Saint Petersburg, Russia

Saint Petersburg 


Location: Saint Petersburg Russia



Hotels, motels and where to sleep

Restaurant, taverns and where to eat

Saint Petersburg


The tourist and commercial center of the city, where you will find the Hermitage, the Russian Museum, the Summer Garden, St. Isaac's Cathedral and much more

Quiet central area with its own character

Vasilyevsky Island
Spit of Vasilyevsky Island, Kunstkamera, Academy of Arts, Erarta

Petrograd side
Peter and Paul Fortress, Aurora, TsPKiO on Elagin Island, Zenith Stadium

Vyborg side, Clearance, Citizen, Commandant

Right bank
Ladoga, Bolsheviks, Cheerful village

Historic industrial area along the left bank of the Neva

Volkovo and Kupchino
Legendary sleeping area with interesting cemeteries

Moscow avenue
The best Soviet architecture of St. Petersburg, Grand Layout and Victory Park

Estates of the Peterhof road surrounded by industrial zones and new buildings


Schedule of bridges in St. Petersburg

Bridges across the Neva.
Bolshoy Obukhovsky ("Shta") bridge. Doesn't raise up.
Volodarsky bridge 02: 00–03: 45 04: 15—05: 45
Finnish Railway Bridge 02: 20—05: 30
The bridge of Alexander Nevsky 02: 20—05: 10
Bridge of Peter the Great Bridge (formerly Bolsheokhtinsky Bridge) 02: 00—05: 00
Foundry Bridge 01: 50—04: 40
Trinity Bridge (formerly Kirovsky Bridge) 01: 40—04: 50
Bridges over the Bolshaya Nevka
Sampsonievsky bridge 02: 10—02: 45 03: 20—04: 25
Grenadier Bridge 02: 45—03: 45 03: 20—04: 50
Kantemirovsky Bridge 02: 45—03: 45 04: 20—04: 50
Bridges across the Malaya Neva
Exchange Bridge 02: 00—04: 55
Tuchkov bridge 02: 00—02: 55 03: 35—04: 55
Bridges over the Bolshaya Neva
Palace Bridge 01: 25—04: 55
The Annunciation Bridge (formerly Lieutenant Schmidt Bridge) 01: 25—02: 45 03: 10—05: 00


Petersburg was built in the delta of the Neva, where it is divided into many branches and channels. The arms of the Neva are called:

Bolshaya Neva - the left arm from the spit of Vasilyevsky Island to the Gulf of Finland;
Malaya Neva - the right branch from the spit of Vasilyevsky Island to the Gulf of Finland;
Bolshaya Nevka - the right branch, departing sharply to the north between Liteiny and Troitsky bridges and further dividing into Malaya and Srednyaya Nevka;
Malaya Nevka - the left arm of the Bolshaya Nevka, departing from it at the eastern tip of Kamenny Island;
The Middle Nevka is the left branch of the Bolshaya Nevka, departing from it at the eastern tip of Elagin Island.

Main rivers and canals:
on the left bank of the Neva: the Fontanka, Moika, Pryazhka, Monastyrka and Griboedov, Kryukov, Admiralteysky, Obvodny canals;
the Smolenka River separating Vasilievsky Island and Decembrist Island;
the Zhdanovka River separating the Petrogradsky and Petrovsky Islands;
the Karpovka River separating the Petrogradsky and Aptekarsky Islands;
the Krestovka River separating Kamenny and Krestovsky Islands;
Kronverk Strait separating Zayachiy and Petrogradsky Islands;
the Okhta River, the right tributary of the Neva;
Okkervil River, left tributary of the Okhta.


Getting here

From Moscow to Saint Petersburg
The route from Moscow to St. Petersburg is by far the most popular route in the country. Planes between the two capitals fly on average every 20 minutes, and trains depart at intervals of 1.5-2 hours, which is completely unthinkable for any other city in Russia. There are three ways to move between Moscow and St. Petersburg:

by night train (8-10 hours) - the cheapest option, tickets to the reserved seat from 900 rubles
daytime high-speed train (4 hours) - in advance sales, prices start at 1,500 rubles, but closer to the departure date, tickets become more expensive, especially for trains running at peak times (Friday and Sunday evenings, Monday mornings); already 10 days before departure, tickets are usually cheaper than 2500 rubles, the average price is 3000-3500 rubles
by plane - the competition in this direction is so high that a relatively inexpensive ticket can be taken even on the day of departure; prices are usually comparable to high-speed trains, 2500-3500 rubles

The question of whether to travel from Moscow to St. Petersburg by train or fly by plane is the subject of eternal disputes between lovers of rail and air transport. In terms of time, a high-speed train and a plane are almost identical: taking into account the road to the airport and the waiting time, you are unlikely to spend less than the 4 hours that the train travels on the road. The trains are very punctual and give you a better guarantee that you will arrive on time.


By plane

The number and variety of flights cannot be compared with Moscow. The only St. Petersburg carrier is the Rossiya airline, other airlines fly to St. Petersburg relatively little, although S7, Pobeda, Nordavia and Ural Airlines operate several direct flights from here, and Ural Airlines even fly abroad. There are no long-distance intercontinental flights as a class; it is usually impossible to fly to the east further than Irkutsk. The network of European routes for the fourth largest city in Europe is also very modest, although major European airlines fly to St. Petersburg, offering connections around the world.

1 Pulkovo Airport (IATA: LED), Pulkovskoe shosse, 41B. ☎ +7 (812) 337-38-22, +7 (812) 337-34-44. It is located 15 km south of the city center almost on the border of residential development, but not so close to the city that the airport can be quickly reached from the center. After a large-scale reconstruction, one large terminal remained here, part of which is the former Pulkovo-1 - an original monument of Soviet architecture with five glass towers, reminiscent of glasses to some, and cooling towers to others.
The terminal is arranged according to the usual scheme for modern airports of three floors with an arrival hall at the bottom, a departure hall at the top and an intermediate second floor, on which there are chairs without armrests, where transit passengers sleep at night. The spacious arrival hall accommodates a couple of shops, mobile phone shops, a left-luggage office (600 rubles for the first day, then 300 rubles / day), as well as numerous restaurants and cafes, including McDonalds with almost city prices and the Stopexpress store located next to it, where they sell pretty good baked goods. On the street in front of the entrance to the arrivals area is a tiny "Teremok". In a clean area, it is cheapest to eat at Burger King, and during the day you can go to the Kamchatka self-service cafe, which offers a three-course lunch for about 350 rubles. The clean area of international flights is made in the best traditions of modern airports, there are stands with sockets and USB connectors for charging phones. The clean zone of domestic flights is a converted old terminal and cannot boast of such a service, but it has a funny monument to Peter the Great with a suitcase on wheels. This monument is used as a landmark and even mentioned in the announcements about the beginning of the landing.

How to get there: buses 39 and 39e go to the airport from metro  2 (Moskovsko-Petrogradskaya) Moskovskaya line (there are stops at both exits). Express goes non-stop for 15-20 minutes, a regular bus travels 25-35 minutes. Everywhere there is a city tariff, you can pay with the Plantain card. Interval of movement: 10 minutes for the bus, 15-20 minutes for the express, they run from 5 am to 1 am, i.e. even longer than the subway.

Taxi: in the arrivals area, immediately after baggage claim, there is an official Pulkovo Taxi counter with fares of 600-700 rubles to the southern part of the city, 1000 rubles to the center and 1200-1500 rubles to the northern regions. Yandex, Uber, Gett have the cheapest trip to the center for about 600 rubles, but there may not be free cars. Private traders walk around the arrivals hall and are generally unobtrusive.


By train

There are five railway stations in St. Petersburg - Moskovsky, Vitebsky, Baltiysky, Finlyandsky and Ladozhsky. Electric trains run from any of them, while long-distance trains are distributed as follows: from Finlandsky to Helsinki, from Vitebsky to the south and south-west, from Moscow and Ladoga to all other directions, and there are no long-distance trains at the Baltiysky station at all. Be sure to check which station the train you need leaves from!

Regular and high-speed trains run from Moscow to St. Petersburg. Expressways are represented by Sapsan and private Nevsky Express. These are, in fact, the only trains in Russia that have the right to be called high-speed: they cover 650 km in 3.5-4 hours. they go in pairs with an interval of 10 minutes, and the interval between pairs is usually 2 hours. Some peregrine falcons make intermediate stops in Tver, Vyshny Volochek, Bologom or Chudovo; others drive non-stop. The trains are similar to the German ICE, divided into first and second class, contain a dining car. Free Wi-Fi and sockets are only in first-class carriages, in second-class Wi-Fi is paid (149 rubles). The Nevsky Express travels the same 4 hours. It consists of ordinary passenger cars adapted for speeds up to 200 km/h. The cars are divided into six-seater compartments, the ticket price includes meals in the form of a sandwich, a bottle of water and something else. Unlike Sapsan, Nevsky Express runs only once a day, but it is convenient in that ticket prices remain relatively low even the day before the trip, while Sapsan has strict dynamic pricing, and 7-10 days before departure tickets become more expensive. On the other hand, "Nevsky Express" is "famous" for its technical problems and can be late, sometimes very late.

Night trains from Moscow to St. Petersburg are of two types - direct and passing. There are usually 7-8 direct trains a day, among them the branded Grand Express and Red Arrow, where there are only compartment and luxury cars, and the prices, respectively, are 30-50% higher than usual: these trains run along the most convenient schedule with departure around midnight and arrival at 8 am; the condition of the cars and the level of service are beyond praise. Cheaper trains depart or arrive at less convenient times, some of them also have cheap reserved seat, although over the years the reserved seat on the St. Petersburg direction is becoming less and less. The iconic train for traveling between the two capitals is Moscow-Tallinn: it runs at relatively reasonable times and always has the cheapest reserved seat cars. Finally, the extreme option for those who have not found anything better is passing trains such as St. Petersburg-Chelyabinsk or St. Petersburg-Adler, arriving in Moscow at Kursky, and not Leningradsky Station. Some of these trains are deliberately slowed down to 9-10 hours due to long technical stops. Compared to direct trains, comfort levels can be low.

High-speed Allegro trains run from Helsinki to St. Petersburg four times a day with border control while moving. Travel time: 3.5 hours. Trains have free Wi-Fi, sockets at each seat and a Finnish dining car with corresponding prices. Tickets are sold through the websites of Russian and Finnish railways. The standard price is €59 in pre-sale and €79 the day before departure. Discounted rates start from €29. From March 27, 2022, the movement of Allegro trains has been canceled for an indefinite period.

2  Moskovsky railway station , Nevsky prospect, 85 ( 1 (Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya) line of Vosstaniya Square). Built in 1851 and has a "twin brother" at the other end of the railway from St. Petersburg to Moscow. Being the central station of the city of Moskovsky, on the one hand, it boasts the most diverse service, and on the other hand, almost everything here is paid (and not the cheapest), and the seats in the free waiting room are almost constantly occupied. There is a manual storage room in the basement (230 rubles/day); there is an automatic one nearby, but it is much more expensive (450 rubles / day) and does not make any sense unless you plan to regularly return to your bags and take something from them. There is a free waiting room (you can charge your phone - 40 rubles). And paid extra comfort - the first hour 190 rubles, each subsequent 90 rubles (paid WiFi 80 rubles / h, computer 120 rubles / h, use of the socket 70 rubles / h). Rest rooms: for a bed in a multi-bed room - from 700 for a 6-hour stay, and from 900 for a day, in the season from May 1 to September 30 more expensive.

3 Vitebsky railway station, Zagorodny pr., 52 ( 1 (Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya) Pushkinskaya line). The oldest of the railway stations in Russia. The first wooden building was built in 1837 to connect St. Petersburg with Tsarskoye Selo (now the city of Pushkin) and rebuilt in stone in 1852. The modern Art Nouveau building was erected in 1904, and it is worth spending half an hour to inspect its interiors: go up to the second floor, examine the railings, carvings, twisted ladders and other decorative elements. There are left-luggage offices, a waiting room, rest rooms, cafes, shops, ATMs, free Wi-Fi.

4 Baltic Station, emb. Bypass Canal, 120 ( 1 (Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya) Baltic line). The station building was built in 1858, based on the Gare de l'Est in Paris. It was originally built to serve the railway to Peterhof and was called Peterhof.

5  Finlyandsky railway station, pl. Lenina, 6 ( 1 (Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya) line of Lenin Square). The station is small and not crowded: only trains to Helsinki departed from far away from here until cancellation in 2020-2022 (the usual Repin and Sbelius and the high-speed Allegro), and for 2022 there were only a couple of electric trains per hour to the north of the Leningrad Region : to Vyborg, Sestroretsk, Priozersk, Vsevolozhsk and Lake Ladoga. The station building was erected in 1870, and in 1960 it was radically rebuilt; the façade of the old station has been preserved; it is built into the side wall of the new building. There are three halls at the station: in the first one there are four cash desks and two dozen terminals for the sale of suburban tickets (the terminals accept cards, banknotes and coins); in the second - a waiting room with automatic luggage storage and a kiosk where you can drink espresso with cakes. Free Wi-Fi advertised but intermittent. Through a separate Express hall (entrance from the side of Botkinskaya Street), Allegro trains were boarded; .

6  Ladoga railway station, Zanevsky pr. 73 ( 4 (Pravoberezhnaya) line Ladozhskaya). The newest of the city stations was built in 2003 at a station with a completely non-urban name Dacha Dolgorukov. Unlike the others, this terminal is neither historical nor a dead end, and is a concourse with exits to the platforms. The station building contains a fair number of round-the-clock canteens and cafes, and prices increase as you move from the exit of the metro: the cheapest way to eat is in the dining room in front of the concourse, there is also a bakery and puffery. There is a left-luggage office (230 rubles/day) and rest rooms. From the platform you can see the building of the old station built in 1913.


By car

From St. Petersburg, such roads begin as:
A181 (E18) Primorskoye Highway - Scandinavia highway, starting in the northwestern part of the city and running along the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland towards Finland. Connects St. Petersburg with Sestroretsk, Zelenogorsk, Vyborg, Helsinki, Turku.
A122 Vyborgskoye shosse is a highway starting in the northwestern part of the city. Connects St. Petersburg with Pargolovo, Sertolovo, Simagino.
A121 is a highway starting in the northwestern part of the city from Vyborgskoye Highway. It connects St. Petersburg with Orekhovo, Sosnovo, Otradnoye, Larionovo, Priozersk, Kuznechny, Sortavala and then goes to P21 in the village of Pryazha, a little south of Petrozavodsk. On the highway up to Losevo (90 km from St. Petersburg), the speed limit of 110 kilometers per hour is almost continuously in effect. After Losevo, the track becomes less fast, has many turns and even serpentines, sharp elevation changes and oversized places. You should not be distracted by beautiful views, especially if you are driving along the road for the first time - a significant part of the traffic here is made up of heavy trucks carrying granite, often with overload and speeding.
41K-064 - Road of life. The highway, starting in the northwestern part of the city from the Ryabovskoye highway, flows into the Road of Life highway. It connects St. Petersburg with Vsevolozhsk and the southwestern shore of Ladoga.
P21 (E105) Murmansk highway - the Kola highway, starting from the intersection of Narodnaya st. etc. Bolsheviks, going east along the southern shore of Lake Ladoga and then turning north. It connects St. Petersburg with Lodeinoy Pole, Petrozavodsk, Murmansk, Kirkenes. It also leaves the stream to Tikhvin and Vologda, after the bridge over the Volkhov, turning onto the A114 Novaya Ladoga - Vologda. The first 50 km of the route have two traffic lanes in each direction, built back in the 80s, and the further section up to the bridge over the Volkhov in 2022 is in the process of a protracted reconstruction to the same look.
М10 (E105) Moskovskoye Highway - the highway "Russia", starting in the southern part of the city from the square. Victory and going to the southeast. Connects St. Petersburg with Tosno, Veliky Novgorod, Tver, Moscow. After the construction of a paid understudy, the route was overgrown with traffic lights, speed limits (up to 40 kilometers per hour) and cameras for its control, which significantly increased the travel time along it.
M11 - the Neva highway, starting in the southern part of the city on the ring road and going southeast. Paid and faster understudy of the Moscow highway. It connects St. Petersburg with Veliky Novgorod, Okulovka, Bologim and Tver, where it breaks off due to legal and financial delays in the construction of a bypass around the city. After Tver, the route starts again and goes to Moscow, but the prices for the so-called "Moscow region" section are approximately equal to the prices for the section from St. Petersburg to Tver, despite the fact that the distance is several times less. Is it worth the detour of traffic jams near Moscow, let everyone decide for himself. The highway has a speed limit of 110, and on the central section as much as 130 kilometers per hour.
P23 (E95) Pulkovskoe highway - the Pskov highway, starting in the southern part of the city from the square. Pobeda and going south past the Pulkovo airport. Connects St. Petersburg with Gatchina, Luga, Pskov, Vitebsk, Gomel, Kiev, Odessa. Until the end of the Gatchina bypass road, it has three lanes in each direction, then it turns into a regular two-lane highway.
A180 (E20) Tallinn highway - Narva highway, starting in the southwestern part of the city. Connects St. Petersburg with Kingisepp, Ivangorod, Narva, Tallinn. For 2022, the repair of the highway continues with the expansion and construction of bypasses for settlements.
A121 Petergofskoye Highway is a highway starting in the southwestern part of the city and running along the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland. Connects St. Petersburg with Strelna, Peterhof, Lomonosov, Bolshaya Izhora, Sosnovy Bor, Ust-Luga, Ropsha.

A ring road (KAD) has been built around the city, which connects all highways starting from St. Petersburg and the most important streets of the city, has a speed limit of 110 km / h.


By bus

7  Bus station , emb. Obvodny Canal, 36 ( 5 (Frunzensko-Primorskaya) Obvodny Canal line, 5-7 minutes walk from the metro station). ✉ ☎ +7 (812) 766-57-77. The main bus station, from which the vast majority of long-distance flights depart, incl. international, although many of them then stop at the Baltic Station, which is usually more convenient than going to the bus station itself. The bus station building is relatively small and quiet, on the second floor there is a fairly decent and inexpensive dining room with a coffee machine. Around the bus station is the inevitable shawarma and a small confectionery "Sever", other food options are just next to the metro. There is a left-luggage office at the bus station (5:30–23:30, break: 14:30–15:00), 60 and 100 rubles per day for a small and large bag, respectively.
8 Northern bus station (Murino), Murino, Privokzalnaya square ( 1 (Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya) Devyatkino line). ☎ +7 (812) 242-89-09. Demolished in November 21st, instead of it from the old bus, a ticket office was made (routes continue to run). New building . as such, it is not planned - they are going to make a massive transport hub "TPU Devyatkino". The project for December 2022 has not yet begun construction. There are few routes, mostly served (almost once an hour) by buses to Priozersk, one or two flights a day to Petrozavodsk via Sortavala and Pitkyaranta, routes to Slantsy, Volkhov, and other cities of the Leningrad region.
Also, many routes depart from metro stations, mainly follow the nearest suburbs:

1 (Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya) line Avtovo: Strelna, Peterhof, Lomonosov
1 (Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya) line Baltiyskaya Lomonosov, Volosovo, Luga
1 (Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya) line Leninsky Prospekt: Peterhof, Kingisepp
1 (Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya) line Prospekt Veteranov: Peterhof, Gatchina
2 (Moscow-Petrogradskaya) line Kupchino: Kolpino, Pushkin
2 (Moscow-Petrogradskaya) line Moskovskaya: Pushkin, Pavlovsk, Gatchina
2 (Moscow-Petrogradskaya) line Parnassus: Vyborg, Primorsk, Sosnovy Bor
2 (Moskovsko-Petrogradskaya) line Prospekt Prosveshcheniya: Osinovaya Grove, Sertolovo
3 (Nevsko-Vasileostrovskaya) Begovaya line: Kronstadt, Sestroretsk, Zelenogorsk
3 (Nevsko-Vasileostrovskaya) line Rybatskoye: Ust-Izhora
4 (Right Bank) line Ladozhskaya: Vsevolozhsk
4 (Right Bank) line Dybenko Street: Shlisselburg, Kirovsk
5 (Frunzensko-Primorskaya) line Staraya Derevnya: Kronstadt, Sestroretsk
Line 1 (Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya) Vosstaniya Square: private buses to Finland. Departure from the Oktyabrskaya Hotel 9


By water transport

10   Marine Station , pl. Sea Glory, 1. ☎ +7 (911) 337-20-60. The station building was built in 1973-1983 and has 7 floors: the hotel is located on the top 3 floors, the 4th floor is technical, the 3rd is a consumer service area, the 2nd is occupied by the station staff, the 1st is the customs and border services . There is a restaurant. Vessels moor at one of the five available berths.
Regular cruises depart from this station to Helsinki (14 hours on the way, 10 hours in Helsinki), as well as Helsinki - Stockholm - Tallinn (the total duration of the cruise is almost 4 days, the ship costs 8-10 hours in each city), organized by ST .PETER LINE
11   Sea cargo-and-passenger port of St. Petersburg (“Marine facade”), bank of the Neva Bay V.O., 1. ☎ +7 (812) 303 -67-40. The new sea port of St. Petersburg under construction on Vasilyevsky Island. There are no regular flights, ships of foreign cruise companies are served. So the first accepted passenger ship was the Norwegian Jewel cruise liner of Norwegian Cruise Line. Navigation period from May to September.
The old river passenger station, located at 195 Obukhovskoy Oborony Ave., was demolished in 2012. All flights from there have been transferred to the berths in Utkina Zavod.

12  Piers in Utkina Zavod, Oktyabrskaya embankment, 31. ☎ +7 (812) 335-2196. Serves passenger river vessels of the Vodokhod company (+7 (495) 730-58-85) and Mosturflot. Both organize river cruises of various durations to Moscow, visiting all or part of the listed cities along the way - Valaam, Mandrogi, Kizhi, Goritsy, Yaroslavl, Myshkin, Uglich, Petrozavodsk. In addition, Vodokhod offers cruises around the cities of Karelia (including Valaam and Kizhi) with a return back to St. Petersburg. Departure of ships from berths 8 and 9.


Getting around

Opening hours: the metro operates from 5:30 am to midnight (departure from terminal stations). Buses, trolleybuses and trams run approximately in the same mode. It is also possible to use electric transport (trams and trolleybuses) following the park - such vehicles are allowed to carry passengers along the entire route, and they can run up to 1:30. The same is true for the morning release of electric transport from the park to the routes, which starts running at 5 am (the first tram leaves the park at 4:30). There is no stable night public transport in St. Petersburg, the exceptions are mass city or state events and holidays (Night of Museums, Scarlet Sails, May 1 and 9, City Day, New Year, Christmas and others, it is necessary to check the information individually for each event), when the metro and several surface routes run all night.

Route planning: the routes of St. Petersburg transport are well known by Yandex. The Yandex.Maps application is also useful, but it shows all transport in real time. 2GIS and Google Maps also work well. Local resources: PiterTransport, TransportSpb, the official portal of the Committee for Transport. When using paper maps, remember that minibuses were completely abolished in the spring of 2022.

There are many payment options for public transport. The recommended way for travelers is the Plantain card. By default, it works in the electronic wallet mode. In land transport, there is no cash at all. There are many nuances, but, as a rule, paying with Plantain is the easiest and cheapest. You can buy (80Р, 70Р - with a stereo effect, 100Р - a keychain) and replenish the card at metro stations in terminals (both cash and non-cash payments are available). To pay in land transport, you need to attach the card to the validator until the green arrow appears. In the subway, to pass, the card must be applied to the yellow circle at the turnstile. The cost of the trip (2023) on the map on the metro is 49 rubles, on land transport - 44 rubles. There are discounts in ground transport for transfers within an hour.

Petersburg metro is the second largest underground transport system in Russia. The first trains were launched on November 15, 1955 from Ploshad Vosstaniya to Avtovo. Currently, there are five lines with a total length of 114 kilometers and 67 stations (including 7 interchange nodes).

It is easy to navigate the St. Petersburg metro - there are no circle lines, and there is only one interchange hub for transferring from each line to each. Access to the platform with rare exceptions (transfer hub  1 (Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya) line  2 (Moskovsko-Petrogradskaya) line Technological Institute,  1 (Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya) Devyatkino line,  2 (Moskovsko-Petrogradskaya) Kupchino line,  2 (Moskovsko-Petrogradskaya) Parnas line,  3 (Nevsko-Vasileostrovskaya) Rybatskoye line,  5 (Frunzensko-Primorskaya) Sportivnaya line) is carried out on the left side in the direction of the train. Almost always (except for  1 (Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya) line  2 (Moskovsko-Petrogradskaya) line of the Technological Institute and  5 (Frunzensko-Primorskaya) Sportivnaya line) trains of the same line come to the same platform, and at transfer stations (except for  1 (Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya) line 2 (Moscow-Petrogradskaya line of the Technological Institute) in order to move from one line to another, you need to go on an escalator or through a pedestrian crossing to another underground lobby.

The tram network of St. Petersburg, which previously entangled the entire city with long routes, has undergone several stages of reduction. There are only 4 routes in the city center, for the most part they are unsuitable for sightseeing. However, on the outskirts, the tram still complements the subway. In recent years, both the city and private investors have been actively investing in the tram, which has led to the renewal of the rolling stock and the repair of the preserved old one. 4 routes in the east of the city were transferred to a private concession, which implemented, among other things, an automatic traffic light control system that allows trams to pass at intersections almost without stops and, thus, increases their speed.

The current list of tram routes and their schedule can be found on the carrier's website. All trams accept bank cards and travel tickets "Podorozhnik". There are no conductors on most routes (except the busiest ones) - cash payments are made to the driver at stops.

City buses form the main frame of the St. Petersburg land transport route network. An up-to-date list of city routes and their schedule can be found on the website of the Organizer of Transportation. Buses start at 5 am and finish around 1 am.

All city bus routes accept a travel ticket "Podorozhnik". In connection with the implementation of the transport reform in 2022, cash is not accepted for payment on the routes of the "new model" - only "Podorozhnik", bank cards (1 trip - 60 rubles) and QR codes for one-time trips (1 trip - 60 rubles) . However, on a number of existing routes the situation is reversed - cash is accepted for payment, but cards are not accepted.

Also in the outlying areas there are bus routes of the Leningrad region. They do not have travel tickets for St. Petersburg. In exceptional cases, on some routes, Podorozhnik cards and bank cards are accepted for payment, but the main payment instrument is cash. The main way to distinguish a city route from a regional route is numbering. Bus routes of St. Petersburg, with rare exceptions, are assigned numbers from 1 to 399; suburban ones have numbering from 400 and above.

The current list of trolleybus routes and their schedule can be found on the carrier's website. All trolleybuses accept bank cards and travel tickets "Podorozhnik". There are no conductors on a number of routes - cash payments are made to the driver at stops.

Minibuses are represented by buses with 15-20 seats, as well as PAZs and have the prefix "K" in front of the number. Some minibuses duplicate buses, differing little in price. Minibuses stop on demand, including between stops. There are usually no conductors in minibuses, you have to pay the driver.

As part of the transport reform in the summer of 2022, all minibuses operating on the inner city routes of St. Petersburg were closed and replaced with social buses. At the same time, the reform did not affect suburban routes, with numbering from 400 and above.

Railway transport
There are no city train routes in St. Petersburg, but the commuter train can be used as urban transport. Suburban rail passenger transportation is serviced by the North-Western Suburban Passenger Company, tel. hotline +7 (812) 458-68-68. Rail transport in St. Petersburg can serve as a good substitute for the metro in those parts of the city where there are no metro stations. Compared to land transport, the schedule is strictly observed here, the speed is higher and there are no traffic jams. The minimum fare within the city is 40 rubles (2016). Also, electric trains are convenient for traveling to the suburbs of St. Petersburg and traveling around the Leningrad Region. It is especially convenient to use the train in the morning from 6 to 9 o'clock and in the evening from 15 to 20 o'clock, at other times you can choose other modes of transport. In addition, in all directions on weekdays in the morning there are so-called. "windows" when the movement of trains is interrupted for 1.5-2 hours.

The cost of the trip depends on the distance. You can find train schedules and fares on the company's website. There are also round-trip tickets, subscription tickets for 1, 2, 3 or 4 months, weekend tickets. For children from 5 to 7 years old, accompanied by adults, there is a 50% discount (children under 5 years old - free of charge).

All types of tickets can be bought at the box office of the stations. The train schedule and information about changes in it is also posted there. Stations of St. Petersburg and some stations are equipped with turnstiles for automatic control of the entrance and exit of passengers. To pass through it, you need to place a ticket with a barcode on a special reading panel, wait for the green signal to appear and go through the turntable. Unfortunately, it often happens that the turnstile cannot read the barcode correctly and does not let the passenger through. In this case, show your ticket to the nearby controller, and he, having checked the ticket, will let you onto the platforms. Keep your ticket until the end of the trip to present it to the controllers on the trains and pass through the turnstiles at the destination station.

At suburban stations (and especially in the Leningrad region), ticket offices are sometimes absent or closed. In this case, you can buy a ticket on the train from the controller, saying at which station you boarded the train and where you are going.

Water transport
River walks are among the most popular tourist attractions in the city. They are of two types: circular routes along the Moika-Kryukov Canal-Fontanka with access to the Neva (1-1.5 hours) and night excursions to the bridges. The peak of such excursions is in the summer, but daytime boat trips begin in the spring and continue until late autumn. Tickets are sold right on the street in all places where tourists gather - Nevsky Prospekt is especially promising in the area of ​​Anichkov Bridge, Gostiny Dvor and Kazan Cathedral. The estimated price of such a walk is 1200 rubles (2022), but it can be significantly higher depending on the impudence of the sellers and the season. On a fine day, Petersburg is very beautiful from the water, and it makes sense to look at it from this angle.

All excursions are organized almost the same and take place in "automatic mode" under an audio recording, in which information about the sights is interspersed with the recitation of poems about St. Petersburg. On larger ships there is a cafe-bar.

There are also regular "Meteors" in Peterhof. During the season, departures are approximately every hour, but there may not be tickets for the near future. There are also longer walks along the Neva with access to the Gulf of Finland. All this must be sought on the Palace and Admiralteyskaya embankments.

When going on a water excursion, remember that it is usually not hot in St. Petersburg, and even in summer you need to dress warmly for an excursion. In spring and autumn, you most likely won’t have to enjoy the view from the open deck at all, as it will be cold and windy.

All well-known mobile applications for calling a taxi (Yandex, Uber, Gett) work in St. Petersburg, the fare in the city is from 70 rubles and more, from the airport to the center - about 1000 rubles.



January 18, the day the blockade was broken - on this day in 1943, during Operation Iskra, the troops of the Leningrad and Second Volkhov Fronts reunited in the Shlisselburg area.
January 27, the day of the complete lifting of the blockade - on this day in 1944, as a result of the offensive of the Red Army, German troops were driven back from Leningrad at a distance of 60 - 100 km.
May 9, Victory Day is a national holiday in honor of the end of the Great Patriotic War. In St. Petersburg, it is celebrated with a military parade on Palace Square and evening fireworks from the beach of the Peter and Paul Fortress.
May 27, City Day - on this day in 1703, the Peter and Paul Fortress was founded on Hare Island. On this day, the city administration arranges a masquerade parade along Nevsky Prospekt.
3rd Saturday of June, Scarlet Sails - a holiday of school graduates of St. Petersburg. An evening concert is held at the Palace and Birzhevaya squares, after the concerts, fireworks begin. On this evening and night, it is better not to plan walks in the city center, as it is full of crowds of not very sober teenagers.
August 2. Airborne Day. The holiday is celebrated by a small but loud, drunken and sometimes aggressive part of the city. Veterans of the Airborne Forces love to drink on this day, swim in the fountain and fight with anyone. On this day, it is not advisable to walk around the city center.



Paying for purchases with bank cards
In addition to cash, in almost all stores in St. Petersburg, you can pay for your purchase with a bank card. Usually the following types of cards are accepted for payment: World, Visa, Visa Electron, MasterCard, MasterCard Electronic and Maestro. Cards of other payment systems (for example, American Express) are accepted very rarely.

Hypermarkets and supermarkets
Auchan. Five hypermarkets located in the shopping malls MEGA Ikea, Leto Teorema and Gulliver. MEGA Ikea shopping malls are located outside the city limits. Due to the inconvenient location, they can only be recommended if you want to visit other stores in the MEGA Ikea complexes or if you are traveling by car. There are three stores within the city, near metro stations  3 (Nevsko-Vasileostrovskaya) line Elizarovskaya and  5 (Frunzensko-Primorskaya) line Staraya Derevnya, as well as in the vicinity of the railway station Borovaya.
Dixie. A large (96 stores) chain of supermarkets in almost all areas of the city. Prices are below average, but the assortment of goods is less than in hypermarkets. Dixy sells groceries and a small range of essentials. The rooms are usually small and cramped.
Quarter. A supermarket chain that sells food and essentials. There are no discount cards. It is a direct competitor of the Dixy and Pyaterochka stores, but the price level in the Kvartal is slightly higher. There are 22 supermarkets of this network in St. Petersburg.
Ribbon. ☎ +7 (800) 700-41-11. around the clock. A network of large hypermarkets that sell primarily food and essential goods, there are small departments of clothing, household appliances, goods for children and electronics, as well as a cookery where you can buy ready-made food. The price level is average. There are 14 hypermarkets in St. Petersburg.
OK. A network of large hypermarkets that sell primarily food and essential goods, there are small departments of clothing, household appliances, goods for children and electronics, as well as a cookery where you can buy ready-made food. The price level is average. There are 16 hypermarkets in St. Petersburg.
Crossroads. Implemented in two versions: "Crossroads" and "Crossroads-hyper" (former "Carousel"), the assortment in them is the same, the prices are slightly higher than average. At the same time, there are constant queues at the cash desks, which even the introduction of self-service cash desks could not overcome.
Pyaterochka. A large supermarket chain owned by the same owner as Crossroads. Prices are below average, but the range of goods is less than in hyper- and supermarkets. Here you can buy food and a small assortment of essential goods. The rooms are both cramped and more or less spacious. It is often difficult to find a price tag for a product - either they are not displayed at all, or the product is placed to the left or to the right of its usual place under another, obviously lower price tag. Meat departments simply rent space in the store, the store is not responsible for the quality of their products. Red caviar is not worth buying here, it is cheap, but made from frozen ovaries, it is bitter and tastes of iron. All stores have self-service checkouts, allowing you to walk through the store in a couple of minutes even at rush hour.



St. Petersburg is distinguished by its special and original traditions of public catering, which are much deeper and more significant than the linguistic disputes around the concepts of shawarma/shawarma, buckwheat/buckwheat and crumpets/doughnuts. When in the 1990s the fashion for Western fast foods began in the country, and the words "glass", "cheburechnaya", "sandwich" or "khinkalnaya" were firmly associated in the public mind with something bad, dirty and certainly unhygienic, St. commitment to institutions of this kind. Here, behind the scenes, but quite systematically, two principles are implemented: a cafe in every house and a cafe for everyone - from those who like to talk over a cup of coffee to those who are looking for where to have another glass. If the residential areas of St. Petersburg are in many ways similar to Moscow and other large Russian cities, then the historical center is a very special catering environment, which is no less interesting to explore than to look at the buildings or wander along the embankments.

Cafes and restaurants in the very center, that is, on Nevsky, in the area of ​​the Admiralty, the Savior on Spilled Blood, St. Isaac's Cathedral and other mass attractions are mainly aimed at tourists. Here you will surely find a menu in English, and the prices are likely to be disproportionately high. However, even in the tourist epicenter it is quite possible to find an inexpensive cafe or canteen, if you set yourself such a goal; There is also a network of fast food. However, in general, you need to look for places for locals in residential areas, that is, in the center behind the Griboyedov Canal, on Vasilyevsky Island and on the Petrograd side. Outlying areas are dominated by chain cafes.

There is probably no local food in St. Petersburg - there are only special names and special traditions for its use in gingerbread, shawarma, and so on. Smelt, a small marine fish with a specific cucumber smell, which is fried and rolled in flour, has crept up to the status of “local cuisine” as much as possible. During the spawning period, stalls for selling it fresh grow up in the city like mushrooms after rain, fish is served in many cafes and bars, and in mid-May, a “smelt festival” is held annually on the territory of the Peter and Paul Fortress. There are a number of breweries in the city, but the Baltika and Nevskoye brands, which are widespread throughout Russia, are not popular with local residents who prefer the draft Vasileostrovskoye, a really good “live” beer found in almost every cafe, except for of course, expensive and pretentious.

The network establishments listed below make up only a small proportion of inexpensive cafes in St. Petersburg. Most of them belong to the category of canteens and drinks, and the line between the latter is blurred: most often it is a canteen with distribution and a separate counter-bar where alcoholic drinks are poured. There are, however, more classic wineries (they are also cheburek, khinkal, dumplings), where the order is placed at the counter, and then the food is brought as it warms up or is ready. Each of these establishments is distinctive and self-sufficient, and the quality of food can vary from “disgusting” to “very tasty and homely”: trust your own intuition and see who and what is eating at the neighboring tables. You can eat for 150-300 rubles (2019), drink and eat for about the same. A motley audience will keep you company: from local drunkards to St. Petersburg intellectuals.

There are also establishments with a special flavor in the city. Firstly, puffy ones, where the main and sometimes the only food will be donuts thickly sprinkled with powdered sugar (under no circumstances call them donuts: the locals will not appreciate it!) with tea or crappy coffee from plastic cups. The most popular is the pyshnaya on Bolshaya Konyushennaya, which has existed since Soviet times: it’s really hard to imagine a more nostalgic place. Another characteristic St. Petersburg institution is shawarma. You can call them whatever you like (doner, kebab, etc.), but the fact is that in St. Petersburg, like Western Europe, this street food was for the first time in Russia awarded separate cafes with tables, plates, and sometimes even waiters.

Pita's is not surprising that a new generation shawarma was born in St. Petersburg. The youngest food service chain in the city has a somewhat hipster tinge, but offers shawarma (albeit with quite different ingredients) and almost nothing else. Hi-tech interiors. Wi-Fi and the ability to charge gadgets are available by default.
Teremok is a pancake fast food that gradually turned into just a dining room where pancakes are baked fresh, but hot dishes are heated and served in plastic dishes. At the same time, prices are quite high and start from 100-150 rubles, and for lunch you can lay down from 300 rubles (however, set meals are much cheaper).
Stolle - very tasty pies.
Pirogovy yard - a dozen and a half points located both in the center and in the sleeping areas of the city. The main specialization of the institution is, as you might guess, pies, the assortment of which is diverse, and the taste is at its best. There are inexpensive and hearty complex lunches (soup, salad, two weighty pieces of different pies and tea), as well as breakfasts and dinners, in the evening a discount is offered for pies, they are also sold to take away. If you are not attracted to pies, then a rather long menu allows you to do without them, although not all food can be tasty (say, desserts are not very good at this place). Nice and stylish interior, very fast service.
Argo bakery - high-quality and varied pastries with a huge selection of toppings and dough.
Shaverno - literally a network of shawarma. Grows extremely fast. Shawarma itself is a confident average. Everywhere is a nice and modern interior. There is delivery.

Average cost
Cheburechnaya Brynza is a network institution that breaks the stable image of the Soviet cheburechnaya. This is a cafe with service and a poor menu, a good third of which are chebureks, including sweet ones. In terms of their taste, they are inferior to fatty chebureks with lamb somewhere in the railway station eatery, and experiments with unusual fillings can hardly be called successful: chebureks turn out dry, they need to be eaten with sauce. However, if you want to have a bite to eat in a pleasant environment, "Brynza" is quite suitable for this. In 2014, she already has 10 branches in St. Petersburg. All cafes are open until late and offer good free Wi-Fi. Pasties cost 100-150 rubles, hot dishes 200-300 rubles (2014).
SPb - the main specialization is a beer bar, but you can also eat there.
Pizza Hut is an international chain of pizzerias.
Carls Junior is an American chain of fast food restaurants. The menu includes hamburgers, potatoes, soft drinks without limitation (fee per glass). Sale of beer. There is a promotion that is not written in the menu: a hamburger and 0.5 l of beer for 110 rubles.
Sbarro is an international chain of pizzerias. There are restaurants in many cities of Russia.
Tokyo-City is a network institution that has spread widely throughout St. Petersburg and its suburbs. It positions itself as a restaurant, but by the nature of the menu, which presents well-known dishes of Russian, European and Asian cuisine, it is more of a cafe with service. There is a children's room, Wi-Fi, an English menu, vegetarian and children's dishes. The waiting time for an order is usually short, but on weekends, holidays, or at points near the metro or places of festivities, there may not be free tables, and you will have to wait more than half an hour for an order.

IL Patio is an international chain of pizzerias.
Tolstoy Fraer is a Petersburg chain of bars. A distinctive feature is the interior, decorated in the style of the USSR of the 70s: propaganda posters, inscriptions corresponding to that time, signs, stands “Our foremost workers” and “Vasya was here”. In addition to beer, the menu has an assortment of various dishes of national cuisine. For the first mug of 0.5 liters of beer, a small plate with a snack (crackers, cheese, straws, fish) is brought free of charge.


Where to stay

Book accommodation using online services, there are options for every taste and budget.



Stationary telephones in St. Petersburg have seven-digit numbers, in the international format - +7 (812) XXX-XX-XX, where 812 is the code of St. Petersburg.

All major Russian operators operate in the city: Megafon, Beeline, MTS, Tele2, Yota. Virtually throughout the city, Internet access services are provided via 4G networks. Megafon has a wider coverage area in the Leningrad region. In the subway, there is communication at all stations, while Megafon, Yota and MTS have communication in the tunnels between the central stations.

There are several networks of free Internet access via Wi-Fi, the most famous of them is Maxima-Telecom, aka MT-Free, operating in the subway and a significant part of land transport. In such networks, it is most often necessary to log in using a mobile phone number (often the system refuses to recognize numbers from outside Russia), after which several commercials will be shown to you to “pay” for access. Alas, for 2022, the quality of networks leaves much to be desired: signal breaks are frequent (especially in the subway), the channel has a low bandwidth, and advertising time in the MT-Free network, for example, can reach one stage between stations.

Russian Post offices are located throughout the city. At the post office you can send and receive a letter, a parcel, a parcel, buy envelopes, postcards, postage stamps. Additional services include telephone communication, money transfer services, Internet access, photocopying services, etc.

Main Post Office, Post Office Street, 9. ☎ +7 (812) 312-19-83, +7 (812) 312-23-60. 24/7.


Precautionary measures

At night, you should be careful in areas such as Kupchino in the south of the city, Rzhevka, Vesyoliy Poselok on the right bank, Grazhdanka and the metro area Prospekt Prosveshcheniya in the north. It would not be a good idea to arrange an independent night tour of the courtyards-wells of St. Petersburg. They are usually poorly lit and often become a haven for drug addicts, homeless people and criminal elements.


Physical and geographical characteristics

Geographical position

It is located in the north-west of the Russian Federation, within the Neva lowland. Occupying the coast of the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland adjacent to the mouth of the Neva River and numerous islands of the Neva Delta, the city stretches from northwest to southeast for 90 km. The height of the city above sea level by districts: center: 1–5 m, north: 5–30 m, south and southwest: 5–22 m. m. On the territory of the city there is a zero mark of the height and depth reference system, which serves as a starting point for the leveling networks of several states. Until the beginning of the 20th century, the meridian passing through the observatory located in the city was used as a zero for counting geographic longitude on the maps of the Russian Empire. Saint-Petersburg is located in the MSK (Moscow time) time zone. The offset of the applicable time from UTC is +3:00.



The total length of all watercourses on the territory of St. Petersburg reaches 282 km, and their water surface is about 7% of the entire area of the city. During the existence of the city, the hydrological network has undergone significant changes. Its construction in a low swampy place required the construction of canals and ponds for drainage. The excavated earth was used to raise the surface. At the end of the 19th century, the Neva River delta consisted of 48 rivers and canals, forming 101 islands. Over time (as the city was built), many reservoirs lost their original meaning, became polluted and filled up. In the 20th century, as a result of the backfilling of channels, channels and branches, the number of islands was reduced to 42.

The main waterway of the city is the Neva River, which flows into the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland, which belongs to the Baltic Sea. The most significant branches of the delta are: Bolshaya and Malaya Neva, Bolshaya, Srednyaya and Malaya Nevka, Fontanka, Moika, Yekateringofka, Krestovka, Karpovka, Zhdanovka, Smolenka, Pryazhka, Kronverk Strait; channels: Sea Canal, Obvodny Canal, Griboyedov Canal, Kryukov Canal. The main tributaries of the Neva within the city: on the left: Izhora, Slavyanka, Murzinka, on the right: Okhta, Black River. The largest islands in the Neva delta: Vasilyevsky, Petrogradsky, Krestovsky, Dekabristov. The largest island in the Gulf of Finland: Kotlin. About 800 bridges have been thrown across the city's water bodies (excluding bridges on the territories of industrial enterprises), including 218 pedestrian and 22 drawbridges. Of this number, a part is located in places that were once suburbs of St. Petersburg: in Kronstadt - five, in Pushkin - 54, Peterhof - 51, Pavlovsk - 16, Lomonosov - seven bridges. The longest bridge: the Bolshoy Obukhovsky (cable-stayed) bridge over the Neva River (total length of the bridge crossing is 2824 m), the widest bridge: the Blue Bridge on the Moika River (99.5 m).

A significant part of the city (islands of the Neva delta, a wide strip between the Gulf of Finland and the line of the Baltic railway, the left bank to the Fontanka, etc.) is located at heights not exceeding 1.2 - 3 m above sea level. These areas are at risk of flooding, mainly due to wind surge in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland. The floods were catastrophic in nature on November 7 (19), 1824 (water level rise above the ordinary by 4.21 m) and on September 23, 1924 (3.69 m). At the time of this flood, about 70 km² of the city was flooded. For more than three hundred years of history of St. Petersburg, according to various sources, about 300 floods have been registered. The last dangerous flood (the water rose to 187 cm from the Kronstadt trough stock) was on November 16, 2010, very dangerous (220 cm) - on January 10, 2007. In August 2011, a complex of protective structures of St. Petersburg from floods (the so-called "Dam") in the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland came into operation. For the first time, it was fully activated during the flood on December 28, 2011. If the dam had not been closed, then, according to experts, the water in the Neva this time would have risen to 281 cm (the flood would have been in the top five largest in the entire history of observations), a fifth of the city could have gone under water. Thus, damage was prevented, which could amount to about 25 billion rubles. During the first 10 years of operation of the dam, 26 floods were prevented with potential damage in the amount of 120 billion rubles (with a total construction cost of the entire complex of 106 billion rubles).



The climate is temperate, transitional from temperate continental to temperate maritime. This type of climate is explained by the geographical location and atmospheric circulation, which is typical for the Leningrad region. This is due to the relatively small amount of solar heat entering the earth's surface and into the atmosphere. It is classified as humid continental by the Köppen climate classification. The influence of the Baltic Sea cyclones results in warm, humid, and short summers and long, cold, wet winters.

The total influx of solar radiation here is 1.5 times less than in the south of Ukraine, and half as much as in Central Asia. The city has an average of 62 sunny days per year. Therefore, during most of the year, days with cloudy overcast weather and diffused lighting predominate. The length of the day varies from 5 hours 51 minutes on December 22 to 18 hours 50 minutes on June 22. The so-called White Nights are observed in the city (it is generally accepted that they begin on May 25-26 and end on July 16-17), when the sun drops below the horizon by no more than 9 ° and the evening twilight practically merges with the morning. In total, the duration of the white nights is more than 50 days. The annual amplitude of the sums of direct solar radiation on a horizontal surface with a clear sky is from 25 MJ/m² in December to 686 MJ/m² in June. Cloudiness reduces on average per year the arrival of total solar radiation by 21%, and direct solar radiation by 60%. The average annual total radiation is 3156 MJ/m².

A frequent change of air masses is characteristic, which is largely due to cyclonic activity. In summer, western and north-western winds prevail, in winter - western and south-western ones. Petersburg weather stations have data since 1722. The highest temperature recorded in St. Petersburg for the entire observation period: +37.1 °C, and the lowest: -35.9 °C.



Before the emergence of the city, the soils along the rivers were formed mainly under the vegetation of water meadows and coastal willows, and spruce-pine-birch forests with an admixture of alder dominated the territory in the immediate surroundings.

Green spaces in St. Petersburg and its suburbs, together with the water surface, occupy about 40% of the urban area (according to 2002 data). By 2000, there were about 65 m² of plantings per inhabitant of the city. The total area of green spaces exceeds 31 thousand hectares, including 68 parks, 166 gardens, 730 squares, 232 boulevards, 750 green streets. The parks of the city are located in different landscape conditions: on the lower and upper terraces of the coast of the Gulf of Finland (parks of Strelna, Peterhof and Lomonosov), the moraine plain (parks of the city of Pushkin), kame hills (Shuvalovsky Park, Aspen Grove). The basis of a number of parks are natural forests, which still retain their species composition (Sosnovka, Specific Park). Many parks created in the post-war years are divided into areas where there was virtually no tree vegetation (Moscow Victory Park, Primorsky Victory Park). On the outskirts of the city, forests remained from the subzone of the southern taiga: Yuntolovsky forest dacha, Rzhevsky forest park, forest islands along the Okhta River, Tallinn Highway, between the Neva River and the railway to Moscow.

There are seven specially protected natural areas in the city: three state nature reserves (“Yuntolovsky”, “Gladyshevsky”, “Northern coast of the Neva Bay”) and four natural monuments (“Dudergof heights”, “Komarovsky coast”, “Strelninsky coast”, “ Sergievka Park). The master plan for the development of St. Petersburg plans the appearance of five more reserves and two natural monuments.


Ecological problems

According to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation, in the environmental rating of large Russian cities in 2011, St. Petersburg took second place. There are 21 automatic atmospheric air monitoring stations in the city. Air emissions in 2009 amounted to 625.3 thousand tons. The amount of emissions of harmful substances per capita is 135.9 kg per year, per unit area - 434.5 tons per km². 91.9% of all emissions come from transport. In 2009, compared to the previous year, emissions from transport increased by 1%, from stationary sources - by 9.8%.

The ecological state of the Neva River, the Neva Bay and the Gulf of Finland is unsatisfactory. Within the limits of the city, the Neva is polluted with industrial effluents; waste from hundreds of industrial enterprises is poured into it. Oil products are actively transported along the Neva. More than 80 thousand tons of pollutants enter the river every year. Each year, the St. Petersburg Committee for Natural Resources registers an average of more than forty oil spills in the Neva. In 2022, the Rospotrebnadzor of St. Petersburg recognized only two out of 24 beaches in the city as suitable for swimming. In 2009, 8 million m³ of municipal solid waste was generated in the city. Industry is a source of various production wastes, a significant part of which poses a serious danger to the environment. Until 2014, wastes of classes I-III were brought for the disposal of toxic waste, products of chemical, medical, industrial enterprises to the Krasny Bor landfill (30 km south of the city in the Tosnensky district of the Leningrad region).

In connection with the commissioning of structures to protect St. Petersburg from floods, the water exchange between the Neva Bay and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland decreased by 10-20%, which additionally increased the concentration of nutrients in the Neva Bay. The unfortunate choice of the release sites of the northern and southwestern treatment facilities and the high contamination of soils in some areas of the Neva Bay also contribute to this. The concern is caused by the gradual swamping of the shallow parts of the Gulf of Finland between the city and the dam and the associated decay of plant remains, which over time can lead to additional eutrophication of the reservoir and the exclusion from the water area of vast sections of the Neva Bay, in the soils of which, moreover, a significant amount of harmful pests will be buried. connections. Problems may also arise in connection with the creation of new large alluvial territories in the water area of the Neva Bay from the side of Vasilyevsky Island. According to Roshydromet, this may create a risk of flooding in the city when the dam is closed due to a decrease in the time it takes to fill it.

According to the forecasts of the NIPTs General Plan of St. Petersburg, by the middle of the 21st century, the city's climate may change from the current humid continental to maritime with average temperatures in January from -5 to +2 °C. The closest similar region with maritime climate to St. Petersburg is in Denmark.



Prehistory, the founding of the city and the 18th century

The presence of a person on the territory of modern St. Petersburg can be traced from the time of the last melting of the glacier that covered this territory. Approximately 12 thousand years ago, the ice receded, and people followed it. Information about the Slavs (Ilmen Slovenes and Krivichi) has been known since the 8th-9th centuries. They were engaged in slash-and-burn agriculture, cattle breeding, hunting and fishing, and carried out armed raids on other peoples. At the beginning of the 9th century, these lands became part of the Old Russian state, forming part of the territory of Veliky Novgorod called Vodskaya Pyatina, the area on the right along the Neva was called Karelian land, on the left - Izhora land. In the 8th-13th centuries, there was a waterway "from the Varangians to the Greeks" from Scandinavia through Eastern Europe to Byzantium. During this period, the Novgorod Republic was constantly at war with the Swedes. On July 15, 1240, at the confluence of the Izhora River with the Neva, a battle took place between the Novgorod militia under the command of Prince Alexander Yaroslavich and the Swedish army. In 1300, the Swedes built the Landskrona fortress at the confluence of the Okhta River with the Neva, but a year later it was taken by a united squad of Novgorodians and local Karelians and razed to the ground. On the site of the former fortress for a long time there was a Novgorod marketplace "Nevsky Mouth", that is, a market. In the 15th century, Izhora land, as part of the Novgorod Republic, was annexed to the Grand Duchy of Moscow. As a result of the defeat in the war with Sweden under the Treaty of Stolbovsky in 1617, the territories along the Neva River became part of the Swedish Ingermanland, the commercial and administrative center of which was the city of Nyen near the Nyenschanz fortress, built in 1611 on the site of Landskrona.

As a result of the Northern War of 1700-1721, the Neva River Valley was recaptured from Sweden and became part of the Russian Empire under the Nystadt Peace Treaty of August 30 (September 10), 1721. On May 16 (27), 1703, at the mouth of the Neva, not far from Nien, the city of St. Petersburg was founded. This day dates from the laying of the Peter and Paul Fortress by Tsar Peter I, the first building of the city, on Hare Island. She was supposed to block the fairways of the two largest branches of the river delta: the Neva and Bolshaya Nevka with gun fire. In 1704, the Kronstadt fortress was founded on the island of the Gulf of Finland, Kotlin, to protect Russia's maritime borders. Peter I attached great strategic importance to the new city in providing a waterway from Russia to Western Europe.

With the beginning of the construction of St. Petersburg, the construction of stone buildings was prohibited throughout Russia, and all masons were sent to build a new city. Tsar Peter gave away plots of land to those close to him, as well as to wealthy people, under the obligation to build buildings of the following sizes on them: the nobles, who had from 700 to 1000 households, had to build houses with a facade size of at least 10 sazhens (21.3 m); the owners of 500-700 yards built houses for eight sazhens (17.1 m), the owners of 100-300 yards could build huts or wooden houses of any size. In the first ten years of its existence, the main part was the City Island (modern Petrogradsky Island), here were the Gostiny Dvor, the Trinity Church, many office buildings, craft settlements and military units. The first industrial enterprise was the Admiralty Shipyard, opened in 1705 on the Admiralteyskaya Side (left bank of the Neva), where the Galley Shipyard, the Winter and Summer Palaces of Peter I with the Summer Garden were later built. In 1706, the Admiralty Hospital was opened in St. Petersburg.

In 1712, Peter I issued a decree on the creation of the General Plan of St. Petersburg. Since that time, Vasilievsky Island, which was chosen as the center of the city, the Vyborg side, began to be actively built up, the construction of suburban palaces of Peterhof, Yekateringof, Oranienbaum was launched. Since 1713, all persons serving the royal court had to settle in the new capital. In 1713, the Governing Senate moved to St. Petersburg and the city became the capital of the Russian Empire; from that moment on, the phrase “The sovereign is on a campaign” disappears from the documents, indicating that the tsar is outside the walls of the Moscow Kremlin. On March 17, 1719, an engineering school was opened in St. Petersburg (by decision of Peter I in 1723, the engineering classes of the Moscow School of the Pushkar Order were transferred to St. Petersburg, along with all the teachers). In 1724, the Mint was transferred from Moscow to the Trubetskoy bastion of the Peter and Paul Fortress. By 1725, the Smolny Yard, the Foundry Yard, water saw mills, brick, wax, powder, weapons, tapestry, leather and other factories, food enterprises were built. In the same year, the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences was founded, where the first Russian newspaper, St. Petersburg Vedomosti, began to appear in 1728.

By the middle of the 18th century, fires and floods led many buildings built in the time of Peter the Great to a dilapidated state, and some were destroyed. So, in the summer of 1736 and 1737, two fires broke out, the entire wooden Marine settlement and a significant part of the Admiralty Island burned out. In 1737, by decree of Empress Anna Ioannovna, a commission was created on the St. Petersburg structure (P. M. Eropkin headed the commission). According to this plan, the idea of a three-beam development of St. Petersburg from the Admiralty, which became the compositional center, was approved, and the role of the main highway was assigned to Nevsky Prospekt. St. Petersburg has become one of the largest scientific centers in Russia. A number of educational institutions have been created: the Smolny Institute for Noble Maidens, the Imperial Academy of Arts, the Mining School, the Main Public School for the Training of Teachers, and others. On August 30 (September 10), 1756, a decree was issued on the creation of the first state theater in the country. In 1762, the previous commission was replaced by the commission on the stone structure of St. Petersburg and Moscow, which regulated the development of embankments of small rivers and canals, the formation of architectural ensembles of central squares. The construction of granite embankments of the Neva, Fontanka, and then other rivers and canals of the city center began. By the end of the 18th century, the population of the city amounted to 220 thousand people and overtook Moscow in numbers, more than 60 Orthodox and 15 non-Christian churches operated in it. According to the data for 1780, there were more than 1200 streets and lanes, 3.3 thousand houses, the entire central part was completely paved with cobblestones and covered with transverse boards. After 1785, a body was created that "managed the affairs of the all-estate urban population and was formed through all-estate elections" - the city duma.


Petersburg in the 19th century

In 1809, the Institute of the Corps of Railway Engineers was opened, in 1810 a higher engineering education was born, in the Main Engineering School founded in 1806, in 1811 the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum was founded. On November 7 (19), 1824, the most significant and destructive flood in the history of St. Petersburg occurred, the water rose 421 cm above the ordinary. As a result, according to various estimates, from 400 to 4,000 people died, material damage was estimated at many millions of rubles. On December 14 (26), 1825, an unsuccessful attempt at a coup d'état was made on Senate Square, the purpose of which was the abolition of autocracy. In the first half of the 19th century, the design of the architectural ensembles of the Palace, Senate, Alexandrinskaya, Mikhailovskaya squares, the Spit of Vasilyevsky Island was completed. K. I. Rossi worked on their creation, as well as on other architectural monuments (Anichkov Palace (reconstruction), Yelagin Palace, the building of the Senate and Synod, Mikhailovsky Palace, the building of the Alexandrinsky Theater), G. Quarenghi (Smolny Institute), A. D Zakharov (building project of Vasilievsky Island in 1803-1804, Admiralty), J. Thomas de Thomon (stock exchange building with rostral columns), A. N. Voronikhin (Kazan Cathedral, house of the State Treasury), O. Montferrand (Alexander Column, St. Isaac's Cathedral) and many others. By the mid-1830s, about 300 factories and plants were operating in St. Petersburg, by the mid-1870s, 25 banks, and by the end of the century, more than 500 enterprises. Large factories were built on the outskirts of St. Petersburg: Putilovsky, Obukhovsky, Baltiysky. Industrial and residential areas are growing on the Vyborg side, behind the Narva, Moscow, Nevskaya outposts, dense multi-storey buildings are being formed with numerous tenement houses in the city center. In 1800, the first steam engine was put into operation at the Admiralty Plants, in 1815 the first Russian steamship "Elizaveta" was launched, in 1843 the production of rolling stock for the railway began at the Alexander iron foundry, and in 1845 the first domestic steam locomotive was produced. An important event was the construction in 1836 of the first railway between St. Petersburg and Tsarskoye Selo. On August 18, 1851, the first train left St. Petersburg for Moscow, and soon communication between the two cities became regular. In 1837, the Tsarskoselsky railway station was built, in the 1850s, the Nikolaevsky, Warsaw, Baltic stations, and in 1870, the Finland station. In 1885, the construction of the 32-kilometer Sea Canal and the seaport on Gutuevsky Island was completed. Since 1863, a water supply system has been laid in the central districts of the city to supply the population with water, and since 1876 - on Vasilievsky Island, Petersburg and Vyborg sides. In 1882, the first city telephone exchange appeared, and since 1897, the production of telephone sets began at the Erickson plant. In St. Petersburg, a tram appeared later than in other cities of the Russian Empire. In 1839, the Pulkovo Observatory was opened, in 1845, the Russian Geographical Society. By the mid-1890s, more than twenty higher educational institutions operated in the city.

According to the results of the 1897 census, the population of the city was 1,265,000 inhabitants, and by the beginning of the First World War it exceeded 2 million (3rd place in Europe after London and Paris). The result of the Russian Revolution of 1905-1907, which began on Bloody Sunday on January 9, was the creation of the first parliament in the history of Russia - the State Duma. By 1913, the volume of industrial production in St. Petersburg reached 632 million rubles, 242.6 thousand people were employed at 1012 enterprises. The capital provided 12% of Russia's industrial output, including 70% of electrical products, 50% of chemical products, 25% of machinery, and 17% of textiles. There were 567 banks operating in the city. The energy supply of the capital's industry was provided by 294 electrical installations and three thermal power plants. By 1914, about 40 thousand students were studying in 60 higher educational institutions of St. Petersburg.


Early 20th century and renaming

The First World War greatly influenced the fate of St. Petersburg. In August 1914, on the wave of anti-German sentiments, by decree of Nicholas II, the city was renamed Petrograd. At the same time, the meaning of the name of the city changed: it began to be called not in honor of the saint, but in honor of its founder. By 1917, there were supply problems, and queues became common. The unrest of February 23-27 (March 12), 1917 and other events of the February Revolution ended with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II, the fall of the monarchy and the formation of the Provisional Government. On October 25 (November 7), 1917, during the October Socialist Revolution, power in the city passed into the hands of the Bolsheviks, and the Russian Soviet Republic was created with its capital in Petrograd. During the Civil War, due to the proximity of the front to the German army, the government of V. I. Lenin moved to Moscow, the city lost its capital status on March 5, 1918.

On January 26, 1924, after the death of V. I. Lenin, the II All-Union Congress of Soviets of the USSR granted the request of the Petrosoviet and renamed Petrograd to Leningrad by its resolution.


Soviet period

After the revolutionary events of 1917-1919, the population of the city decreased, by 1920 it was only 722 thousand people. About 300,000 people were resettled from the workers' suburbs to the central regions. In 1919, a council was created to regulate the plan for Petrograd and its outskirts. In 1923, housing construction began in the city (Zhilmassivov). In the 1930s, Yelagin and Krestovsky Islands were landscaped with access to the Gulf of Finland. On September 23, 1924, the second largest flood in the history of the city occurred, the water rose 380 cm above the ordinary. In 1931, the two largest cities of the RSFSR - Moscow (June 16) and Leningrad (December 3) were separated into separate administrative units - cities of republican subordination of the RSFSR. In 1933, at the western tip of Krestovsky Island, the construction of the S. M. Kirov Stadium began. In 1935-1937, the first general plan of Leningrad was developed, which provided for development in a southerly direction with borders in the Pulkovo Heights area. The center was to be the square at the intersection of International Avenue and the Central Arc Highway (now Moscow Square) with the House of Soviets and other administrative buildings. By 1939, a new version of the master plan was developed, which was never approved, but in accordance with it, the construction of residential areas on Malaya Okhta, Ivanovskaya Street, Avtova and Mezhdunarodnyy Prospekt began. Palaces of culture were built throughout the city; by the mid-1930s, they were available in all industrial areas. In 1932, the first Leningrad Pulkovo airport was opened. On December 1, 1934, the first secretary of the Leningrad Regional Committee and the City Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, a member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, S. M. Kirov, became the victim of the murder. This event will mark the beginning of the Kirov Stream and the Great Terror, to be replaced by A. A. Zhdanov.

The heroism and steadfastness of Leningraders manifested itself during the Great Patriotic War. On September 8, 1941, the enemy reached Lake Ladoga, captured Shlisselburg, taking control of the source of the Neva, and blocked Leningrad from land. This day is considered to be the beginning of the blockade of the city by the troops of Nazi Germany from the south and Finland from the north. For almost 900 days and nights, under conditions of a complete blockade, the inhabitants not only held the city, but also rendered great assistance to the front. During the years of the blockade, according to various sources, from 600 thousand to 1.5 million people died. So, at the Nuremberg trials, the number of 632 thousand people appeared. Only 3% of them died from bombing and shelling; the remaining 97% starved to death. On the other hand, in the encyclopedia "The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945", published by the military publishing house of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation in 2011-2015, these figures are recognized as significantly underestimated, since "unidentified blockade fighters who died within the city were not taken into account , and Leningraders who died of starvation in the process of evacuation. As a result of the oncoming offensive of the Leningrad and Volkhov fronts on January 18, 1943, the blockade ring was broken, but only on January 27, 1944, the blockade was completely lifted. After its removal, only 560 thousand inhabitants remained in Leningrad.

Immediately after these events, the restoration of the city began. In September 1945, the academic year began and the concert season opened in the Great Hall of the Philharmonic. In 1950, the Kirov Stadium was put into operation. In 1951, a new general plan for the development of Leningrad was adopted, according to which it was proposed to develop the territory of the city around the historical center in all directions approximately equally. In the 1950s, new architectural ensembles were created: Lenin Square, Kalinin Square, Komsomolskaya Square; Moskovsky Prospekt, Engels Prospect, Stachek Prospect, Sredneokhtinsky Prospekt, Primorsky Prospekt acquired a complete architectural appearance. In 1951, the first air terminal was launched in Pulkovo (a new building was built in 1973). On November 15, 1955, the first stage of the Leningrad metro was put into operation. In 1957, the tradition of a midday cannon shot from the Naryshkin bastion of the Peter and Paul Fortress (interrupted in 1934) was resumed, and the first official Eternal Flame in the country was lit on the Field of Mars. In the same year, the world's first nuclear-powered icebreaker "Lenin" was launched from the shipyards of the A. Marty Shipbuilding Plant, and in 1962, the production of Kirovets tractors began at the Kirov Plant. In 1960, the Memorial to the Victims of the Blockade was opened at the Piskarevsky cemetery and the construction of a new building of the Finland Station was completed. In 1962, a 316-meter television tower was erected on Aptekarsky Island and a new television center was built. With the construction in the early 1960s of several large house-building plants, the mass construction of the city began with Khrushchev houses, and since the 1970s with “ship houses”. On May 6, 1965, the city of Leningrad was awarded the title of Hero City (for the first time it was so named in the order of the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of the USSR I. V. Stalin dated May 1, 1945). In 1966, the last Soviet master plan for Leningrad was approved. In accordance with it, in the 1960s, mass building of the western part of Vasilevsky Island began on the alluvial territories, along Novoizmailovsky Prospekt, Yuri Gagarin Prospekt, and Kosmonavtov Prospekt. Kupchino, Avtovo, Ulyanka, Dachnoye, Grazhdanka, Polyustrovo, Okhta are becoming new large residential areas. By the anniversary of October, in 1967, the Yubileiny Sports Palace and the Oktyabrsky Grand Concert Hall were built. In the 1970s, Uritsk, Sosnovaya Polyana, Vesely Poselok, the area north of Murinsky Creek, the territory of the former Komendantsky airfield, the southern part of Kupchin, Shuvalovo and Ozerki, the South-West, Rzhevka and Porokhovye were built up. In 1979, the construction of a dam began in the Gulf of Finland, which protected the city from floods. In 1982, the Marine Station was built in the Harbor on Vasilyevsky Island. In 1988, the 5 millionth resident of Leningrad was born. In 1990, the historic center of the city was included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.


Post-soviet period

In 1991, according to the results of a referendum, 54% of the townspeople voted for the return of the original name of the city of St. Petersburg. On September 6, 1991, by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, it was returned, and on April 21, 1992, it was introduced into the Constitution of the RSFSR by the Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Federation. On December 25, 1993, the Constitution of the Russian Federation, adopted at a popular vote, came into force, which confirmed the name of St. Petersburg. On June 12, 1991, Anatoly Sobchak was elected mayor of the city, on March 13, 1996, executive power was transferred to the administration of St. Petersburg, which is formed by the governor of St. Petersburg, the position of mayor was abolished.

In 1993, as part of the All-Russian referendum on April 25 in St. Petersburg, an additional question was raised about its republican status, for which 75% of the inhabitants voted - however, St. Petersburg never received republican status.

The 1994 Goodwill Games were an important event. As a result of the accident in 1995, train traffic was stopped on the section of the subway between the Lesnaya and Ploshchad Muzhestva stations (it was resumed in 2004). In 1991-2007, many monuments were erected, the Konstantinovsky Palace, the Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood and many others were restored and restored. For the first time on May 25, 1991, after a long break, a church service was held in the Kazan Cathedral. In 2000, the Ice Palace was built, in which the Ice Hockey World Championship was held that same year. In 1998-2011, a ring road around St. Petersburg was built. On May 27 - June 1, 2003, the 300th anniversary of St. Petersburg was magnificently celebrated. On December 15, 2004, the Bolshoi Obukhovsky Bridge (known as the "Vantovy Bridge") was opened. In 2005, the city's Legislative Assembly adopted a new master plan for St. Petersburg, which determined the future development of the city until 2025.

Since 1997, the annual economic summit St. Petersburg International Economic Forum has been held, an important international economic and political event, unofficially called "Russian Davos". In 2006, the forum changed its format, becoming an event with the participation of the heads of the largest Russian and foreign companies, heads of state and political leaders, prime ministers, vice-premiers, ministers, governors (in 2017: more than 14 thousand people from more than 143 countries). From 15 to 17 July 2006, the G-8 summit took place at the Konstantinovsky Palace in Strelna. On August 31, 2011, Georgy Poltavchenko was appointed governor of St. Petersburg. On September 8, 2019, Alexander Beglov was elected Governor (acting on October 3, 2018).

In 2017, the Krestovsky stadium hosted group stage football matches and the final of the FIFA Confederations Cup. In 2018, the city hosted matches of the 2018 FIFA World Cup. The matches of the group stage, ⅛ finals, semi-finals and the match for third place were played here. All games were played at the stadium on Krestovsky Island.

Since 2017, in accordance with the decree of the President of Russia, the tradition of holding the Main Naval Parade on the Neva on the Day of the Navy has been restored in St. Petersburg. On July 25, 2021, 39 ships, 7 submarines, 48 aircraft and over 4,000 military personnel took part in the next parade.



St. Petersburg (from German - "city of St. Peter"), as well as the original (Dutch) form of the official name Sankt Pieter Burch (San (k) tpiterburh) from the day the city was founded on May 16 (27), 1703 to 18 (31) August 1914; in honor of the Apostle Peter, the heavenly patron of Peter I. Initially, this was the name of the fortress, founded in mid-May 1703 on Hare Island, and soon the name spread to the whole city. Since no special act establishing the official name of the city was adopted, and the foreign-language environment of Peter used German, Swedish, Dutch, English (as well as the Russian associates of the emperor, who to some extent spoke these languages), in the sources of the first quarter of the 18th century there is a huge discrepancy in the naming of the city (more than 30 options are noted). At the same time, the inconsistency concerned all components of the name: Saint, Sant and San; Peter and Peter (often in the genitive case: Peter, Peter); burg, burk and burh. The toponym itself could be written in one, two or three words. So, among the options found in the letters of Peter I himself, there are the following options: St. Petersburg (20.VII.1703), St. Petersburg (20.IX.1703), Piterburh (17.V.1706), St. Petersburg (20.XI.1710 ), St. Petersburg-Burg (28.IV. 1714), St. Petersburg (13.1.1720). In the Vedomosti newspaper, the name was mentioned in such forms as St. Petersburg (XII. 1703), St. Petersburg (I. 1704), St. Petersburg and St. Petersburk (V, VI. 1711), but more often - St. Petersburg, and only starting from July 1724 " Vedomosti ”instead of -Peter, they begin to constantly use the spelling -Peter. This allows us to consider that the unofficial name of the city "Peter", which is still widely used at the present time, became widespread until 1724. The purely German form of writing “St. Petersburg”, which was established after the death of Peter I, was used until 1914. In informal usage, the city was called Petersburg, and colloquially, Peter.

On August 18 (31), 1914, after Russia's entry into the First World War, Emperor Nicholas II announced the highest announcement of the change of the name of the city from the foreign St. Petersburg to Petrograd, as more patriotic and in order to avoid any undesirable associations. Now the name of the capital no longer correlated with the Holy Apostle Peter, only with its founder, Emperor Peter I. Previously, it was found both in fiction (A.S. Pushkin) and in the names of some institutions (Petrograd Old Believer Diocese). Nevertheless, in everyday life the name took root very poorly, and even in the early 1920s, in everyday speech, many continued to call the city Petersburg.

On January 26, 1924, the II All-Union Congress of Soviets of the USSR granted the request of the Petrograd Soviet (initiative of Grigory Zinoviev) and renamed Petrograd to Leningrad in honor of V. I. Lenin, one of the organizers of the October Revolution of 1917, the founder and leader of the Soviet state (RSFSR, USSR) who had died five days earlier.

In the course of a survey conducted on June 12, 1991, 54.86% of the townspeople participating in it spoke in favor of returning the city to its original name. By Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR dated September 6, 1991 No. 1643-I, the name of St. Petersburg was returned to the city. However, until February 1992, a number of educational institutions continued to be called Leningrad. On April 21, 1992, the Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Federation introduced the returned name of the city into Art. 71 of the Constitution of the RSFSR. This amendment came into force from the moment of its publication in Rossiyskaya Gazeta on May 16, 1992. The main initiator, who played a decisive role in returning the city to its original name, was the mayor of the city A. A. Sobchak, who later considered this case his most significant political achievement, which is immortalized on a monument to him erected in 2006. He hoped that his city would become a new banking, trade, tourist and cultural center in the Baltic, he was optimistic about the possibility of transferring the capital of the new Russia to St. Petersburg.

Throughout the 1990s and at the beginning of the 21st century, the name Leningrad continues to appear in the speech of some people of the older generation. At the same time, this name is found among young people with communist and pro-Soviet views, and is also mentioned in culture (for example, in the name of the Leningrad group). The former name was preserved in the names of some organizations (Leningrad Zoo, Lenenergo, etc.).


Unofficial city names:

The northern capital (or the Second Capital of Russia), St. Petersburg is often called this way, recalling its pre-revolutionary status and taking into account the current status of a city of federal significance;
SPb. - by abbreviation, the official bibliographic abbreviation of the name of the city;
cultural capital;
City on the Neva;
City of white nights;
Peter is an abbreviated name for St. Petersburg, one of the oldest unofficial names of the city;
Northern Venice - a figurative comparison with Venice, due to the large number of rivers and canals, as well as architecture;
Northern Palmyra - a poetic comparison with Palmyra, a city of legendary beauty;
City of Lenin - a semi-official name in Soviet times (found, in particular, on posters from the Great Patriotic War);
Cradle (city) of three revolutions - semi-official, associated with the key role of the city in the revolutionary events of 1905-1907 and 1917;
Petropolis is a poetic trope, a Hellenized form of the name Petersburg (Greek Πετρούπολης), first used by M. V. Lomonosov;
Nevograd is the name of the city among the Old Believers, starting from the moment the Old Believers settled St. Petersburg in the 18th century. Now, on some periodicals, the place of publication is not St. Petersburg, but Nevograd (Notification of the Russian Council of the Old Orthodox Pomeranian Church. - Nevograd, 1991). Also, the local Pomeranian Old Believer community is unofficially called Nevsky. In 1991, Alexander Solzhenitsyn proposed this name for the city renaming project;
A window on Europe, this epithet became popular after Alexander Pushkin used it in the introduction to the poem The Bronze Horseman (1833). Pushkin himself, however, borrowed this image from the Italian philosopher and critic Francesco Algarotti;
The criminal capital is the name that came into use after the release of the series "Gangster Petersburg" on television. Also, this name is mentioned in several episodes of the television series Streets of Broken Lanterns.

The asteroid (830) Petropolitana, discovered in 1916 by Russian astronomer Grigory Neuimin at the Simeiz Observatory, is named after St. Petersburg.

There are five variants of the name of the townspeople, depending on the name of the city. From the toponym Petrograd in 1914-1924, the inhabitants of the city were called: Petrogradians, Petrogradets, Petrogradka. From the toponym Leningrad in 1924-1991: Leningraders, Leningrader, Leningradka. From the toponym Petersburg: Petersburgers, Petersburger, Petersburger. From the toponym St. Petersburg: St. Petersburgers, St. Petersburger. From the unofficial name Peter: St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg. According to surveys, residents of a modern city identify themselves with the concepts: Leningrader (36% of respondents), Petersburger (32%), and both (21%).



The title of Hero City was awarded on May 1, 1945 by order of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief I.V. Stalin No. 20 dated May 1, 1945. The Gold Star medal was awarded on May 8, 1965 "for outstanding services to the Motherland, courage and heroism shown by the working people of Leningrad in the fight against the Nazi invaders in the difficult conditions of a long enemy blockade, and in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the victory of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945.
Order of Lenin (January 26, 1945) "for the outstanding services of the working people of Leningrad to the Motherland, for the courage and heroism, discipline and steadfastness shown in the fight against the German invaders in the difficult conditions of the enemy blockade."
Order of Lenin (June 21, 1957) "for the outstanding services of the working people of Leningrad to the Motherland, for the courage and heroism they showed during the days of the Great October Socialist Revolution and in the struggle against the Nazi invaders in the Great Patriotic War, for the successes achieved in the development of industry and culture, in the development and mastering of new technology, in connection with the 250th anniversary of the city of Leningrad.
Order of the October Revolution (November 4, 1967) "for the outstanding services of the working people of Leningrad in the revolutionary movement, in the Great October Socialist Revolution and the great contribution to the formation and strengthening of Soviet power, for the courage and heroism shown in battles with the enemies of the Soviet state, for success in building communism.
Order of the Red Banner of the RSFSR (December 5, 1919) "for the heroism and selflessness of the Petrograd proletariat, for the defense of Petrograd during the Civil War."
Winner of the World Travel Awards for Best European City Destination in 2015, 2016 and 2017



State power in the city is exercised on the basis of the Charter, which was adopted by the Legislative Assembly on January 14, 1998. The highest official is the governor, elected by citizens of the Russian Federation residing in the territory of St. Petersburg and possessing active suffrage in accordance with federal law, on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot for a term of 5 years. Since September 2019, Alexander Beglov has been elected governor of St. Petersburg. Executive power in the city is exercised by the Government, headed by the governor, and other executive bodies of state power of St. Petersburg, which make up the system of executive bodies of state power of the city - the Administration of the city of St. Petersburg. The government is located in the building of the Smolny Institute.

Legislative power in the city is exercised by the Legislative Assembly, which consists of 50 deputies elected by the inhabitants of the city under a proportional system for a term of 5 years. In September 2021, the Legislative Assembly of the seventh convocation was formed, in which there are six factions: United Russia (29 seats (was 36)), Communist Party of the Russian Federation (7 (3)), Just Russia (5 (3)), LDPR ( 3 (3)), New people (3 (0)), Yabloko (2 (2)) and 1 self-nominated. The Chairman of the Legislative Assembly is Alexander Belsky (since September 2021). It is located in the Mariinsky Palace. To organize and exercise control over the execution of the city budget, the expenditure of extra-budgetary funds, the Chamber of Control and Accounts of the city of St. Petersburg was created. Judicial power is exercised by the Statutory Court of the city of St. Petersburg and justices of the peace.

There are also councils of deputies of municipalities, elections for which took place in 2014 and 2019.


City budget

The main revenue sources of the St. Petersburg budget include: corporate income tax (26%), personal income tax (45.7%), excises (4.4%), corporate property tax (6.9%) , income from the use of state and municipal property (3.6%). Main expenditure items: national economy (24.61%), education (24.07%), healthcare (16.34%), social policy (12.48%), housing and communal services (10.21%), national questions (4.86%), culture and cinematography (3.80%), physical culture and sports (1.37%). The state debt of St. Petersburg as of March 1, 2021 is 85 billion rubles.


External Relations

The city has consulates general of 35 countries, three honorary general consulates, 25 honorary consulates, representative offices of international organizations: the Inter-Parliamentary Assembly of the CIS Member States, a representative office of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, a branch of the Eurasian Development Bank, the Inter-Parliamentary Assembly of the Eurasian Economic Community; representative offices of 28 subjects of the Russian Federation; registered 17 national-cultural autonomies, 51 national-cultural associations, 20 communities.


Official symbols of the city

The historical coat of arms of St. Petersburg, approved in 1730, confirmed in 1780, supplemented in 1857, never canceled and re-introduced in 1991, is the oldest and main official symbol of the city. The modern flag was adopted on June 8, 1992 and entered into the State Heraldic Register of the Russian Federation with registration number 49. The emblem and flag of St. Petersburg depict a scepter as a symbol of the capital and imperial power, a sea anchor as a symbol of a sea port and a river anchor as a symbol of a river port . The emblem of the Vatican, as the city of St. Peter, served as a prototype. The flag of St. Petersburg is the official symbol of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation, denoting its constitutional and legal status, the unity of the inhabitants of St. Petersburg, and the cultural heritage of St. Petersburg. Adopted on June 8, 1992, nine months after the release of the relevant decision.

The anthem of St. Petersburg is one of the symbols of the city (music: "Hymn to the Great City" from the ballet "The Bronze Horseman" by Reinhold Gliere, revised by Grigory Korchmar, lyrics by Oleg Chuprov). It was fully approved on May 13, 2003.

According to Article 7 of the Charter of St. Petersburg, the historical symbols of the city are the ship on the spire of the Admiralty, the monument "The Bronze Horseman", an angel on the spire of the Peter and Paul Cathedral. According to Article 8 of the Charter of St. Petersburg, the tradition is the midday cannon shot of a signal gun from the Naryshkin bastion of the Peter and Paul Fortress.


City holidays and memorable dates

In addition to all-Russian and international holidays, the following city holidays and memorable dates are celebrated in St. Petersburg:
January 14 - Day of the Charter of St. Petersburg (adopted in 1998);
January 18 - Day of breaking the blockade of Leningrad (in 1943);
January 27 - Day of the complete liberation of Leningrad from the fascist blockade (in 1944);
February 10 - Memorial Day of Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin (the day the poet died in 1837);
May 27 - City Day - Day of the foundation of St. Petersburg (in 1703);
June 5 - Day of breaking through the naval mine blockade of Leningrad (in 1946; celebrated since 2006);
June 9 - Birthday of Peter the Great (in 1672);
June 14 - Memorial Day of the Holy Righteous John of Kronstadt;
June 20th - Holiday of graduates of St. Petersburg schools "Scarlet Sails" (celebrated from 1968 to 1979 and since 2005);
July 1 - Restorer's Day (celebrated since 2006);
July 12 - Day of the Holy Primate Apostles Peter and Paul;
August 15 - Day of Ladoga, the first capital of Rus', the predecessor of St. Petersburg (founded in 753);
September 8 - Day of Remembrance of the Victims of the Blockade (the beginning of the blockade of Leningrad in 1941);
September 10 - Day of St. Petersburg Industry (celebrated since 2016);
September 12 - Day of the transfer of the relics of the holy noble prince Alexander Nevsky to St. Petersburg (1724) - the day of the Nishtad peace (1721);
October 30 - Shipbuilder's Day (celebrated since 2014).



Population: 5,598,486 (2023) people St. Petersburg is the second most populated city in Russia and the fourth city in Europe; as well as the second largest city in Europe (after Istanbul) in terms of population, which is not the capital of the state, the center of the St. Petersburg urban agglomeration. It is the northernmost millionaire city in the world. According to preliminary data from the 2020-2021 All-Russian Population Census, as of October 1, 2021, the population of St. Petersburg was about 5.6 million inhabitants. At the same time, the Committee on Labor and Employment of St. Petersburg made an estimate of the resident population based on big data technologies, this estimate for October 2021 amounted to about 7 million people.

In 1990, the population of the city exceeded 5 million people, but from the early 1990s to 2007, there was a steady depopulation. In 2007, the population was only 4,568,047. Since 2009, there has been an increase in population, but until 2012 it was noted due to the excess of migration growth over natural decline. As a result, from 2002 to 2010, the population growth amounted to slightly more than 4% (from 4661.2 to 4879.6 thousand). According to the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation for 2010, the birth rate was 12.0 per thousand, the death rate: 14.2 per thousand. According to the results of the All-Russian census of 2010, the population was 4,879,566 people, of which 45.6% were men and 54.4% were women (i.e., there are 1,194 women per 1,000 men).

The first place among the districts of the city in terms of population is occupied by the Primorsky district: 507.2 thousand people. The life expectancy of Petersburgers in 2007 was 64 years for men and 75 years for women (these figures are one year higher than in 2006). As of 2008, 1 million 100 thousand out of 4 million 571 thousand of the total population of the city are pensioners (of which 55% are disabled). At that time, the city had 139,000 residents aged 80 to 90, 13,400 residents aged 90 and over, and 188 residents over 100 years old.

According to the 2021 All-Russian Population Census, representatives of more than 170 nationalities and nationalities live in St. Petersburg: Russians - 3 million 949 thousand people (92% of the total population that indicated their nationality), Ukrainians - 87 thousand people (2%), Belarusians - 54 thousand people (1.27%), Jews - 37 thousand people (0.85%), Tatars - 36 thousand people (0.83%), Armenians - 19 thousand people (0.45%), Azerbaijanis - 16.6 thousand people (0.39%), Georgians - 10.1 thousand people (0.24%), Chuvash - 6 thousand people (0.14%), Poles - 4.5 thousand people (0.10%), Finns - 4 thousand people (0.09%), Koreans - 3.9 thousand people (0.09%), Germans - 3.8 thousand people (0.09%). There are 1,218 women per 1,000 men in the city, 60.2% of the total population are of working age (972 women per 1,000 men), 13.9% are younger than the disabled (953 women per 1,000 men), and 25.9 are older than the disabled. % (per 1,000 men - 2,482 women). For every 1,000 people of working age, there are 660 people of non-working age. 34% of the population of the city, over 15 years old and who indicated their education, have higher education (of which 3% are candidates of science and 0.69% are doctors of science), 11.8% have secondary education, 1.2% have no education , 828 people are illiterate. The registered unemployment rate in July 2022 was 1.4% of the labor force. The average nominal salary accrued in March 2022 amounted to 89,679 rubles. The subsistence minimum per capita for 2022, established by the Decree of the Government of St. Petersburg of December 19, 2022, amounted to 16,160.2 rubles.

As of 2022, 49 residents of the city were awarded the title of Honorary Citizen of St. Petersburg, two of them posthumously. The Mariinsky Palace houses a portrait gallery of honorary citizens of the city.



According to various sociological surveys, more than half of the residents of St. Petersburg "believe in God" (up to 67% according to VTsIOM data for 2002). Among believers, the vast majority are Orthodox (57%), the second largest are Muslims, followed by Protestants and Catholics. Of the non-Abrahamic religions, Buddhists and a few others are represented. In total, there are 268 communities of confessions and religious associations in the city: the Russian Orthodox Church (131 associations), Evangelical Christians (23 associations), the Evangelical Lutheran Church (19 associations), Evangelical Baptist Christians (13 associations), as well as Old Believers, Roman -Catholic Church, Armenian Apostolic Church, Seventh Day Adventist Church, Jewish, Buddhist, Muslim, Baha'i and others.

In total, 229 religious buildings in the city are owned or run by religious associations. Among them are architectural monuments of federal significance: St. Isaac's Cathedral, Kazan Cathedral, Sampson Cathedral, Smolny Cathedral, Peter and Paul Cathedral, Nikolo-Bogoyavlensky Naval Cathedral, St. Vladimir Cathedral, St. Sophia Cathedral, Trinity-Izmailovsky Cathedral, Feodorovsky (Sovereign) Cathedral, Cathedral of the Savior on Spilled Blood, Trinity Cathedral of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra, Orthodox monasteries (Alexander Nevsky Lavra, Ioannovsky Stauropegial Convent, Resurrection Novodevichy Monastery, Holy Trinity St. Sergius Seaside Hermitage), Armenian Apostolic Church of St. Catherine, Catholic Church of St. Catherine of Alexandria, Catholic Monastery of St. Anthony the Wonderworker, Lutheran Church of Saints Peter and Paul, Dutch Reformed Church, Cathedral and Cathedral Mosque, Great Choral Synagogue, Buddhist datsan and others. The oldest church in the city is the Peter and Paul Cathedral (1733), and the largest is the Kazan Cathedral (1811).

The St. Petersburg Theological Academy and the St. Petersburg Theological Seminary of the Russian Orthodox Church, the Catholic Higher Theological Seminary "Mary - Queen of the Apostles" operate in the city. The relics of Saints Alexander Nevsky, John of Kronstadt, Xenia of Petersburg are kept in St. Petersburg.



St. Petersburg is one of the most important economic centers of the Russian Federation.
The gross regional product (GRP) of the city in 2015, according to Rosstat, amounted to 3.024 trillion rubles (in 2013 - 2.491 trillion rubles). The main types of economic activity are (in brackets - the share in GRP for 2014):

wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles, household and personal items (21.5%);
manufacturing industries (19.9%);
operations with real estate, rent and provision of services (19.3%);
transport and communications (11.8%);
health and social services (6%)

The financial market of the city is the second largest regional financial market in Russia. The St. Petersburg Currency Exchange, St. Petersburg Commodity Exchange, PJSC St. Petersburg Exchange, St. Petersburg International Commodity and Raw Materials Exchange operate in the city. 31 banks are registered in the city (the largest ones are VTB, Rossiya, St. Petersburg, Tavrichesky, Baltinvestbank) and representative offices of more than 100 banks in other regions.
According to Mercer, in 2017 St. Petersburg ranks 176th out of 231 in the world ranking of the quality of life in cities.

About 2.8 trillion rubles were attracted to the economy of St. Petersburg in 2012-2017. Now there are 2.5 thousand investment projects in the city at one stage or another.

According to the results of the first half of 2021, St. Petersburg ranked 445th in the ranking of the most expensive cities in the world to live in according to the Numbeo consulting agency, and in 2022 - 279th, thus overtaking Moscow, which took 287th place.



The industry is based on over 700 large and medium-sized enterprises, as well as over 20,000 small enterprises. In 2016, the volume of shipped products by the city's industry amounted to 2,340.5 billion rubles, which is 6.9% higher than the previous year. In the structure of shipped products, 30% are vehicles, machines and various types of equipment, 15.7% are food products, including drinks, and tobacco, 5.7% are metallurgy products and finished metal products.

The basis of industry: heavy industry. The city has such shipbuilding enterprises as Admiralty Shipyards (ships for the Navy, tankers, submarines), Sredne-Nevsky Shipyard (boats, minesweepers for the Navy), Baltiysky Zavod (vessels for the Morflot, icebreakers), Severnaya Verf (ships for the Navy and Morflot). Mechanical engineering enterprises operate: Compressor (compressor equipment, oil and gas equipment), Leningrad Metal Plant (steam, gas and hydraulic turbines), Electrosila (electric machines, generators), Electropult plant (electrical equipment), Sevkabel (power cables, copper rolling), Kirovsky Zavod (tractors, metal products, agricultural machinery), Arsenal (space satellites, artillery installations, compressor stations), Izhora Plants (rolling equipment, special equipment, nuclear reactors), "Leninets" (equipment for aviation and weapons, radio-electronic equipment), "Svetlana" (X-ray tubes, radio-electronic equipment, components), LOMO (optical devices) and others. Transport engineering is developed: Vagonmash (passenger cars for railways and electric cars for the subway), automobile plants of Ford, Toyota, General Motors, Scania, Nissan, Hyundai Motor and MAN. For 9 months of 2016, 25% of new cars sold in Russia were assembled in the city. A significant volume of industrial production is formed by enterprises in the armaments industry. The city has developed ferrous (Izhora pipe plant of the Severstal company) and non-ferrous metallurgy (Krasny Vyborzhets), chemical industry (VMP-Neva), light industry, printing industry.

Among the largest enterprises in the food industry: the plant of the Baltika brewing company (beer, soft drinks, mineral waters), the Heineken brewery, the Stepan Razin Brewery, the Moscow District Bakery (bakery, farinaceous confectionery products, owned by Fazer), the Krupskaya Factory ( sweets and chocolate), Parnas-M meat processing plant (sausages, canned meat and semi-finished products), Kirov's Mill (cereals, flour), Petmol dairy plant (owned by Danone), Polyustrovo mineral water plant, meat processing plants, enterprises for the production of confectionery, fish products and many others.

The number of employees of industrial enterprises according to operational statistical reporting for 2018 amounted to 346.9 thousand people (99.8% compared to 2017), the average monthly wage of workers in industry was 65.4 thousand rubles (109.7% compared to 2017 ).


Consumer market

The retail trade turnover in 2016 amounted to 1215.6 billion rubles, which is 1.5% less than in the previous year. In the structure of turnover, food products (including drinks and tobacco products) in 2016 accounted for 36%, non-food products - 64%. In 2016, paid services were provided to the population for 417 billion rubles. The consumer market of St. Petersburg provides employment for one fifth of the population employed in the urban economy and accounts for one fifth of the gross domestic product. It includes about 15.9 thousand retail trade enterprises (including more than 6.5 thousand trade enterprises selling everyday food products to the population), 6.8 thousand - public catering, more than 8.5 thousand - consumer services. The city has 171 small retail trade complexes, 22 markets (of which 16 are specialized in the sale of agricultural products). Retail chains are represented in St. Petersburg: international (Auchan, K-Ruoka, Spar, Metro, Prisma), federal (OK, Lenta, Dixy, Magnit, as well as Pyaterochka, Karusel and Perekrestok, owned by X5 Retail Group), interregional (7I family, True, Norma, Idea, Net, Azbuka Vkusa, Polushka), local (Season, Lime, Land, RioMag, Smart, Real) and others. The share of large retail chains in retail turnover is 76%.

St. Petersburg is one of the cities that determine the development of the country's media space; the print market of the Northern capital is characterized by high quantitative and qualitative indicators. More than 100 newspapers (one-time circulation of about 10 million copies) and 150 magazines (over 7 million copies) are published here. The approximate annual volume of sales of periodicals in the city is 185 million copies: 132 million copies are sold at retail and 53 million by subscription. The head office of the federal television Channel Five is located in St. Petersburg. In addition, regional TV channels "Channel 78", "St. Petersburg" broadcast in the city. There are also a number of regional television studios: the Leningrad Regional Television Company, NTV-Petersburg, STS-Petersburg, TNT-Petersburg.


Construction and investment

In 2016, construction work in the amount of 409.3 billion rubles was completed in the city, 3116.3 thousand m² of housing was put into operation.

In 2016, the volume of investments in fixed assets amounted to 582.3 billion rubles. The credit rating of St. Petersburg is: Long-term credit rating on the international scale in foreign currency Fitch Ratings: ВВВ- (stable) (date of the last rating change October 2016), Moody's Investors Service rating agency: Ва1 (stable) (February 2017 ). The largest investor countries in St. Petersburg in 2013 were Germany, Kazakhstan, the Republic of Korea, the Virgin Islands, Sweden, Cyprus, Austria, the Netherlands, Great Britain, Finland, Switzerland, Belarus.

In 2012, St. Petersburg took 2nd place in the urban environment quality rating compiled by the Ministry of Regional Development of the Russian Federation, the Russian Union of Engineers, the Federal Agency for Construction and Housing and Communal Services, the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, as well as Moscow State University. M. V. Lomonosov.



A significant role in the economy is played by the tourism business associated with the reception of guests from Russia and foreign countries, as well as the related economic activity in the service sector. The city has a significant historical and cultural heritage for the formation of a tourist product, for the transformation of tourism into the basic branch of the city's economy. According to the results of 2012, St. Petersburg took the 10th place (in 2010 - the 7th place) among the most visited and popular among tourists cities in Europe.

In 2018, about 8.5 million tourists visited St. Petersburg (in 2017 - 7.5 million), including Russian tourists - 5.5 million people, foreign tourists - 4.9 million people. In 2016, there were 6.9 million tourists (the number of foreign citizens who arrived in the city through the checkpoints of the Northwestern Federal District in 2016 amounted to 2847.2 thousand people, mainly tourists from Finland, Germany, the USA, Sweden and France) . The city has more than 260 large and small hotels with 27,000 rooms (including the Grand Hotel Europe, Astoria, Corinthia St. Petersburg, Pribaltiyskaya, Pulkovskaya, St. Moscow”, “Russia”, “Oktyabrskaya”, “Azimut Hotel St. Petersburg” and others), boarding houses. With the commissioning of a new sea passenger port in the west of Vasilyevsky Island and the abolition of the visa regime for short-term visits of tourists, the city becomes one of the centers of cruise tourism in Europe. In 2016, the northern capital was visited by 457 thousand cruise tourists (209 ship calls).

In December 2016, St. Petersburg received the prestigious World Travel Awards in the World’s Leading Cultural City Destination 2016 nomination, which was called the “Tourist Capital of the World” in Russian-language sources.



The enterprise engaged in water supply and sewerage in the city is the State Unitary Enterprise Vodokanal of St. Petersburg. The main source of water supply is the Neva River. More than 96% of the water is taken from it, which is processed at the 5 largest waterworks: the Main, Northern, Southern, Volkovskaya waterworks, water treatment facilities of the city of Kolpino. On June 26, 2009, St. Petersburg became the first metropolis in which all drinking water is treated with ultraviolet light and which completely abandoned the use of liquid chlorine for water disinfection. There are 21 sewage treatment plants in the city, the largest of them are the Central and Northern aeration stations, as well as the South-Western treatment facilities, and there are three sewage sludge incinerators. Waste water has been treated since 1979. By the end of 2008, St. Petersburg cleans 91.7% of wastewater. In October 2013, with the commissioning of the Main Sewer Collector in the northern part of the city, 98.4% of the city's wastewater is treated (93% in 2010). In 2016, the average daily supply of drinking water to consumers amounted to 1,597 thousand m³, costs and losses during water transportation - 12%, the average daily volume of wastewater treated at sewage treatment plants amounted to 2.2 million m³ / day.

The heat supply system includes 8 TGC-1 CHPPs, 3 departmental CHPPs, 377 boiler houses of TEK SPb, 48 boiler houses of Lenteplosnab, 140 boiler houses of Peterburgteploenergo, 28 boiler houses of Peterburgenergosbyt, 179 departmental boiler houses. The length of heating networks is more than 6000 km. The city has 118 high-voltage substations with a total capacity of more than 15,000 megawatts. The main type of boiler and furnace fuel in the municipal economy is natural gas (its share is 94%), the rest is fuel oil and coal. The largest heat and power generating enterprises of the city are owned by TGC-1: Central CHPP, Pravoberezhnaya CHPP No. 5, Vyborgskaya CHPP No. 17, Severnaya CHPP No. 21, Pervomayskaya CHPP No. 14, Yuzhnaya CHPP No. 22, Avtovskaya CHPP No. 15


Education and science

As of January 2012, the system of preschool education consisted of 1,054 kindergartens and nurseries. Almost all of them, with the exception of a few private establishments, are on the balance sheet of the municipality. There are 690 general educational institutions in the city, of which 609 schools, including 135 with in-depth study of subjects, 72 gymnasiums, 45 lyceums, 21 evening schools, 40 correctional schools, 8 boarding schools, 19 special schools, 58 institutions of additional education for children, 48 institutions primary and secondary vocational education. Among them, we note the Academy of Russian Ballet. A. Ya. Vaganova, the St. Petersburg Musical College named after M. P. Mussorgsky, from military institutions the St. Petersburg Suvorov Military School, the Nakhimov Naval School, the Military Space Cadet Corps of Peter the Great, the Naval Cadet Corps and others are known.

56 public and 45 private higher educational institutions are based in St. Petersburg, including such well-known ones as St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, St. Petersburg State Medical University named after academician I. P. Pavlov, St. Emperor Alexander I State University of Communications, St. Petersburg State Marine Technical University, St. Petersburg State University of Telecommunications named after Professor M.A. Bonch-Bruevich, St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg State Technological Institute (Technical University), St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg State University of Economics, St. Petersburg State Mining Institute, St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Russian State Pedagogical University named after A. I. Herzen, St. Petersburg State Forestry Engineering University, St. Petersburg State Institute of Cinema and Television and others. A number of military higher educational institutions operate in the city: A. F. Mozhaisky Military Space Academy, S. M. Kirov Military Medical Academy, Mikhailovskaya Military Artillery Academy, St. Petersburg Naval Institute, Military Engineering and Technical University , St. Petersburg Higher Military School of Radio Electronics, St. Petersburg Institute of the FSB of Russia and others.

St. Petersburg is one of the largest scientific and educational centers in Russia, where more than 10% of the country's scientific potential is located: more than 350 scientific organizations, including 70 organizations of the Russian Academy of Sciences and other state academies, employing 170 thousand researchers, including 9 thousand doctors of science and 26 thousand candidates of science. In terms of the number of people employed in the scientific and educational sphere as part of the total population of the city, the city ranks second in the Russian Federation. It houses the St. Petersburg Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which unites over 60 academic institutes and other research institutions; numerous research institutes. On the southern outskirts is the Main (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences.



Most healthcare institutions in St. Petersburg are part of the system of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation and are divided into four groups: subordinate to the Committee on Health of St. Petersburg, federal institutions of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, federal institutions of the FMBA and institutions of the Leningrad Region located within the city. The Health Committee of the Government of St. Petersburg is the executive body of state power for the implementation of the city's health policy. In addition to the institutions included in the system of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, the city has health care institutions of other departments, as well as non-state institutions.

There are 106 outpatient clinics, 33 dental clinics, 44 dispensaries of various profiles, 83 inpatient medical institutions, 24 hospitals, 57 ambulance stations in the city. Among them, the Military Medical Academy named after S. M. Kirov, the Alexander Hospital, the hospital for war veterans, the city psychiatric hospitals named after Kashchenko, St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, the Botkin Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital, the Research Institute of Influenza, the Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Children's Hospital named after Rauhfus, Children's Clinical Hospital named after Filatov and others. Since 2005, the national priority project "Health" has been implemented, which provides for the modernization of the urban healthcare system.

As of 2015, the level of healthcare in the city remains the best in Russia in a number of indicators, and it also has the lowest mortality rate in the country. Since 2012, there has been an active modernization of medical equipment and a program to improve the quality of medical examinations of the population, a program to improve the living conditions of medical workers.



In 2011, the crime rate in St. Petersburg was 1,218 registered crimes per 100,000 inhabitants (122nd place among Russian cities), a decrease of 13.6% compared to 2010. In 2021, the crime detection rate was 41% and its share has been declining in recent years. The number of grave and especially grave crimes is decreasing, their share in the total number of registered crimes was 31.8%. The level of street crime is decreasing (16.9%), the proportion of crimes related to drug trafficking is decreasing (12%). The share of thefts from dwellings and objects of various forms of ownership is decreasing (36.4% of the total number of crimes in the city). Among other registered crimes in the city: fraud - 49%, with growth rates of up to 200% for some articles and very low detection, sometimes up to 20%. The highest percentage of detection (more than 90%) for banditry, murder, rape, causing serious harm, bribery, robbery, the lowest (less than 10%) - fraud. According to the results of surveys of city residents, the general unsatisfactory assessment of the work of law enforcement agencies remains.

On the territory of the city there are 4 detention centers (including the famous "Crosses"), 4 correctional colonies and 1 educational colony (Kolpino).



Saint-Petersburg is a cultural center of world importance, it is often called the "Cultural Capital" of Russia. The city has 8464 objects of cultural heritage (monuments of history and culture), including 4213 objects of cultural heritage of federal significance, which is almost 10% of all monuments protected by the state on the territory of the Russian Federation.

There are more than 200 museums (see Museums of St. Petersburg) and their branches (including the Hermitage (about three million works of art and monuments of world culture), the Russian Museum (the largest museum of Russian art), the Central Naval Museum, the Museum of the Academy of Arts of Russia, Museum of Urban Sculpture, Museum of the History of St. Petersburg, Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography named after Peter the Great (Kunstkamera), "Museum-Institute of the Roerich Family", palace and park museums-reserves of Peterhof, Oranienbaum, Tsarskoye Selo, Pavlovsk, Art Center "Pushkinskaya, 10", the Erarta Museum of Contemporary Art, the All-Russian Museum of A. S. Pushkin, the Museum of Defense and Siege of Leningrad and others); exhibition complex "Lenexpo"; more than 70 theaters (including the Mariinsky Theatre, the Alexandrinsky Theatre, the Mikhailovsky Theatre, the Bolshoi Drama Theater named after G. A. Tovstonogov, the St. Petersburg Academic Comedy Theater named after N. P. Akimov, the Maly Drama Theater (Theater of Europe), the St. Petersburg Academic the Lensoviet Theatre, the Baltic House, the Academic Drama Theater named after V. F. Komissarzhevskaya, the clownery theater Litsedei, the Great St. Petersburg State Circus and many others); 1,100 libraries (the largest among them are the Russian National Library (Public), the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the B. N. Yeltsin Presidential Library); more than 50 cultural and leisure institutions; more than 50 cinemas. There are several creative universities in St. Petersburg: the St. Petersburg Rimsky-Korsakov Conservatory, the Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet, the Russian State Institute of Performing Arts, the Repin St. Petersburg Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, the St. Stieglitz Industrial Academy, St. Petersburg Roerich Art School, St. Petersburg State Film and Television Institute.

There are about 10 film studios in the city, among them, the oldest "Lenfilm", "Lennauchfilm".

In 2011, almost 1000 exhibitions, more than 120 premieres, almost 300 festivals were held in St. Petersburg, among them: the Mariinsky International Ballet Festival, the Stars of the White Nights International Arts Festival, the Arts Square International Winter Festival, International Ballet Festival "Dance Open", International Music Festival "Palaces of St. Petersburg", International Jazz Festival "White Night Swing", International Festival of Arts "From the Avant-Garde to the Present Day", International Film Festival "Festival of Festivals", International Biker Festival in Olgino , the international theater festival "Baltic House", the international competition-festival of children's and youth creativity "Childhood Holiday".

From 1981 to the early 1990s, the Leningrad Rock Club operated in Leningrad, which marked the beginning of the legalization of the city's rock bands. The groups "Picnic", "Aquarium", "Zoo", "Myths" participated in the organization of the club, and later the groups "Auktyon", "Kino", "Alisa", "Pop-mechanics", "DDT" took part in its work , "Zero" and many others. Now the club-museum of Viktor Tsoi "Kamchatka" operates in the city, the singer's grave at the Theological Cemetery is a place of pilgrimage for his admirers.

On May 26, 2013, during the celebration of the 310th anniversary of the founding of the city, a mass performance of songs about St. Petersburg took place. 4335 people on St. Isaac's Square, accompanied by a symphony orchestra, sang 14 songs for an hour. The event may enter the Guinness Book of Records.



In 1990, the historical center of St. Petersburg and the palace and park ensembles of the suburbs were included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. About 8 thousand architectural monuments are under state protection. In 2005, the St. Petersburg Strategy for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage was adopted. The majestic appearance of the city is determined by architectural ensembles, strict straight streets, spacious squares, gardens and parks, rivers and numerous canals, embankments, bridges, patterned fences, monumental and decorative sculptures. Architectural ensembles of the 18th-20th centuries: the Peter and Paul Fortress, the Alexander Nevsky Lavra, the Smolny Institute, Palace Square with the Winter Palace, the Admiralty, Nevsky Prospekt, the Spit of Vasilevsky Island with the Exchange building, Senate Square with a monument to Peter I, Architect Rossi Street and Ostrovsky Square, Arts Square, St. Isaac's Square and, formed in the 20th century, Vosstaniya Square.

The rapid development of St. Petersburg has become a challenge to the traditional idea of a city with a long history, which grows and develops slowly. Peter I conceived the city on the model of Venice and Amsterdam: instead of streets paved with stone, the city was to be covered with a network of canals along which residents would move on light ships. Although Peter's dream was not destined to come true, it was foreign experience that formed the basis for further development. The author of the first master plan of the city in 1716 was the Italian architect Domenico Trezzini: straight perpendicular streets, wide "avenues" became a characteristic feature of the new capital. Such a layout is visible on the example of Vasilyevsky Island and the "trident": Admiralty - Nevsky Prospekt, Gorokhovaya Street, Voznesensky Prospekt. Almost all the buildings in the central part of the city appeared later, but geometrically defined squares and streets have determined the appearance of the city to this day. The decisive role in this was played by the personality of Peter I, he personally chose the site of Nevsky Prospekt, the Admiralty, the Peter and Paul Fortress, and introduced strict urban planning discipline. All buildings, according to his decree, were to be built of stone (at the same time, in all other cities of Russia it was forbidden to use stone as the main building material). In those days, the Petrine Baroque style became widespread, represented by the Italians D. Trezzini, J. M. Fontana, N. Michetti, the Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Leblon, the Germans A. Schluter, G. Mattarnovi, and the Russian M. Zemtsov. The city has preserved several buildings built in this style: the Peter and Paul Fortress with the Peter and Paul Cathedral, the Summer Palace, the Kunstkamera, the building of the Twelve Colleges, the Menshikov Palace. In the middle of the 18th century, the Elizabethan Baroque style, represented by the architects F. B. Rastrelli (Winter Palace, Smolny Monastery, Great Peterhof Palace in Peterhof, Great Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo) and S. I. Chevakinsky (St. Nicholas Naval Cathedral) began to prevail.

In 1844, Emperor Nicholas I issued a decree prohibiting the construction of civil buildings in the city above the eaves of the Winter Palace. Since the second half of the 18th century, classicism has become predominant in the architecture of the city. The main architects of this style: V.I. Bazhenov (Mikhailovsky Castle), J.-B. Vallin-Delamot (the building of the Academy of Arts, the Great Gostiny Dvor), A. Rinaldi (Marble Palace), I. E. Starov (Tauride Palace, Trinity Cathedral of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra), G. Quarenghi (building of the Smolny Institute, Alexander Palace in Tsarskoe Sele), C. Cameron (Pavlovsk Palace); and later (from the beginning of the 19th century) its variety, the Russian Empire style: A. N. Voronikhin (Kazan Cathedral), A. D. Zakharov (Main Admiralty), J. Thomas de Thomon (Spit of Vasilyevsky Island), K. I Rossi (Mikhailovsky Palace, the building of the General Staff, the Alexandrinsky Theater, the building of the Senate and the Synod), V. P. Stasov (The Transfiguration Cathedral, the Trinity-Izmailovsky Cathedral), O. Montferrand (St. Isaac's Cathedral). In the middle of the 19th century, eclecticism began to prevail in architecture: A. I. Shtakenshneider (Mariinsky Palace, the Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace), A. P. Bryullov (Lutheran Church of Saints Peter and Paul), K. A. Ton (the building of the Moscow Station), A. A. Parland (Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood). From the middle of the century, the construction of new embankments and bridges began, and a large construction of tenement houses was going on. It was during this period that Liteiny, Vladimirsky and Zagorodny avenues were formed.

At the beginning of the 20th century, buildings in the Art Nouveau style appeared in the city, including the house of the Singer company, the Eliseevsky store, the Astoria hotel, and the Vitebsk railway station. During this period, the decoration of tenement houses, private mansions and public buildings with stained-glass windows became widespread. Next came the neoclassical style (“House with towers” on Lev Tolstoy Square), which was replaced from the 1920s by constructivism (A. Stachek Avenue, Kalinin Square, the station of the first stage of the Leningrad Metro). Since 1923, housing construction began in new areas on the principle of integrated development (“Zhilmassivy”). From the beginning of the 1960s, the mass construction of "Khrushchev" began, and from the 1970s, "house-ships". At the same time, buildings built according to individual projects appeared: the Yubileiny Sports Palace, the Victory Square Ensemble, the Pribaltiyskaya Hotel, the sports and concert complex named after. V. I. Lenin, the building of Pulkovo airport.

Recently, buildings in the historical center have been demolished: the barracks of the Preobrazhensky Regiment (one of the oldest in Russia) and the engineer battalion (Kirochnaya Street), 5 houses on Nevsky Prospekt, an 18th-century building and the interiors of the Chicherin House, several houses on Vosstaniya Street and Liteiny Prospekt, a house on Voznesensky Prospekt, a number of buildings on the Petrograd side and more. Some of the demolished houses had the official status of architectural monuments. In 2008, changes in legislation came into force, which lifted the ban on the privatization of monuments of federal significance, which had been in force in Russia since 2002. This list of privatization may include about 650 buildings of the city, which are still on the federal list of protection.


Reflections of the city in literature and art

In the era of classicism, the Russian Empire promoted the solemn, major image of St. Petersburg as an ideal city, born against the elements in accordance with the rational plans of the enlighteners. In Europe, Catherine II gained the reputation of Northern Semiramis, while St. Petersburg was called the Northern Palmyra. Court poets sang it in odes, landscape painters of the circle of Fyodor Alekseev created vedus with views of endless avenues and squares, where staff figures of people are lost against the backdrop of grandiose buildings.

A. S. Pushkin in The Bronze Horseman (1833) created the image of St. Petersburg as a speculatively constructed space, the fruit of the rationalism of the Enlightenment, erected in the swamps at the behest of the monarch at the cost of countless human lives and therefore hostile to the feelings and happiness of “little people”. In Gogol's Petersburg Tales, "everything is wet, smooth, even, pale, grey, foggy"; the author paints the capital of the empire with impressionistic strokes as “a place of revelry of diabolical forces hostile to man, under which unsteady soil always moves, threatening to suck in majestic, but cold buildings, and soulless government departments, and filling them with many unfortunate little officials” (S. Volkov ).

In addition to Gogol, his Slavophile friends of Moscow origin took up arms against Petersburg: “The first condition for freeing the captive feeling of nationality in oneself is to hate Petersburg with all one’s heart and all one’s thoughts,” wrote, for example, I. S. Aksakov. The heroes of N. A. Nekrasov and F. M. Dostoevsky sent their curses to the stone masses of the royal capital - a labyrinth of front entrances and tenement houses not intended for life behind a veil of unhealthy fumes and eternal fogs. The hero of his novel "The Teenager" argues:

A hundred times in the midst of this fog, a strange, but haunting dream was asked to me: “What, how will this fog scatter and go up, will not this whole rotten, slimy city go away with it, rise with the fog and disappear like smoke, and the former Finnish swamp, and in the middle of it, perhaps, for beauty, a bronze rider on a hot-breathing, driven horse?

Predictions of the imminent death of this chilling giant, if not by flood then by fire, were further developed in the literature of the Silver Age, especially as the factory suburbs grew. According to the diary entry of M. Kuzmin, St. Petersburg intellectuals looked "at the dark factories with such a gloomy and frightened look, as if from the city tower a guard was looking at the Huns near the walls of the city." Researchers find something commemorative in the way Petersburg is described by P. I. Tchaikovsky in The Queen of Spades. M. Dobuzhinsky's sketches, A. Blok's urban poems, and A. Bely's novel "Petersburg" reveal the infernal, otherworldly aura of the imperial capital. These works constitute a kind of requiem, where Petersburg is shown “already doomed to perish, but still beautiful with dying, ghostly beauty” (E. I. Zamyatin).

In defense of St. Petersburg from such myth-making, the artists of the World of Art, led by A. Benois, spoke from the positions of neoclassicism, who complained: “It seems that there is no city in the whole world that would be less sympathetic than St. Petersburg.” In watercolors from the history of the 18th century and in a series of enlightening articles (“Picturesque Petersburg”, “The Beauty of Petersburg”, etc.), Benois notes the heroic structure and the peculiar poetic charm of the old city: “Amazingly deep and wonderful musicality reigns throughout Petersburg.” These nostalgic motifs were later picked up in the work of A. Akhmatova. With the move of the capital to Moscow (1918), Russian culture turned from an accuser into a “mourner and defender” of the city on the Neva, which until recently seemed inhuman. In Akhmatov's poem "Requiem" the city is seen as a sufferer, because by the middle of the 20th century

Leningrad ceased to be a symbol of oppression and alienation, becoming the personification of the age-old spiritual values of Russian society, doomed to destruction by a ruthless totalitarian regime.
— S. Volkov

The Petersburg text, as a collection of various literary (prose and poetic, artistic and documentary journalistic, etc.) works that create a multifaceted and complex image of the city on the Neva, has become one of the most interesting and largest phenomena of Russian culture. Formed by works created in the era when St. Petersburg was the capital of the Russian Empire, the St. Petersburg text was subsequently expanded by the creative efforts of Soviet and post-Soviet authors. In an expanded sense, the Petersburg / Leningrad text includes not only literary works, but also works of other genres, in particular films and television films, musical works dedicated to and / or associated with the city. The Petersburg text is the foundation of the symbolic capital of St. Petersburg, which ensures the enduring interest in the city both on the part of Petersburgers and residents of other cities and countries.


Physical education and sports

Both amateur and professional sports are developed in St. Petersburg. The city has 1649 sports halls, 118 swimming pools, 18 ski bases, 17 indoor facilities with artificial ice, 13 stadiums with more than 1500 seats, 11 rowing bases and canals, 10 sports palaces, a cycle track. Among them are the Gazprom Arena and Petrovsky stadiums, the Yubileiny Sports Palace, the Ice Palace, the Winter Stadium, the Petersburgsky sports and concert complex (demolished, reconstruction is planned), Sibur Arena, and the SKA swimming pool. Lesgaft University is an important center of sports culture.

Professional clubs based in the city:
Football: Zenit is one of the strongest clubs in the Premier League of the Russian Championship, winner of the UEFA Cup (2007/08), UEFA Super Cup (2008); Dynamo, Zenit-2 and Zvezda play in the West zone of the FNL-2 championship; Women's football club "Zenit" is the strongest team in the Higher Division of the Russian Women's Football Championship.
Hockey: SKA is one of the strongest clubs in the KHL, winner of the Gagarin Cup (2014/2015, 2016/2017); SKA-Neva and HC Dynamo St. Petersburg - in the VHL; SKA-1946, SKA-Silver Lions and MHC Dynamo St. Petersburg in the MHL Championship; ZhHK "Dynamo St. Petersburg" - in the ZhKhL.
Basketball: Zenit plays in the VTB United League, Spartak plays in amateur competitions since 2014; Dynamo (existed in 2004-2006).
Volleyball: "Avtomobilist" - plays in the Major League B of the championship of Russia, "Zenith" - plays in the Super League; "Leningradka" - plays in the Super League of the championship of Russia.
Beach soccer: Kristall is one of the strongest clubs in the Russian championship in recent years, the winner of the European Champions Cup in beach soccer in 2014, 2015, 2020, 2021. The Zvezda women's beach soccer team (founded in 2013) is a five-time champion of Russia (2015, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020), as well as the winner of the European Champions Cup in 2018.
Futsal: "Polytech", playing in the Super League; "Aurora" (women's mini-football club).
Handball: Zenit (until 2022, Lesgaft University - Neva) is one of the strongest clubs in the Super League of the Russian Championship among men.
Field hockey: Metrostroy (women's hockey club).
American Football: The Griffins are the 2015 American Football Champions of Russia and have been playing in the Premier Division since 2016; The Northern Legion has been playing in the North division since 2016; The Valkyries have been playing in the Finnish Premier League since 2016.