Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia

Bashkiria or Bashkortostan is located in the Southern Urals. A tourist trip to Bashkiria is interesting for two reasons. The first is the region's rich natural resources. The landscapes of the Urals and the Southern Urals proper with rivers, lakes, waterfalls, mountains and caves make it possible to implement interesting programs for ecological, hiking, sports and even extreme tourism. The second reason is the unique opportunities in terms of ethnographic tourism. Bashkiria is a "melting pot" of nationalities living in the region and a mixture of cultures. Some areas of the region are dominated by Russians, others by Bashkirs, and there are areas with a majority of Tatars, Belarusians or Maris. In one trip, you can visit Orthodox churches or mosques, take part in the Sabantuy national holiday or celebrate Orthodox Easter.



Ufa is the capital of the republic and one of the Russian millionaires. This is, in general, a very young city that grew up after the war, but there is also an old part in it, which is well preserved by Ural standards. Mosques, the high bank of the Belaya River and the one-story building areas adjacent to the center give a special flavor to old Ufa. Above the river there is a monument to Salavat Yulaev - the symbol of Bashkiria, there are still many carved wooden houses in the quiet streets, here are curious modern buildings in the national style, an extensive national museum and the best museum of archeology and ethnography in the Urals: in short, in Ufa you can easily spend both at least a day and you will see a lot of things that are not shown in other places.

Sterlitamak is the second largest city in Bashkiria and the center of a large industrial agglomeration that combines all facets of the chemical industry from oil refining to soda production. The historical center of Sterlitamak is small and not very cozy, but in it you can see a lot of pre-revolutionary stone houses, colorful wooden houses with colored shutters almost rooted into the ground, as well as an old wooden mosque and a good example of a modern mosque. There are also carved wooden houses in Sterlitamak, some of the best in the republic. To the east of the city there are hills standing separately in the steppe - Ishimbay and Sterlitamak shikhans.

Ishimbuy is a pioneer of the oil industry in the region, the capital of the Second Baku, a city of labor prowess and glory, which is part of an industrial agglomeration of three cities - Sterlitamak, Ishimbay and Salavat. In the city, oil production and oil refining began in Bashkiria, light industry enterprises, a plant that produces all-terrain vehicles, and an oil refinery are operating. The city is built up with typical buildings and is known for its professional drafts school. There are many monuments in Ishimbay, which gives the city an unforgettable style.

Salavat is the third largest city in the region, the former settlement of Ishimbaya, founded after the war in connection with the construction of a petrochemical plant. You should not look for anything historical in the city, but its center contains a good ensemble of Soviet architecture, several modern churches and mosques are nearby, and the Neftekhimik Palace of Culture, made in the national style, crowns all this. Salavat is also proud of a separate city tram line that delivers workers to industrial enterprises. The plant, located far from the city center, is perfectly visible from the road to Sterlitamak and is an infernal spectacle.

Beloretsk is the only old factory town in Bashkiria that has preserved its traditional metallurgical profile, a huge factory pond, and even some industrial buildings of the early 20th century. The center of Beloretsk, on the contrary, was built up after the war and is a good, and most importantly, a very cozy ensemble of Stalinist architecture. A staggering and unparalleled wooden bridge was thrown across the pond to the plant, popularly known as the “metallurgist's path”. To the east of Beloretsk, the highway crosses the Ural Range, here are ski resorts: this is perhaps the most picturesque part of the Southern Urals, which can be seen simply from the road.






Other destinations

Abzakovo is a ski resort halfway between Beloretsk and Magnitogorsk, the largest in Bashkiria. This area, with wide valleys and smooth, as if on purpose, rounded peaks, is one of the most beautiful in the Southern Urals. It is interesting not only in winter, but also in summer, when you can walk in the surrounding mountains, see picturesque gorges and waterfalls, or visit the ancient city of Verkhneuralsk, located in the steppe near the eastern slopes of the Ural Range.
Iremel is a place for those who want to see real mountains in the Urals. The peak of the same name has a solid height of 1582 m (this is the second of the main peaks of the Southern Urals) and is characterized by a rapid change of natural zones: there is a forest along the slopes, and there is already a rocky tundra at the top, but it is quite possible to conquer this peak in one day.
Bashkiria National Park does not contain high mountains. Its charm lies in the rocky banks of the rivers and numerous karst caves, one of which collapsed, forming a unique karst bridge. There are also beautiful landscapes outside the park: for example, the Muradymovskoye Gorge, which is part of the Bashkir Ural Biosphere Reserve.
The village of Chishmy is located an hour's drive from Ufa and would not differ from hundreds of other settlements near the station, if there were not two mausoleums from the times of the Golden Horde in it at once - a completely unique case for Russia. On the way to Chishmy, there is the only ethnographic museum in the whole of Bashkiria in Yumatovo, and then the path lies to the Susak-Tau and Satyr-Tau mountains - picturesque hills-outliers standing in the middle of a flat forest-steppe
Shulgan-Tash is a small nature reserve created to protect traditional beekeeping. Tourists are shown a sight of a different kind - Kapova Cave, in which cave paintings of primitive man have been preserved. On the way to the reserve, there is a beekeeping museum and mountain villages, where you can see traditional Buryat cemeteries or, for example, the remains of the old Demidov factory.
Red Key
Bashkiriya National Park
South Ural Reserve

Shulgan Tash Nature Reserve


People usually go to Bashkiria for natural attractions, although city lovers will also have something to see here. On the map, Bashkir sights are located unevenly: almost all of them are located in the eastern part of the republic, and the Ural Range is to blame. Its southern part is divided approximately equally between Bashkiria and the Chelyabinsk region, and the highest point of the Southern Urals - Mount Yamantau - fell just into the Bashkir part. Where the mountains are lower, rocky remnants rise above the forest - for example, Inzersky Zubchatki. Finally, even lower, the rocks form river valleys, and one of such places is the Arsky stone on the Belaya River. In general, there are dozens, if not hundreds, of interesting mountain landscapes on the territory of Bashkiria: they exist both near civilization and far from it. There are several protected natural areas on the territory of the republic, including the Bashkir Reserve, the National Park of Bashkiria and the Shulgan-Tash Reserve. The latter is also interesting from an ethnographic point of view as a place where the traditional Bashkir craft, beekeeping, is preserved.

In the area of the Orenburg highway, mountains give way to hilly forest-steppe. In this area, the gently sloping treeless mountains that suddenly appear in the middle of the steppe are interesting: the Sterlitamak shikhans, as well as the massif of the Demsky Mountains southwest of Ufa. Of the numerous caves, only Kapova (Shulgan-Tash Reserve) is easily visited, where prehistoric drawings are located.

There are two major archaeological sites in Bashkiria: the already mentioned rock paintings in the Kapova Cave and the Akhunov menhirs - something like an ancient sanctuary. Oddly enough, there are also two medieval monuments - these are the mausoleums of the XIV-XV centuries. near the village of Chishmy. They belong to no more than a dozen buildings left in Russia from the Golden Horde. The rest of the Bashkir monuments are not older than the second half of the 18th century. There are old stone buildings in many cities of the republic, but almost everywhere they are thinned out and crushed by modern buildings. There are no merchant cities comparable to Irbit, Shadrinsk or Sarapul in Bashkiria, and if anything in this genre deserves attention here, then only the center of Ufa. On the contrary, the areas of wooden buildings are very interesting and colorful, whether they are wonderful carved houses in Ufa, one-story shacks grown into the ground in Sterlitamak, or picturesque villages located in the mountains. A couple of hundred years ago, dozens of metallurgical plants worked on the territory of present-day Bashkiria, but only one of them survived - in Beloretsk (and that is rather conditional). The ruins of the old workshops are still found in the villages and villages of mountainous Bashkiria.


What to do

Bashkiria rests on the western slopes of the Urals. The famous Abzakovo ski resort is located on the territory of the republic, although it is more convenient to get to it from the territory of the Chelyabinsk region - from Magnitogorsk. The same story with the ski center on Lake Bannoe - in fact, this is all around Magnitogorsk. But there are ski resorts in Sterlitamak (Kush-Tau), Salavat (Zirgan-Tau) and Beloretsk (Mratkino), as well as in Ufa itself (Ak-Yort).

Drafts have received professional development in the republic. There is a professional drafts club "Ishimbay" in Ishimbay.



There are two state languages - Russian and Bashkir, but in fact there is a trilingualism in the region: in addition to the state languages, the Tatar language is widely spoken. The Tatar and Bashkir languages are mutually intelligible, therefore Tatars and Bashkirs in a conversation with each other can speak their own language. To an outsider, these languages are indistinguishable. The Russian population most often does not own either one or the other, and is wary of studying them.

Inscriptions and signs are usually made in two languages: Russian (bottom or left) and Bashkir (top or right). Bashkir belongs to the Turkic languages, uses the Cyrillic alphabet with nine additional letters. Previously, the Bashkir language used Arabic letters and the Latin alphabet.


Getting in

By plane
The only operating passenger airport is located in Ufa. It operates flights to Moscow, St. Petersburg, the cities of the Volga region and Western Siberia, as well as international flights to Central Asia, Dubai and Istanbul.

If you are traveling to the mountainous part of Bashkiria (Beloretsk, Sibay), it is convenient to use the Magnitogorsk airport, which has regular connections with Moscow. The airport is even located on the territory of the republic, but Magnitogorsk itself is already in the Chelyabinsk region.

Not far from the western border of Bashkiria are the airports of Bugulma, Izhevsk and Naberezhnye Chelny-Nizhnekamsk (Begishevo), but all of them only make sense if you are then taken to Bashkiria by car, as the bus service in these parts leaves much to be desired, and through Ufa you will reach faster.

By train
The main line Samara-Chelyabinsk-Petropavlovsk-Omsk passes through Ufa, so there is a fairly large flow of trains, including Siberian and Kazakh ones, and in the western direction you can reach Moscow or the cities of the Volga region. Several times a day trains come from Ulyanovsk via Dimitrovgrad. Another major railway goes from Kazan through the Udmurt Sarapul to Yekaterinburg, crossing Bashkiria in its northern part, which is unlikely to be of interest to travelers, but here you can transfer to a bus and go deep into the republic. There is also a railway in the direction of Orenburg, but there is practically no passenger traffic along it.

By bus
Ufa is connected by bus with the capitals and major cities of most neighboring regions: Yekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk, Magnitogorsk, Perm, Izhevsk, Kazan, Orenburg. The distances are long, the trip will take a whole day. Private minibuses are much more nimble, but they do not call in cities along the way.

In addition to long-distance interregional routes, there is regular local communication between Bashkir Beloretsk and Chelyabinsk Magnitogorsk. Other cities in the eastern part of Bashkiria (Uchaly, Sibay) are also tied to Magnitogorsk and Chelyabinsk to a large extent.

From Bugulma (Tatarstan) several times a day there are buses to Oktyabrsky.

By car
Federal highways M5 "Ural" and M7 "Volga" pass through Bashkiria from Samara and Kazan, respectively. In Ufa, these routes merge and go on as a whole to Chelyabinsk. From the south, the P240 highway leads from Orenburg to Ufa. From Perm, the best route is along the Kama to the city of Osa and from there through Birsk to Ufa. Finally, from the side of Udmurtia, the difficulty is that there is only one permanent automobile crossing across the Kama - this is the dam of the Votkinskaya hydroelectric power station in the city of Chaikovsky. A shorter route is a ferry crossing between Sarapul and Neftekamsk.


Getting around

Traveling around Bashkiria will require a fair amount of skill from the traveler. All natural attractions are located away from major cities and public transport routes. If you don't have a car and aren't prepared to take a taxi or rely on hitchhiking luck, it's worth considering using the services of a tour operator. All local companies offer short tours around the republic, including a visit to two or three sights, a transfer, an overnight stay at camp sites and, possibly, meals in the national style. This is a fairly convenient and not too expensive option.

There is no local aviation in Bashkiria, although from time to time there are attempts to revive it.

Suburban rail service is available on most lines, however, only electric trains around Ufa (to the village of Chishmy and the city of Asha, but the latter is already in the Chelyabinsk region) and two suburban trains on the line to Beloretsk with a change at Inzer station are of practical value to the traveler. There are few trains in the southern direction to Sterlitamak-Kumertau, and they run twice as slow as buses.

Bus routes are operated by Bashavtotrans, whose website has full timetables and ticket sales. Private carriers mainly work on interregional routes, which are not very convenient for moving within the republic, since long-distance express buses travel the shortest route and do not call into cities along the road.

The roads of Bashkiria usually have good coverage. Four-lane sections - P240 (Orenburg highway) from Ufa to Sterlitamak and M7 about 80 km west of Ufa. The rest of the roads are two-lane.

There are several car rental companies in Ufa.



Bashkir national food is akin to the cuisines of other Turkic peoples. It is closest, of course, to the Tatar one, but simpler and somehow larger: for example, if the Tatar dessert chak-chak consists of thin sticks of dough doused with honey, then in the Bashkir version the sticks reach the size of corn flakes. In Bashkiria, fewer spices are used, most often limited to simple salt and pepper. Horse meat occupies a considerable place in the Bashkir cuisine.

The most affordable Bashkir pastries are served in all canteens, cafeterias and roadside cafes. You can buy it with you, but it is better to eat it right on the spot warmed up:

Uchpochmak - a triangle of thin dough stuffed with meat, potatoes and onions
Elesh - resembles uchpochmak, but has a round shape and is stuffed with chicken with potatoes and prunes
Belish (belyash, peremyach) - yeast dough pie stuffed with meat and onions
Gubadya - a closed pie with salty or sweet filling (meat, rice, dried fruits); in Bashkiria often takes the form of individual pies

The most national dish that you can try in public catering is beshbarmak (bishbarmak) - boiled meat with noodles. Thick soups based on meat and noodles - ulush, urya - are also common. Any restaurant related to national cuisine will also offer more international oriental dishes: shurpa, manti, ayran or similar drinks, and so on.

Honey is considered the main Bashkir national product. It is sold in ordinary shops and souvenir shops, in markets and just on the roads. Another characteristic product is horsemeat sausage, including kazy, which is often consumed boiled: including as part of beshbarmak.



It comes from the ethnonym of the Bashkirs - Bashkort (Bashk. Bashkort) and the suffix -stan (Persian ستان‎ - "country").

The first mention of the area in the form of Bashgurd in the work of Fazlallah Rashid-ad-din "Oguz-name" refers to the VIII century. The names Bashgird, Bashgird, Baskardia, Bashgirdiya and others were universally known in Arabic-Persian and Western sources of the Middle Ages.

In the XVI-XVII centuries, in Russian sources, the territory of residence of the Bashkirs was designated as the Ufimsky district or Bashkiria. Initially, the name was used in the form of Bashkirs, Bashkirdiya, Bashkir Territory, Bashkir Province.

According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the name of the subject of the Russian Federation: the Republic of Bashkortostan. According to the Constitution of the Republic, the names Bashkortostan and the Republic of Bashkortostan are equivalent.


Physical and geographical characteristics


Bashkortostan is located on the western slopes of the Southern Urals and in the Cis-Urals. The highest point on the territory of the republic is Mount Yamantau (1640 meters). The length of Bashkortostan from north to south is 550 km, from west to east - 430 km. The Republic of Bashkortostan is in the MSK+2 time zone. The offset of the applicable time from UTC is +5:00



There are three main regions in the geological structure of the republic: Western, Southern and Mountainous Bashkortostan.

The republic has deposits of oil (about 200 registered deposits), natural gas (projected reserves of more than 300 billion m³), coal (about 10 deposits, balance reserves up to 0.5 billion tons), iron ore (more than 20 deposits, balance reserves of about 100 million tons), copper (15 deposits) and zinc, gold (over 50 deposits), rock salt, high-quality cement raw materials.



There are more than 12,000 rivers and about 2,700 lakes, ponds and reservoirs in Bashkortostan. Underground water sources are rich. The largest rivers: Belaya (Agidel) (1430 km) and its tributaries Ufa (918 km), Dema (535 km), Sim (239 km), Nugush (235 km), Urshak (193 km), Ashkadar (165 km), Sterlya (94 km). The largest number of lakes is located in the Trans-Ural part of the republic. Almost all lakes of the Bashkir Trans-Urals have an oblong shape and are elongated parallel to the mountain ranges. These lakes are abundant in fish (up to 40 species). Among the lakes of the western part of the republic, the largest are: Aslykul, which has an area of 18.5 km², and Kandrykul, with an area of 12 km².


Natural areas, flora and fauna

Forests occupy more than 40% of the territory of the republic. In the Cis-Urals, these are mixed forests, in the western foothills, mountainous regions and the Bashkir Trans-Urals there are pine-deciduous, birch forests and dark coniferous taiga. In the Cis-Urals, forest-steppes with birch and oak forests, forb-feather grass steppes are also common, in addition, the steppes extend into the Trans-Ural regions. The soils are mainly gray forest, chernozem, sod-podzolic.

On the territory of the republic there are 77 species of mammals, about 300 species of birds, 42 species of fish, 11 species of reptiles, 10 species of amphibians, 15 thousand species of insects, 276 species of spiders, 70 species of ticks, 120 species of mollusks, 140 species of crustaceans, about 1000 species of worms . Among those listed in the Red Book of Bashkortostan are 18 species of mammals, 49 species of birds, 7 species of fish, 3 species of amphibians, 6 species of reptiles and 29 species of invertebrates, including 28 species of insects.


National parks and reserves

There are three reserves in the republic (Bashkir Reserve, South Ural Reserve, Shulgan-Tash Reserve), 1 biosphere reserve, 1 national park (Bashkiria National Park), 29 reserves, 5 natural parks (Asylykul, Zilim , "Iremel", "Kandrykul", "Muradymovskoe Gorge"), 183 natural monuments, the Botanical Garden-Institute, 7 health-improving areas and resorts (districts of the mountain and sanatorium protection of the sanatoriums "Green Grove", "Karagay", "Yumatovo" and resorts "Krasnousolsky", "Yangan-Tau", "Yakty-Kul", "Assy" and others). The total area of specially protected natural areas is 1064.7 thousand hectares (6.9% of the area of the republic).



The climate is continental. Average annual temperature: +0.3 °C in the mountains and +2.8 °C in the plains. Average January temperature: -18 °C, July: +18 °C.

The number of sunny days per year ranges from 287 in Aksenov and Beloretsk to 261 in Ufa (the smallest number of days is in December and January, the largest is in the summer months).

The average absolute minimum air temperature is -41 °C, the absolute maximum: +42 °C. A stable transition of air temperature through 0° occurs on April 4-9 in spring and October 24-29 in autumn, in mountainous regions on April 10-11 and October 17-21, respectively. The number of days with positive air temperature is 200-205, in the mountains 188-193. The average date of the last frost is May 21-30, the latest is June 6-9, and in the northern and mountainous regions June 25-30. The average date of the first frost is September 10-19, the earliest is August 10-18.

300 ... 600 mm of precipitation falls annually, there is a rather sharp differentiation of precipitation over the territory of the republic, and their amount depends primarily on the nature of atmospheric circulation. The influence of the Ural Mountains is especially strong here. On the western slopes of the Ural Mountains, the annual precipitation reaches 640–700 mm, on the eastern slopes it does not exceed 300–500 mm, and in the western flat part of Bashkortostan it is 400–500 mm. 60-70% of precipitation falls during the warm season (from April to October). The maximum daily precipitation falls on the summer months (78–86 mm).

The earliest date for the appearance of snow cover is September 12–20, the earliest date for the formation of stable snow cover is October 16–24, in mountainous areas it is October 5–12, the average date for snow cover is November 3–13. The average date of snow cover melting is April 14-24. The number of days with snow cover is 153-165, in mountainous areas - 171-177. The average and maximum depth of the snow cover is 36-55 cm, the maximum height can reach 106-126 cm. The average density of the snow cover at the highest height is 240-300 kg/m³.



Ancient period

The territory of the Southern Urals was characterized by an abundance of vegetation, livestock and stone raw materials, which attracted people from various regions.

The earliest monument of human habitation on the territory of the modern Republic of Bashkortostan is the Urta-Tube (Mysovaya) site near Lake Karabalykty, dating back to the Early and Middle Paleolithic. Images of mammoths, woolly rhinos, horses and other animals on the walls of the Kapova cave (Shulgan-Tash) date back to the Late Paleolithic (36,400 years ago).

According to one version, the domestication of the horse took place on the territory of historical Bashkortostan, as evidenced by the oldest remains of a domestic horse at the sites of Mullino II and Davlekanovo II, dating from C-14 at the turn of the 7th-6th millennium BC.

In the Mesolithic era, there is a significant increase in the population in the current territory, as evidenced by various archaeological sites of this period in the Bashkir Trans-Urals. The Neolithic era is characterized by a transition to a productive economy of agriculture and pastoralism.

From the middle of the 2nd to the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, in the Bronze Age, the period of intensive development of the territory of the Southern Urals begins and is associated with the arrival of the tribes of the Abashev culture. The Abashevites had a high level of bronze processing and the manufacture of tools from it.


Early history

The first mention of the area in the form of Bashgurd in the work of Fazlallah Rashid-ad-din "Oguz-name" is dated to the VIII century.

The names Bashgird, Bashgird, Baskardia, Bashgirdiya and others were known in the Arabic-Persian sources of the Middle Ages. About the country of the Bashkirs, its people and customs were reported in the 9th-13th centuries by the Arab geographers Ahmed Ibn Fadlan and al-Balkhi, the Italian monk Plano Carpini and the Dutchman Guillaume de Rubruk. The name of the Bashkort people is first found in the description of Sallam Tarjeman (first half of the 9th century). The Arab geographer Idrisi in the 12th century wrote about two regions of the Bashkirs "internal and external" and mentioned the Bashkir cities of Nemzhan, Gurkhan, Karakiya, Kasra and Masra. In Russian chronicles, the first mention of the Bashkir land dates back to 1469.

In the X-XIII centuries, the western part of the Bashkirs was part of the Volga Bulgaria.

From 1220 to 1234, the Bashkirs fought against the Mongols, actually holding back the onslaught of the Mongol invasion to the west. The Mongol-Bashkir war lasted 14 years. In the Secret History of the Mongols, the Bashkirs are listed among the peoples who showed the strongest resistance to the Tatar-Mongols.

In the XIII-XIV centuries, the entire territory of the settlement of the Bashkirs was part of the Golden Horde. The Bashkirs receive the right to beat (labels), that is, in fact, territorial autonomy as part of the Mongol empire. In the legal hierarchy of the Mongolian state, the Bashkirs occupied a privileged position.

After the collapse of the Golden Horde, most of Bashkiria was a special governorship of the Nogai Horde, the territory of the eastern Bashkirs was part of the Siberian Khanate, and the lands of the western Bashkirs were part of the Kazan Khanate.


XVI-XIX centuries

By 1557, on the basis of an agreement, the European part of Bashkiria was annexed to Russia. This accession took place 5 years after the Kazan Khanate rejected voluntary accession to the Russian state in 1552, in connection with which it was conquered and ceased to exist. By the beginning of the 17th century, after the conquest of the Siberian Khanate by Russia, the final entry of the peripheral territories where the Bashkirs lived into Russia actually took place.

Until about the middle-end of the 17th century, the presence of Bashkiria as part of Russia was nominal, since Bashkiria was not integrated into the institutions of Russian statehood for a long time. The Zakamskaya defensive line, erected in the middle of the 17th century, actually represented the border between Bashkiria and Russia. Thus, Bashkiria was isolated not only administratively, but also territorially. Only in the second half of the 17th century did Russia begin to interfere in the internal life of the Bashkirs, violating contractual terms, which led to the first uprisings of 1662-1664 and 1681-1684.

There are three versions about the entry of the Bashkirs into Russia: voluntary, forced and voluntary-compulsory. The Bashkir shezher reflects the nature of contractual relations with the tsarist government, certain conditions for entry and their immutability unilaterally. The Bashkirs were given the full right to dispose of their territory, to have their own army, administration, and religion on it. The exclusivity of relations between the Bashkirs and Russia is reflected in the "Cathedral Code" of 1649, where the boyars, under pain of confiscation of property, were forbidden to seize land from the Bashkirs in any way. The Bashkirs also had the right to extract salt. Somewhat later, the tsarist authorities violated certain terms of the treaties (the seizure of patrimonial lands, an increase in taxes, the destruction of self-government, forced Christianization, etc.), which repeatedly led to the emergence of Bashkir uprisings. The most difficult for the Bashkirs is the uprising of 1735-1740. During this uprising, many of the hereditary lands of the Bashkirs were taken away and transferred to the Meshcheryak servicemen. According to the estimates of the American historian A. S. Donnelly, every fourth person from the Bashkirs died.

From the second half of the 16th century to the beginning of the 19th century, the Bashkirs occupied a vast territory from the left bank of the Volga in the southwest to the upper reaches of the Tobol in the east, from the Sylva River in the north, including the entire left bank of the Volga, to the middle course of the Yaik (Ural) in the south, that is were located in the Middle and Southern Urals, in the Urals, as well as in the Volga and Trans-Urals.

In the XVI-XVII centuries, in Russian sources, the territory of residence of the Bashkirs was designated as the Ufimsky district or Bashkiria. Initially, the name was used in the form of Bashkirs, Bashkirdiya, Bashkir province.

In 1708, the region was included in the Kazan province as the Ufa province, which since 1719 was renamed the Ufa province. In 1774, the Ufa province became part of the newly created Orenburg province.

By decree of April 10 (21), 1798, the Bashkir population of the region was transferred to the military service class (Bashkir army) and was obliged to carry out border service on the eastern borders of Russia. With the annexation of Kazakh lands to Russia in 1731, the territory of historical Bashkiria became one of the many internal regions of the empire, and the need to involve the Bashkirs in the border service disappeared.

In 1865, the Ufa province was formed by dividing the Orenburg province into Ufa and Orenburg, which consisted of the Ufa, Belebeevsky, Birsk, Zlatoust, Menzelinsky and Sterlitamak counties.

The Bashkir cavalry regiments fought in the ranks of the Russian army as part of the militia of Minin and Pozharsky, took part in the liberation of Moscow from the troops of the Commonwealth in 1612, and their role in the Patriotic War of 1812 was noticeable.


20th century

On November 15 [November 28], 1917, the Bashkir Central Shuro proclaimed and approved by the Constituent Congress of Bashkurdistan the national-territorial autonomy of Bashkurdistan, the first national-territorial autonomy in Russia. On November 16 [November 29], 1917, the decision was published.

After the proclamation of the territorial autonomy of Bashkurdistan, the question of the borders of the republic arose. The Constituent Kurultai of Bashkurdistan approved two projects: "Small Bashkiria" and "Greater Bashkiria". There was also a third project proposed by Ahmet-Zaki Validi, which provided for the largest territorial formation of all considered. Due to the events of the Civil War, only the first project was implemented. As a result, the autonomous republic of Bashkurdistan arose within the borders of "Little Bashkiria".

On March 20, 1919, the “Agreement of the Central Soviet Power with the Bashkir Government on the Soviet Autonomous Bashkiria” was signed in Moscow. By signing this document, Soviet Russia recognized the first national-territorial autonomy in its composition, which had existed since 1917. In accordance with the agreement, the Autonomous Bashkir Soviet Republic was formed. The term "Little Bashkiria" was further applied to the ASSR. On March 23, 1919, the text of the agreement was published in the Izvestia newspaper of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee. This day is considered the official date of the formation of the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

On August 12, 1920, the Decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee "On the inclusion of the city of Sterlitamak in the Ufa province into the territory of the Bashkir Republic" was signed.

According to the decree of June 14, 1922, by the decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee “On the expansion of the boundaries of the Autonomous Bashkir Socialist Soviet Republic”, the Ufa province was annexed to the Bashkir Republic. "Small Bashkiria" was expanded to the limits of "Big Bashkiria", which united up to 87% of the Bashkirs. The city of Ufa becomes the official capital of the republic. The term "Greater Bashkiria" was used until the abolition of the canton-volost division in 1930.

On March 27, 1925, the draft constitution (basic law) of the republic was adopted. On June 23, 1937, in accordance with the new constitutions of the USSR (1936) and the RSFSR (1937) - the Constitution of the BASSR of 1937, and on May 30, 1978 - the Constitution of the BASSR of 1978.

During the Great Patriotic War, more than 100 industrial enterprises, dozens of hospitals, a number of central state bodies, and 278,000 refugees were evacuated to the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. During the war years, a large number of military units were trained on the territory of the republic. An important role for industry and the army was played by oil production, explored in the republic before the war. The inhabitants of the republic provided significant financial assistance to the Red Army, collecting tens of millions of rubles for the construction of aircraft and tanks. The title of Hero of the Soviet Union was awarded to 280 residents of the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

In the postwar period, new cities (Salavat, Kumertau) appeared in the Bashkir ASSR as centers for the development of petrochemistry, mechanical engineering and aviation. New railways and roads were created. In the 1960s-1980s, industry, agriculture and construction developed rapidly in the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1980, the population of Ufa exceeded one million people.

On October 11, 1990, the Declaration of State Sovereignty was proclaimed by the Supreme Council of the Republic. According to the declaration, the republic was transformed into the Bashkir SSR - Bashkortostan, and on February 25, 1992 it was renamed the Republic of Bashkortostan.

On March 31, 1992, Bashkortostan signed the Federal Treaty on the delimitation of powers and subjects of jurisdiction between the state authorities of the Russian Federation and the authorities of the sovereign republics in its composition and the Appendix to it from the Republic of Bashkortostan, which determined the contractual nature of relations between the Republic of Bashkortostan and the Russian Federation.

On December 24, 1993, the Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan was adopted, which approved the post of President of the Republic (since 2015 - the Head of the Republic of Bashkortostan).



The population of the republic according to the State Statistics Committee of Russia is 4,080,684 people. (2023). It ranks first in Russia among the republics in terms of population. Population density - 28.55 people / km² (2023). Urban population - 62.23% (2539327). 31.34% of the population lives in the capital of the republic, the city of Ufa and the adjacent Ufa municipal district. The least densely populated are the Zilairsky (3 people/km²), Beloretsky (3.7 people/km²) and Burzyansky municipal districts (4 people/km²). The highest density of the rural population is observed in the Ufimsky (37 people/km²), Karmaskalinsky (30 people/km²), Chishminsky (29 people/km²) and Tuimazinsky (27 people/km²) municipal districts.

2015 for the republic was marked by natural population growth (59,196 births, 54,107 deaths). However, due to the migration outflow (56.9 thousand departed, 51.0 thousand arrived), the total population decreased by 806 people or 0.02% compared to 2014.

The national composition of Bashkortostan according to the All-Russian census of 2010: Russians - 36%, Bashkirs - 29.5%, Tatars - 25.4%, Chuvashs - 2.7%, Maris - 2.6%, Ukrainians - 1%, people of others nationalities - 2.7%. In total, representatives of 160 nationalities live in the republic.



The economy of the republic is characterized by a diversified structure with high indicators of the complexity of development. In recent years, Bashkortostan has managed to achieve significant economic diversification. So, for example, the extraction of minerals in the structure of the gross product of the republic in 2009 was 8.1%, and in 2012 it was already 2.9%. The main specialization is still manufacturing, primarily oil refining. The Republic ranks first among the constituent entities of the Russian Federation in terms of oil refining, gasoline production, diesel fuel production, cattle population, milk and honey production.

In 2012, the volume of GRP exceeded 1 trillion rubles. At the end of 2015, the figure is 1 trillion 421 billion rubles or 349.9 thousand per capita. In terms of growth rates, Bashkortostan is among the top five among the regions of Russia.

The total amount of taxes and fees in 2015 on the territory of the republic amounted to 266.3 billion rubles. 146.7 billion of them went to the territorial budget, deductions to the federal budget amounted to 119.6 billion or 45% of the total revenue.

The volume of investments in the republic in 2015 amounted to 316 billion rubles. Among the priorities for the Government of Bashkortostan is to increase the share of investments in the GRP segment to 25% by 2019.

At the end of 2014, the republic ranked first in Russia in terms of the share of profitable enterprises. 82.9% of enterprises in the region are profitable. The national average is 68.42%.

The republic has a positive balance of foreign trade turnover: $12.5 billion in 2013 (export: $13.7 billion, import: $1.2 billion). At the end of 2014, Bashkortostan maintained foreign trade relations with more than 104 countries of the world.

In 2014, Bashkortostan was recognized by the Expert RA rating agency as a region with minimal economic risks. In October 2014, the international rating agency Standard & Poor's confirmed the republic's credit rating at BBB, with a stable outlook. Noting strong liquidity, very low debt levels and moderately strong financials, S&P specialists still do not rule out a downgrade to BBB - the outlook is negative due to the negative impact of the Russian regional finance system, as well as a possible downgrade of the sovereign rating of the Russian Federation. In accordance with the criteria of the organization, a single region cannot be assigned a rating higher than the level of the country as a whole.

The capital of the republic, the city of Ufa, according to the Forbes rating is one of the best cities in Russia for doing business.



The largest industrial centers: Ufa, Sterlitamak, Ishimbay, Salavat, Neftekamsk, Tuimazy, Oktyabrsky, Beloretsk. A high concentration of production is characteristic, about half of industrial production is produced in Ufa.

The most important industries are oil refining (Bashneft-UNPZ, Bashneft-Novoil, Bashneft-Ufaneftekhim), chemistry and petrochemistry (Gazprom neftekhim Salavat, Ufaorgsintez, Shkapovskoye and Tuimazinskoye GPP), oil production (Bashneft-Dobycha LLC). The oil refining complex of the republic is one of the largest in Europe. Mechanical engineering and metalworking are developed (LLC NPF "Paker"). There is also a woodworking industry and the production of building materials.

Until 1917, about 100 enterprises of various types were located on the territory of modern Bashkortostan, and the share of industry in the economy was 15%.

In the 1930s, the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR adopted a resolution "On the development of industry in the Bashkir ASSR." During these years, the foundation of the oil industry in the republic was laid.

On May 16, 1932, on the territory of the modern large industrial city of Ishimbay, for the first time in the entire Urals and the Volga region, the first drop of "black gold" was mined.

Due to the dominance of the oil industry, the decline in industrial production in the 1990s in Bashkortostan was less severe than in the manufacturing regions. At the same time, due to the depletion of oil reserves, its production dropped sharply in 1980-2006 from 39.2 million tons to 11.0 million tons.



The level of development of the economy of Bashkortostan largely determines the state of the electric power industry (13% of the industrial product). Its basis is thermal power plants: Karmanovskaya GRES, Ufimsky CHPP-1, CHPP-2, CHPP-3 and CHPP-4 in Ufa, CHPP in Sterlitamak and Salavat, Zauralskaya CHPP in Sibay and Kumertau CHPP. The construction of the Bashkir NPP was suspended after the Chernobyl accident.

According to the federal program for the development of nuclear energy (2005), it is possible to resume the construction of the Bashkir nuclear power plant in the city of Agidel.

In the 1980s, in the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, local enterprises produced wind turbines with a capacity of up to 30 kilowatts. However, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, developments in this direction were suspended. According to the former head of Bashkirenergo, Shamil Abdurashitov, with due attention from the republican government, Bashkiria, thanks to its scientific base, could today be one of the world leaders in the field of wind energy: “This market would be ours, we would supply half the world with our stations, and Bashkiria would be the eastern center of the wind industry.”

At the beginning of the 21st century, alternative energy in the republic began to gradually revive. An experimental wind power plant with a capacity of 2.2 MW is located in the vicinity of the village of Tyupkildy in the Tuymazinsky district. Until 2018, it is planned to create seven solar power plants with a total capacity of 59 MW in the southern regions. In October 2015, the first stage of the Buribaevskaya SPP with a capacity of 10 MW was put into operation in the Khaibullinsky district, which became the first industrial SPP in the republic. Bugulchanskaya SES and Isyangulovskaya SES also function. In January 2015, the village of Severny (Abzelilovsky district) completely switched to supply from a wind-solar power plant, thus becoming the first settlement in the republic with a completely autonomous power supply based on renewable energy sources.



In 2009, there were 189 large and medium-sized, 4511 small enterprises in the construction industry in the republic. The volume of construction work in Bashkortostan in 2000 amounted to 15.7 billion rubles, in 2005 - 46.4 billion rubles, in 2006 - 56.2 billion rubles, in 2007 - 83.1 billion rubles, in 2008 - 102 .7 billion rubles, 2009 - 80.6 billion rubles. For 2014, it is one of the leaders in Russia in terms of housing commissioning and ranks first in the Volga Federal District.



Agriculture of the grain-livestock direction. Wheat, rye, oats, barley (grain crops) and sugar beet, sunflower (industrial crops) are grown. Meat and dairy cattle breeding, meat and wool sheep breeding, poultry farming, horse breeding, koumiss production and beekeeping are developed in the republic. Bashkir honey is widely known in Russia.

By the beginning of 2009, there were 916 organizations for the production of agricultural products, 4214 peasant (farmer) households, 588 thousand personal subsidiary farms in Bashkortostan. In 2007, 285.6 thousand people were employed in the republic's agriculture.

The Bashkir chernozems, which occupy a third of the territory of the republic, up to eight meters deep, are among the most fertile in the world, and cause high crop yields.


Trade and finance

There are 78 credit institutions operating on the territory of the republic: 11 are directly registered in the territory of Bashkortostan and 67 are represented by branches. The territorial body of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation is the National Bank of the Republic of Bashkortostan, which includes 10 cash settlement centers.

According to the Minister of Foreign Economic Relations and Congress Activities Margarita Bolycheva, Bashkortostan is successfully developing international trade with China, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and the CIS countries. There are representative offices in Turkey, Kazakhstan and Belarus, it is planned to open a representative office of Bashkortostan in Uzbekistan. The republic offers high-quality competitive products: aluminum, rubber, honey, oil and fat products.


Tourism and rest

Bashkortostan is a region with a high potential for tourism and recreation. Among the key factors that determine its high competitiveness in the Russian and international tourism markets, a significant number of natural attractions and historical and cultural heritage are distinguished.

Popular in the republic are river rafting, visits to natural attractions, spa treatment, ski tourism. Due to the diversity of natural landscapes, Bashkortostan is sometimes called the second Switzerland, while noting the shortcomings, among which is the insufficient development of tourism as an industry that generates sustainable income.

The sanatorium and resort complex of Bashkortostan for 2016 includes 31 sanatoriums and dispensaries, 170 recreational institutions. The number of vacationers in the sanatoriums of the republic in 2013 amounted to 255 thousand people. It is noted that health tourism is constrained not by the absence of those wishing to come to rest in the republic, but by a limited number of rooms. Demand for health services in the republic exceeds supply, the load of some sanatoriums exceeds 100%. Due to the lack of calculation of the unregistered part of the tourist flow in the region, the quantitative assessment of domestic and inbound tourism seems to be greatly underestimated. In a number of municipal districts rich in natural attractions, there is a massive, almost uncontrolled flow of tourists.

The hotel fund of Ufa for 2016 includes 106 hotels and hotels, the number of rooms of which is 3,641 rooms for 6,443 beds. The average annual occupancy level of Ufa hotels is 60-70%. The number of tourists who visited Ufa in 2015 amounted to 650 thousand people, the estimate of the State Committee for Tourism for 2016 is about one million people. A large share of the tourist flow to the capital of the republic is made up of business tourists, who account for about 80-90% of all arrivals. Guests of the capital, whose goal is educational tourism, make up about 10-20%.

In 2013, the volume of tourist services amounted to 4.28 billion rubles (1st place in the Volga Federal District, 7th place in the Russian Federation), sanatorium and health services - 4.02 billion (1st place in the Volga Federal District, 4th place in the Russian Federation), hotel services - 3.75 billion rubles (1st place in the Volga Federal District, 6th place in the Russian Federation). Thus, the total volume of the main types of paid services in the tourism sector exceeded 12 billion rubles, which corresponds to approximately 1% of the gross product of Bashkortostan.

The factors hindering the development of tourism in the region include the insufficient level of development of infrastructure and services, as well as the low popularity of unique natural objects, especially outside of Russia. The disadvantages also include the high cost of living in hotels and sanatoriums, which sometimes leads to an unreasonably expensive price / quality ratio. Other weaknesses include a short summer, changeable weather and insufficient logistics. The latter implies the absence of an extensive network of roads and firms specializing in the transportation of tourists to certain places of rest.

Since 2016, the project "Discover the Republic" has been implemented, aimed at developing domestic tourism and organizing recreation among the inhabitants of the region and its guests. The purpose of the portal is to collect information about the sights of the region. The site provides an opportunity to independently create a travel itinerary in accordance with individual budgetary possibilities and accommodation needs. Tour operators, carriers and other companies engaged in the field of republican tourism are invited to participate in it.



Highways M5 "Ural", M7 "Volga", highways P240 Ufa - Orenburg, Ufa - Birsk - Yanaul, Sterlitamak - Beloretsk - Magnitogorsk, Birsk - Tastuba - Satka, Ufa - Inzer - Beloretsk, Sermenevo - Baymak - Akyar - pass through the region. Orsk, Beloretsk - Uchaly - Miass and Meleuz - Magnitogorsk.

By air, the region is connected with dozens of cities in Russia, the CIS countries, as well as with the cities of Greece, China, the United Arab Emirates, and Turkey. Ufa has the largest airport in the region.

The Bashkir region of the Kuibyshev Railway of Russian Railways operates in the republic, there are railway lines and branches of the Gorky and South Ural railways. Navigable rivers: Belaya and Ufa. Developed pipeline transport. The car park is growing every year.


Science and education

There are 1,644 preschool educational institutions, 1,587 secondary schools, 10 state universities, 17 university branches, 3 non-state independent and 8 branches of non-state universities in Bashkortostan. Scientific organizations are represented by universities of the republic and branch research institutes (about 80 organizations). In 1991, the Academy of Sciences of the Bashkir SSR was established; earlier, since 1951, the Bashkir branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences worked.



As of December 31, 2016, 168 medical organizations functioned in the Republic of Bashkortostan, including 163 medical organizations subordinate to the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus (of which 22 are autonomous, 131 budgetary organizations, 10 state unitary enterprises of sanatorium-resort organizations); 5 medical organizations subordinate to the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. The availability of medical care is provided by 162 medical and preventive medical organizations (157 state, 5 federal subordination).



On the territory of Bashkortostan, the leading religions are Sunni Islam (67% of the total number of religious organizations) and Orthodox Christianity (22%). There are 1,445 religious associations operating in more than 22 directions in the republic. Until 1990 there were 15 mosques. In the short post-perestroika time, the leadership of the republic managed to mobilize the necessary resources and build its own mosque for almost every municipal/rural entity. As of 2010, more than 1000 mosques, over 200 Orthodox churches and more than 60 places of worship of other confessions are functioning.



The original culture of the republic is made up of its national and genre diversity and includes elements of folklore, education, science, architecture, music, theater, dance, fine arts, religion, literature, etc.



More than 100 sports are developing in Bashkortostan, more than 75 regional sports federations are accredited.


Mass media

The main part of the region is covered by radio repeaters of TV stations. In addition to the central channels from Moscow, local television and radio broadcasts are distributed in Bashkortostan. Most of the republic's territory is covered by mobile communications, digital television, and high-speed Internet.

In Soviet times, the following newspapers were published: "The Council of Bashkortostan" ("Soviet Bashkiria", from 1918), in the Bashkir language; "Soviet Bashkiria" in Russian; "Kyzyl tan" ("Red Dawn", from 1918), in Tatar; "Leninse" ("Leninets", since 1923), in Bashkir and Russian; "Bashkortostan Pioneers" ("Pioneer of Bashkiria", since 1930), in the Bashkir language; magazines: "Agidel" (since 1930), "Bashkortostan kyzy" ("Daughter of Bashkiria", since 1968), "Khenek" ("Pitchfork", since 1925), "Bashkortostan ukytyusykhy" ("Teacher of Bashkiria", since 1924), "Pioneer" (since 1930), in the Bashkir language; "Agitator's Notebook" (in Bashkir, Russian and Tatar).

At present, the main printed media in Bashkortostan are the newspapers "Respublika Bashkortostan", "Bashkortostan", "Kyzyl Tan", "Nedelya", "Ana", "Atna" and others. Local municipal, public and advertising newspapers are published in the cities and districts of the republic.



On February 1, 2019, the Bank of Russia issued commemorative coins of the “100th Anniversary of the Republic of Bashkortostan” series into circulation, namely: silver with a face value of 3 and gold with a face value of 50 rubles.