Leningrad Oblast, Russia

The Leningrad region is a subject of the Russian Federation, located in the north-west of the European part of the country. It is part of the Northwestern Federal District and the Northwestern Economic Region.

The territory is 83,908 km², which is 0.49% of the area of Russia. According to this indicator, the region ranks 39th in the country. From west to east, the region stretches for 500 km, and the greatest length from north to south is 320 km.

Population - 2,027,068 people. (2023).

It was formed as a result of the administrative-territorial reform on August 1, 1927. Historically, it was preceded by Ingermanland, later - St. Petersburg province, formed in 1708.

in the north - with the Republic of Karelia;
in the east - with the Vologda region;
in the southeast - with the Novgorod region;
in the south - with the Pskov region;
in the west in the central part - with St. Petersburg (marine enclave);
in the southwest - with Estonia;
in the northwest - with Finland.

From the west, the territory of the region is washed by the waters of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea).

The location of the highest bodies of state power is the city of Gatchina (since 2021), as well as the city of St. Petersburg (from 1924 to 1991 - Leningrad, hence the name of the region).



Central part (Vsevolozhsky, Kirovsky and Tosnensky districts).
Northwest (Vyborgsky and Priozersky districts).
Southwest (Gatchinsky, Lomonosovsky, Volosovsky, Luga, Kingiseppsky and Slantsevsky districts).
East (Kirishsky, Volkhovsky, Lodeynopolsky, Tikhvinsky, Podporozhsky and Boksitogorsky districts).




Saint Petersburg

Lodeynoye Polye




Staraya Ladoga


Tsarskoye Selo (Pushkin)

Lodeynoye Polye


Other destinations

Alexander-Svirsky Monastery

Gatchina Palace

Fabergé's House

Fort Alexander

Fort Ino

Fort Krasnaya Gorka

Koporye Castle

Pavlovsk Palace

Peterhof Palace

Tichvinsky Uspensky Monastery

Vyborg Castle

White Sea- Baltic Canal


How to get there

The most convenient way to get to the Leningrad region is through St. Petersburg. From the adjacent regions of Russia, as well as from Finland and Estonia, the Leningrad Region can be reached by rail and road transport.


By rails

The length of the railways is more than 3 thousand km, most of them are electrified (almost all of them are 3 kV direct current, except for the neutral insert on the Buslovskaya section - the border with Finland and the alternating current section in the northeast of the region from Svir station to the border with Karelia). The density of the railway network is 32 km per 1000 km². Cargo turnover is more than 100 million tons per year.

The railways of the region are part of the St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg - Vitebsk, Petrozavodsk and Volkhovstroevsky regions of the Oktyabrskaya Railway.

The main railway lines are:
Saint Petersburg - Moscow
Saint Petersburg — Pskov
Saint Petersburg — Petrozavodsk
Saint Petersburg — Vologda
St. Petersburg - Dno
St. Petersburg — Sortavala

International highways are the lines:
St. Petersburg — Vyborg — Buslovskaya (RHDPP) — Helsinki
Mga - Ivangorod (St. Petersburg - Ivangorod (RHDPP) - Tallinn)
St. Petersburg - Nevel - Ezerishche (ZHDPP) - Vitebsk - Vilnius - Kaliningrad (via Belarus and Lithuania)
St. Petersburg - Sebezh - Posin (ZhBP) - Riga

The main railway junctions of the region are:
Volkhovstroevsky railway junction, where the main part of transit freight trains going to the St. passenger traffic.
Kirishi railway junction, where freight transit is ensured and oil trains are formed.

Gatchina railway junction, which ensures the passage of freight transit to the port of Ust-Luga and to the western borders of the country with the change of locomotives according to the type of traction.

The Ust-Luga railway junction serves the Ust-Luga commercial sea port.
The Vyborg railway junction serves high-speed passenger traffic on the St. Petersburg-Helsinki route, suburban traffic on the Vyborg-St.

The main directions of suburban trains in the Leningrad region:
St. Petersburg — Roschino — Vyborg
St. Petersburg — Sosnovo — Priozersk — Kuznechnoye
St. Petersburg — Vyritsa — Oredezh
St. Petersburg — Kalishche
St. Petersburg — Gatchina-Varshavskaya — Luga
St. Petersburg — Tosno — Luban
St. Petersburg — Mga — Volkhovstroy
St. Petersburg — Mga — Budogoshch
St. Petersburg — Mill Creek — Nevskaya Dubrovka
St. Petersburg - Mill Creek - Lake Ladoga

The main rolling stock on suburban routes are:
On electrified routes: ET2M, ET2, ER2, ED4M, ET4A, ED2T, ES2GP Lastochka.
On non-electrified directions: DT1, RA2.


By ferry
There is a ferry service between Stockholm and St. Petersburg.



The only operating airport "Pulkovo" is located in St. Petersburg. It is impossible to get from the airport even to the border of St. Petersburg with the Leningrad region by municipal transport (buses, electric trains), however, some cities located near St. Petersburg (for example, Vsevolozhsk, Kirovsk, Gatchina) can be reached by taxi.

The region has an extensive network of railways. On electric trains you can reach the farthest corners of the region.



In all regional centers of the Leningrad Region, all mobile operators work confidently, and there are usually no problems with connecting to the Internet. In smaller cities, as well as in villages, it can be different, but you can only be left completely without communication in very remote places.


Precautionary measures

In most large cities (regional centers and cities of regional subordination), night walks should be avoided due to the possibility of encountering drunken hooligans. This is especially true in Vyritsa, Gatchina, Volkhov and Tikhvin. The exceptions are Vyborg and Priozersk, but recently Vyborg has ceased to be considered an exception due to cases of shooting (not carrying an international character).


Physical and geographical characteristics


The region is entirely located on the territory of the East European (Russian) plain. This explains the flat nature of the relief with insignificant absolute heights (mostly 50-150 meters above sea level). The territory of the Karelian Isthmus (and especially its northwestern part) is distinguished by rugged relief, numerous rocky outcrops and a large number of lakes. The Karelian Isthmus is part of the Baltic Crystalline Shield. The highest point of the Karelian Isthmus is Mount Kivisyurya, 203 m above sea level (according to Finnish pre-war topographers - 205 m), located near the village of Novozhilovo, in the Kamennaya Gora tract.

The lowlands are mainly located along the shores of the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga, as well as in the valleys of large rivers. The main ones are Vyborgskaya, Priozerskaya, Priladozhskaya, Predglintovaya (Primorskaya), Plusskaya, Luga, Volkhovskaya, Svirskaya and Tikhvinskaya.

The largest uplands are the Lembolovskaya, Izhora, Lodeynopolskaya, Vepsovskaya uplands and the Tikhvin ridge. The highest point of the region - Mount Gapselga (291 meters above sea level) - is located on the Vepsovskaya Upland. An interesting geographical feature is the Baltic-Ladoga Glint - a high (up to 40-60 meters) cliff, stretching for more than 200 km from the west to the east of the region. It is the shore of the ancient sea.


Geological structure and minerals

The territory of the region is located at the junction of two major tectonic structures.

The north-west of the region is located on the Baltic crystalline shield, where Archean and Early Proterozoic rocks come to the surface. They were formed over 600 million years ago as a result of powerful volcanic eruptions. Therefore, the main minerals in this area are granite, facing stone and sand and gravel.

On the southern shores of the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in the Cambrian period (about 500 million years ago), thick strata of sedimentary rocks (blue clays with sandstone interlayers) were formed.

Approximately 400 million years ago, during the Ordovician period, obol sandstones were formed, containing deposits of phosphorites and oil shale (west of the region). In the south of the region, rocks of the Devonian period come to the surface.

From the west to the east of the region, a layer of dictyonema shales is traced, which at one time was considered as a promising source of uranium. However, the pilot mining of poor uranium ores near the village of Rannolovo showed the economic inefficiency of enriching this raw material.

In the eastern part of the region, close to the surface, there are rocks formed during the Carboniferous period. There are deposits of bauxites, limestones and dolomites.

The relief of the region was finally formed in the Quaternary period as a result of four glaciations and interglacial epochs successively replacing them. Therefore, in most of the region there are deposits of peat, clay and sand.



The climate of the region is Atlantic-continental. Marine air masses cause relatively mild winters with frequent thaws and moderately warm, sometimes cool summers. The average temperature in January is −4.9… −8.6 °C, in July +17.1…+18.5 °C. The absolute maximum temperature of +37.8 °C was registered on July 28, 2010 (Tikhvin), the absolute minimum of -54.8 °C was recorded on January 16, 1940 (the village of Shugozero, Tikhvin region). The coldest are the eastern regions, the warmest - the south-western.

The amount of precipitation per year is 600-700 mm. The greatest amount of precipitation falls on the uplands, the maximum - on Lembolovskaya. The minimum amount of precipitation falls on the coastal lowlands. The greatest amount of precipitation falls in summer and autumn.

In winter, precipitation falls mainly in the form of snow. Permanent snow cover appears in the second half of November - the first half of December. Snow melts in the second half of April.



The territory of the region, with the exception of a small extremely southeastern part, belongs to the Baltic Sea basin and has a dense, well-developed river network. The total length of all rivers in the Leningrad region is about 50 thousand km. There are also 1,800 lakes in the region, including Ladoga, the largest in Europe. A significant part of the region is swampy.



The main type of soils in the region are podzolic, poor in humus and characterized by significant acidity. At the same time, on loams, in low places with increased accumulation of moisture, mainly in spruce forests, strongly podzolic soils with a thick upper layer are formed. In higher places, less favorable for the accumulation of moisture, medium podzolic soils are formed. On sandy loams and sands that do not retain moisture well, slightly podzolic soils are found in pine forests. Where herbaceous vegetation predominates—in forest clearings, in sparse mixed or deciduous forests—soddy-podzolic soils have formed.

On the territory of the Izhora Upland, on rocks containing lime, which neutralizes acidity and protects the top layer of soil from leaching, soddy-calcareous soils have formed. These are the best among the soils of the region: they are richer than others in humus and minerals, and have a well-defined lumpy structure. They are also called "northern chernozems".

In lowlands and flat areas, with a weak runoff (poor drainage) of atmospheric waters, causing them to stagnate on the surface, and sometimes with a high level of standing groundwater, peaty and swampy soils are formed. They are distributed in the central part of the region, in the east of the Karelian Isthmus, on the coast of the Gulf of Finland, in the Ladoga region.

In some places on meadow terraces (along the rivers Volkhov, Luga and others), flooded with water during floods, alluvial soils rich in humus are formed from river sediments. Their area is small.

The main soil-forming rocks are clays, loams, sands and peat. The agricultural use of the region's soils requires their artificial improvement.



The territory of the region is located in the taiga zone in its middle (in the north of the region) and southern subzones (most of the region), an insignificant part - in the zone of mixed forests (south of the region) - mainly within the Luga region, as well as islands on the Izhora Upland, Putilovsky Plateau and in some areas adjacent to them, for example, in Kingisepp. Dense coniferous and mixed deciduous forests, interspersed with swamps, cover almost 70% of the region's territory, serve as an important raw material resource of the region and abound in fauna, forest "population", which is very diverse.

In damp places there are forests of black alder. In areas with fertile soils, the forests sometimes contain broad-leaved species - maple, small-leaved linden, pedunculate oak, rough and smooth elms, common ash, and in the undergrowth - common hazel. Predominantly in the western and southern parts of the region, even small areas of relict broad-leaved forests can occasionally be found. Medicinal plants and berries grow in the forests of the region: May lily of the valley, bearberry, blueberry, lingonberry, cranberry, raspberry, rosemary, juniper, erect cinquefoil. The territories adjacent to St. Petersburg are occupied by agriculture (arable land, meadows, shrubs).


Animal world

The area is inhabited mainly by forest animals, including 68 species of mammals. The main ones are squirrel, polecat, marten, mole, hare, hare, hedgehogs, various rodents (field and forest mice, rats and others). There are also wolf, wild boar, roe deer, fox, elk, bear, lynx, weasel, otter, spotted deer, seal, beaver, seal, mink, raccoon dog.

About 300 species of birds live in the region, the main ones are capercaillie, white partridge, gray partridge, hazel grouse, black grouse, local duck, flying duck, goose, sandpiper. Some forest birds (woodpecker, thrush, tit, cuckoo, starling) are beneficial by exterminating harmful insects. Only the raven, sparrow, titmouse, bullfinch, woodpecker winter in the region; the majority leave the region starting from the end of August.

About 80 species of fish are found in the waters of the region. Of marine fish, Baltic herring, Baltic (Reval) sprat, cod, and sea pike are more common. From migratory fish there are smelt, salmon, brown trout, eel. Among freshwater fish, whitefish is of the greatest importance; perch, pike perch, bream, roach, and smelt are also found. The following are listed in the Red Book: Baltic ringed seal, Ladoga seal, gray seal, golden eagle, short-toed eagle, peregrine falcon, osprey, white-tailed eagle.


Protection of Nature

On the territory of the region created and operate:
2 state natural reserves: Nizhnesvirsky, East of the Gulf of Finland
1 federal complex reserve: Mshinsky swamp
12 regional complex reserves: Bely Kamen, Birch Islands, Vepssky Forest, Vyborgsky, Gladyshevsky, Vyaryamyanselkya Ridge, Oak forests near the village of Velkota, Kotelsky, Lisinsky, Crayfish Lakes, Syabersky, Pure Moss
4 regional hydrological reserves: Lamminsuo Bog, Ozernoe Bog, Glebovskoye Bog, North Mshinsky Bog
3 regional botanical reserves: Gostilitsky, Lindulovskaya grove, Rakitinsky
1 regional ornithological reserve: Lake Melkovodnoe
2 regional landscape reserves: Cheremenetsky, Shalovo-Perechitsky
16 complex natural monuments: Babinsky swamp with adjacent dry valleys on the Sokoliy Mokh swamp massif, Gladkiy Mokh swamp massif and the Sharya river valley, Gontovoye swamp, the sources of the Oredezh river in the Dontso tract, Lava river canyon, Kokorevsky, Lazarevsky swamp, Lowland swamp to the west of the village of Bereznyak, Lake Kazyan, Lake Yastrebinoye, Pozhupinskoye Lake with adjacent dry valleys, the Ragusha River, Sablinsky, Pine forests on the rocks in the vicinity of the village of Budogoshch, Staroladozhsky, Dry Islands in the Fox Moss swamp massif
7 geological monuments of nature: Geological outcrops of Devonian and Ordovician rocks on the Saba River, Geological outcrops of the Devonian on the Oredezh River and near the village of Yam-Tesovo, Geological outcrops of the Devonian and adits on the Oredezh River near the village of Borshchovo (Lake Antonovo), Devonian outcrops on the Oredezh River near the village of Belogorka, the island of Gustoy, Pugarevsky, Shcheleyki
2 geological and hydrological monuments of nature: Lake Krasnoye, radon springs and lakes in the village of Lopukhinka
1 regional natural park: Veps forest
In 1999, the Red Book of Nature of the Leningrad Region was published. The first volume is devoted to specially protected natural areas, the second - to plants and fungi, and the third - to animals.



On the territory of the modern Leningrad region, the oldest population appeared in the 9th-8th millennium BC. e. (Mesolithic) after the retreat of the glacier (Listvenka). By the middle of the 1st millennium A.D. e. settled Finno-Ugric tribes already existed here, engaged in agriculture, cattle breeding, hunting and fishing. In the 8th century, the Slavs settled in this territory.

The emergence of Ladoga (from the 18th century Staraya Ladoga) dates back to the 750s - the oldest Russian settlement on the territory of Russia. In the 9th-10th centuries, Ladoga became the most important political and economic center for the formation of the statehood of Ancient Rus'. Only at the end of the 10th century did it lose its significance, giving way to Novgorod.

In the XII century, Novgorod gained political independence, and the lands along the shores of the Gulf of Finland, Luga, Neva, Ladoga, Volkhov became part of the Novgorod Republic.

In the XIII-XIV centuries, these lands became the arena of the struggle of the Novgorod and Pskov republics with the aggression of the Livonian knights and Swedish feudal lords. In 1240, the famous Battle of the Neva took place, in which Russian troops under the command of Prince Alexander Yaroslavich defeated the Swedish aggressors. To protect the northwestern borders of Rus', Novgorodians in the 13th-14th centuries created the fortresses of Yam, Koporye, Oreshek, Korela, Tiversky town.

In January 1478, the Novgorod Republic ceased to exist due to its capture by the Grand Duke of Moscow Ivan ΙΙΙ. After the annexation of the Novgorod state to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, most of the Novgorod land was divided into five patches, the borders between which passed mainly along the rivers. The patches, in turn, were divided into halves. At the end of the XV - beginning of the XVI century. Novgorod land is described by Moscow scribes, who went on special expeditions for this purpose. The result of these expeditions was "Scribe Books", a valuable source of information on the history and geography of the North-West in general and the territory of the present-day Leningrad Region in particular. The year of foundation of many settlements of the Leningrad region is considered to be the year of their mention in the scribe books.

At the beginning of the 17th century, during the Time of Troubles, Russia was cut off from the Baltic Sea: the North-West of the country was captured by Sweden. Russia's attempt in 1656-1658 by armed means to return the lost territory was unsuccessful.

At the beginning of the 18th century, as a result of the Northern War, the territory of the region was again annexed to Russia, and a new capital of the country, St. Petersburg, was built here. In 1708, the Ingermanland province was formed. In 1710 it was renamed St. Petersburgskaya, in 1914 - Petrogradskaya, in 1924 - Leningradskaya.

After the October Revolution of 1917, Soviet authorities began to be created in the Petrograd province. In 1919, an armed confrontation between the Red Army and the troops of General N. N. Yudenich unfolded in the Petrograd province.

In 1926, the Northwestern Region was formed in the northwest of the RSFSR. The administrative-territorial structure of the North-Western region was approved by the decision of the North-Western ECOSO of May 7, 1926. The region included 5 provinces: Murmansk, Novgorod, Pskov, Leningrad and Cherepovets. In 1927-1929, an administrative reform took place in the USSR (gubernias were abolished), while by decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR of August 1, 1927, the North-Western Region was renamed Leningrad, the composition of the territory was approved by the decisions of the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee "On Borders and composition of the districts of the North-Western Territory" of July 18, 1927 and "On the borders and composition of the districts of the Leningrad Region" of August 1, 1927. The area of the territory of that region was 360.4 thousand km², subsequently it decreased significantly.

By January 1, 1931, there were 95 districts and 1 district (Murmansk district) in the region, which included 2603 village councils, 39 cities, including 6 separated into independent administrative and economic units (Leningrad, Pskov, Novgorod, Kronstadt, Borovichi, Cherepovets), workers' settlements - 20, rural settlements - 44,644. The area of ​​the region on 01/01/1931 was 330,293 km² (excluding the territory of Leningrad and Kronstadt), the population was 6,174,900 people, including 2,940,000 - urban population ( 47.6%), population density - 18.7 people / sq. km. National composition: Russians - 90.2%, Finns - 2.3%, Jews - 1.7%, Estonians - 1.4%. The largest settlements were:
Leningrad - 2,236,515 inhabitants.
Pskov - 39,997 inhabitants
Novgorod - 36,000 inhabitants
Murmansk - 29,194 inhabitants
Kronstadt - 28,167 inhabitants
Detskoye Selo - 27,800 inhabitants
Borovichi - 23,500 inhabitants
Kolpino - 20,748 inhabitants
Cherepovets - 19,412 inhabitants
Krasnogvardeysk - 19,028 inhabitants
Staraya Russa - 18,409 inhabitants
rp. Kukisvumchorr - 16,300 inhabitants
Peterhof - 14,979 inhabitants
Sestroretsk - 14,000 inhabitants

During the Great Patriotic War, most of the territory of the region was occupied and suffered significantly. In January 1945, the population of the region was 483 thousand people, although before the war 1258 thousand people lived in this territory. During the blockade of Leningrad, the Road of Life passed through the territory of the region - the only highway that connected the besieged city with the country. The partisan movement made a great contribution to the victory over the enemy: by the beginning of 1944, 13 partisan brigades, which consisted of 35 thousand fighters, were operating in the region.

The longest and most bloody battle in the history of World War II, connected with the blockade of Leningrad and its deblockade, unfolded on the territory of the region. In agreement with the administration of the Leningrad Region and the People's Union of Germany, after lengthy negotiations, despite public protests, it was decided to turn the cemetery of German soldiers in the village of Sologubovka (the Sinyavinsky Heights region) into a military cemetery. Now about 22,000 people are buried on it. By the end of the search, the remains of about 80,000 people will find their rest here.

There is also a monument to Soviet soldiers.

In the region, the memory of Finnish soldiers and residents of the settlements that departed to Russia under an agreement with Finland is preserved.

In the post-war period, the economy of the region was restored, new cities and towns appeared. In 1949, the status of a city was assigned to Slantsy, in 1950 to Boksitogorsk, in 1953 to Kirovsk, in 1954 to Pikalevo and Ivangorod, in 1956 to Podporozhye, in 1963 to Tosno and Vsevolozhsk. In 1973, the Leningrad nuclear power plant was put into operation in Sosnovy Bor, which in the same year received the status of a city.

In 1991-1996 Alexander Semyonovich Belyakov was the Head of the Administration of the Leningrad Region. With the adoption of the Constitution of Russia in 1993, the Leningrad Region became a subject of the Russian Federation. In 1994, the Charter of the Leningrad Region was adopted. In 1996-1998, Vadim Gustov was the governor of the Leningrad Region; in 1998-2012 - Valery Serdyukov.


Official symbols

The flag of the Leningrad region is a rectangular panel with a length to width ratio of 3:2. At the top of the flag is a white field, which occupies 2/3 of its width. The coat of arms of the Leningrad Region is depicted on a white field in the center. The overall width of the coat of arms on the flag of the Leningrad Region should be 2/9 of the length of the flag. In the lower part of the flag along the entire length in the form of pointed waves there is a red stripe, above it - a blue stripe, divided in half by a white wavy stripe, which is 1/60 of the width of the flag's cloth.

The reverse side of the flag is a mirror image of its front side.

Coat of arms of the Leningrad region: “in an azure (blue, light blue) field, a silver anchor crosswise and on top of it - a golden key with the eye up; in the scarlet (red) head of the shield there is a silver battlemented wall.

The official anthem of the Leningrad Region is the composition "Leningrad Family" (music by Svetlana Mironova, lyrics by Mikhail Leikin).



The gross regional product of the region in 2014 amounted to 713.9 billion rubles.

Sectoral structure of the gross regional product of the region by type of economic activity (2014):
agriculture, hunting and forestry - 7.7%
fishing, fish farming - 0.1%
mining - 0.9%
manufacturing industries - 27.2%
production and distribution of electricity, gas and water - 6.3%
construction - 8.2%
wholesale and retail trade; repair of vehicles, motorcycles, household and personal items - 12.7%
hotels and restaurants - 1.2%
transport and communications - 15.9%
financial activities - 0.2%
real estate transactions, rent and provision of services - 8.8%
public administration and military security, mandatory social security - 4.0%
education - 2.2%
health care and provision of social services - 3.6%
provision of other communal social and personal services - 1.0%



The basis of the economic potential of the Leningrad region is industrial production. The industry of the region has a deeply diversified structure.

Mining takes 1.6% in the structure of shipped products of the region's industrial complex. The volume of shipped goods of own production, performed works and services for the extraction of minerals in 2014 amounted to 12,321 million rubles, or 95.8% of the level of 2013 in current prices. The largest enterprises in the field of mining are: CJSC LSR-Basic Materials North-West, CJSC Kamennogorsk Plant of Nonmetallic Materials, CJSC Gavrilovskoye Quarry Administration, CJSC Kamennogorsk Quarry Administration, LLC Cement-Concrete Products, CJSC Vyborg Quarry Administration, Kampes OJSC, Gavrilovskoye Quarry Administration CJSC, Shchebservis LLC. The main types of manufactured products are non-metallic building materials (crushed stone, gravel, sand and gravel mixtures, crushed stone and gravel mixtures, clays).

In the structure of shipped products of industrial enterprises of the Leningrad Region, manufacturing industries account for 84%. The volume of shipped goods of own production, performed works and services of manufacturing industries in 2014 amounted to 364,630 million rubles, or 115.6% of the level of 2013 in current prices.

The agro-industrial complex of the Leningrad Region includes 526 large and medium-sized enterprises of various forms of ownership, including 232 agricultural enterprises, 17 feed mills, 130 food and processing industries, 147 fisheries enterprises. The largest enterprises in the region are: Galaktika LLC, Volkhovkhleb Combine OJSC, Neuma Meat Processing Plant LLC, Gatchina Khlebokombinat OJSC, Volkhov Feed Mill OJSC, Gatchina Feed Mill CJSC, fishing collective farm NEVO ”, ZAO Confectionery Association Lyubimy Krai, LLC Nevskie Porogi, LLC Kraft Foods Rus, ZAO Sinyavinskaya Poultry Farm named after the 60th Anniversary of the USSR, OAO Severnaya Poultry Farm, ZAO Roskar Poultry Farm. The Talosto factory is located in Volkhov, and the Philip Morris Izhora tobacco factory is located in the Lomonosovsky District.

The enterprises of the transport complex are located in various cities of the region. Vyborg is home to one of the largest shipbuilding enterprises in the North-West of Russia - OJSC "Vyborg Shipbuilding Plant", in Vsevolozhsk - the assembly plant "Ford Sollers", LLC "Gestamp Severstal Vsevolozhsk", in Tikhvin there is a large car building plant in Russia - CJSC "Tikhvin Carriage Works ”, in Tosno - one of the largest manufacturers of road and municipal equipment in the North-West - ZAO Tosnensky Mechanical Plant.

The center for the production of coke and petroleum products in the Leningrad region is the city of Kirishi, where the region's leading oil refinery, OOO PA Kirishinefteorgsintez, is located. The enterprise, in terms of oil refining, is one of the five largest plants in the country. LLC "PA "Kirishinefteorgsintez" produces all types of fuel, as well as products that are in great demand in the petrochemical and paint and varnish industries, at household chemical enterprises and in the construction industry. The main types of products are: gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, oxygen, fuel oil, solvents.

The complex of the chemical industry is developed in the Leningrad Region, represented by the following main enterprises: OOO PG Phosphorit (production of mineral fertilizers, feed additives), JSC Volkhov Chemical Plant (production of household chemicals), JSC Khimik (production of solvents) , LLC "Interfill" (manufacture of soap; detergents, cleaning and polishing products; perfumes and cosmetics), a plant for the production of protein casings for sausages and sausages "Belkozin" in Luga.

The leading manufacturers of rubber and plastic products are Nokian Tiers LLC (plant for the production of tires for passenger cars), Penoplex Kirishi LLC (production of heat-insulating boards from extruded polystyrene), NTL Packing LLC (plastic bags, film, flexographic seal).

Metallurgical enterprises of the region, as well as enterprises producing metal structures (JSC RUSAL Boksitogorsk, CJSC BaselCement-Pikalyovo, LLC Tikhvin Ferroalloy Plant, LLC Tikhvin Machine-Building Plant, LLC PO Onima-Stal) produce alumina, primary aluminum, spare parts for tractors, metal products for road construction equipment and much more.

The largest mechanical engineering enterprises are Priborostroitel CJSC (information security tools), Caterpillar Tosno LLC (earth-moving equipment, construction equipment, diesel engines, power plants), PELLA-MASH OJSC (fiberglass boats and boats), LLC "Helkama Forste Viipuri" (refrigerated display cases). Machine-building enterprises are located in various cities of the region.

The share of production of electrical equipment, electronic and optical equipment in the total volume of shipped products in the region is 1.2%. The main enterprises of the region - JSC Nevsky Plant Electroshield, LLC NPF Svit, North-Western Production Complex - a branch of JSC United Electrotechnical Plants (SZPK - a branch of JSC ELTEZA) produce the following types of products: for railway automation and telemechanics systems, electrical distributors and control equipment, electric motors, generators, transformers, radio and television transmission equipment and other products.

Textile, clothing and leather goods production is represented by the following manufacturing enterprises: Uzor OJSC, Volkhovchanka CJSC, Komatso LLC (fabrics, knitwear and garments), Slantsy Plant Polymer OJSC (rubber footwear production) and CJSC "Novoladozhskaya leather goods factory" (leather goods).

The power industry is represented by all its main types: nuclear power, thermal power and hydropower. The share of energy in the total volume of production in the region is 14.3%. The power industry of the region is represented by all its main types - nuclear, thermoelectric, hydroelectric. The volume of electricity produced in 2014 amounted to 38.1 billion kWh, or 112.6% of the level of 2013, thermal energy - 222.6 million Gcal, or 104.8%. The volume of shipped goods of own production, performed works and services for the production and distribution of electricity, gas and water in 2014 amounted to 108.3 billion rubles, or 116.5% of the level of 2013 in current prices. The largest enterprises: the branch of Rosenergoatom Concern OJSC Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant in Sosnovy Bor, the Kirishskaya GRES branch of OAO Wholesale Generating Company No. 2, the Nevsky branch of OAO Territorial Generating Company No. 1, OAO Lenenergo, OAO Leningrad Regional Power Grid Management Company, ZAO Gazprom Mezhregiongaz St. Petersburg, OAO Gatchinagaz. In Kirishi and Kirovsk there are large thermal power plants. Small hydroelectric power stations have been built on the rivers Vuoksa, Svir, Volkhov.

The forest complex retains an important place in the economy of the Leningrad region. The timber and woodworking industries are developed in many districts of the Leningrad Region. Large timber industry enterprises are located mainly in the east of the region. The region's leading furniture factories are located in Gatchina, Priozersk and Volkhov. In the Boksitogorsk district there is the largest timber processing enterprise in Russia - MM-Efimovsky LLC. The largest manufacturers of pulp, paper and cardboard are St. Petersburg Cardboard and Printing Plant OJSC, International Paper CJSC, MediaWiki:Badtitletext OJSC, and Syassky Pulp and Paper Plant OJSC.

In the construction complex of the Leningrad Region, the largest companies producing building materials are: OJSC Slantsy Cement Plant CESLA, LLC Cement, CJSC Pikalevsky Cement, OJSC Pobeda LSR. Brick Plant, Pavlovsky Plant CJSC, Etalon Building Materials Plant CJSC, Tolmachevsky ZhBiMK Plant OJSC, Petrokeramika CJSC, LSR-Basic Materials North-West LLC, Luga Abrasive Plant OJSC, CJSC "DSK-Voyskovitsy", OJSC "LSR Zhelezobeton-North-West", LLC "211 KZhBI", glass factories in the Luga region and many others. The development of the production of building materials in the Leningrad region is facilitated by a rich mineral resource base with a significant amount of explored reserves of various minerals that are raw materials for the production of building materials; a developed transport infrastructure that provides logistics for the construction market not only in the Leningrad region, but also in other regions.

On the territory of the Leningrad Region, 13 enterprises of the military-industrial complex operate: FSUE “Plant named after Morozov”, FSUE “NITI im. A.P. Aleksandrova, Federal State Unitary Enterprise Research Institute Poisk, OAO Research Institute of Optoelectronic Instrumentation, OAO Burevestnik Plant, OAO Krizo Plant, OAO Ladoga Plant , JSC "15 Arsenal of the Navy", JSC "218 Aircraft Repair Plant" and others.

On the territory of the region, in the Vsevolozhsk district, there is the Utkina Zavod, the largest class A logistics complex in the North-West of Russia, which has been operating since autumn 2007. The total area is 34,000 m².



In 2017-2018, 2.6 million square meters of housing were commissioned in the Leningrad Region, mainly in the Vsevolozhsk District.

The most active construction is carried out near St. Petersburg, namely in the cities of Murino, Kudrovo, Sertolovo, Vsevolozhsk, the villages of Novoselye, Bugry, Novoe Devyatkino, Yanino-1.

New construction in the Leningrad region is criticized by urbanists due to excessive building density, insufficient social infrastructure and underdeveloped public transport.



Agriculture of the region has a pronounced suburban specialization, the leading industries are dairy and meat animal husbandry, potato growing and vegetable growing. At the same time, livestock production noticeably prevails over crop production, livestock production accounts for more than 2/3 in monetary terms.

At the end of 2020, the Leningrad Region ranks 1st in the production of eggs and milk productivity of cows, 2nd in the number of poultry; 3rd place - for growing trout, 3rd place - for the production of poultry meat in agricultural organizations, 9th place - for the production of milk in agricultural organizations. The region also has a good yield of lettuce, mushrooms, potatoes, berries and other things. The volume of food industry goods also increased - 167.7 billion rubles (123.7%). The Leningrad region ranks second in Russia (second only to the Kaliningrad region) in 2020 in terms of rapeseed yield of 30.9 centners per hectare, the average yield in Russia is 17.7 centners per hectare.


Animal husbandry

The number of cattle in farms of all categories at the beginning of 2020 amounted to 176 thousand heads, including 75.6 thousand heads of cows. Milk yield per cow in agricultural enterprises was 8738 kg.

The volume of livestock production in the Leningrad Region in 2020 amounted to 63.3 billion rubles, or 101.9% of the 2019 level. Milk production is carried out by 84 agricultural organizations, as well as peasant (farmer) households and personal subsidiary plots. In 2020, 655.4 thousand tons of milk were produced (+18 thousand tons, 102.8% compared to 2019), 2% of the volume of the Russian Federation (32.2 million tons) and 33% of the volume of the NWFD, including agricultural organizations - 617.7 thousand tons (+17.3 thousand tons or 102.9%). 94.2% of milk is produced in agricultural organizations. Households and farmers produced 5.8% of milk, 2.5% of meat and 1.9% of eggs. Milk yield per feed cow in agricultural organizations amounted to 9156 kg (+418 kg or 104.8% compared to 2019). The sale of breeding young cattle of the dairy direction is 5353 heads or 114.2% by 2019.

In 2020, 655.4 thousand tons of milk were produced, milk yield per 1 feed cow - 9,431 kg (104.2%), meat - 376.2 thousand tons (99.9%), eggs - 3,198 billion pieces. (104.3%).

The main livestock of cows in the Leningrad region is 67% black-and-white breed; the Ayrshire breed accounts for 18%; about 15% - Holstein. The region's agro-industrial complex development program includes the creation of a cheese cluster in the Leningrad Region. To this end, the Bugry breeding farm in the Vsevolozhsk District plans to replace the Black-and-White breed of a thousand heads with the same number, but of the Jersey breed of cows.

In addition, fur farming is developing in the region: mink, muskrat, blue and black-and-silver fox and other animals are bred.


Crop production

The grain harvest in 2020 amounted to 157.1 thousand tons (in 2019 - 145.6 thousand tons), the yield was 38.9 centners per hectare (in 2019 - 37.0 centners per hectare).

A significant part of the harvest of potatoes and vegetables comes from personal subsidiary plots of the population. The main vegetable crops are cabbage, carrots, cucumbers, onions, and beets. Also, grain crops are grown in the region: barley, rye, oats, oilseed rapeseed, mainly for livestock and poultry feed.

As of July 1, 2006, agricultural lands of all categories amounted to 640 thousand hectares, of which arable land - 337 thousand hectares). There are more than 200 large and medium-sized agricultural enterprises in the region (in the past - state farms, now - joint-stock companies). Farming has not yet become widespread.


Banking sector

3 commercial banks were registered in the Leningrad region:
"Russian Commercial and Industrial Bank". Headquarters - in Vsevolozhsk, branches in many cities of the region.
"Vyborg-Bank". Headquarters - in Vyborg, branches in Primorsk and Svetogorsk.
"LENOBLBANK". The headquarters is in Murino.
Now all three banks have their licenses revoked and their activities have been terminated. Banking services in the cities of the region are provided by branches and departments of other banks. The North-Western Bank of Sberbank of Russia has the most extensive branch network. Also in the region are the banks "VTB North-West", "VTB 24", "Rosselkhozbank", "Baltic Bank", "Baltinvestbank", JSCB "Investbank" (OJSC), "Russlavbank", "Moskomprivatbank", "Inkasbank", Petersburg Socio-Commercial Bank, Orient Express Bank and others.


Border zone

Part of the territory of the Leningrad region is a border zone. On the Karelian Isthmus, along the Finnish border, this zone has largely existed since the Soviet era. On the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, the regime of the border zone partially existed in Soviet times (Sosnovy Bor and adjacent territories), and was partially established in the 1990s. along the Estonian border. In addition, the islands in the Gulf of Finland to the west of Kotlin Island are included in the border zone. The right to enter the border zone is given by a specially obtained pass, a visa of another state (where there are border checkpoints), and many other documents (passport with registration at the place of residence in the border zone, travel certificate, tourist or sanatorium voucher, certificate of ownership land or real estate, etc.).

In the 1990s, the regime of the border zone was established by the regional authorities on the proposal of the border service, and the borders of these zones were somewhat larger than the current ones. In 2006, the establishment of border zones was transferred to the competence of the Federal Security Service. The first order of the director of the FSB was issued on the establishment of border zones on the territory of the Leningrad Region, in which the border zone was established the same as before. In 2007, the size of the established border zone was slightly reduced.



State power in the region is exercised on the basis of the Charter, which was adopted on October 27, 1994.

The highest official of the region is the governor, who is elected for a term of 5 years. Since May 28, 2012, he has been Alexander Yuryevich Drozdenko.

The executive power in the region is exercised by the Administration, which includes:

The Government of the Leningrad Region is the highest executive body of state power, which includes the Governor (Chairman of the Government), vice-governors and chairmen of committees
sectoral, territorial and other executive authorities.

Legislative power in the region is exercised by the Legislative Assembly of the Leningrad Region, which consists of 50 deputies elected by the inhabitants of the region according to a mixed proportional-majority system for a period of 5 years. In 2016, the Legislative Assembly of the sixth convocation was formed, in which there are 4 factions: United Russia (40 deputies), Fair Russia (3 deputies), Communist Party of the Russian Federation (3 deputies), LDPR (4 deputies). The Chairman of the Legislative Assembly is Sergei Mikhailovich Bebenin.

The location of the highest state authorities is the city of Gatchina (since 2021), as well as the city of St. Petersburg. At the same time, St. Petersburg is not part of the region, being an independent subject of the Russian Federation. The Leningrad Region is the only subject of the federation whose authorities until 2021 were completely located on the territory of another subject. It was assumed that the relocation of the regional authorities to Gatchina was to be completed in 2022. At the first stage, committees were supposed to move, which, according to their profile, "gravitate most" to Gatchina: this is the committee for culture, including the Museum Agency, the committee for tourism, the committee for youth affairs, the committee for physical culture and sports. Also, at the first stage, part of the administration of the governor and the government of the Leningrad region was supposed to move. The governor's office, located in Gatchina, Kirgetova Street, 1, was to become the legal address of the regional administration units. This is a former city hospital built in the 19th century. The architect of the building is Alexander Shtaubert.

Representatives of the Leningrad Region in the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation:
Vasilenko Dmitry Yurievich - from the Legislative Assembly.
Igor Vadimovich Fomin - from the Government of the region.


Mass media

"Leningrad Regional Television Company" (LOT) broadcasts on the frequency of the "Fifth Channel" in the time intervals from 7:00 to 8:00. In the future, it is possible to switch broadcasting to the frequency of the STO TV channel, and the option of switching to cable TV broadcasting is also being considered (as of autumn 2007, there are 27 cable TV studios in the municipalities of the region).
The regional newspaper "Vesti" is the official printed organ of the Government of the region.