five domes and a bypass gallery is made in the spirit of Moscow and Kostroma traditions. The protruding western porch acquired its present form only in the middle of the 19th century. In the 17th century, an equally alien hipped bell tower was erected next to the cathedral, and the Holy Gates leading to the cathedral with two covered domes appeared in the 19th century.
50 Church of the Apostle Philip and St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, st. Nikolskaya, 34. A rare type of double church with an unusual number of cupolas covered with ploughshares. Two completely independent churches were built in 1527-1528 on the basis of a stone church of 1384. The southern church of Philip was intended for Novgorod boyar families, and the northern Nikolskaya church was intended for residents of nearby villages. At the beginning of the 17th century, the parishes united, and services in churches began to take turns. Both churches were rebuilt many times, in the 17th century a small hipped bell tower was attached to them. In 1899, the St. Nicholas Church was dismantled, and at the end of the 20th century, having completed the research of the monument, it was restored in the forms of the 16th century, while retaining the later bell tower and the western porch.
51 Church of the Apostles Peter and Paul on Slavna, st. Znamenskaya, 4. It was built in 1367 by the Novgorodian Lazuta next to the German Court, which at that time stood in the southern part of the Trade Side, called Slavensky Hill or Glorious. Until the 1950s, the church came without vaults and domes, they were restored in use during the restoration. The composition of the temple is typical of the Novgorod churches of the 14th century; along the edges of the southern and northern portals, ancient stone crosses are embedded in the wall. Nothing of interest remained inside.
52 Church of Elijah the Prophet on Slavna, st. Oddly enough, this temple is one of the oldest in the city, but its condition makes a special walk to it absolutely meaningless, unless you decide to visit it at the same time as the Church of the Apostles Peter and Paul standing a hundred meters away on Slavna. The official date of construction of the church is 1202, in the 15th century it was completely rebuilt, after the war it was restored and began to be used for household needs and even as a dwelling.


North of Yaroslav's Court

53 Clement Church on Ivorov Street (1520), st. Bolshaya Moskovskaya, 36. Chronologically, one of the last churches in the Novgorod style, though distinguished by somewhat ponderous squat proportions. It was built of brick in 1520 by the Moscow merchant Tarakanov on the stone foundation of the 14th century church. The massive western vestibule once had a two-tiered bell tower (XVII century), which was dismantled into bricks in the 1950s.
54 Church of Demetrius of Thessalonica, st. Bolshaya Moskovskaya, 42. It was built in 1462 on the foundation of the first stone temple that quickly collapsed in 1381. The church, quite traditional in form, has an unusual openwork decoration of a runner and a curb covering the upper part of the southern and eastern facades. Nearby is a hipped bell tower of the 17th century.
55 The Church of Theodore Stratilat on the Brook, st. Fedorovsky Ruchey, 19. 10:00–17:00 except Thu and Fri. adult/preferential — 60/30 rubles. As it is written on a memorial tablet, the church was built in 1360-1361 by order of the mayor Vasily Danilovich. According to other sources, the customer was the posadnik Semyon Andreevich with his mother Natalya. In the second part of the name of the church - "on the Stream" - the memory of the Fedorovsky Stream, which was covered in the 20th century, was preserved, which gave the name to the street that arose in its place. The church is one of the best examples of Novgorodian architecture of the 14th century. This traditional cubic temple with three-lobed facades is good for its intricate decor, which became a model for later buildings: the ancient segmentation of the facades with shoulder blades returned, and decorations from niches, hollows and crosses were added to it, decorating the drum with arcs-brows and belts of arches and a runner. The hipped bell tower with the refectory was added in the 17th century and is somewhat discordant with the ancient temple. Inside, although fragmentary, a painting made in red-brown tones of the second half of the 14th century has been preserved, reminiscent of the frescoes of the Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior and often attributed to Theophanes the Greek himself. Numerous graffiti of the 14th-15th centuries have been preserved on the inside-wall stairs leading to the choirs, and secret chambers intended for storing all sorts of valuables are hidden under the stairs of the southern wall. The church was restored in 1959, now it houses a museum.
56 Church of Nikita the Martyr (1557). A massive church, not distinguished by particular grace, consisting of a large number of outbuildings. It was erected during the time of Ivan the Terrible near the unpreserved Sovereign's Court and at first had five domes and a gallery-ambulance. Perhaps its best parts are the bell tower with a spire attached from the south and the northwestern Nikolsky aisle. The western vestibule of the early 18th century was recreated in the 2000s.
57 Mikhailitsky Monastery, Molotkovskaya street, 14-16. From the ancient monastery with a dedication to the Nativity of the Virgin, only two buildings have come down to us - the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin restored in the forms of the 17th century (1379) and the refectory with the church of Mikhail Malein (1557). Both temples now belong to the Old Believer Pomeranian community.
58  Church of Boris and Gleb in Plotniki  Wikidata item, emb. A. Nevsky. The church has a picturesque location and is clearly visible from the opposite (left) bank of the Volkhov. It was built by order of Novgorod and Moscow merchants, and in its architecture the influence of Moscow masters is clearly visible, which manifested itself, among other things, in the choice of building material. The church, made entirely of bricks, was placed on the foundation of the temple of 1377, inheriting from it an archaic plan with one semicircular apse. Otherwise, the form of the church has changed markedly. Although the church remained four-pillared, retaining the corresponding three-part articulation of the facades, now each “section” of the facade has acquired its own gable cover, and the number of domes has increased to five. The covering of the western vestibule repeats the forms of the main volume, and in the decoration of the apse and drums, a belt made of a new geometric element - pentagonal two-ledged niches - is repeatedly used. Next to the church is one of the two city monuments to Alexander Nevsky (sculptor Yuri Chernov, 1985), the second - a white bust of the prince - is installed on the Railway Station Square.
59 Church of St. John the Theologian on Vitka, emb. A. Nevsky. The church in the Novgorod style was built in 1383-1384 and was part of a convent, historical information about which has not been preserved. The temple has almost completely preserved its ancient forms, having lost the original three-blade facade, and in the 16th century it acquired a vestibule, later replaced by a refectory with a small belfry. In 1929, the church was almost demolished for brick, but was spared and later used as a warehouse at a nearby boat station. In 2001, the church was transferred to the Old Believer community.

60 Antoniev Monastery, Antonovo district (From Yaroslav's courtyard to the monastery you can take bus number 5, or walk along Bolshaya Moskovskaya Street, turning onto Studencheskaya Street; walking along the shore is not recommended: you can run into a fence, weeds or garbage.). The monastery was founded in 1106 by Anthony the Roman, who became its first abbot. According to legend, he sailed from Rome by sea on a rock, and according to a more prosaic version, he came to Novgorod from the Kiev-Pechersk monastery.
On the territory of the monastery there are buildings of different periods, some of them are occupied by the faculties of the former Pedagogical Institute, and now the Yaroslav the Wise University.

61 Cathedral of the Nativity of the Virgin, Antonovo district, 3. Tue–Sun 10:00–17:00. full / preferential - 60/30 rubles. The main attraction of the monastery is the three-nave single-domed cathedral (1117-1119), in which fragments of frescoes dating back to 1125 were discovered at the end of the 19th century. It is believed that in the 17th century the old frescoes were renovated, and in 1837 some of them were knocked down and a new painting was made. The surviving fragments of the 12th century mural were uncovered only by the end of the 20th century and, of course, you can easily distinguish them from later ones. Look for these fragments on the apses, on the sides of the altar, and on the western side of the eastern pillars.
62 Church of the Presentation of the Lord with a refectory, Antonovo district, 3/2. ☎ +7 (9021) 49-67-24. It became the first Novgorod temple without pillars and at first had an octagonal covering.
A small belfry above the gate was built in 1807; cells from the beginning of the 18th century, rebuilt in the 19th century, have also been preserved.
63 Church of the Nativity on the Red Field Wikidata item, Nativity Cemetery. 10:00–14:00 except Thu and Fri. full / preferential - 60/30 rubles. The church was built outside the Round City in 1381-1382 on the site of an even more ancient temple and at about the same time became the main temple of the Nativity Monastery. Around the church, there has long been a Christmas cemetery, closer to us, the princes Dolgorukovs executed in the 18th century were buried here, and in the southern part of the cemetery there is the grave of Lyubov Petrovna Rakhmaninova, mother of S.V. Rachmaninov. The church was hardly rebuilt, except for the change in the shape of the roof and the addition of a vestibule in 1829. Apparently, this is precisely why a fairly complete ensemble of monumental painting has been preserved in it, created, as they say, by visiting (Serbian?) masters in the 14th century, although no documentary evidence has been found either about the date of painting or about its performers.
64 Derevianitsky Monastery. It was first mentioned in 1335 on the occasion of the construction of the stone Church of the Resurrection on Derevyanitsa in it. In 1695, they decided to replace the dilapidated church, but the new stone church stood for only a couple of years, after which in 1700 it was replaced with the five-domed Resurrection Cathedral, to which side chapels were later added. The Assumption Church with a refectory and a bell tower appeared in 1738, was significantly rebuilt in the 19th century, and was restored after the war in the forms of the 18th century. In the 19th century, a diocesan women's school was organized on the territory of the monastery, for which a three-story brick building was specially built. The monastery is not active. You can get to the monastery by buses No. 17A or No. 1, 13, 24 to the stop Soviet Army Street.



Yuryevo is a small village located near Novgorod near the place where the Volkhov River flows out of Lake Ilmen. There are as many as three local attractions near it, which you can only miss if you don’t have time at all. It is easy to get to Yuryevo by public transport: two circular routes No. 7 and 7A run regularly right from the railway station building from the side of the forecourt (schedule here). The fare is the same as for trips around the city.

65 Peryn Skete, Peryn Skete. ☎ +7 (8162) 77-45-39. open during daylight hours, in summer - Mon–Sun 6:00–22:30. Nowadays, this is just a monastery founded in 1828, but on its territory there is the smallest Novgorod church built around 1226 (its dimensions in plan are 7.5 × 9.5 meters). This alone suggests that the Peryn Skete is a difficult place with a very ancient history. There used to be an island here, which turned into a peninsula only in the 1960s. On the island there was a tract of Peryn, on which, according to scientists, there was a pagan sanctuary of the god of thunder Perun. This temple is mentioned in the chronicle, which tells that in 980, by order of Vladimir Svyatoslavovich himself (the one who later baptized Rus'), the idol of Perun was erected on the temple. All this may well be true: the pre-Christian site, as well as the traces of a pagan sanctuary, archaeologists immediately discovered.

After baptism, a wooden church of the Nativity of the Virgin was built on the site of the temple, which stood for a little over two hundred years, and later a stone church with the same dedication was placed instead. Perhaps at the same time the very first local monastery was founded, about which the chronicles only report that in 1386 it was burned by the Novgorodians themselves when the army of Moscow Prince Dmitry Donskoy approached. In the 18th century, the monastery, which survived many upheavals, was abolished, and in 1828 a skete was founded here. A little later, construction work began and new, very colorful monastic buildings made of red brick, which have survived to this day, appeared. At the same time, the ancient stone Church of the Nativity of Christ was also rebuilt, which was returned to its original appearance during the post-war restoration.

Actually, this church is the main reason to come here. It was built in the pre-Mongol era and is one of the first churches in the new Novgorod style. It is distinguished from later temples not only by its miniature size, but also by the noticeable "tapered" silhouette. By the way, the shape of the cross of the church is typical of the pre-Mongolian period.

Surrounded by a pine forest, the skete offers breathtaking views of the Volkhov and Ilmen, and on the opposite bank you can see the silhouette of the Church of the Savior on Nereditsa. In the skete, the monks made an eco-trail with information signs telling about the living creatures of the Peryn Peninsula - however, quite common for these latitudes.

66 Yuriev Monastery. ☎ +7 (8162) 77-30-20. Mon–Sun 10:00–20:00. The monastery was founded in 1030 by Yaroslav the Wise and for a long time was the first important local monastery, the Yurievskaya Lavra, in honor of its founder, who was named George (Yuri) at baptism. The ensemble of the monastery includes: St. George's Cathedral - katholikon of the monastery. Two five-domed cathedrals: Spassky and Holy Cross. The first stands opposite the St. George's Cathedral, the second - in the northeast corner of the monastery. Both were erected in 1824 after a great fire that destroyed the previous temples of the 1760s. The Church of the Icon of the Mother of God "The Burning Bush" and the Church of the Archangel Michael are located in the southeastern tower of the monastery fence. The four-tier gate bell tower was built in 1838-1841 according to the project of Carlo Rossi. It has rather strange proportions, and in order to explain this, they mention the legend according to which Nicholas I crossed out one tier from the project so that the bell tower would not exceed the height of the Ivan the Great bell tower. In the 1920s, the monastery was abolished and turned into a museum, and in the 1990s it was returned to the church and now it is a functioning monastery.
67 St. George's Cathedral. The stone cathedral was first mentioned in the annals under 1119, it was built by order of Prince Vsevolod, the grandson of Vladimir Monomakh, and the builder was the Russian master Peter. Like all ancient local churches, the cathedral was made of limestone, fastened with lime mortar and crushed bricks. It was not plastered, and its original appearance can be seen from the abandoned sections with ancient masonry. Fragments of the 12th-century painting have been preserved inside (they should be looked for in the slopes of the windows of the southern and northern corners), but the main painting dates from the beginning of the 20th century and was made by Vladimir craftsmen. From the 12th to the 14th century, the cathedral was a princely tomb, and therefore many celebrities of that era are buried inside.

Vitoslavlitsy - Museum of Wooden Architecture (next to St. George's Monastery.). ☎ +7 (8162) 79-21-50. Mon–Sun 10:00–17:00. full / preferential - 150/100 rubles. One of the best museums of wooden architecture in Russia was founded in 1964 by the efforts of the architect-restorer L.E. Krasnorechev. More than 30 wooden buildings brought from the surrounding villages have been collected on the territory, and the plans of the museum workers are even grander - to bring their collection to 70 copies, adding “small forms” like wells, swings and scales. The museum got its name in memory of the ancient village, mentioned in the annals under 1134 on the occasion of the construction of the Panteleimon Monastery. The remains of this monastery are located on the territory of the museum and are now being dealt with by archaeologists, but in the future it should become another museum exhibit. The first copy of the museum collection was the tent church of the Assumption of the Virgin from the village of Kuritsko (1595). The oldest wooden temple of the museum is the three-hipped Church of the Nativity of the Virgin from the village of Peredki; dendrochronological analysis determined the date of its construction as 1531. In the St. Nicholas Church (1765) one can see a four-tiered carved iconostasis, partially filled with icons of the 17th-18th centuries; concerts of sacred music are also held in it. The remaining churches and chapels of the museum date back to the 17th-18th centuries, while wooden houses and outbuildings date back to the 19th-20th centuries. The museum is divided into four sectors according to the areas of origin of objects and is planned in the form of a village, arranged like the old Novgorod villages. A special information stand informs which buildings can be viewed inside on the current working day.


Settlement/ Gorodishe

68 Settlement. An ancient settlement, first mentioned in chronicles under 1103. Scientists believe that it was it that was the old city in relation to the younger settlement - Novgorod. Once upon a time there was a princely residence on Gorodische, which included a palace, churches and outbuildings. From all this splendor, only the ruins of the Church of the Annunciation on Gorodische of the 14th century, rebuilt at the end of the 18th century, and then destroyed during the war, have come down to us. In 2012, another attraction appeared here - the "Prince's Stone". Archaeological excavations are underway at the site. Part of the princely residence, where, according to legend, Alexander Nevsky spent his childhood, is the Church of the Savior on Nereditsa (visiting it during the boat trip is not provided). From Gorodishche you can see the inaccessible Church of St. Nicholas on Lipna.
How to get there: There are several options: 1) take a one and a half hour walk along the Volkhov River on the ship "Veche", which is organized in the summer on Saturdays at 11:00, and on Sundays at 14:15, the price is 500 rubles. (2014); 2) get from the bus station of Novgorod by bus number 186 (3 times a day); 3) use a taxi or private transport.
69  Remains of the Church of the Annunciation on Gorodische , Gorodische. According to chronicles, the Church of the Annunciation on Gorodishche was founded at the beginning of the 12th century and became the second stone church in Novgorod after St. Sophia Cathedral. In the middle of the XIV century, the church was dismantled and a new temple was erected in its place, which was rebuilt in the XVIII-XIX centuries. During the Great Patriotic War, the church was turned into ruins as a result of artillery shelling. At present, the preservation of the remains of the temple of the XIV century has been completed. During the excavations on the western side of the church, the remains of the foundation of the old church of the XII century were found, which are museumified and available for viewing.


What to do

1 Novgorod Drama Theater (Новгородский академический театр драмы имени Ф.М. Достоевского), 14 Velikaya st., ☎ +7 816 2 77 34 45, +7 816 2 77 74 92, e-mail:
2 Novgorod Philharmony (Новгородская Областная Филармония), ☎ +7 (816 2) 77 37 48, +7 (816 2) 77 37 34, +7 (816 2) 77 27 77 (booking office), e-mail:

DinoLand Family Entertainment Centre.

Christmas fortune-telling, Vitoslavlitsy.
3 King Festival («Малый», новгородский театр для детей и молодежи), 32А Mira bul., ☎ +7 816 2 65 54 53, fax: +7 (8162) 65 54 53, e-mail:  Mid-April. They sometimes hold performances in English
International Bell Ringing Festival, Vitoslavlitsy.
International Music Festival and the International Young Pianists Contest. April-May
Ivan Kupala Day (pagan holiday merged with the Christian holiday of Birth of Saint John the Baptist), Ilmen-lake.
Summer festival "Sadko" (Садко). You can see real old-Russian folklore. "Sadko" based on Russian medieval epic Bylina. Adventurer, merchant and Musician from Novgorod. Also the main character from a Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov opera.

4 Novgorod Cinema ("Новгород", кинотеатр), 9 Lomonosova st., ☎ +7 816 2 62 62 43, e-mail:
5 Russia Cinema ("Россия", киноцентр), 66 Chernyakhovskogo st, ☎ +7 (816 2) 77 73 36 (booking office), +7 (816 2) 77 42 55 (automatic teller machine), e-mail:


What to do


Novgorod Museum-Reserve. All museum expositions, as well as the most valuable Novgorod churches, are combined into a museum-reserve. Its facilities have rather convenient, "floating" opening hours, i.e. on weekdays, at least some museums and churches are always open (different every day), and on weekends all are open. There are no single tickets. Each time you need to pay a rather modest amount (30-100 rubles), but if you consider that there are 30 objects in the reserve, it will turn out not so little. The prices indicated here are valid only for citizens of the Russian Federation and Belarus. If you have a different nationality and you cannot hide it, tickets will cost twice as much. Some temples are open only in summer, you can look at the frescoes only in dry weather.
Museum in the building of government offices, Novgorod Kremlin, 4. Part of the magnificent museum exposition is devoted to Novgorod history, including the famous Novgorod birch bark letters and old household items. The unique collection of iconography includes more than a thousand icons of the 11th-19th centuries, among which are several almost complete iconostases of ancient Novgorod churches and monasteries, as well as icons of Pskov, Moscow, Yaroslavl and Vologda masters. The hall of wooden products mainly presents exhibits from the surrounding churches, but there are also more exotic specimens: for example, the carved royal gates of the Pskov-Pechora Monastery. If you are even slightly interested in history, visiting this museum is a must in order to appreciate the level of development of medieval Novgorod, which is completely unthinkable for other ancient Russian lands.
Museum of Fine Arts, Sofiyskaya sq. 2. ☎ +7 (8162) 77-37-38. 10:00–18:00 except Mon; on Thu: until 21:00. full/preferential - 100/50 rubles. It occupies the building of the former Nobility Assembly of Deputies, built in 1851 according to the project of A.I. Stackenschneider (1802-1865) and significantly rebuilt a century later. The exposition "Russian Art of the 18th-20th Centuries" demonstrates a collection of Russian paintings, drawings and sculptures that came into the museum's funds in 1920-1930 from noble estates and the Russian Museum.
State Museum of Artistic Culture of the Novgorod Land , Desyatinny Monastery, 3. ✉ ☎ +7 (8162) 77-70-44, +7 (8162) 77-42-56. Tue–Sun 10:00–17:30. full / preferential - 80/50 rubles. The museum specializes in the contemporary art of the Novgorod land, demonstrating a constantly updated collection of paintings, drawings, sculptures and arts and crafts. Here you can see a large collection of local porcelain of the 19th-21st centuries, and one of the expositions tells about the history of 25 Novgorod monasteries and shows fragments of frescoes.



Novgorod Academic Drama Theater named after F.M. Dostoevsky, st. Velikaya, 14. ✉ ☎ +7 (8162) 77-34-45, +7 (8162) 77-74-92. The theater has been leading its history since 1853. Its current building was opened in 1987 and is one of the sights of Novgorod: it is an outstanding monument of Soviet architecture, rich in small forms, but no less interesting for its general, somewhat unearthly appearance. In the evenings, the theater is beautifully illuminated and looks great from the opposite bank of the Volkhov. Up close and in daylight, the building looks somewhat worse, as it needs repairs, at least cosmetic. There is a story that Andrei Makarevich, a young graduate of the Moscow Architectural Institute, designed the building of the theater, but in fact he just worked in a design organization and, at best, had a hand (or a pencil) in the design of windows.

Novgorod Regional Philharmonic, Kremlin, 8. ✉ ☎ +7 (8162) 77-37-48, +7 (8162) 77-37-34, +7 (8162) 77-27-77 (ticket office). Surprisingly hectic musical life flows in the Philharmonic Society, especially for a small regional center like Novgorod. Concerts of classical and pop music 2-3 times a week.
Cinema center "Russia", st. Chernyakhovsky, 66. ✉ ☎ +7 (8162) 77-73-36 (ticket office), +7 (8162) 77-42-55 (answering machine). The cinema of Soviet times has undergone a complete reconstruction. Films are shown in two halls, there is 3D. WiFi.
Street theater "Sadko".
The city beach is located directly under the Kremlin walls, between the pedestrian bridge and the Victory Monument. In summer it can be very crowded. Somewhat quieter, although less convenient places for swimming are higher along the Volkhov, on the right (i.e., opposite from the Kremlin) bank in the area of the Rurik settlement, near the pillars of the destroyed railway bridge. Tourists are brought here by pleasure boats. There is a beach on the other side, next to the St. George's Monastery, and they also actively swim there.



It was first mentioned in Russian chronicles under 859. According to V.P. Neroznak and E.M. Pospelov, the Gothic historian Jordan (VI century) is already mentioned as Novietun - a Celtic tracing paper from the Old Russian “Novgorod”. In the Russian chronicle under the year 1169 and under later dates, the city is referred to as Veliky Novgorod. The same name is contained in the "List of Russian cities far and near" (end of the XIV - beginning of the XV century), in the Book of the Big Drawing (1627), in the lists of cities by V. N. Tatishchev (1739-1744), in the Geographical and Statistical Dictionary P. Semyonov (vol. 3, 1867), but this form of the name has not received official recognition. The first attempt to revive it was made by the City Council in 1914, but the First World War and the ensuing Revolution and Civil War prevented its implementation.

The second attempt to officially recognize the name Veliky Novgorod dates back to 1998, when the regional Duma adopted a special law on this issue. On June 11, 1999, the President of the Russian Federation B. Yeltsin signed the federal law "On the renaming of the city of Novgorod - the administrative center of the Novgorod region into the city of Veliky Novgorod." Also in the 1990s, many ancient street names in the city center were restored.


History of Novgorod

A feature of Novgorod is that it has always been and remains divided into two parts - the Trade and Sofia sides, the border between which is the Volkhov River. In the past, this division was not only geographical in nature, but was also reflected in the internal history of the city. The rivalry between the inhabitants of the Trade and Sofia sides often led to open clashes on the Great Bridge across the river. The medieval city took shape on the site of earlier settlements at the source of the Volkhov from Ilmen, where a cluster of sites and settlements can be traced back to the Neolithic (4-3 millennium BC). An overview of the pre-medieval realities of the Novgorod land is given in detail in a number of materials.

In the 7th century, a Slavic settlement arose on the Prost River. The rudimentary settlement of the Slavs on Zemlyanoy settlement (Staraya Ladoga) could have arisen around the year 700 or even earlier. In the first half of the 750s, Scandinavian settlements appeared in the lower reaches of the Volkhov, but at the turn of 760-770, the Scandinavians were forced out by the Slavs. In the 9th century, at the source of the Volkhov River on the outskirts of Slavensky Hill, the settlement of Rurik's Settlement already existed.

At the modern scientific level, the ethnic ties of the archaeological cultures of the Priilmenye are controversial; According to toponymy, the area was inhabited by Slavs, Finno-Ugric peoples and Balts. Ancient settlements of the early Iron Age near Novgorod have been found, but no traces of an impressive settlement have been found. Specialists are attracted by one of the meanings of the Scandinavian name of the city ("Holmgard") - "the accumulation of settlements flooded during floods"[39]. Probably, Holmgard was considered a chain of settlements from the sources of the Volkhov (Peryn, Rurik’s settlement) up to the Kholopye town (opposite Krechevitsy, near the village of Novonikolaevskoye). The largest unfortified settlement and, possibly, the center of Slovenes in Priilmenye at the end of the 1st millennium was a settlement on the Prost River.


Time of origin of the city

The official date of the foundation of Novgorod is considered to be 859. This date is taken from the late Nikon Chronicle, compiled in the 16th century. At the same time, the chronicle itself does not say about the foundation of the city in this particular year. Under the year 6367 (859) there is a record of the death of Gostomysl, a Novgorod elder, which cannot be recognized as the date of the foundation of Novgorod. The author of the official date of the founding of the city was the historian M.N. Tikhomirov, who made a presentation at a scientific conference in Novgorod on the eve of 1959, which made it possible to celebrate the 1100th anniversary of Novgorod that year.

Arab sources of the 10th century mention the point of as-Slaviya (Glory, Salau) as one of the three centers of the Rus, along with Kuyaba (Kiev) and Artania (the identification of the latter is unclear). It is believed that we are talking about the “old city” of the Ilmen Slovenes that preceded Novgorod. The role of such an "Old Town" is assumed by several settlements, among which the most likely are Rurik's settlement and a settlement on the site of the future Slavensky end. The earliest foreign mention of Novgorod (Nemogard, Νεμογαρδάς) is contained in the 949 essay of the Byzantine emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus "On the Administration of the Empire". According to the assumption of T. N. Jaxon and E. A. Rydzevskaya, Novgorod in the Scandinavian sagas is called Holmgard (Holmgård, Holmgarðr, presumably, a tracing paper from the Old Russian word) - the capital of Gardariki. The literal translation of this name - "island city" - also suggests a certain "old city" on the eastern bank of the Volkhov, since the Scandinavian name is hardly applicable to the city centered on the site of the future Detinets. In German sources, the city was called Ostrogard.

Russian chronicles give different versions of the origin of the city. According to The Tale of Bygone Years (Laurentian List), the city already existed by the time Rurik arrived in 862 and was founded by the Ilmen Slovenes during their settlement after resettlement from the Danube. According to the Ipatiev list of "The Tale of Bygone Years": "Slovenian sedosha near Lake Ilmera and called by his name and made a city and narekosha and Novgorod." The oldest chronology of The Tale of Bygone Years is the result of artificial calculations and is historically unreliable.

Almost any renewal of the settlement near Ilmen was then perceived as the creation of a "new city". Rurik, according to the Ipatiev list of The Tale of Bygone Years, first reigned in Ladoga and only after the death of his brothers “came to Ilmer and cut down the city above the Volkhov and nicknamed Novgorod” (there is some contradiction with the message of the same chronicle about the founding of the city by Slovenes).

The Novgorod first chronicle of the younger edition mentions the Novgorodians in the undated times of the legendary Kiy.
In the times of Kiev and Shchek and Khoriv, people of Novgorod, the recommendations of Slovenia, and Krivitsi and Merya: Slovenia had their own parish (their reigning - in many other chronicles) and Krivitsi had their own, and their Mere; each owning his own family ... “The Tale of Slovene and Rus”, a legendary and historical work of the 17th century Novgorod in origin, calls the city of Veliky Slovensk the predecessor of Novgorod, according to the work, founded by Sloven, the legendary eponymous progenitor of the Slavs. The construction of the "Tales ..." and its dating contradict historical realities.

Novgorod appeared around the turn of the 9th-10th centuries or at the beginning of the 10th century.

Archaeological data show that the earliest explored wooden pavements on the territory of modern Novgorod (Troitsky excavation site) date back to the 930s (according to the dendrochronology method). Radiocarbon analysis of saw cuts from oak logs of the gorodny, discovered on the site of the former Prechistenskaya tower of the Novgorod Kremlin, showed that fortifications on the site of the northern part of Detinets already existed in the second or third quarter of the 10th century. The cultural layer of the 9th - early 10th centuries has not been found in Novgorod. Radiocarbon analysis of samples of the log cabin of the predecessor of the Great Bridge of the 12th century, which crossed the Volkhov riverbed between St. Nicholas Cathedral and the lost Cathedral of Boris and Gleb, gave the date 959 ± 25 years. The oldest writing styles in Novgorod come from the layers of 953-989. Scandinavian artifacts were present in the first estates of Novgorod in the 930s-950s. Their distribution on the territory of the city testifies to the free settlement of the Scandinavians and their prestigious positions in the social topography.

The mixed cultural layer deeper than wooden pavements in Novgorod reaches 30 cm and includes objects that can be dated back to before the 8th century.

The problem of the pre-dendrochronological cultural layer of Novgorod remains controversial:
The oldest (early) pavements discovered in all three places date back to the middle - the second half of the 10th century, however, more or less significant layers of an earlier time, unfortunately, are chronologically heterogeneous, which is usually for early urban strata, when initially thin deposits are easily mixed under the feet of the first generations of inhabitants. In any case, the beginning of the settlement of the most ancient (early medieval) sections of Novgorod can be attributed at least to the first half of the 10th century.

For the history of the formation of medieval Novgorod, data on the Rurik settlement (within the city since 1999) 2 km south of the historical part of Novgorod, where the settlement dates back to the 8th-9th centuries, are useful.


Legends and oral history of Novgorod

Traditionally, one of the early settlements, the union of which the city arose, is considered to be settlements on the site of the Nerevsky, Slavensky and Lyudin ends of the city. The Slavic end arose on the site of the village, which in the annals was called Kholm (a settlement on a hill). There were no significant differences in culture among these settlements, in 1971 V. L. Yanin, M. Kh. Finno-Ugric peoples can be clearly seen in archaeological materials - peculiar rings.

It has now been proven that the Merya lived only in the district of Rostov: “on Rostov Lake Merya, and on Lake Kleshchina also Merya” (Ipatiev Chronicle), which is supported by archaeological data. Bracelet-like closed temporal rings are now interpreted as predominantly Slavic.


Center of Novgorod land

In 862, according to many chronicles, the calling of the Varangians took place, which became the beginning of the Old Russian state. In the translation of D. S. Likhachev "The Tale of Bygone Years":
"In the year 6370 (862). They expelled the Varangians across the sea, and did not give them tribute, and began to rule themselves, and there was no truth among them, and clan upon clan stood up, and they had strife, and began to fight with each other And they said to themselves: "Let's look for a prince who would rule over us and judge by right." And they went across the sea to the Varangians, to Russia. Those Varangians were called Rus, as others are called Swedes, and other Normans and Angles, and still other Gotlanders - so these. They said Rus, Chud, Slovene, Krivichi and the whole: "Our land is great and plentiful, but there is no dress in it. Come reign and rule over us. "And three brothers were elected with their clans, and took with them all of Russia, and they came and sat the eldest, Rurik, in Novgorod, and the other, Sineus, on Beloozero, and the third, Truvor, in Izborsk. Sineus and his brother Truvor died two years later, and Rurik alone assumed all power, and began to distribute cities to his men - Polotsk to him, Rostov to him, Beloozero to another. The Varangians in these cities are nakhodniki, and the indigenous population in Novgorod is Slovene, in Polotsk - Krivichi, in Rostov - Merya, in Beloozero - all, in Murom - Murom, and Rurik ruled over all of them. And he had two husbands, not his relatives, but the boyars, and they asked for leave to Tsargrad with their family. And they set off along the Dnieper, and when they sailed by, they saw a small city on the mountain. And they asked: “Whose town is this?”. They answered: “There were three brothers Kyi, Shchek and Khoriv, who built this town and disappeared, and we are sitting here, their descendants, and pay tribute to the Khazars.” Askold and Dir remained in this city, gathered many Varangians and began to own the land of the meadows. Rurik reigned in Novgorod.

According to the Nikon chronicle of the 16th century, already in 864 the Novgorodians raised an uprising against the Varangians, led by Vadim the Brave. However, the uprising was put down. In 882, the Novgorod prince Oleg set out on a campaign against Kyiv and, capturing it, made it his capital. Since that time, during the X-XI centuries, Novgorod remained the second most important political center of Rus' after Kyiv. The eldest sons of the Kyiv princes traditionally ruled in Novgorod.

In 990-991, the Baptism of Novgorod by Prince Vladimir took place, at the same time the Novgorod diocese was established.

In 1015, Prince Yaroslav the Wise of Novgorod raised an uprising against his father. The Varangians who were in the city, invited by Yaroslav as mercenaries, committed violence against the Novgorodians and their wives, after which they were killed "in the Poromoni courtyard." In response to this "arbitrariness", Yaroslav deceived the "deliberate" Novgorod husbands who had killed the Varangians into his residence in Rakoma and treacherously killed them. Yaroslav's son Vladimir Yaroslavich built St. Sophia Cathedral and wooden Detinets in the city.

In the 11th century, the princes of Polotsk made many raids on Novgorod. Vseslav Bryachislavich managed to capture the city in 1067. Then in Novgorod churches were plundered, part of the city was burned, part of the population was taken into slavery. In 1071, there was an uprising of the Novgorodians against the Christian religion under Prince Gleb.

By the beginning of the 12th century, Novgorod land included part of the Baltic states, part of Karelia, the southern part of Finland, the southern coast of Ladoga, Obonezhie, the banks of the Northern Dvina, and vast expanses of the European north up to the Urals. The total population of Novgorod at the beginning of the 11th century was approximately 10-15 thousand, at the beginning of the 13th century - 20-30 thousand people.


Novgorod Republic

In 1136, after the flight of Prince Vsevolod Mstislavich from the battlefield at Zhdana Gora and his expulsion from Novgorod, republican (veche) rule was established in the Novgorod land. Since that period, power in the city actually belonged to the boyar groups from among which the Novgorod posadniks were appointed. After the approval of the independent boyar administration, the invitation of the princes to the Novgorod table was necessary to protect the republic from external enemies and to lead the armed forces of Novgorod, therefore treaty alliances were concluded with the princes.

From the second half of the 12th century, military conflicts began between Novgorod and Sweden for control over the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland and Izhora land - important areas lying on the trade route between Northern Europe and Byzantium.

In 1169, for the first time in the Laurentian Chronicle (XIV century), the component “great” (“Great Novgorod”) was added to the name “Novgorod”. In 1170, the Novgorodians repulsed the attack of the Suzdalians, led by Andrei Bogolyubsky, who were trying to capture Novgorod.

In 1191-1192 (the broadest dating: 1189-1195 or 1198-1199) - Novgorod concludes the first reliable international trade agreement with German cities. From this period, the active inclusion of Novgorod in the activities of the Hanseatic League begins. In Novgorod, the courts of foreign merchants "Gotsky Dvor" and "German Dvor" are founded. Yuryev Monastery became the center of the spiritual life of the city.

During the Mongol-Tatar invasion, Novgorod was not captured. Batu did not reach the city for 200 km and turned south at the tract Ignach Krest.

At that time, Alexander Yaroslavich, the son of the Grand Duke of Vladimir, ruled in Novgorod. In 1240, Alexander, at the head of the Novgorod army, defeated the Swedish troops that invaded the Novgorod lands in the Battle of the Neva. The following year, the Novgorodians expelled the prince, but after the invasion of the German crusaders, they were forced to turn to Alexander again. On April 5, 1242, Novgorodians, led by Prince Alexander Yaroslavich, defeat the Teutonic Knights in the Battle of the Ice. In 1245, the Novgorodians, led by Alexander Nevsky, repulsed the invasion of Lithuania into Western Rus'. After Alexander's accession to the Grand Duke's throne in Vladimir, his brothers, princes Andrei and Yaroslav, fled to Novgorod during a punitive campaign (possibly initiated at the request of Alexander Nevsky) of the Golden Horde troops (Nevryuev's army), but the Novgorodians did not accept them, after which Andrei left for Sweden, and Yaroslav in Pskov. In 1259, with the support of Alexander Nevsky, the Mongols conducted a census in Novgorod to collect tribute.

In 1259-1260 or 1262-1263 Novgorod concludes a new trade agreement with German cities. The oldest Novgorod chronicles that have come down to us (Novgorod First Chronicle) date back to the 13th century.

In 1323, the Novgorodians founded the Oreshek fortress on Orekhovy Island in Ladoga and stopped the Swedish expansion; Orekhovsky peace is concluded - the first in Russian history "eternal peace" of the Russian principality with a neighboring country. In 1392, Niebuhr's peace with the Hansa is concluded.

Around 1416 in Novgorod, representatives of the boyar families were elected posadniks and thousandths and formed the Council of Lords. The republic was turning into a caste, oligarchic state[77]. In 1420 Novgorod began minting its own silver coin. In 1440, the Novgorod Judicial Charter was adopted, a monument of Russian law.

In the 15th century, the Russian principalities were united by Moscow and Lithuania. Novgorod for a long time was on the sidelines of the unification process, trying to maintain independence and balancing between the two centers of power. However, by the 1470s, Moscow's pressure on Novgorod intensified. The Grand Duke of Moscow Ivan III the Great tried to solve the problem through diplomacy, but after Novgorod tried to call on Lithuania and Poland for help, Ivan started a war with the Novgorodians and in 1471 defeated the Novgorod army in the Battle of Shelon. This predetermined the final fall of the independence of the Novgorod Republic.


As part of the Russian state

On January 15, 1478, after all the inhabitants of Novgorod were sworn into allegiance and complete obedience to the Grand Duke Ivan III, the Novgorod Republic ceased to exist. After a series of wars with Moscow (Moscow-Novgorod wars of 1456, 1471 and 1477-1478), famine, devastation and disease, the city loses its independence. Veche was canceled, the veche bell was taken to Moscow; the power in the city is received by the grand-ducal governors. Many boyar families were expelled from Novgorod. It is thanks to this that Lubyanka arises in Moscow - after Ivan III ordered the Novgorodians who lived in the Novgorod region of Lubyanitsa and were evicted to Moscow after the fall of the republic, to settle in this place. They also built the Church of St. Sophia - in the likeness of St. Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod. At the same time, the redistribution of confiscated estates and lands was carried out. In 1494, using the execution of two Russians in Reval as an excuse to break ties with the Hanseatic League, Ivan III closes the Hanseatic office in Novgorod and confiscates all goods (total value of one hundred thousand hryvnias). Nevertheless, the system of local self-government was preserved, Novgorod retained the right to mint its own money (Novgorod denga), the right of diplomatic relations with neighboring countries was returned.

During the reign of Grand Duke Ivan III, the heresy of the Judaizers arose in Novgorod and then spread to Moscow. In 1478-1490, a stone Detinets was built, which has survived to this day.

In 1508, pestilence raged in Novgorod (according to the chronicler, the pestilence continues for three autumns in a row), 15,396 people died (according to the third Novgorod chronicle). In the same year, a terrible fire occurs - the entire Trade side burned down. The fire lasts two days, 3315 Novgorodians burned down.

The reign of Grand Duke Vasily III for Novgorod became relatively prosperous. The population of the city is growing, there is a lively construction. In 1514, foreign trade was again allowed. The city regained the right to collect taxes.

In 1565, after Tsar Ivan the Terrible divided the Russian state into oprichnina and zemshchina, the Sofia side of the city became part of the latter.

The oprichnina pogrom, perpetrated in the winter of 1569/1570 by an army personally led by Ivan the Terrible, caused enormous damage to the city. The reason for the pogrom was a denunciation and suspicion of treason (as modern historians suggest, the Novgorod conspiracy was invented by Grozny's favorites Vasily Gryazny and Malyuta Skuratov). All the cities on the road from Moscow to Novgorod were plundered, along the way Malyuta Skuratov personally strangled Metropolitan Philip in the Tver Otrochesky Monastery. The number of victims in Novgorod was, according to various sources of contemporaries, from 27 to 700 thousand people (the number of 700 thousand victims is completely unrealistic, since in 1546 there were only 35 thousand people in the city). In Novgorod, the rout lasted six weeks, thousands of people were tortured and drowned in the Volkhov. The city was sacked. The property of churches, monasteries and merchants was confiscated.


Novgorod in the Time of Troubles

In 1609, after the signing of the Vyborg treaty, the Swedish auxiliary corps arrived in Novgorod under the command of J.P. Delagardie and E. Gorn, who, together with Russian troops under the command of Prince M.V. Skopin-Shuisky, took part in the struggle against the supporters of False Dmitry II and Polish interventionists. In 1611, taking advantage of the political situation, the Swedes began to seize the Novgorod border lands - Korela, Yam, Ivangorod, Koporye and Gdov were captured. On July 16, 1611, Novgorod was attacked by the Swedish army; due to the betrayal and departure of the Moscow governor Buturlin with his detachment, the city was quickly captured.

On July 25, 1611, an agreement was signed between Novgorod and the Swedish king, according to which the Swedish king was declared the patron of Russia, and one of his sons (Prince Karl Philip) became the Moscow Tsar and the Grand Duke of Novgorod. Thus, the Novgorod land became formally an independent Novgorod state, under the Swedish protectorate, although in reality this was the Swedish military occupation of the city. It was headed by Ivan Nikitich Bolshoi Odoevsky from the Russian side, and Jacob Delagardie from the Swedish side.

During the absence of Delagardie in the winter of 1614-1615, the Swedish military administration in Novgorod was headed by Evert Horn, who pursued a tough policy of annexing the Novgorod lands to Sweden, announcing that Gustav Adolf himself wanted to be king in Novgorod. Many Novgorodians did not accept such a statement, going over to the side of Moscow, they began to leave the Novgorod state. Odoevsky sent his ambassadors to Moscow, Archimandrite Cyprian and several elected ones. The ambassadors came to the boyars and beat with their foreheads that they unwittingly kissed the cross of the prince, and now they want to ask the tsar to stand up for the Novgorod state and not let him completely die from Swedish arbitrariness. Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich received the ambassadors very graciously and ordered them to give them two letters: one official, in which all Novgorodians were called traitors, and the other secret, in which the tsar wrote that he forgives the Novgorodians for all their faults. The ambassadors returned with two such letters to Novgorod, officially showed only one letter, but secretly distributed the other among the people.

The liberation of the ancestral lands of North-Western Rus' together with Novgorod was the cause of the war with the Swedes, which ended with the signing of the Stolbovsky peace treaty on February 27, 1617. The results of the Swedish occupation for Novgorod turned out to be very deplorable - half of the city was burned, only 527 citizens remained alive. Famine and disease raged in the devastated region.

One of the most complete collections of documents in Novgorod during the Swedish occupation is the Novgorod Occupation Archive, kept in the State Archives of Sweden in Stockholm.


After the Troubles

The situation of Novgorod after the ruin was difficult. The number of refugees from the territories ceded to Sweden under the Stolbovsky Treaty was growing; the ruined economy was hardly restored. Due to the rise in the price of bread in 1650, a bread riot breaks out in the city. During the days of the uprising in the city, Metropolitan Nikon remained on the side of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, who anathematized the rebels (for this he was severely beaten). Nikon's behavior during the riot strengthens his position; in 1652 he becomes Moscow Patriarch. Soon, with the beginning of Nikon's reforms, a split occurred in the Russian Orthodox Church, affecting, first of all, the Novgorod diocese.

In 1700, the Northern War begins, which at first is overshadowed by the heavy defeats of the Russian troops. After the defeat near Narva, Peter I hastily prepares the fortifications of Novgorod for a possible siege by the Swedes. Swedish troops did not reach Novgorod; nevertheless, the Novgorod regiment played an important role in the Battle of Poltava in 1709.

In 1703, in connection with the foundation of the new capital of the Russian state, many craftsmen from Novgorod were involved in its construction. At the same time, Novgorod finally loses its former importance as a trading post and turns into an ordinary provincial town.

At the end of 1708, Peter I carried out an administrative reform, dividing all of Russia into eight provinces. The structure of the Ingermanland, or St. Petersburg, province included the Novgorod, Pskov, Belozersky lands, as well as the Northern Pomerania. Subsequently, all the provinces were divided into provinces, and those, in turn, into districts. Novgorod became the center of one of the eleven provinces that were part of the St. Petersburg province.


Center of the Novgorod province

In 1727, the Novgorod province was formed with the center in Novgorod.

In 1764, Yakov Efimovich Sivers was appointed to the post of Novgorod governor by Empress Catherine II. Under him, great construction work began in Novgorod. The neglected provincial town was to be turned into a provincial capital. By decree of the Empress of 1778, a new general plan of Novgorod, developed by the capital's architects, was approved. The ancient layout of the city was replaced by a regular one; instead of the old streets, new ones were laid, drawn along the ruler. Entire blocks of stone buildings appeared, the Gostiny Dvor, the metropolitan's chambers were reconstructed, a new bridge was built on stone supports across the Volkhov, a gymnasium, an office and a prison.

In 1771, the Travel Palace for Catherine was erected next to Yaroslav's Courtyard. The Empress stayed there in 1780 during her trip to the western provinces.

In the first half of the 19th century, Novgorod became the center of military settlements. At the same time, there is almost no industrial production in the city. In the "Memorial book of the Novgorod province for 1875" it is noted that 17,384 people live in Novgorod along with military units. Only 63 workers worked at 12 small enterprises. Small factories and factories of a semi-handicraft type were engaged in brewing and leather production. They produced tiles, bricks, candles. Of the total number of residents, military personnel and retired lower ranks accounted for almost a third of the population. Nobles and clergy prevailed in the city. There were 3829 of them. On the territory of the city there were 37 churches, 4 monasteries, 13 chapels. Poorly developed industry and the associated small working class among the population of the city were the reason for using the city as a place of exile[86]. So, in 1841-1842, the writer A.I. Herzen was exiled in Novgorod (in exile, Herzen was in the position of adviser to the provincial government).

One of the brightest pages in the history of Veliky Novgorod in the 19th century was the celebration in 1862 of the 1000th anniversary of the Russian state. In honor of this event, according to the project of M. Mikeshin, a monument to the Millennium of Russia is being erected in the center of the Novgorod Kremlin. Especially in honor of the celebration, a temporary general government was established, which was personally headed by Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich. The monument was unveiled in the presence of Emperor Alexander II.

Despite the increased interest in its history, Novgorod both at the end of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century remained a typical provincial city of the Russian Empire (and then Soviet Russia), despite the status of the provincial capital. In 1871, a railroad was brought to the city.


After the Revolution

On April 14 (27), 1917, the Novgorod Provincial Council of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies was formed in Novgorod. On October 27 (November 9), 1917, the Council announced the recognition of Soviet power, but demanded the creation of a "coalition socialist government." On November 13 (26), 1917, by decision of the executive committee of the Novgorod Soviet, a Military Revolutionary Committee was formed under the chairmanship of the Bolshevik N. D. Alekseev, which began the liquidation of the bodies of the Provisional Government that were still operating in the city. On December 5 (18), 1917, the new composition of the provincial executive committee began to implement the decrees of the Soviet government.

In 1927, within the framework of the administrative-territorial reform carried out in the USSR, the Novgorod province became part of the Leningrad region. Novgorod became the center of the Novgorod district, but in 1930 the district was abolished. The loss of the status of a provincial center under the conditions of a planned economy meant depriving the region of centralized financing. The Leningrad leadership, headed by S. M. Kirov, considered the Novgorod region as a rural outskirts. No industrialization was planned, Novgorod was turning into a provincial city, "one hundred and first kilometers" for the expulsion of an undesirable element from Leningrad.


During the Great Patriotic War

During the Great Patriotic War, the city was occupied by German and Spanish troops ("Blue Division"). The Nazis organized a council that was subordinate to the local military commandant's office. The Novgorod historian Boris Kovalev in his published monograph “The Daily Life of the Russian Population during the Nazi Occupation” described in detail the features of the Germans’ stay in Novgorod and the collaboration structure, defining it as “quite typical for the occupied territory of Russia”: for example, one of the well-known supporters of cooperation with the Nazis were previously repressed Novgorodians Vasily Ponomarev and Boris Filistinsky; it was noted that the city was to be included in the Ostland commissariat. The city's first burgomaster, Fyodor Ivanovich Morozov, was killed by a young Spanish volunteer while trying to rob.

The occupation of the city lasted from August 15, 1941 to January 20, 1944. The war caused enormous and largely irreparable damage to both the monuments of the city itself and its environs. All wooden buildings burned down. From the Novgorod museum, which was not completely evacuated in time, the most valuable collections of archeology, history and art were plundered. Almost the entire city economy and industrial enterprises were destroyed, world-famous monuments of Novgorod architecture were turned into ruins. The material damage caused to Novgorod, according to the report of the Extraordinary Commission on the atrocities of the fascist invaders, amounted to over 11 billion rubles.

The cross of St. Sophia Cathedral, dismantled and taken away by the invaders during the war years, was returned in 2004 by the Spaniards and is in the Cathedral. One of the churches destroyed by the Germans, the Church of the Assumption on the Volotovo Field, was restored in the early 2000s with German money.

The Leningrad-Novgorod operation and the Novgorod-Luga offensive operation led to the liberation of the city by January 20, 1944.

In December 1947, the last open trial of Nazi criminals in the USSR took place in Novgorod.


Center of the Novgorod region

On July 5, 1944, the Novgorod Region was formed by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. The transformation of Novgorod into the administrative and economic center of the region had a beneficial effect on accelerating its recovery. On November 1, 1945, Novgorod was included in the list of fifteen cities subject to priority restoration. In addition, a special decree is issued on the restoration of architectural monuments. One of the first to be restored was the Millennium of Russia monument; The monument was solemnly reopened on November 5, 1944.

The first years of the restoration of Novgorod were the most difficult for the townspeople. They had to live in dugouts, basements. There were no necessary building materials, there was an acute shortage of construction workers. Due to the lack of materials, the surviving boxes of the City Duma building and the shopping malls at Yaroslav's Court were dismantled into bricks. The arcade of Gostiny Dvor was half dismantled, however, after the intervention of historians, it was restored and currently forms the unique image of the Trade Side from the Volkhov River.

Restoration work in Novgorod could not be carried out without a master plan. An architectural team headed by academician A. V. Shchusev was involved in the work on the draft general plan. The city's general plan was based on the principle of an organic combination of new construction with monuments of ancient Russian architecture by actively including the latter in the modern development of the city. The draft general plan was approved on December 22, 1945 by the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR. This master plan was far from being fully implemented - later high-rise construction, industrial enterprises appeared in the city center, for the sake of economy buildings of standard architecture were built. Of the most iconic buildings of that time, one should single out the building of the railway station, built according to the project of architect I. G. Yavein in 1953.

The presence of large free areas and wastelands after the demolition of the rubble of destroyed buildings in the city center made it possible to start extensive archaeological research in the post-war years. The result of these studies were numerous finds of objects of ancient Russian art and everyday life. One of the most important finds was the discovery on July 26, 1951 of the first birch-bark writing. Over the years of research, more than 1000 birch-bark writings were found in Novgorod. Since 1962, the Novgorod archaeological expedition was led by the historian and archaeologist V. L. Yanin. Under his leadership, in 2000, the oldest book of Rus', the Novgorod Code, was found in Novgorod.

By 1953, Novgorod's industrial production had exceeded the pre-war level. In the 1950s-70s, the main restoration work of architectural monuments was carried out. The city is gaining fame as a center of all-Union and international tourism.

In subsequent years, the industrial development of the city takes place - electronic industry enterprises are created; in 1967, the first production was given by the Novgorod chemical plant. New residential areas with high-rise buildings are being built (Western, Northern).

In 1964, not far from the ancient Yuriev Monastery on the shore of Lake Myachino, the creation of the Vitoslavlitsy Museum of Folk Wooden Architecture began.

On June 23, 1983, by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Novgorod was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor for the successes achieved by the working people of the city in economic and cultural construction, active participation in the fight against the Nazi invaders during the Great Patriotic War.

On September 22, 1989, by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR, the district division in Novgorod was liquidated.


Modern era

In 1992, by decision of UNESCO, the historical monuments of Novgorod and its environs were classified as a world heritage site.

On June 11, 1999, the President of the Russian Federation B. Yeltsin signed the federal law "On the renaming of the city of Novgorod - the administrative center of the Novgorod region into the city of Veliky Novgorod." Also in the 1990s, many ancient street names in the city center were restored.

In 2004, the Valdai Club was founded in the city. In 2003, 2006 and 2007, Veliky Novgorod became the winner of the All-Russian competition for the financial development of the Russian economy "Golden Ruble" in terms of economic indicators of financial development in the "capital" category in the North-Western Federal District. In 2010, the city became the winner of the competition "The most comfortable city in Russia".

October 28, 2008 Veliky Novgorod was awarded the title of "City of Military Glory". On May 8, 2010, a monument-stele "City of Military Glory" was opened to commemorate the conferment of the honorary title to the city.

Since 2018, Veliky Novgorod has been included in a new tourist route through the northwestern cities of Russia - the Silver Necklace of Russia.



Get in

By plane
The passenger airport in Novgorod ceased to exist in the 2000s, since then, from time to time, the creation of a new airport on the site of a military air base in Krechevitsy has been discussed, but no real steps have been taken in this direction. You can fly to Moscow or St. Petersburg, the latter is twice as close.

By train
The Moscow-Petersburg railway, which was built strictly in a straight line, bypassed Novgorod. The city stands on a lateral inactive line adjacent to the main highway in Chudovo.

From Moscow: daily night train (departs at 22:05, arrives at 06:24). If you need to travel during the day, use the Sapsan, which make a stop in Chudovo (3 hours on the way), and then change to a train from St. Petersburg or a bus (on average every hour) - the latter, however, is not very convenient, since buses stop on the highway and do not drive up to the railway station in Chudovo.

From St. Petersburg: express trains "Lastochka" from Moskovsky railway station (in the morning, around 7 am, and in the evening around 20 hours, 3-3.5 hours). In addition to them, one slow train has been preserved, which also departs from the Moscow railway station around 8 in the morning. Occasionally, a commuter train runs to Novgorod from Vitebsky Station, but you don’t need this train, since it goes along the line lost in the swamps through Novolisino, spending more than 4 hours on the road.

There is also a direct railway connection with Nizhny Novgorod, Tver, Vladimir, Petrozavodsk and Pskov. Suburban traffic on the railway line to Luga is either canceled or resumed again, so if you plan to travel in this direction, you should check the current schedule in advance.

Railway station, st. Oktyabrskaya, 5. ☎ +7 (8162) 73-93-80 (information), +7 (8162) 77-53-72 (on duty). It is located at the end of Voskresensky Boulevard, one kilometer from the Kremlin. Inside, all the usual infrastructure for a small station: ticket offices, a waiting room and a 24-hour left-luggage office. The stalls sell drinks and newspapers, you can buy a map of the city. The station building was built after the war in a completely unusual style for that time, inspired by ancient Russian architecture. The station was designed by Igor Yavein, whose work was called by his contemporaries "constructivism that went into the Novgorod underground." Near the station, pay attention to the complex of other buildings of the same period: cash pavilions, a luggage compartment, and even the Boiling Water pavilion, in which hot water was collected before the appearance of titans on trains. There used to be a bust of Marx in front of the station, now it has been replaced by Alexander Nevsky.

By bus
The main bus service with St. Petersburg. Buses (including passing ones) depart from the bus station every 30-60 minutes, on the way 3.5 hours. They go to the St. Petersburg bus station (Obvodny Canal), making an intermediate stop at the Kupchino metro station. Bus sizes and comfort levels vary, but are often unsatisfactory. In addition to scheduled buses, passenger transportation to St. Petersburg is carried out by the transport companies NovgorodAvto and Atlas. The companies have several collection points in Veliky Novgorod, the movement is carried out along the M11 highway, 2-3 hours on the way. Stop in St. Petersburg near the Moskovskaya metro station. In addition to St. Petersburg, there are daily flights to Pulkovo Airport. The pick-up point from the airport is parking lot P2. Travel time - 3 hours. For transportation, Atlas uses comfortable minibuses (shuttles), ticket prices may vary depending on demand. NovgorodAvto, in addition to minibuses, has buses for 49 seats, with luggage compartments. Ticket prices are fixed.

There are 2 buses a day to Pskov (4 hours) and once a day there is a bus to the interesting town of Porkhov (4.5 hours), from where you can go to Pskov by rail or by local bus. In the south there is a single bus to Tver (via Torzhok, Vyshny Volochek), which limits the connection of Novgorod with neighboring regions.

Bus station, st. October, 1. ☎ +7 (8162) 73-99-79. 5:00–22:00. A two-story building of the early 2000s on the forecourt. Luggage storage: 7:00–19:00.

By car
Novgorod stands near the highways M10 and M11, 510 km from Moscow, 200 km from St. Petersburg. Highway A116 goes south along Lake Ilmen, and then turns west towards Pskov (200 km).

On the ship
There has been no passenger navigation along the Volkhov for a very long time. The pier near the Kremlin serves pleasure boats.


Get around

There are buses and trolleybuses in Veliky Novgorod. Their routes can be viewed here, and the schedule here. Fare: 27 rubles (2018), payment to the conductor. If their capabilities are not enough, you can use the services of numerous taxis that are ready to deliver the traveler to any place within the city or its environs for quite reasonable money. Taxi can be ordered by phone, hailed in the city center or at the train station, or use the Yandex-taxi aggregator, which has been operating in the city since 2019.

Pleasure boats depart from the pier in front of the Kremlin. They advertise themselves so actively that they create a strong background noise and are simply annoying. The advertisement reports a walk to Lake Ilmen, but in reality the boats do not reach the lake, but take tourists to the Rurik settlement, where they give them half an hour to walk, and then they take them back, accompanying all this with an annoying, recorded audio tour through the loudspeaker (you can however, be patient in order to get to the Rurik settlement). There are also more entertaining flights without any excursion, when loud music of dubious quality sounds on board the ship all the way.



1  TD "Rus", st. Bolshaya St. Petersburg, 25. ☎ +7 (8162) 77-23-29. Mon–Sat 10:00–21:00, Sun 11:00–20:00. Useful shopping center, where among other things there is a bookstore "Bukvoed" and pancake fast food "Teaspoon".
2  TC "Lenta", st. Great, 22a. ☎ +7 (8162) 68-00-97. around the clock. A large supermarket in Novgorod is located 2 km from the center not far from the Volna shopping center and has two indisputable advantages: it works around the clock, and even contains a Teaspoon, which also works around the clock. If you are very hungry in the middle of the night, you are here.
3 "Volna" shopping center, st. Bolshaya St. Petersburg, 39. ✉ ☎ +7 (8162) 33-89-69, +7 (8162) 33-89-70. Mon–Sat 10:00–21:00, Sun 11:00–20:00. The largest shopping center in Novgorod settled in the buildings of the former Volna plant, which in Soviet times was one of the leaders in the city's radio-electronic industry, which produced radio communication systems, television cameras and special-purpose industrial television installations that worked both at the Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City and in many television centers, including Ostankino. Now you can find branded stores of famous brands here. On the third floor there are children's entertainment centers Les and Roller. There are quite a few catering points, there is a SunDay on the ground floor.
4  Shopping center "Diez", emb. Alexander Nevsky, 13/2. ☎ +7 (8162) 69-30-83. Mon–Fri 9:00–20:00, Sat 9:00–19:00, Sun 10:00–19:00. Another shopping center in the buildings of the former plant (part of the Planet plant, which produced semiconductor electronics).
5  SEC "Marmalade", st. Lomonosov, 29. ☎ +7 (8162) 90-36-90. 10:00 - 21:00. The shopping and entertainment center is located in the Western district, not far from the bus and railway stations. There is a Perekrestok supermarket in the mall. In addition to shops of famous brands, at your service: a multiplex cinema "Mirage Cinema", a family entertainment center "Square Bird U", a restaurant "Lucky Star", "Restaurant Yard".


Hotels, motels and where to sleep

Veliky Novgorod was the center of mass tourism back in Soviet times, so there are several large hotels of the Intourist type in the city at once. All of them have undergone partial reconstruction and offer good mid-range rooms, although some interior details and such a painful thing for Russia as breakfasts leave much to be desired and will apparently never reach the declared three-star level. The private hotel market is underdeveloped, hostels have just begun to appear. There is some seasonality in Novgorod, in the summer and on holidays the prices rise slightly, but in general, price fluctuations here are much lower than in resorts or in the same Suzdal, and there are usually enough places in hotels for everyone.

Hotel "Voyage"  , st. Timur-Frunze-Olovyanka, 19/1 (Trading side, north of Fedorovskiy Ruchey street). ☎ +7 (960) 201-41-41. 400 rub/person, double room: 1500 rub. Simple rooms without any frills, breakfast is purely symbolic.
1  Hotel "Rose of the Winds"  , st. Novoluchanskaya, 27A (Sofia side, 10 minutes from the Kremlin). ☎ +7 (8162) 77-20-33. Double room without amenities: from 1400 rubles, rooms with amenities: from 1500/2000 rubles for a single/double room. A former hostel turned into a relatively decent hotel, which guests generally respond positively to, despite the very scary appearance of the building from the outside. Rooms for 2-4 people. In cheap rooms, amenities are on the block, there are kitchens on the floors. WiFi.
2  Hotel Amaks Rossiya, emb. Alexander Nevsky, 19/1 (Trade side, opposite the Kremlin). ☎ +7 (8162) 63-41-85 (administrator), +7 (8162) 66-46-01 (booking). Triple economy: from 3460 rubles, double rooms after renovation: from 2900 rubles. The last of the old Novgorod hotels that has not undergone a complete modernization. Pretty good location. There are relatively decent double rooms in the "new" part and cheap triple (economy) in the "old" part. The breakfast is not bad, reviews of the hotel are mostly unimportant, in fact two stars. The hotel is popular with car travelers and bus tours as a cheap overnight stay. There are also complaints about the quality of Wi-Fi.
3 Sanatorium Akron, st. Zelinsky, 9 (behind the railway, 2 km from the center). ☎ +7 (8162) 62-30-80. Double room without amenities / with amenities: from 1300/1900 rubles. It is intended for treatment and medical procedures, but the rooms are rented to everyone. The rooms are small, unpretentious and not very pretty; There are three types: with amenities, with amenities per block and with a shared shower in the hallway. However, it's inexpensive.
4  Hostel "Yaroslav"  , st. Nikolskaya, 4 (Trade side, opposite the Kremlin). ☎ +7 (8162) 55-21-09. From 400 rubles/person, double room: 1300 rubles. Modern hostel with bunk beds. Looks pretty nice, there is Wi-Fi.
✦  Recreation rooms at the railway station, st. Oktyabrskaya, 5 (second floor). ☎ +7 (8162) 98-18-29. From 350 rubles/person, single/double: from 650/1000 rubles (2014). 13 rooms in the railway station building. Most often the amenities are on the floor, although there are a couple of more expensive rooms with private facilities. Daily payment.

Average cost
5  Akron Hotel, st. Predtechenskaya, 24 (Sofia side, corner of Predtechenskaya street and Lyudogoshcha street). ☎ +7 (8162) 73-69-06, +7 (8162) 73-69-18, +7 (8162) 73-69-12. Single/double room: 1960/2320 rubles For its location, a 3-minute walk from the Kremlin, the hotel is frankly inexpensive, which may be due to some shabby rooms, old TVs and other similar trifles. Reviews are mostly good. WiFi. Reservations are possible by phone as well as through their own website.
6  Volkhov Hotel, st. Predtechenskaya, 24 (Sofia side (next to the previous one)). ☎ +7 (8162) 22-55-00 (booking), +7 (8162) 22-55-05 (administrator). Single / double room: from 2300/3000 rubles. A three-star hotel in the city center, formerly an Intourist hotel. Now renovated and looks quite modern, although not without a touch of provincialism. It is aimed at tourists coming to the city, for whom a souvenir trade is arranged right on the floors, and there is also a curious museum of forgotten things that can be viewed while waiting for a slow elevator. All rooms are equipped with private facilities, a good breakfast buffet, but also with a touch of provinciality. WiFi.
7 "Intourist" hotel, st. Velikaya, 16 (Sofia side, 1 km from the center). ✉ ☎ +7 (8162) 77-50-89 (administrator), +7 (8162) 73-88-45 (reservation). Single / double room: 1700/2200 rubles. It seems to be next to the Kremlin, but in the immediate vicinity of the hotel you will admire the city drama theater - a masterpiece of Soviet architecture in need of repair, and even an abandoned brewery. Hotel rooms look good against this background, although guests complain about crowding and poor breakfasts (for a fee). WiFi.
8 Hotel "Novgorodskaya", st. Desyatinnaya, 6a (Sofia side, 5 minutes walk from the Kremlin). ✉ ☎ +7 (8162) 28-00-80. Single / double room: 2000/2200-2700 rubles. Located on a quiet street next to the Church of the Twelve Apostles on the Abysses. All rooms are with private facilities, without modern renovation, but they look quite decent. The same can be said for the local cafe, where the prices are low, but the food is adequate: for breakfast you will be offered something like sausages with pasta. However, the guests are satisfied. Wi-Fi, free parking.
9 "Sadko" hotel, st. Fedorovsky Creek, 16 (Trade side, on the outskirts of the city). ✉ ☎ +7 (8162) 66-18-07, +7 (8162) 66-09-20 (booking), +7 (8162) 66-30-04 (administrator). Single / double room: 2100/3000 rubles. Novgorod is a small city, so on the Trade side from the outskirts to the bridge over the Volkhov 10 minutes on foot, so the hotel is located almost in the center. The reviews are contradictory and basically characterize the hotel as "cheap and cheerful", but generally acceptable. WiFi.
10 Mini-hotel "Three cats", st. Defense, 3 (Sofia side, 1 km from the Kremlin). ☎ +7 (911) 640-03-33. Double room: 2600 rub. Private hotel in a three-story building. The rooms are equipped with a kitchen. Good reviews, Wi-Fi.

11 Hotel "Park Inn Veliky Novgorod" (formerly "Beresta Palace"), st. Studencheskaya, 2 (right bank of the Volkhov, 3 km from the Kremlin). ☎ 94-09-14, 94-09-02, 66-32-67, 63-47-47 +7 (8162) 94-09-10, 94-09-14, 94-09-02, 66-32 -67, 63-47-47. Double room: from 5500 rubles. Large four-star hotel: by far the best in the city, but at the same time very expensive and inconvenient for backpackers. Two restaurants and a wellness center. WiFi.
12 Yuryevskoye Podvorye Complex, Yuryevskoye Shosse 6A (outside the city, opposite the Vitoslavitsa Museum). ☎ +7 (8162) 94-60-60. Double room: 3150-3900 rubles. Country tourist complex, designed to accommodate organized groups. If you do not have your own transport, living here will not be very convenient, because the city is still far away. The rooms are new and not bad, but there are complaints about the quality of the Wi-Fi and the noise from the parties held in the restaurant.
13 Hotel "Rakhmaninov", st. Bolshaya Moskovskaya, 10. ☎ +7 (800) 250-08-79.


Restaurant, taverns and where to eat

Novgorod cafes and restaurants are somewhat unevenly distributed around the city: with rare exceptions, they are located to the north of the Kremlin. There are relatively few tourist-oriented places, so you can count on the usual prices for the Russian provinces and the corresponding level of comfort. There are, however, more expensive establishments that are not inferior to the capital in terms of level and approaching them in terms of prices. During the day on weekdays, almost all cafes, including the upper price category, offer inexpensive business lunches.

1 Bistro "Ilmen", st. Lawn, 2 (first floor). ☎ +7 (8162) 77-24-96. 10:00–23:00, in winter until 21:00. The establishment on the edge of the Kremlin park has several guises. The day one, which lives on the ground floor, is not the cheapest, but quite affordable canteen with distribution. On the side (entrance through a separate door from Gazon Street) there is a cookery where they sell delicious pies and somewhat less successful cakes, and on the second floor there is a restaurant not without pathos with a huge brazier right in the middle of the hall. Once the restaurant was called "Holmgard" and was the only establishment in Novgorod with a medieval touch, but over time it lost this shade. Since July 1, 2019, the establishment has been closed due to a change of ownership.
2 McDonald's, st. Oktyabrskaya, 11 (next to the bus station and railway station). 6:00–23:30. The only place in the city that is open from early morning, but this is an ordinary McDonald's, where there is no McCafe and decent coffee, therefore, too. Free WiFi.
3 Snack bar "Kolobok", st. Bolshaya Moskovskaya, 28. 8:00–20:00, break 14:00–14:30. Hot dishes: 80-120 rubles. A hybrid of a pie and railway station eatery. It looks scary, although the food is normal and served in normal dishes, which is rare these days. Fresh pastries, locals are very praised.
4 Cafe Vesnyanka, st. Bolshaya St. Petersburg, 9. 8:00–20:00. A cheap cafe-dining room in a five-minute walk from the Kremlin park, opposite the church. You need to order at the checkout, the entire assortment is in sight, the food is not bad.
5  Dining room "Bavaria", st. St. Petersburg, 21. 10:00–23:00. Dining room, smoothly turning into a pub. Located in the basement. Dark, but eatable.

Average cost
6  Bar "Derzhavny"  , st. Lawn, 5/2. ☎ +7 (8162) 77-30-23. 🕑 Sun–Thursday 12:00–23:00, Fri–Sat 12:00–2:00. Hot dishes: from 250 rubles. A cramped basement with wooden tables, benches and a large stuffed bear, setting the tone for the general "bearishness" of this establishment, which is not without color, but very peculiar. The menu includes all kinds of Russian cuisine up to wild boar and bear meat, although visitors express doubts about the quality and correctness of their preparation. The service is simply disgusting, and live music does not contribute to a pleasant dinner, and the contingent here is sometimes not the most pleasant. Several varieties of local beer, sbiten and mead - if you are afraid to go inside, you can take it away, although in terms of their taste, these drinks are not far from the institution itself.
7 Coffee house "Sudarushka", st. Bolshaya Moskovskaya, 32. ☎ +7 (8162) 67-92-02. 11:00–23:00. Has nothing to do with a coffee shop. All visitors agree that the food here is tasty, inexpensive and even more or less Russian-style, with a wooden spoon for soup and other cute details.
8   Cafe "Arigato"  , st. Bolshaya Moskovskaya, 20/4. 12:00–24:00. Contrary to its name, the cafe offers dishes of a generalized oriental cuisine, including Uzbek. There is also a “shawarma” section on the menu, although in this case we are talking about the same St. Petersburg shawarma, albeit written with an error. Instead of the usual paper menu, they bring an electronic menu - on a tablet. WiFi.
9  Tavern "Lenkom", st. Fedorovsky Creek, 2/13 (next to the automobile bridge across the Volkhov). ☎ +7 (8162) 67-17-67. 12:00–24:00, Fri and Sat until 2:00. Hot dishes: 250-300 rubles. In 2004, when this cafe first opened, the use of Soviet themes was still a novelty. Now you can hardly surprise anyone with this, therefore, neither the portraits of Lenin hung everywhere (even on the ceiling!) nor the red banners, nor the gramophones standing in the corners, nor even the ironic names of the dishes make a special impression. The same can be said about the cuisine worthy of inheriting the tradition of Soviet times: salads with an abundance of mayonnaise and other food typical of a provincial restaurant. Customers complain about slow service. The next door leads to the dining room of the Central Committee (Central Cooking, 8:00 AM - 8:00 PM), where the atmosphere of the recent past is recreated without any red banners: plastic tables and aluminum forks look very poor. The food, however, is cheap. There is a bar-cafeteria where tolerable coffee is brewed and local cakes are sold. WiFi.
10   Cafe "Diez", st. Fedorovsky Ruchey, 2/13, Department Store Sharp. ☎ +7 8162 69-30-82. 10:00–20:00. A cafe in the shopping center of the same name, inside it resembles a good old student canteen. A good opportunity to have lunch, and even if possible, do it while admiring the view of the Sofia side (although usually these places are busy almost at any time). Salad + first + second on average 200-250 rubles, which is inexpensive. In principle, it is possible to have dinner in this cafe, but there is a risk that already at ~18:00-18:30 there will be no soup, and the choice of the second one will be very limited (although this is a good way to refresh yourself for guests from Moscow and take a half-hour walk to station for the daily train at 21:20)
11  Teahouse "Skazka"  , st. B. Vlasevskaya, 1. ☎ ++7 (8162) 28-03-41. 10:00–00:00. Hot dishes from 300 rubles. Good opportunity to have lunch next to the Kremlin park. Uzbek and Georgian cuisine, portions are quite large, prices are reasonable.

12 Cafe La Chatte, st. Bolshaya Moskovskaya, 86 (Trade side, in the northern part of the city). ☎ +7 (8162) 99-87-53. 11:00–23:00. Hot dishes: 400-600 rubles. Cats in all forms - even from syrup on a cup of cappuccino; very cozy and stylish. Prices are high by Novgorod standards, but visitors agree that both the food and the atmosphere are worth it. WiFi.
13 Cafe Le Chocolate, st. Ludogoshcha, 8 (Sofia side, west of the Kremlin). ☎ +7 (8162) 73-90-09. 9:00–23:00. Hot dishes: from 500 rubles. Stylish cafe in the city center. There are quite a few of them in Moscow or St. Petersburg, but for Novgorod this is a rarity, and even more rare is the availability of breakfasts: the cafe opens from 9 in the morning, and not from 11, as is customary here. There are smoking (red) and non-smoking (green) halls, and if you can play tricks a little in red, then in green you are asked to behave decorously. Large selection of coffee, hot chocolate, desserts and cakes, and the food was not without Japanese cuisine.
14  Bar "Charodeyka"  , st. Meretskova-Volosova, 1/1 (Sofia side, opposite the Kremlin). ☎ +7 (8162) 60-14-09. 12:00–23:00. Pleasant atmosphere, good cuisine with an extensive beer list of the Alkon distillery.

Coffee houses
15 Cafe Brioche, Voskresensky Blvd. 4. ☎ +7 (8162) 78-60-11. Mon–Fri 9:00–21:00, Sat–Sun 10:00–21:00. Bakery-confectionery in European style. A huge selection of cakes and pastries, which you can eat with brewed tea or good coffee. There is hot food for lunch. WiFi.


Night life

Club "Bunker"  , st. Fedorovsky stream, 2/13. Thu 22:00–6:00, Fri–Sat 22:00–7:00. According to the club's website, the hall is designed "in the style of a bomb shelter that can protect everyone from any emergency." Visitors speak about the club without much enthusiasm.



Almost all cafes in the city center offer their visitors free Wi-Fi.

Main post office, st. Dvortsovaya, 2 (next to Yaroslav's courtyard). Mon–Fri 8:00–20:00, Sat 9:00–18:00, Sun 9:00–14:00. Access to the Internet.


Precautionary measures

Veliky Novgorod is a calm and safe city: at least in the part that may be of interest to tourists. You can walk around the Kremlin and Yaroslav's Court at any time of the day. In residential areas, take the usual precautions.



Veliky Novgorod is convenient for those who travel to Russia for the first time: from here it is a night by train to Moscow and only a few hours to St. Petersburg. If you are more attracted to small forms and little-known corners of the Russian provinces, then there are not so many options. The easiest way is to go to Staraya Russa, which is only 2 hours away by bus. This is an ancient Russian city and a balneological resort with several curious temples and the house-museum of Dostoevsky. Another, somewhat less convenient destination is Borovichi, where a gloomy industrial flavor merges with unusual sights like Russia's oldest arched bridge over the Msta River. On Msta, you will also see rifts and ancient villages, but all this is unlikely to fit into the format of a one-day trip. You can also visit Valdai, a picturesque town on the lake, famous for the Iversky Monastery and the Museum of Bells. Finally, for anyone interested in Russian history, it would be perfectly natural to continue the journey from Novgorod to Pskov.

In the vicinity of Novgorod, many magnificent architectural monuments have been preserved. For the most part, these are former or active monastic ensembles or separate temples left over from ancient monasteries, the date of foundation of which has been lost for centuries. The most interesting group of monuments is located on the right bank of the Volkhov. With a car, you can cover all of it in a few hours, moving from the church on the Volotovo field to the Rurik settlement (or vice versa). But in order to get to the Church of St. Nicholas located next to this group on Lipno, special efforts will be required.


East of Novgorod

Church of the Assumption of the Virgin on the Volotovo field, the village of Volotovo. ☎ +7 (8162) 77-42-53. Wed–Sun 10:00–17:30. The world-famous monument owes its fame to the frescoes attributed almost to the brush of the student of Theophan the Greek. The church was built in 1352 by order of Archbishop Moses, and the painting was done in 1363. The frescoes peacefully existed on the walls of the temple for more than five hundred years, and about 200 compositions survived until the 20th century, crumbling into fragments during the Great Patriotic War. Although the restoration of the frescoes is far from over, some of them can be seen in the church today. The architecture of the temple is no less remarkable. After the restoration, which restored it from ruins, and at the same time cleared it of age-old layers, it acquired a resemblance to the famous, but hard-to-reach Church of St. Nicholas on Lipna (another reason to go to Volotovo), turning into a single-domed cubic temple with three-lobed facades practically devoid of decor. Small vestibules from the north and west protrude noticeably beyond the main silhouette of the building, reminiscent of the Church of the Savior on Kovalev from certain angles. In the internal structure of the Volotovo church, for the first time, a technique was used that later became common in Pskov and Novgorod architecture: pillars unusually rounded at the bottom are shifted from the dome to the walls.
How to get there: From the bus station in Novgorod by any bus following the Moscow highway. Get off at the bus stop immediately after the blue bridge (in fact, the bridge has not been used for a long time and has lost its former color, but retained its name) and keep in the direction of the silver dome of the church located in the cemetery.

Church of the Savior on Kovalevo , Kovalevo village, Novgorodsky district (bus number 186 from the bus station in Novgorod). May-September: Sat-Wed 11:00-16:00, October-April: Sat-Wed 11:00-14:00. full / preferential - 50/30 rubles. Built in 1345 by the Novgorod boyar Ontsifor Zhabin, the church is one of the best examples of the transitional era of Novgorod architecture. Here, the old pozakomarny covering is used together with the new cubic form of the main volume, to which one large semicircular apse is attached instead of three, laid down according to the ancient canon. The church has two aisles (they appeared immediately or half a century later - it is not exactly established), and stone Novgorod crosses are embedded in the wall of the southern aisle. Once it was the main temple of the Spassky Monastery, abolished in the 18th century, the church itself was not closed until the 20th century. Its walls and vaults were painted in 1380, presumably by craftsmen from Serbia, and therefore the frescoes differed markedly from the canons adopted in Rus' (from the completely surprising - the image of a tetramorph in the dome). In the 18th century, the frescoes, which suffered many times from fires (and the first happened back in 1386), were whitewashed and cleared only by 1921, which became a real sensation. During the war, the church was destroyed almost to the ground. The frescoes were saved by a miracle: painstaking work, which began in 1965 with the participation of the Grekovs, made it possible to restore about half of the dead murals. Now most of the restored Kovalyov frescoes are presented in the Church of St. George in Lubyanitsa at the Market, but inside you can also see their fragments and climb the choirs along the very steep stone stairs inside the wall. Locals call the church "drunk", as it is included in the mandatory wedding tour program for newlyweds. Nearby is a monument with tanks and other military equipment, erected in memory of those who died in the Great Patriotic War.

Church of the Savior on Nereditsa (1198), village of Spas-Nereditsa. ☎ +7 (8162) 77-37-38. Sat–Wed 11:00–16:00. full / preferential - 80/40 rubles. It was built in 1198 by the Novgorod prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich near his residence in memory of the prince's sons. Immediately after the construction, the entire inner surface of the walls was covered with paintings, and there is a hypothesis that the frescoes were made by Olisey Grechin, who is also credited with the authorship of the famous Novgorod Savior Not Made by Hands. These frescoes existed until the 20th century, but in 1941 the church, whose life had been going on without much upheaval until that time, ended up at the firing point of the Soviet troops, and was almost completely destroyed. Only the altar part has been preserved, where even now you can see the remains of the former painting. In a sense, we were lucky: the first copies of the frescoes were made in 1862, and then they were redrawn and photographed during the deep restoration of the 1900s, when they tried to free the building from later layers. The current forms - different-sized apses, roofing - the church acquired during the scientific restoration in the post-war years. But it certainly retained its essence: as in ancient times, it is a single-domed four-pillared cubic temple with an internal arrangement typical of churches of the early 12th century.

Church of St. Nicholas on Lipno. One of the pearls of the Novgorod style, the church was built on Lipno Island in 1292-1294 by order of Novgorod Archbishop Kliment. Most likely, it was one of the buildings of the monastery, founded after 1113, shortly after the discovery of the icon of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, which healed Prince Mstislav Vladimirovich, happened here. The church became the first local stone church erected after the Mongol-Tatar invasion, and its structure largely copies the Church of the Nativity of the Peryn Skete. It is built of limestone and shell rock of different shades, and the window arches are made using a completely new technology - they are lined with dark squared bricks. The decorative elements are laconic: corner blades, "edges" above the windows of the drum and arched belts along the upper line of the three-bladed facades. In 1930, while clearing the walls, several well-preserved frescoes from the end of the 13th century were discovered. And although during the war the church was badly damaged, it, along with the frescoes, was restored in the 1950s, returning to its original form. Getting to it is not an easy task, but you can be satisfied with the views from the Perynsky Skete, St. George's Monastery or from the Rurik settlement.
How to get there: The church is located on an island in the delta of the Msta River, and you can get to it only by water: in summer - by boat or boat, in winter - on ice.

Museum "Bronnitskaya Land". ☎ +7 (8162) 76-35-40. Tue–Sat 10:00–17:00. 50 rub. The Moskovsky tract passed through the village, and Bronnitsa was one of the pits (post stations) of the main state road. The expositions of the museum tell about the rich historical past of the village and acquaint with its main sights. Of particular interest is the hall of the Vozrozhdeniye factory, which keeps the chronicle of the “blue miracle of Bronnitsa” - the famous cobalt dishes. The museum offers a variety of thematic tours, workshops on weaving and doll making.


Northeast of Novgorod

Khutynsky monastery (On the northern outskirts of the village of Khutyn, 7 km from Veliky Novgorod and 3 km (in a straight line) from Krechevitsy). ☎ Pilgrimage Center +7 (8162) 74-96-02; hotel +7 (921) 201-56-41. Mon–Sun 9:00–20:00. Free admission. The monastery was founded by the Novgorod hermit of the 12th century, Varlaam Khutynsky, who settled near Novgorod, in Khutyn, a place that in those days had a bad reputation due to the machinations of evil spirits. By the way, this charter of Varlaam Khutynsky (a special act on the transfer of land to the monastery) is the first Russian act that has come down to us in the original. The first stone monastery church was consecrated in 1190, but four centuries later it was dismantled and replaced with the five-domed Cathedral of the Transfiguration of the Savior (1515), which at first resembled the Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. In the 17th century, the cathedral was rebuilt, adding side chapels, galleries and an eye-catching western porch, at the same time they changed the shape of the cover. The cathedral serves as the tomb of the Monk Varlaam Khutynsky and the poet G.R. Derzhavin (1743-1816). Other significant monastery buildings are the refectory with the single-domed church of Varlaam Khutynsky (1552) and the baroque gate bell tower (1770s), which is distinguished by the rare use of columns as decoration for the province. During the war years, the monastery was destroyed to ruins and restored only at the end of the 20th century. Now it is a functioning Orthodox convent and one of the popular places of pilgrimage.
How to get there: From the bus station of Novgorod by bus number 121.


North of Novgorod

Church of Nikita Novgorodsky (1914-1915), pos. Volkhovsky, st. Lesnaya, 23. (city bus number 9). A small church of the beginning of the 20th century with a stylization of ancient Novgorod temples. In Soviet times, it was used for other purposes, but has now been restored.
Nikolo-Vyazhishchi Monastery  Wikidata item, Vyazhishchi village. ☎ +7 (8162) 74-20-47. Mon–Sun 7:00–19:00. Free admission. The unique ensemble of the Vyazhishchi Monastery is located 12 kilometers northwest of Veliky Novgorod. The monastery does not have temples that are ancient by Novgorod standards - its oldest buildings date back only to the second half of the 17th century (although for most of Russia this is a very respectable age), but the churches of the monastery have retained an unusually rich decor from tiles of the 17th century of various designs, which is definitely worth seeing with your own eyes. The monastery already existed at the beginning of the 15th century, but was then made of wood. In the 17th century, he was patronized by the first kings of the Romanov family, and this affected his well-being. In the last quarter of the 17th century, the monastery acquired two stone churches - the Cathedral of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker and Euthymius Vyazhishchsky (1685) and the Church of St. John the Theologian with the refectory Church of the Ascension of the Lord (1694-1698). Now, after the restoration, all the churches are five-domed, but for most of its history, the Church of St. John the Theologian lived with one dome: its unfinished roof was blown away during the storm of 1698, after which the church was restored in a simplified form. Temples were built by Moscow masters, taking into account local traditions. At the turn of the 17th-18th centuries, a gallery with two porches, two-story cells and an economic building were also built. A low stone fence with decorative turrets replaced the wooden one in the 19th century. The place of production of the colored tiles used in the ribbon friezes and architraves has not been precisely established: they could have been made in Novgorod or the Valdai Monastery, but they could well have been delivered from Moscow or Yaroslavl. The tiles have three different sizes, and the most interesting of all are the largest, placed in the upper part of the buildings: in their design there are almost indistinguishable lion and unicorn, as well as a horse, a cross and a double-headed eagle.
How to get there: suburban bus number 123 goes directly to the monastery (3 times a day, the schedule is in the Transport section). From Novgorod on city buses No. 5, 10, 14, 15 to the stop at the Akron plant, then about 4 kilometers on foot. By rail (3 times a day) to the Vyazhishi station, then the same 4 kilometers on foot.

Museum of the Tyosovskaya narrow-gauge railway   Wikidata element, pos. Tesovo-Netylsky (60 km from Novgorod). ☎ +7 (921) 939-13-94. If your eyes are already dazzling from ancient temples, you can look for sights of a completely different kind in the vicinity of Novgorod. Lost somewhere on the border of the Novgorod and Leningrad regions, the village of Tesovo-Netylsky grew up around peat extraction, which, like any peat extraction, needed a narrow gauge railway. By some miracle, she survived until 2014, when local enthusiasts bought the old rolling stock and a small piece of canvas to create a museum. This museum works only on preliminary requests, mass events are held several times a year when narrow-gauge railway enthusiasts come to Tyosovo-Netylsky. You can get to the village by minibus from Novgorod or by commuter train running twice a day to Novolisino. The train itself is the same outgoing nature as narrow-gauge railways.


South of Novgorod

Trinity Mikhailo-Klopsky Monastery, village of Seltso. ☎ +7 (8162) 63-54-13. Mon–Sun 7:00–19:00. Free admission. Located 20 km south of Veliky Novgorod on the Veryazh River at its confluence with the Ilmen, it has been known since 1408. Its main attraction is the three-domed Trinity Cathedral (1569) with later aisles and galleries. The dilapidated St. Nicholas Church (1581), the bell tower and cells of the early 19th century have also been preserved. Now the monastery is under restoration.
How to get there: from the bus station of Novgorod by bus to Seltso (2 times a day).


Physical and geographical characteristics

Geographical position

Veliky Novgorod is located on the Priilmenskaya lowland, on the Volkhov River, 6 km from Lake Ilmen, 552 km northwest of Moscow and 145 km southeast of St. Petersburg. Since 1999, the southern border of the urban district of Veliky Novgorod has been passing by the Rurik settlement and the Yuriev monastery, skirting the village of Pankovka, and including the Pletyokha land massif (since March 15, 2013). The northern border of the urban district is the Krechevitsy microdistrict (since 2004).



Veliky Novgorod is in the MSK (Moscow time) time zone. The offset of the applicable time from UTC is +3:00. In accordance with the applied time and geographic longitude, the average solar noon in Veliky Novgorod occurs at 12:55.



The climate of Veliky Novgorod is temperate continental, with cold snowy winters and moderately warm summers. Winter lasts from mid-November to early April, its average temperature is -4 ° C, the temperature often drops below -15 ° C, usually in late January - early February. Spring comes around the first week of April, when the snow cover melts and a stable positive temperature sets in, the average April temperature is about +3.5 °C. Summers are moderately warm, although June and August are rather cool months, with an average July temperature of +17.5 °C. Autumn is relatively mild and long, winter comes only by mid-November.



The main contribution (in 1989, about 55%) to environmental pollution in the recent past was made by industrial enterprises of the city (in particular, the Akron chemical plant), but in recent years, the main share of pollution (up to 70%) is motor vehicle emissions. Gross emissions into the atmosphere of Veliky Novgorod in 2010 amounted to 44.6 thousand tons, in 2011 - 40.7 thousand tons. The state of the environment in the city is monitored by the Novgorod Regional Center for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (NTsGMS). Every day, 3 times a day, air samples are taken at three posts in the city (Krasilova St., Belova St., B. St. Petersburgskaya St.). On average, the content of nitrogen dioxide in samples is no more than 2 MPC, carbon monoxide is not more than 2.2 MPC, phenol - up to 7 MPC, dust - up to 6 MPC (the number of samples with an excess of harmful substances is not more than 3% of the total volume of samples ). The air pollution index of Veliky Novgorod is currently 4.0–4.2 (low).

Regular analysis of water samples from Volkhov is carried out. The quality of the waters in the river has not changed in recent years, and according to the values of the UKWIS (specific combinatorial index of water pollution), the waters are still characterized as “polluted”. The waters of the river near the city have been polluted with copper, manganese, and iron for several years. The values of bichromate oxidizability (COD) are still above the norm, which indicates water pollution with organic substances.

Radiometric observation is carried out at the meteorological station in Yuryevo. According to the results of observations during the year, the average maximum value of the exposure dose rate (EDR) and the study of radioactive fallout do not exceed the allowable values (observations in 2006-2012).

To improve the state of the environment in Veliky Novgorod, a special municipal target program "Ecology of Veliky Novgorod" was adopted.


Archaeological excavations

Ways of archaeological study of Novgorod outlined in 1807 by E. A. Bolkhovitinov, later Metropolitan Eugene. He arrived in Novgorod in 1804 as a vicar bishop, and began to study old manuscripts. The bishop also conducted archaeological observations, while he assessed the significance of the cultural layer: “I examined the local surroundings, tested the ground, and I know that where for decades people lived in courtyards, there is usually an alluvial black earth ground. In the city itself, it is obviously noticeable, and on the Trade side, along the embankments, inde arshin 8 or 9 should be dug to the mainland.

In 1910, N. K. Roerich, who was fond of archeology, carried out excavations in Detinets at the expense of the Museum of Pre-Petrine Art. No official report, no drawings, no photographs have survived from these excavations. There were no scientific publications either, and the extracted artifacts disappeared. The XV All-Russian Archaeological Congress of 1911 was held in Novgorod, but no serious excavations were carried out then.

A. V. Artsikhovsky began excavations in Novgorod in 1929 - they were kindling reconnaissance at Gorodische. Reconnaissance found that the cultural layer was spoiled by "treasure" pits, and that real excavations were almost impossible. Then the excavations were transferred to mounds, and in the same year mounds were excavated in the village of Khreple, Novgorod Region, which yielded valuable finds.

On October 16, 2018, archaeologists discovered a wooden pavement from the second half of the 14th century in the center of Veliky Novgorod. The wooden pavement of Kozmodemyanskaya Street goes from the rampart to Volkhov for almost a kilometer.

In 2018, an underwater expedition of the Institute of Archeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences discovered the remains of the ancient Great Bridge at the bottom of the Volkhov River. According to radiocarbon analysis, the age of this bridge, which crossed the Volkhov riverbed between St. Nicholas Cathedral on Yaroslav's Courtyard and the lost Cathedral of Boris and Gleb in the Novgorod citadel, can be about 1068 ± 25 years, that is, it was built in the 10th century.

In 2020, during the reconstruction of the Sofiyskaya embankment, archaeologists found a treasure trove of coins from the 16th-17th centuries. In total, more than 1500 coins were found.