Russian History


The history of Russia has more than a thousand years, starting with the resettlement of the Eastern Slavs to the East European Plain in the 6th-7th centuries, subsequently divided into Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians. The history of the country is divided approximately into seven periods: the most ancient (pre-state) (until the end of the 9th century AD) period, the period of Kievan Rus (until the middle of the 12th century), the period of fragmentation (until the beginning of the 16th century), the period of a unified Russian state (from 1547 years of the kingdom) (end of the 15th century - 1721), the period of the Russian Empire (1721-1917), the Soviet period (1917-1991) and recent history (since 1991).

Traditionally, the beginning of Russian statehood is considered to be the calling to Ladoga and other territories of the northern part of the East European Plain of the Varangians, led by Prince Rurik in 862. In 882, Rurik's successor Prince Oleg of Novgorod captured Kyiv, thereby uniting the northern and southern lands of the Eastern Slavs under a single authority, laying the foundation for Kievan Rus. The state under the leadership of Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavich adopted Christianity from Byzantium instead of paganism in 988, starting the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic culture. By the middle of the 12th century, Kievan Rus broke up into separate principalities that lost their independence as a result of the Mongol invasion in 1237-1240.

By 1478, under the leadership of Ivan III the Great, a single Russian state was formed, which completed the unification of the northern and eastern principalities around the Grand Duchy of Moscow at the beginning of the 16th century. In 1480, Russia freed itself from the Mongol-Tatar yoke. The western and southern principalities ended up as part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Since 1547, the centralized Russian state began to be called the kingdom in connection with the adoption of the royal title by Ivan IV the Terrible. The beginning of his reign was marked by the convening of the Zemsky Sobor - a nationwide class-representative body. Subsequently, the state significantly expanded its territory by annexing the khanates of the former Golden Horde. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania, defeated in the Russian-Lithuanian wars, lost its state independence and transferred the southern Russian lands, including Kyiv, to the rule of Poland. After the defeat in the Livonian War and the policy of internal terror (oprichnina), with the suppression of the Rurik dynasty, Russia experienced the Time of Troubles (1598-1613), which ended with the expulsion of the Polish interventionists and the election of Mikhail Fedorovich from the Romanov dynasty to the kingdom, at the same time (1497-1649) serfdom continued to take shape. right.

In the XVIII century, under the leadership of Peter the Great, major transformations took place (in particular, the first regular army was created and the convocations of the Zemsky Sobor stopped - absolutism was established), the kingdom was transformed into an empire. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the state was constantly expanding and annexed such territories and regions as: the Baltic states; Northern Black Sea region; Caucasus; Finland; Middle Asia; during the divisions of the Commonwealth, Russia established control over all the former lands of Russia, with the exception of Galicia. At the beginning of the 19th century, Russia defeated Napoleonic France and a little later, under Nicholas I (1825-1855), for several decades became the "gendarme of Europe." The uprising of the Decembrists, who tried to limit the monarchy and abolish serfdom during the interregnum, was suppressed (1825). Subsequently, a number of "Great reforms" of Alexander II were carried out, however, they were not completed (serfdom was abolished in 1861, however, the feudal forms of dependence of the peasants were actually preserved in the form of redemption payments for land until the revolution of 1905-1907) and gave rise to a significant dissatisfaction among the general population. The transformations of the reformer tsar stopped with his assassination by terrorists in 1881, after which his son Alexander III curtailed part of the reforms.

The influx of peasants into the cities, which became possible after the abolition of serfdom, led to the industrial revolution at the end of the 19th century, as well as a significant increase in the revolutionary movement and the emergence of revolutionary groups that set as their goal the overthrow of the autocracy. By the beginning of the 20th century, during the reign of Nicholas II, the country was in a state of political, social and economic crisis, and was defeated in the war with Japan. Under the influence of the revolution of 1905, the authorities went to the formation of a parliament, the recognition of fundamental rights and freedoms and private ownership of land. Russia's participation in the First World War exacerbated problems within the state, which ultimately led to the revolutions of 1917 and the beginning of the Civil War.


The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, set out to build a socialist state and, having made a coup, established their power over most of the territory of the collapsed Russian Empire. After the recognition of the independence of the Baltic states, Poland and Finland, the victory in the Civil War and the expulsion of foreign invaders, the USSR was formed in 1922. With the coming to power of Joseph Stalin in the 1920s, an era of industrialization, collectivization and mass political repression began. The USSR took the second place in the world in terms of industrial production. During the reign of Stalin, the country took part in the Second World War. In 1941, the Soviet Union was attacked by Nazi Germany and its allies. During the Great Patriotic War and the Nazi occupation, the USSR lost about 27 million people, but reached a turning point in the war and in 1945 won a final victory over Germany and its allies. During the war, the Soviet Union made a decisive contribution to the defeat of Nazi Germany, liberated the countries of Eastern and Central Europe from the Nazi regime, and annexed the Baltic states and the Carpathians to the USSR. After the end of the war, the Soviet Union became one of the two superpowers and entered the Cold War with the United States, which was a global confrontation between two military and economic blocs.

In the middle of the 20th century, the USSR actively increased its economic, military and scientific power and was the first to send a man into outer space. Since the mid-1960s, the country has fallen into a period of "stagnation" of the economy and political governance, accompanied by stagnation in the economy. In 1987, Mikhail Gorbachev embarked on Perestroika, major reforms that led to the removal of the ruling party from power and the collapse of the USSR.

The modern Russian state - the Russian Federation began its existence in December 1991, retaining legal succession, permanent membership in the UN Security Council and the nuclear arsenal of the USSR. Private property was introduced, a course was taken towards a market economy, but the economic crisis in the late 1990s led to a default. After 2000, under Vladimir Putin, significant economic growth began, the “vertical of power” strengthened, and Russia's foreign policy became more active. In 2014, after the aggravation of civil confrontation and the change of power in Ukraine, Russia annexed Crimea, which was negatively received by many EU countries and the United States and caused economic sanctions on their part. Since 2015, Russia has been conducting a military operation in Syria. On February 24, 2022, Russia launched an invasion of Ukraine.


Name etymology

The name "Rus" (Old Russian and Church-Slavic Rus) came from the name of the tribe (or social group) Rus, which formed the top of the Old Russian state. The name originally denoted the Scandinavians (Varangians) and came into the Old Russian language from Old Norse: other Scandinavian. rōþr "rower" and "travel on rowboats", transformed through Fin. ruotsi in other Russian. rѹs, and then gradually from the Scandinavian elite it was transferred to the entire people of Ancient Russia. There are also Northern Iranian, Slavic and some other etymologies.

For the first time, the term "Russia" (Greek Ρωσία) is found in the X century in the writings of the Byzantine emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus "On ceremonies" and "On the management of the empire" as the Greek name for Russia. The first known mention of the word "Rosia" in a Cyrillic record is dated April 24, 1387. Subsequently, from the end of the 15th - the beginning of the 16th century, the term "Russia" or more often "Rusiya", first with one "s", and starting from the middle of the 17th century with two (in the old spelling "Russia" or "Rossia"), began to be used in secular literature and documents of the Russian state and was assigned as a self-name for North-Eastern Russia, that is, the territories of Ancient Russia that were not part of medieval Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and united by the Grand Duchy of Moscow into a single state.

After the victory in the Northern War, the Russian state was officially declared an empire, at the same time the name of the state “Russia” finally acquired its modern look.

July 10, 1918, after the V All-Russian Congress of Soviets, the first Constitution of the RSFSR is adopted where the state is called the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. After the adoption of the Constitution of the USSR in 1936, the state changes its name to the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.

After the collapse of the USSR, on December 25, 1991, the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR adopted a law renaming the RSFSR into the Russian Federation (Russia).


Continuity of Russian statehood

The Russian Federation is the historical successor of the previous forms of continuous statehood since 862:
Old Russian state (862-1240);
Russian principalities (mid-12th century - early 16th century);
the Russian state (the end of the 15th century - 1721; since 1547 - the Russian kingdom);
Russian Empire (1721-1917);
Russian Republic (1917);
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1917-1991, since 1922 a republic within the USSR)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922-1991).

The Russian Federation is the legal successor and successor state of the USSR. The State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation in 1998 approved that "the Russian state, the Russian Republic, the RSFSR, the USSR and the Russian Federation are one and the same participant in interstate relations, one and the same subject of international law that has not ceased to exist." This wording was later enshrined in the federal law "On the state policy of the Russian Federation in relation to compatriots abroad." Since 2020, the mention of a thousand-year history and continuity in the development of the Russian state has been present in the constitution. Anniversaries of Russian statehood were officially celebrated in 1862 and 2012.


Ancient history

Ancient people in Russia
The richest archaeological cultures of Russia point to the ancient history of the development of its lands by primitive people in the early Paleolithic - at least 1.5-2 million years ago (Kermek, Liventsovka, Rubas-1, Ainikab-1, Mukhkai II). At the Bogatyri/Sinya Balka site (Taman Peninsula), a spike-shaped tool made of silicified dolomite was found in the skull of a Caucasian elasmotherium that lived 1.5–1.2 million years ago.

The Denisov man lived in the Denisova Cave during the Middle Paleolithic (200-50 thousand years ago). Finds of Neanderthals belong to the same epoch (Rozhok 1, Denisova, Mezmaiskaya, Okladnikova, Chagyrskaya caves).

The most ancient find of Homo sapiens in Russia is the femur of the Ust-Ishim man, who lived in Siberia 45 thousand years ago. The talus (calcaneal) bone of a person. discovered near the village of Baigara in the Tyumen region, dates back to 40.3 thousand years ago. In Yakutia there is the Yanskaya site (31.6 thousand years ago), in the Irkutsk region - the site of Malta (24 thousand years ago). The most ancient sites of Homo sapiens on the territory of the Russian Plain are Kostenki (Markina Gora), Sungir (35 thousand years ago), Khotylevo 2, Zaraisk site (19 thousand years ago) and others.

In the post-glacial Mesolithic era, the European part of Russia was settled by representatives of the Svider culture, whose descendants were the tribes of the Butovo (8-6 millennium BC) and Upper Volga (6-3 millennium BC) cultures. They already used the bow and arrow as a weapon. In the later stages, a transition to the Sub-Neolithic is planned, as they begin to master ceramics.

In the 5th millennium BC. e. in the steppes of southern Russia on the periphery of the Balkan Neolithic, the Samara culture is formed. They were engaged in cattle breeding, made jewelry from copper and gold, and poured burial mounds over the dead.

The Yamnaya culture originates from the Khvalyn culture in the middle reaches of the Volga and from the Sredne Stog culture in the middle reaches of the Dnieper, later it is replaced by the Poltavka culture.

In the 3rd millennium BC. e. Indo-European tribes of pastoralists of the Fatyanovo culture invade the forest belt of the Russian Plain, where the tribes of the Volosovo culture lived. In the same period, the forests of Eastern Europe and Asia are inhabited by tribes that preserve the Neolithic way of life, which gradually mix with the cattle-breeding tribes of the Fatyanovo and Middle Dnieper cultures who moved to their territories. In Siberia, the Afanasiev culture was replaced by the Okunev culture. At the turn of the 3rd millennium and 2nd millennium BC. e. proto-urban settlements of the Sintashta culture (Arkaim) and war chariots appear in the Urals. The log-house cultural and historical community of the Late Bronze Age (XVIII-XII centuries BC, according to other estimates - XVI-XII centuries BC) spread in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of Eastern Europe between the Dnieper and the Urals. In the historical era, the Iranian-speaking peoples of the Great Steppe are known under the names of the Cimmerians, Scythians and Sarmatians.

In the west of Russia, in the upper reaches of the Dnieper, the carriers of the Dnieper-Dvina culture lived, which is replaced by the Bantser-Tushmly culture.

In the first half of the 1st millennium BC. e. iron metallurgy is spreading over a large part of the country. The territories of the Upper Volga region, the coast of the Oka and the Valdai Upland are occupied by the tribes of the Dyakovo culture. The middle Volga region is inhabited by the tribes of the Gorodets culture, the Kama, Vyatka and Belaya basins are inhabited by the tribes of the Ananyino culture and later the Pyanobor culture.

The Yukhnov culture (V-II centuries BC) was widespread in the territories of the Bryansk, Kursk and Oryol regions.

The first actual state formations on the territory of modern Russia were city-states in the 6th century BC, founded by ancient Greek colonists in the Northern Black Sea region: Phanagoria, Germonassa, Gorgippia. Later they merged into the Bosporus kingdom.

States and nomadic tribes of the 1st millennium AD
In the IV-VII centuries, the territory of the middle Volga region was occupied by the tribes of the Imenkovskaya culture.

In the 4th century, during the Great Migration of Peoples, the steppe became Turkicized under the influence of the Huns. The power of the Huns was replaced by various associations of nomads who attacked the agricultural civilizations bordering on the steppe.

In the 4th-7th centuries, tribes of the Moshchin culture lived on the territory of the Kaluga, Oryol and Tula regions. In the 5th-7th centuries, tribes of the Kolochin culture lived on the territory of the Bryansk and Kursk regions.


In the 6th century, the Turkic Khaganate with its center in Altai plays a consolidating role for the Turkic-speaking peoples, but in the 6th-7th centuries it breaks up into the Western Turkic and Eastern Turkic Khaganates, which existed until the middle of the 8th century.

From the middle of the 7th century, the Khazar Khaganate (650-969) became the leading state on the Lower Volga, which united nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes of the Lower Volga region, the North Caucasus, the Sea of ​​Azov and the Don steppes. Until the 10th century, the Finno-Ugric tribes and the Turkic-speaking Bulgarian tribes of the Middle Volga region were also subordinate to the Khazar Khaganate. During this period, the cities of Itil and Bulgar appeared in the Volga region, which became large trading centers. Among the nomads, monotheistic religions began to spread: Judaism among the Khazars (740), Islam in the Volga Bulgaria (922).

Volintsevo culture existed in the VIII-IX centuries on the territory of the Kursk region. In the 8th-10th centuries, tribes of the Roman-Borshchev culture lived on the territory of the Lipetsk, Voronezh, Bryansk, Kursk and Belgorod regions. The Saltov-Mayak culture in the forest-steppe part of the Don region dates from the middle of the 8th to the beginning of the 10th century.

In the 9th century, the state of Volga Bulgaria appeared, which maintained relations with the states of Central Asia and Russia.

At the turn of the 9th-10th centuries, the state of Alania appeared in the North Caucasus.

After the fall of Khazaria, the Turkic-speaking peoples dominated the steppes, replacing each other: Pechenegs, Oguzes and Polovtsy. Their tribes did not have political unity.

The last influential nomadic empire was the Golden Horde (1224-1483).

Settlement of the Slavs
The great migration of peoples from the second half of the 4th century led to global migrations of ethnic groups. Information about the wars in the 4th century between the Slavs and the Goths has been preserved.

In the 5th century A.D. from the territory of northern Poland through the eastern Baltic, Slavic tribes of the culture of the Pskov long mounds penetrate into the territory of Russia, giving rise to the Krivichi. At the same time, the Slavs were constantly resettling to the north - to Lake Ilmen, and to the east - to the Volga-Oka interfluve. As a result, by the 6th-8th centuries, in general terms, all the main tribes of the Eastern Slavs, known from the Tale of Bygone Years, are formed. Slavic colonization of North-Eastern Russia continued until the XIV century and consisted of several migration waves - from early colonization from the lands of the Krivichi and Slovenes, to later from southern Russia.

One of the earliest known Slavic associations was the Ants Union - a political and military-tribal Slavic or Western Baltic association, consisting of the tribes of the Ants and existing from the 4th to the beginning of the 7th century (602).

At the beginning of the VI century, the Slavs began to make regular raids on Byzantium, as a result of which Byzantine and Roman authors (Procopius of Caesarea, Jordan) started talking about them. In this era, they already had large intertribal unions, formed mainly on a territorial basis, which could be a sign of the collapse of the tribal system.

In the 5th-7th centuries, the Slavs spread widely in Europe; their numerous tribes were geographically divided into southern, western and eastern. Eastern Slavs populated Eastern Europe in two streams. One group of tribes settled in the basin of the Dnieper and Desna on the territory of modern Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. Then it spread north to the upper reaches of the Volga, east of modern Moscow, and west to the valleys of the northern Dniester and the Southern Bug through the territories of modern Moldavia and southern Ukraine. Another group of Eastern Slavs migrated from Pomerania to the northeast, where they encountered the Varangians. Here they founded the important regional center of Veliky Novgorod. The same group of Slavs subsequently inhabited the territories of the modern Tver region and Beloozero, reaching the area of ​​the Merya people near Rostov. For about two or three centuries in the 7th-10th centuries, numerous groups of Slavic migrants from the Middle (Moravian) and Lower Danube region, which had played a significant role in the consolidation of the Slavic population of Eastern Europe and culminated in the formation of the Old Russian nationality, continued into the various areas of the Russian Plain already mastered by the Slavs. The Old Russian language included two dialect types. The first type: the North-West (Novgorod and Pskov with the corresponding territories, including the Vologda, Arkhangelsk (Dvinsk), Perm lands) and part of Northern Belarus. The second type: South (future Ukraine), Center (future central Russia), East (current Eastern part of the European part of Russia). There were no differences between the Kyiv, Chernigov, Ryazan, Smolensk, Rostov and Suzdal zones.


According to some researchers, the northern Slavic tribes of Slovene, Krivichi and the annalistic (Proto-Slavic or Finno-Ugric tribe) Merya, in the middle of the 9th century, were united into the so-called Northern Confederation of Tribes, which immediately preceded the so-called calling of Rurik and his brothers.

In Russia, the largest archaeological complexes of the early Slavic period of the late 9th - early 11th centuries on the Russian Plain are Gnezdovo (near Smolensk), Forgiveness, Georgy, Sergov Gorodok (near Novgorod), Kvetun nad Desna (near Kvetun), Timerevo, Mikhailovskoye, Petrovskoe (near Yaroslavl ), the Suprut settlement.

Old Russian state (862-1240)
Formation of the Old Russian state
Traditionally, starting from the Russian chronicle "The Tale of Bygone Years" of the beginning of the 12th century and up to the present, the emergence of the Russian state dates back to 862, when the Slavic and Finno-Ugric tribes called the Varangians, led by Rurik, to Ladoga or Novgorod and other cities to reign. Some historians attribute the beginning of the Russian state to a different time or tie it to another event (for example, to 882, when Prince Oleg captured Kyiv, uniting the two centers of Russia).

According to Russian chronicles, the State of Rurik included the territories of the southern Ladoga (Staraya Ladoga, Veliky Novgorod) and the upper Volga (Beloozero, Rostov), ​​but only Ladoga existed at that time. The "state of Rurik" was inhabited by Slavs (Slovenes and Krivichi), Finno-Ugric tribes (All, Merya, Chud) and Varangians. Rurik's successor, Prophetic Oleg, annexed the southern center of the Eastern Slavs in the Middle Dnieper region to his possessions, making, according to the chronicle, in 882 the main city of the glades - Kyiv, his capital. Some researchers connect the formation of the Old Russian state precisely with the unification of the northern and southern centers under the rule of the Rurikovichs. Prince Oleg subjugated the Drevlyans, Radimichi and Northerners to the power of Kyiv. In 907, Oleg made a major campaign against Constantinople, as a result of which the parties concluded the first written agreement in the history of Russia.

Russia in the X century
Princess Olga introduced the first administrative-territorial division in Russia (the system of churchyards), carried out a tax reform (established a system of lessons), began stone construction in Russia, and privately converted to Christianity. The expansion of the state to the south led to a clash with the powerful Khazaria, whose center was located on the lower Volga. Prince Svyatoslav defeated the Khazar Khaganate in 965. In 968-971, Svyatoslav captured Bulgaria and waged war with Byzantium. After his death in 972, a war for the throne began between his sons, in which the youngest son Vladimir won.

In 988, Prince Vladimir the Great, after a campaign against the Byzantine Chersonese and his marriage to Anna, the sister of the Byzantine emperors, established Eastern Christianity in Russia as the state religion. The adoption of Christianity strengthened state power and the territorial unity of the Old Russian state. It was of great international significance: Russia, having rejected primitive paganism, has now become equal to other Christian peoples. The adoption of Christianity contributed to the development of architecture and painting in its medieval forms, the penetration of Byzantine culture as the heir to the ancient tradition. The spread of Cyrillic writing and the book tradition was especially important: it was after the baptism of Russia that the first monuments of ancient Russian written culture arose.

Byzantium was the most important direction of Russia's foreign trade and military campaigns aimed at defending its interests. The collection of tribute (primarily furs) was called polyudye and took place annually in the winter, and the centralized sale of its results on foreign markets took place in the summer. The transfer of significant funds in the form of tribute to Kyiv by the tribal nobility made it possible for the Kievan princes to constantly keep large military forces at hand, use them in long-term campaigns and place them in fortresses on the steppe border (Posulskaya defensive line, Stugninskaya defensive line).

After the death of Vladimir in 1015, the throne in Kyiv was seized by his son Svyatopolk the Accursed; in 1015, his brothers Boris and Gleb, who were later canonized as saints, died at the hands of the assassins sent by him. In 1019 Svyatopolk was overthrown by his brother Yaroslav the Wise.


Russia in the 11th - early 12th centuries
The son of Vladimir, Yaroslav the Wise, published Russkaya Pravda, which was a code of civil and criminal law. The ruling class of Ancient Russia was represented by the boyars (patrimonials who owed personal loyalty to the Rurikovichs) headed by the princes, the bulk of the population were free communal peasants. In pre-Mongol Russia, the institution of conditional land holdings and the institution of serfdom associated with it did not develop. Personal lack of freedom was debt, in addition, it was limited by law (Charter of Vladimir Vsevolodovich). Under Yaroslav the Wise, Ancient Russia reached the pinnacle of its power. The construction of cities (Yaroslavl, Yuryev), temples (Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv and Novgorod) was actively taking place, an active foreign policy was being carried out by concluding dynastic marriages with European rulers (France, Byzantium, Norway, etc.), the threat from the Pechenegs was finally eliminated (1036 ).

In 1054, after the death of Yaroslav the Wise, power passed to the three eldest sons, whose reign was called in historiography the “triumvirate of the Yaroslavichs”, and in 1097, at the Lyubech Congress of Princes, his grandchildren agreed to recognize each other as heirs of the possessions of their fathers to end the strife. The existing order of succession (ladder law), according to which all sons had the right to inherit their father's table, on the one hand, restrained territorial fragmentation, but on the other, made a fairly wide circle of applicants who fiercely fought among themselves. By the beginning of the 12th century, there were significant successes in the fight against the Polovtsy, as well as the reliable beginning of chronicle writing in Russia. The last strengthening of the central power occurs during the reign of Grand Duke Vladimir Monomakh. The death of Mstislav the Great (1132) is considered the turning point of the collapse of the state, after which Polotsk (1132), Novgorod (1136) and other lands came out of the power of Kyiv. However, some researchers do not connect the end of the existence of Kievan Rus with the formation of independent principalities, since the Kyiv land continued to be considered the common possession of the Rurikovichs, at the same time, the condition for owning land in the Kiev region was participation in the struggle against nomads, still led by the Kyiv prince, until the Mongol invasion (1240). In addition, Kyiv continued to be the seat of the Metropolitan of All Russia (until 1300).

Russian lands in the period of fragmentation (1240-1478)
Russian principalities in the XII-XIII centuries
With the collapse of Kievan Rus, about 10 independent principalities were formed, in the future they continued to split up and their number increased. The largest Russian principalities were: Vladimir-Suzdal, Galicia-Volyn, Kiev, Pereyaslav, Polotsk, Ryazan, Smolensk, Turov-Pinsk, Chernigov and the Novgorod feudal republic.

The most powerful of them were: Vladimir-Suzdal, Galicia-Volyn, Smolensk and Chernigov principalities, between which a confrontation unfolded for the throne of Kyiv and dominance in all-Russian affairs. If the Smolensk and Chernigov princes sought to take the reign of Kiev personally, then the Vladimir-Suzdal and Volyn princes - through younger relatives or allies. Kyiv continued to be considered the main city of Russia, but was rapidly losing its importance. During the princely civil strife, in 1169 Kyiv was first defeated by the Suzdal prince Andrei Bogolyubsky. With this event, a number of historians associate the final fall of the role of Kyiv as the all-Russian capital, and the "separation of seniority from place." Subsequently, Kyiv was once again defeated in 1203 by the Smolensk prince Rurik Rostislavich.

In the Vladimir-Suzdal principality, after the war for the inheritance of Andrei Bogolyubsky, a strong princely power was established, based on a new service layer, the prototype of the nobility. It was the Grand Duchy of Vladimir-Suzdal that became the core of the modern Russian state. During the long reign of Vsevolod the Big Nest, the Vladimir principality reached its peak and was the strongest principality of Russia. Pereyaslavl, Ryazan (from the middle of the XIII century and Smolensk) principalities were in the sphere of influence of the Vladimir-Suzdal princes.

In Novgorod, unlike other Russian principalities, a republican system was established, in which the veche, headed by the boyars, appointed posadniks, invited and expelled princes. Novgorod diplomacy made it possible to use the contradictions between the leading princely groups, take the side of one of them and emerge victorious from the struggle, thereby preserving the Novgorod political order, although the Vladimir-Suzdal princes had the opportunity to use the dependence of Novgorod, unable to feed itself due to the harsh climate, from supplies grains from the Suzdal Opole. Novgorod conducted active trade and diplomatic relations with the countries of North-Western Europe, was a member of the Hanseatic League of European Cities.


The Galicia-Volyn principality, which included the lands of the Carpathians and Volhynia, was distinguished by a powerful landed aristocracy. In the war to restore the unity of the principality (1205–1245), the Galician landed aristocracy, as well as the Hungarian and Polish interventionists, were defeated, and the main appanages in Volhynia were also liquidated. In 1253, the Galician prince Daniel Romanovich, in order to oppose the Mongols, entered into an alliance with Catholic Rome and took the title "King of Russia". The reign of Daniil Romanovich was the period of the greatest economic and political strengthening of Southwestern Russia, but later, under his descendants, the Volyn principality fell into decay and was absorbed by Lithuania and Poland.

Internecine struggle was combined with Polovtsian raids from the Black Sea steppes. But if in the middle of the XII century the onslaught was quite great, then after 1185 the Polovtsy appeared in Russia only as allies of one of the opposing princely groups. The Polovtsian nobility was intensively Christianized, and in 1223 they turned to the Russian princes for help against the Mongols (Battle of the Kalka).

Mongol-Tatar invasion (1237-1240)
During the Mongol invasion, Russian troops suffered a number of defeats, many Russian cities were devastated. In 1237-1238 the Mongols defeated the northeastern Russian principalities. The combined forces of the Vladimir and Ryazan principalities were defeated in the battle of Kolomna. Vladimir Prince Yuri II Vsevolodovich could not resist the Mongols and was defeated in the battle on the City River. In 1239-1240, the Mongols defeated the southwestern Russian lands, taking Kyiv in 1240. All Russian lands were under the supreme authority of the Mongol Empire, subordinate to its western wing - the Ulus of Jochi or the Golden Horde. The Horde khans became the supreme arbitrators in disputes over reigns, including Kyiv. After the Mongol invasion, the connection between the northeastern and southwestern Russian principalities began to be lost, which subsequently predetermined their different historical fate. During the second half of the 13th century, the Horde carried out several more invasions in order to consolidate their control over the Russian principalities and achieve tribute payments, the most famous of which was the so-called "Dudenev's army" (1293).

At the same time, in the western direction, the Novgorod prince Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky was able to successfully repel the invasions: the Swedes in 1240, the Germans in 1242 and the Lithuanians in 1245. For his victories, the prince received the nickname Nevsky, and after his death he was canonized as a saint.

In 1252, Alexander became the Grand Duke of Vladimir and Kyiv at the same time. Despite the opposition to Western expansion, Alexander made an alliance with the Horde, effectively establishing the dependence of the Russian principalities on the Mongol-Tatars. At the same time, after the anti-Horde uprising in Russia in 1262, when Tatar tribute collectors (Baskaks) were killed in Vladimir, Suzdal, Rostov, Pereyaslavl, Yaroslavl and other cities, Alexander was able to convince the khan not to send punitive detachments to Russia, and also not to recruit the inhabitants of Russia into the Mongolian army. In 1263, after the death of Alexander Nevsky, the Grand Duchy of Vladimir finally disintegrated into destinies.

Unification of Russian lands around Moscow
The Moscow principality was separated from the Grand Duchy of Vladimir in 1263 according to the will of the Grand Duke of Vladimir Alexander Nevsky to his youngest son Daniil Alexandrovich. Initially, the Moscow principality, after its formation in 1263, included only lands in the middle reaches of the Moscow River. Its capital Moscow was the only city in the principality.

After Daniil Alexandrovich, the Moscow principality was ruled by his descendants. In 1328, Moscow won the fight against Tver for the great reign of Vladimir. Since 1363, the label for the great reign of Vladimir belonged only to the Moscow princes.

In the middle of the XIII century, Mindovg founded the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. By the 1320s, Lithuania extended its power to Western Russian lands. In 1362, Lithuania defeated the Tatars at Blue Waters and annexed southern Russia.

In 1299, after another devastation of southern Russia by the Horde, the Metropolitan of Kyiv moved to Vladimir (in 1354, the transfer of the see was confirmed by Constantinople). Almost immediately after this, the Galician metropolis arose in the south, and then the Lithuanian one, which subsequently existed intermittently. The Metropolitan of Kyiv changed his residence for the second time in 1325, moving to Moscow. Subsequently, the Grand Duchies of Moscow and Lithuania sought to ensure that it was their pretender who occupied the all-Russian metropolis, or at least had its own metropolitan in those periods when the all-Russian metropolis was controlled by a “foreign” applicant.


During the reign of Dmitry Donskoy (1359-1389), the Moscow principality became one of the main centers for the unification of Russian lands, and the Grand Duchy of Vladimir became the hereditary property of the Moscow princes. A series of Lithuanian campaigns against the Moscow principality at the turn of the 1360s and 1370s turned out to be fruitless, and Moscow thereby defended the status of one of the centers of the unification of Russian lands. In the same period, the white-stone Moscow Kremlin was built, earlier than the minting of silver coins began in other principalities, firearms began to be used for the first time.

Dmitry Donskoy won important victories over the Golden Horde: on August 11, 1378, in the battle on the Vozha River, the Russian army won the first major victory over the troops of the Horde. September 8, 1380 - the main forces of the Horde were defeated by Russian troops in the Battle of Kulikovo. The victories of the troops of Dmitry Donskoy are reflected in Russian literary monuments: "The Legend of the Mamaev Battle" and "Zadonshchina". However, after 2 years, the new Khan Tokhtamysh, who united the Horde, attacked and burned Moscow (1382). As a result of a new ruin, Dmitry was forced to resume paying tribute to the Horde and recognized the independence of the Tver principality, and Tokhtamysh recognized the great reign of Vladimir as the hereditary possession of the Moscow princes.

In 1384, an agreement was concluded between Dmitry and Jagiello on the marriage of the latter to Dmitry's daughter and the recognition of Orthodoxy as the state religion of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. However, already in 1385, Jagiello married a Polish princess and converted to Catholicism, concluding the first Polish-Lithuanian union. By the turn of the XIV-XV centuries, all Russian lands, with the exception of those that had gone to Poland, were divided between the Moscow and Lithuanian Grand Duchies, their border passed along the Ugra River. However, Lithuania, under the military and political pressure of the Horde, the Order and Moscow, increasingly resorted to Polish assistance, and Poland's influence in southwestern Russia was steadily growing.

In the first half of the 15th century, the Golden Horde finally disintegrated. In its place were formed: Kazan, Siberian, Crimean and Astrakhan khanates, as well as the Great and Nogai Hordes. At the beginning of the 16th century, the Great Horde, the successor of the Golden Horde, ceased to exist.

In the second quarter of the 15th century, a long struggle for power took place in the Moscow principality, in which the family order of succession to the throne prevailed over the clan. The Moscow metropolis achieved actual independence from the Church of Constantinople (1448), which entered into a union under the conditions of Turkish expansion.


Russian state (1478-1721)

Formation of the Russian state
In 1448, the Grand Duke of Moscow Vasily II proclaimed the independence of the Russian Orthodox Church from the Patriarchate of Constantinople, suspected of heresy and inability to effectively manage the vast Russian metropolis. At that time, St. Euthymius II (Archbishop of Novgorod), along with the entire semi-independent Novgorod Republic, voluntarily recognized themselves in the sphere of influence of the Moscow Metropolitan. In 1450, Moscow troops defeated the Horde on the Bityug River in the depths of the steppes.

After the capture of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, the activities of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople were not restored immediately and not in full. However, in 1470 Novgorod requested a new archbishop not from the Moscow Metropolitan, but from the Patriarch of Constantinople. At the same time, Khan of the Great Horde Akhmat gave a label to Novgorod to the Polish king and Grand Duke of Lithuania Casimir IV. Then the Moscow troops invaded the Novgorod land and in 1471 defeated the Novgorodians on the Shelon River, and in 1478 the Novgorod land was completely annexed to Moscow: Moscow's power extended to the coast of the Arctic Ocean and the Urals. At the same time, Novgorod in 1494 ceased to be a member of the Hanseatic League.

In 1472, the Horde were defeated near Aleksin, with which some historians associate the liberation of the lands subject to Moscow from the supreme power of the Horde. The formation of a single independent Russian state is traditionally associated with the annexation of Novgorod in 1478 and the final liquidation of the Mongol-Tatar yoke in 1480 (Standing on the Ugra). After 180 years of struggle, the Tver principality was captured (1485). After a successful campaign against Kazan in 1487, Ivan III took the title of "king of Bulgaria". These successes attracted the specific Russian princes with their lands from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to the side of the Moscow prince (including those who fled to Lithuania after the defeat in the civil strife of 1425-1453), which caused a series of Russian-Lithuanian wars. As a result of the victory in the war of 1500-1503, the Seversky lands with Bryansk and Chernigov, only about a third of the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, came under the authority of Moscow.

With Ivan III, the distribution of land into a conditional holding (estate), first for life, then hereditary, begins. In 1497, the All-Russian Code of Laws was published, the first systematized code of laws in Russia since the time of the Russkaya Pravda of the 11th century, in particular, limiting the transition of peasants to the autumn St. George's Day. Under Ivan III, the first bodies of central state administration, the Orders, were created in Russia. The great-grandson of Dmitry Donskoy Ivan III Vasilievich married the heiress of the Byzantine emperors Sophia Paleolog, made the double-headed eagle the Grand Duke's seal as a symbol of Russia's succession to the power of the Byzantine Empire (Moscow is the third Rome).

The son of Ivan III, Vasily III, completed the unification of the Russian lands not subordinate to Lithuania, annexing Pskov (1510) and Ryazan (1521) to Moscow. Smolensk was also conquered from Lithuania (1514). The wars with the Kazan Khanate continued.

The reign of Elena Glinskaya, wife of Vasily III and regent of the infant Ivan IV, the first ruler of a unified Russian state after Princess Olga, was marked by the first centralized monetary reform in Russia (1534), as a result of the reform a single currency was introduced: silver money, a unified system of monetary circulation was created ; the Russo-Lithuanian war (1534–1537) was completed and a peace favorable to Russia was concluded.

The era of Ivan IV the Terrible. Realm transformation
In 1547, the Grand Duke of Moscow Ivan IV the Terrible was married to the kingdom and thus became the first Russian tsar. The new title made it possible to take a significantly different position in diplomatic relations with Western Europe. The grand ducal title was translated as "great duke", while the title "king" in the hierarchy was on a par with the title of emperor.

Since 1549, together with the Chosen Rada (A.F. Adashev, Metropolitan Macarius, A.M. Kurbsky, Archpriest Sylvester, and others), Ivan IV carried out a number of reforms aimed at centralizing the state and building public institutions.

In 1549, the first class-representative body, the Zemsky Sobor, was convened. In 1550, a new Sudebnik was adopted. In 1551, the Stoglav Cathedral was held, as a result of which Stoglav was adopted. The first regular army armed with firearms was created - the archery army. In 1555-1556, Ivan IV canceled feeding and adopted the Code of Service.


In the early 1550s, the zemstvo and gubernatorial (started by the government of Elena Glinskaya) reforms were also carried out, which redistributed some of the powers of governors and volosts, including judicial ones, in favor of elected representatives of the black-haired peasantry and nobility.

In 1563, Tsar Ivan IV founded the Moscow Printing Yard, where in 1564 the first Russian book printers, Ivan Fedorov and Peter Mstislavets, printed the first Russian book, The Apostle. The Book of the Big Drawing was compiled - the first known complete set of geographical and ethnographic information about Russia and neighboring states. The Front Chronicle was also created - the largest historical work in the medieval history of Russia, which is a chronicle of events in world and Russian history. Serfdom continued to take shape, from 1581 reserved summers began to be introduced, when the transition of peasants was prohibited even on St. George's Day.

Ivan the Terrible conquered vast territories in the Volga region (in 1552 - the Kazan Khanate, in 1556 - Astrakhan). The Volga becomes completely a Russian river, Russia received access to the Caspian Sea. Bashkirs pass into Russian citizenship, Ufa is based on their lands. Arkhangelsk is founded - a strategic port on the coast of the Arctic Ocean. The conquest of Western Siberia begins (Yermak's Campaign 1581-1585). Russian influence also spread to the North Caucasus (Cossacks, agreements with Kabarda). In honor of the conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan, St. Basil's Cathedral was built in Moscow, which became one of the main symbols of Moscow and all of Russia.

In the western direction, the Moscow troops were also initially successful (the Livonian War). At the initial stage of the war (1558-1561), the Livonian Order was defeated, but its head accepted the patronage of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Then Russia entered the war with the latter, the loss of Polotsk (1563) became especially difficult for Lithuania. Being unable to wage war with Russia alone, Lithuania went to unite with Poland in the Commonwealth, along which all the southern Russian lands went to Poland (1569).

At the same time, among the Moscow nobility, whose significant part were the descendants of former Lithuanian subjects who insisted on continuing the wars in the southern, Turkish direction, discontent was brewing. The sudden death of Tsarina Anastasia, the desire of Ivan the Terrible to absolute his power, and the betrayal of Prince Kurbsky, lead to the liquidation of the Chosen Rada, and the introduction of a system of state terror - the oprichnina (1565). Formed monarchical ideology (tsarism, autocracy). Oprichnina resulted in many years of mass terror, undermined the economy, the faith of the nobility and people in power, and ultimately became one of the causes of the Time of Troubles at the beginning of the 17th century. Severe repressions were practiced against unreliable elements: boyar disgrace, the Novgorod pogrom. However, the burning of Moscow by the Crimean Khan in 1571 demonstrated the weakness of the oprichnina as an instrument of sovereign power and pushed the tsar to abolish it in 1572.

The southern Russian lands during the 16th and 17th centuries were subjected to raids by steppe nomads and Crimean Tatars, who sold captured captives in slave markets. Russia had to defend itself from their raids by building a powerful Zasechnaya line along the southern borders. In 1571, the Crimean Khan Devlet I Gerai burned Moscow with a huge army, and destroyed or captured most of its inhabitants. In the next 1572, the Russian army in the Battle of Molodi (a few dozen kilometers from Moscow), under the leadership of Princes Mikhail Vorotynsky and Dmitry Khvorostinin, destroyed the 120,000-strong Crimean-Turkish army marching on Moscow, which allowed Russia to maintain independence, as well as previously conquered territories in the Volga region.

The unification of Poland and Lithuania into one state made possible their joint counteroffensive actions. Russia barely managed to defend Pskov (1582). The war ended in 1583 with the loss of all previously captured lands by Russia, as well as access to the Baltic Sea. The long-term inconclusive Livonian War, the devastating oprichnina terror, led the state's economy to decline (Poruha).

After the death of Ivan the Terrible, his son Fyodor I Ioannovich ascended the throne, while the country was actually ruled by a regency council, where Boris Godunov, who was the de facto ruler of the Russian state, enjoyed the strongest influence.

In 1589, the Moscow Patriarchate was established, the first Patriarch Job was elected; cities were actively built in new territories in the Volga region, Siberia and the Wild Field: (Samara, Saratov, Tsaritsyn, Voronezh, Tobolsk, etc.), as well as the Smolensk fortress wall, which was considered a "stone necklace of the Russian land", built according to the design of Fyodor Kon.


In order to develop the Wild Field and fight the Crimean-Nogai raids, already under Fedor, the Belgorod line was created, which includes such fortresses as Kursk and Voronezh. In 1591, the Crimean Tatar hordes besieged Moscow for the last time, but were defeated. After the war with Sweden, access to the Baltic Sea was returned. By 1598, Western Siberia was finally conquered.

In 1591, under unclear circumstances (presumably on the orders of Boris Godunov), the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, Tsarevich Dmitry, died. Tsar Fyodor Ioannovich died in 1598, leaving no descendants, and this was the end of the rule of the Rurik dynasty in Russia. After the voluntary refusal of the wife of the deceased Tsar Fedor, Irina Godunova, from the kingdom, Boris Godunov was elected tsar by the Zemsky Sobor in 1598.

Time of Troubles (1598-1613/1618)
The first years of the 17th century were lean, there was an uprising of Cotton, which became a harbinger of the Time of Troubles. There was a rumor that the “innocently killed” Tsarevich Dmitry (son of Ivan the Terrible) miraculously escaped and wants to ascend the throne. The impostor who played his role went down in history under the name of False Dmitry I. His support was the most economically developed southwestern regions of Russia (Severshchina). Victoriously entering Moscow after the death of the brother of the wife of the last Rurikovich Tsar Boris Godunov, False Dmitry in 1605 was married to the kingdom. However, Polish support had an extremely negative impact on his perception by the boyars and the people. The new tsar was declared unreal and overthrown by a boyar group led by Vasily Shuisky, who ascended the throne.

Despite the fact that Vasily Shuisky belonged to the Rurik dynasty (Suzdal branch), he did not enjoy the support of the people. In the south of the state, the Bolotnikov uprising broke out, the participants of which were called "thieves". The uprising was crushed, but a new impostor appeared - False Dmitry II, to whom the rebels joined. To fight the rebellion, Shuisky turned to Sweden for help, in exchange for the cession of part of the territory. The Russian-Swedish army under the command of Mikhail Skopin-Shuisky inflicted a number of defeats on the rebels and the Poles supporting them, freeing the Russian cities and lifting the blockade of Moscow. False Dmitry II fled, and the remnants of the Polish detachments went to the Polish king. Then Poland, previously supporting both False Dmitrys, decided to directly start a war with a weakened Russia. The Poles laid siege to Smolensk, which had been defending for almost two years, delaying the main Polish troops. However, after the sudden death of Skopin-Shuisky in Moscow, the Russian troops were defeated in the Battle of Klushino. Failures led to the overthrow of Vasily Shuisky and the occupation of Moscow by the Poles.

Formally, power belonged to the Seven Boyars, but options for swearing an oath to the Polish king were openly discussed. Sweden changed its position to hostile towards Russia and occupied Novgorod. Patriarch Hermogenes urged all Russian people to fight against foreign invaders and liberate Moscow. Supporters of False Dmitry II took an anti-Polish position (since the Seven Boyars supported the candidacy of the Polish prince Vladislav for the Russian throne). False Dmitry II began the fight against the Poles, but was soon killed by his own people. The campaign of the first people's militia against Moscow ended in failure, but already the second people's militia of Minin and Pozharsky was able to liberate Moscow from the Poles in 1612. This day (November 4) is now celebrated as National Unity Day.

Russia in the 17th century
To combat the consequences of the Troubles, the Zemsky Sobor of 1613 was convened, at which Mikhail Romanov was called to the kingdom - the first of the Romanov dynasty, who through his relative Anastasia Romanova (the first wife of Ivan the Terrible) was the closest relative of the extinct Rurik dynasty. He was also a “profitable king” for the boyars, since the young man, who initially did not want to bear the burden of power, could easily become a toy in the hands of the boyars, who in the end actually ruled. Everything changed after the exchange of prisoners after the Time of Troubles - in June 1619, the father of the young king (the future Patriarch Filaret) returned, with whom Mikhail always consulted in state affairs. Meanwhile, the fight against the rebels from among the Cossacks and the Polish interventionists did not end. In 1614, the rebellious Cossacks were defeated and the ataman Zarutsky was executed along with the son of False Dmitry II, and the wife of both false kings, Marina Mnishek, was imprisoned.

In 1618, the Polish king Vladislav again tried to take Moscow and seize the Russian throne. However, the Poles failed to take Moscow. In this situation, the parties signed the Deulino truce. Russia had to cede Smolensk and Severshchina to Poland, but Russia's independence was preserved. In 1632, Russia began a new war, the purpose of which was to return the lands lost during the Time of Troubles. The Russians were unable to take Smolensk and return the territories, however, following the results of a new peace treaty, the Polish king finally renounced his rights to the Russian throne.


At the same time, in the east, the conquest of Siberia, begun under Ivan the Terrible, continues: the cities of Krasnoyarsk (1628), Yakutsk (1632), Chita (1653), Irkutsk (1661) are founded. In 1639, Russian explorers reach the shores of the Pacific Ocean, and in 1643 Baikal. In 1648, the Cossack Semyon Dezhnev rounded Chukotka by sea and opened the strait, later called the Bering Strait. The development of Siberia was carried out by the forces of the Cossacks, explorers and industrialists. The largest explorers include Erofey Khabarov, Vasily Poyarkov, Vladimir Atlasov. Russian colonization met with little resistance. The local population was forced to pay a fur tax (yasak) in exchange for protecting the Cossacks from the raids of other tribes. The only significant obstacle to the accession of the Far East was China, with which the Nerchinsk Treaty on the delimitation of territories was already concluded in 1689.

The Cathedral Code of 1649 for the first time in the history of Russian legislation establishes the division of norms into branches of law. In addition, they were enshrined in serfdom.

In 1654, the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks of Bogdan Khmelnitsky, who raised an uprising against Poland, swore allegiance to the Russian Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. This act led to another multi-year Russian-Polish war. In the early years, Russian troops successfully occupied a significant part of the Commonwealth, took Smolensk, occupied Kyiv, defeated the army of the Lithuanian principality and took the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Vilna. However, the split among the Ukrainian Cossacks, some of whom went over to the side of Poland, and the counteroffensive of the Polish army led to the loss of part of the previously conquered territories. The Russians were able to hold the territories on the left bank of the Dnieper. In 1667, the Andrusovo truce was signed between the countries. As a result of victory in the war, Kyiv, Smolensk, and Left-bank Ukraine were annexed to Russia.

The church reform of Patriarch Nikon provoked a schism in 1656-1666. Zealots of antiquity go into opposition and are persecuted, and Westernization intensifies in Russia: “regiments of the new order” (reiters) appear, interest in Western culture (theater, portraiture) increases in the upper strata of society.

The devastating war with Poland, the church split and the enslavement of the peasants led to the largest Cossack-peasant uprising of Stepan Razin (1670-1671) in the pre-Petrine era, which engulfed the entire Volga region and the south. The uprising was suppressed by the tsarist troops, its leaders were executed.

During the short reign of Fyodor III Alekseevich, by the decision of the Zemsky Sobor, the system of parochialism was abolished and the distribution of posts in the state apparatus officially ceased to depend on the nobility of the clan, the Bit Books were destroyed, and Genealogical Books were introduced. In 1676-1681, under the leadership of Prince Grigory Romodanovsky, a war was waged in Ukraine against the Ottoman Empire, the Treaty of Bakhchisaray, which was beneficial for Russia, was concluded, according to which Turkey recognized Left-Bank Ukraine and Kyiv for Russia. The end of the 17th century was marked by the emergence of a higher education system: the first higher educational institution in Russia was founded - the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy.

After the death of young Fyodor, the Streltsy revolt was organized, as a result of which Princess Sofya Alekseevna became regent under the juvenile Ivan and Peter, whose reign was marked by the conclusion of an “eternal peace” with Poland (1686) and the Nerchinsk Treaty with China - the first Russian-Chinese treaty; joining the Holy League (1686) in the fight against the Ottoman Empire.

In 1689, Princess Sophia was overthrown by Peter I and imprisoned in a monastery. Peter became the sole ruler (taking into account the incapacity of his brother co-ruler Ivan V, who died in 1696). Peter continued the war with Turkey, and as a result of the Azov campaigns of 1695-96, he took Azov, having received access to the Sea of ​​\u200b\u200bAzov, secured under a peace treaty with Turkey in 1700.


Russian Empire (1721-1917)

Reforms of Peter the Great. Building an empire
In 1697-98, Peter I organized the "Great Embassy" to Europe in order to find allies in a future war against Sweden, and invite foreign specialists to the Russian service, as well as get acquainted with European practices. At this time, a new streltsy uprising broke out in Moscow, the participants of which were dissatisfied with the new order and planned to return Princess Sophia to the throne, but failed.

The Streltsy riots of 1682 and 1698, boyar feuds, as well as temporary failures in the war with the Swedes (Battle of Narva) lead Tsar Peter to the idea of ​​the need for fundamental reforms in order to force the modernization of the country.

Peter creates a modern fleet in Russia, reforms the army, opens educational institutions (Petersburg Academy of Sciences), encourages the development of industry. The Boyar Duma and the patriarchate are abolished, Zemsky Sobors cease to be convened, the country is divided into 8 provinces (1708). After the suppression of the Bulavin uprising, the Don Cossacks lose their autonomy. Since 1700, Russia has been switching to a new calendar, the chronology from the "creation of the world" has been replaced by the chronology from the Nativity of Christ. Instead of the Boyar Duma, the Senate becomes the highest deliberative body under the tsar, and the Holy Synod, managed by a civil official, is created instead of the institution of the patriarch. Instead of Orders, new governing bodies are being created - Collegiums. A structured set of ranks is being created. The Table of Ranks.

The Great Northern War continued until 1721. In 1709, Russian troops defeated the Swedes in the Battle of Poltava, after which there was a turning point in the war. The final victory in the war allows Russia to annex the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea (Estland, Livonia, Ingria). St. Petersburg (1703) was founded on the new lands, where in 1712 the capital of the state was transferred. In 1721, Russia is declared an empire and is among the great European powers.

In general, Peter's reforms were aimed at strengthening the state and familiarizing the elite with European culture while strengthening absolutism. In the course of the reforms, the technical and economic backwardness of Russia from a number of other European states was overcome, access to the Baltic Sea was won, and transformations were carried out in many areas of the life of Russian society. However, the achievements of Peter's rule were achieved through violence against the population, its complete subordination to the will of the monarch, and the eradication of any dissent. Serf-owning methods and repressions led to an overstrain of the people's forces. Petrovsky's Decree on the succession to the throne, designed to prevent the curtailment of reforms, led to a protracted crisis in the supreme power, known as the "era of palace coups."

Russia in the 18th century
After the death of Peter in 1725, an unstable period of “temporary workers” began in Russia, which is characterized by palace coups and “the dominance of foreigners” (Bironovshchina). The actual power in the country belonged to the oligarchic Supreme Privy Council, which relies on the Life Guards. Empress Anna Ioannovna, having come to power in 1730, dissolved the Privy Council. During her reign, Russia actively intervened in European affairs, taking part in the War of the Polish Succession, and together with Austria in the war against Turkey, during which Russian troops captured the Crimea for the first time, defeating the Crimean Khanate.

In 1741, the daughter of Peter I, Elizaveta Petrovna, became empress. Under her rule, Moscow University was opened (1755), imperial residences (the Winter Palace, Tsarskoye Selo) were equipped in the Elizabethan Baroque style, and a moratorium on the death penalty was introduced. During this period, science was widely developed in Russia, primarily due to the activities of Mikhail Lomonosov. In 1756-61, Russia took part in the Seven Years' War against Prussia. Russian troops managed to win a number of victories over the Prussian troops, capture East Prussia and Berlin. However, after the death of Elizabeth in 1761, the new emperor, Peter III, abandoned the conquests and withdrew Russia from the war.

In 1762, as a result of another palace coup that overthrew the extremely unpopular Peter III, Catherine II the Great came to power. The internal transformations carried out by the empress included: strengthening the role of the nobility (Charter on liberties to the nobility), holding the Legislative Commission to systematize the laws of the state, carrying out the provincial reform, as well as the elimination of internal autonomies (the abolition of the Zaporizhzhya Sich, the Kalmyk Khanate). This policy of the empress was in line with the spirit of Enlightened absolutism. During her reign, the largest Cossack-peasant "Pugachev uprising" took place, suppressed by the tsarist troops.


During the reign of Catherine the Russian Empire acquired the status of a great power. As a result of two Russian-Turkish wars victorious for Russia in 1768-1774 and 1787-1791, Crimea and the entire territory of the Northern Black Sea region were annexed to Russia. In 1772-1795, Russia, with the participation of Prussia and Austria, liquidated the Commonwealth through three sections, as a result of which it annexed the territories of the Right-Bank Ukraine, present-day Belarus, Lithuania and Courland. During the reign of Catherine, the Russian colonization of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska began.

During the reign of Catherine, such great statesmen as Grigory Potemkin, Gavriil Derzhavin, Generalissimo Alexander Suvorov, Admiral Fyodor Ushakov and others acted. During this period, Russian classical art flourished, Mikhail Kheraskov wrote the first epic poem in Russian literature - Rossiad.

After the death of Catherine in 1796, her son Paul I was emperor for a short time. Under him, Russia joined the anti-French coalition of European powers fighting revolutionary France. Russian expeditionary forces under the command of Alexander Suvorov defeated the French in northern Italy, however, without receiving support from the Austrians, they overcame the Alps with heavy fighting and returned to Russia.

Russia in the first half of the 19th century. Patriotic War of 1812
The grandson of Catherine II, Alexander I, became the last emperor to come to power as a result of a palace coup. During his reign, the Patriotic War of 1812 falls, during which the French Emperor Napoleon, after the bloody Battle of Borodino, managed to capture Moscow. However, during the counteroffensive, the Russian army under the command of Field Marshal Kutuzov inflicted a series of defeats on the Napoleonic army (Battle on the Berezina) and liberated the territory of Russia. In 1813-1814, Russian troops carried out a foreign campaign and, with the support of the allies, defeated Napoleon in the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig, and in March 1814 entered Paris. Russia became the initiator of the creation of the Holy Alliance (1815) and, following the results of the Vienna Congress, included the central Polish lands together with Warsaw. Also, as a result of successful wars with Sweden (1808-1809), Turkey (1806-1812) and Persia (1804-1813), the power of the Russian emperor extended to Finland (1809), Bessarabia (1812) and Azerbaijan (1813). A long-term war with the Caucasian highlanders began.

Important events of Alexander's reign include the establishment of ministries (1802) and lyceums, one of which Alexander Pushkin studied. The first half of the 19th century becomes the "golden age" of Russian literature. At this time, such great Russian writers and poets as Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol and others write their works. The status of Russia is enhanced by the First Russian circumnavigation of the world under the command of Ivan Kruzenshtern and Yuri Lisyansky (1803-1806), as well as the Antarctic expedition of 1819-1821 under the leadership of Thaddeus Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev, which discovered a new continent, Antarctica: for the first time in history, approached the ice shelves of Antarctica , walked around the mainland, making scientific and cartographic measurements, and also named one of the open lands in honor of the king.

The accession to the throne of Nicholas I (brother of Alexander I) was marked by the Decembrist uprising in December 1825, which proclaimed the ideals of "freedom, equality and fraternity". After the suppression of the uprising, Nicholas moved to a more conservative policy. The suppression of the Decembrist uprising was followed by the suppression of the Polish uprising of 1830 and the suppression of the Hungarian uprising of 1849, which cemented Nikolai's reputation as the "strangler of freedoms" and Russia's cliché "The gendarme of Europe." In the era of Nicholas I, the first railways were built in Russia (the Nikolaev Railway). In 1832, under the leadership of Mikhail Speransky, the Code of Laws of the Russian Empire was created. Russia strengthens its positions in the Caucasus - after the victory over Persia, according to the results of the Turkmanchay Treaty (1828), Russia retained power over Northern Azerbaijan and Eastern Armenia. In 1828-1829 Russia was victorious over Turkey.

In 1853 the Crimean War began. Turkey was again defeated, Admiral Nakhimov destroyed the Turkish fleet in the battle of Sinop. Not wanting to strengthen Russia, England and France entered the war on the side of Turkey; Russia was forced to go on the defensive. The Anglo-French fleet attacked Russia in Kamchatka (Peter and Paul Defense), in the White and Baltic Seas. Allied troops landed in the Crimea and laid siege to Sevastopol. After a year-long siege, the city fell. Russia suffered a painful defeat in the war. The new Russian Emperor Alexander II embarked on major reforms in all spheres of society.


Russia in the second half of the XIX century. Reforms and counter-reforms
The son of Nicholas, Alexander II (the Liberator), went down in history as a moderately liberal tsar-reformer. First of all, he abolished serfdom (1861), restored the autonomy of universities, expanded local self-government - introduced jury trials and zemstvo assemblies, and also reformed the army on the basis of universal military service (1874). In 1862, in Veliky Novgorod, with the participation of the emperor, the Millennium of Russia was celebrated, in honor of which a monument of the same name was erected. The second half of the 19th century becomes the era of the flourishing of culture in Russia. Leo Tolstoy, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Ivan Turgenev and others write their works, which have become classics of world literature. Russian classical music performed by composers Mikhail Glinka, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Pyotr Tchaikovsky and others is gaining recognition.

Under Alexander II, the Caucasus was finally conquered, and after the defeat of Imam Shamil, Chechnya and Dagestan (1859) and Circassia (1864) became part of Russia. In 1863, another Polish uprising was crushed. Russia waged successful wars against Turkey in the Balkans, which led to the liberation of the South Slavic peoples, in particular, in 1878, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and actual Bulgaria received full independence. Under Alexander II, Russia annexed Central Asia (the territory of modern: Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan), sold Alaska. In the era of Alexander II, there is a boom in railway construction. Since the late 1870s, revolutionary terror (organizations "Land and Freedom", "Narodnaya Volya") has become widespread in the country, the tsar himself became a victim (1881).

The son of Alexander II, Alexander III, was called the Peacemaker in the official pre-revolutionary historiography, since during his reign, for the first time in a long time, Russia did not wage major wars. In addition, during the reign of Alexander III, his father's reforms were partially revised. In particular, some results of the peasant, judicial and zemstvo reforms were revised. Administrative and police supervision was also strengthened. This policy, known as the counter-reforms of Alexander III, slowed down the revolutionary movement in Russia, after which terrorist activity began to decline. But at the same time, the counter-reforms only “froze” the accumulated social contradictions in the state. The end of the 19th century was the period of the industrial revolution in Russia, as a result of which there was a significant growth in the class of workers (the proletariat).

Russia at the beginning of the XX century. First Revolution and World War
By the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian Empire occupied an area of ​​21.8 million km², being the second largest state in the world after the British Empire. According to the 1897 census, the population of the country was about 129 million people. By 1914, the population of Russia was 175 million people, having increased by more than 40 million people in less than 20 years, which in particular led to a significant decrease in the land allotments of the peasantry due to the fact that it was the rural population that was the main source of population growth in the country.

In 1894, the last Russian Emperor Nicholas II ascended the throne. Russia continued to expand in the Far East, in 1900 Russian troops occupied Chinese Manchuria and, as part of a coalition of European powers and Japan, captured the capital of China, Beijing. Russia's expansion in the region led to a clash with Japan, which was gaining strength. The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, which was extremely unsuccessful for Russia, followed, during which Russia lost the Port Arthur base and half of Sakhalin.

On January 9, 1905, a bloody dispersal of a workers' demonstration took place in St. Petersburg (Bloody Sunday). As a result of this, unrest and strikes broke out all over the country. Radical organizations of both the left (Socialist-Revolutionaries) and the right (Black Hundreds) perceptibly intensified. The king was forced to go on a series of reforms. On October 17, 1905, a manifesto was published on the improvement of the state order, according to which the State Duma was established. Prime Minister P. A. Stolypin carried out an agrarian reform, which the left parties perceived as a blow to the traditional peasant community, but which at the same time had a significant positive effect. On June 3, 1907, the Third of June coup took place, formally becoming the end of the first revolution.


In 1914, Russia entered World War I on the side of the Entente. The war took on a protracted character. In Eastern Europe, Russia opposed Germany and Austria-Hungary, in the Caucasus, the Ottoman Empire. Initially, the successful offensive of the Russian army in East Prussia ended in defeat near Tannenberg. Nevertheless, on the front against Austria-Hungary, Russian troops managed to win a major victory (the Battle of Galicia) and occupy Galicia. The campaign of 1914 was generally successful for Russia. However, in 1915, a shell shortage set in in the army, and in the summer the German-Austrian troops managed to break through the Russian front. The campaign ended with a serious retreat of the Russian army and the loss of Poland and Lithuania. In 1916, Russian troops again carried out a major successful offensive in the Austro-Hungarian direction (Brusilovsky breakthrough). In the Caucasian direction, the fighting was very successful for Russia, the Turkish troops were defeated in the battle of Erzurum.

By the beginning of 1917, the front line passed through the territory of Russia, a number of territories were lost (Poland, Lithuania), the society expressed open dissatisfaction with failures at the fronts and heavy losses. Inside the country, rumors were fueled about treason in the highest echelons of power and about the negative influence on the tsar by Grigory Rasputin. The war demonstrated the inefficiency of the state apparatus and significantly exacerbated the economic and social problems in the state, becoming a catalyst for a revolutionary situation.


Revolutions of 1917 and civil war (1918-1922)

February Revolution

In 1917, the third year of the war, dissatisfaction grew in society both with the war itself and the need associated with it, and with the tsarist regime as a whole. On March 8 (February 23, old style), on International Women's Day in Petrograd, workers from capital enterprises went on strike. Initially, they demanded bread and an end to the war, but soon the protesters picked up the slogan "Down with the autocracy!" The whole city was in turmoil. Attempts by the city authorities to disperse the protesters were unsuccessful. As early as March 12 (February 27, O.S.), the soldiers sent to suppress the unrest of the workers willingly went over to the side of the rebels.

In conditions of virtual anarchy, on March 2 (15) some of the deputies of the State Duma formed the Provisional Government of Russia (Prime Minister Prince G. E. Lvov), and the tsar was forced to abdicate. At the same time, the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies (Sovdep) began to operate in Petrograd, in which the leading posts were occupied by socialists headed by Chkheidze. A dual power was established in the country. It was assumed that the future of Russia should be decided by the Constituent Assembly. The new government announces an amnesty, abolishes censorship and the "Pale of Settlement", equalizes women's rights with men, frees the Orthodox Church from the chief prosecutor's supervision. At the same time, the Provisional Government was determined to continue fighting Germany "to the bitter end." Disintegration is brewing in the country: Poland was in the zone of German occupation, autonomous state structures were created in Finland and Ukraine (the Senate of Tokoya, the Central Rada).

Against this background, on April 16, the leader of the Bolsheviks, Vladimir Lenin, arrived in Petrograd (Finlyandsky Station) from Switzerland through Germany through the territory of Germany, who assessed the political situation in Russia as favorable for the start of the world proletarian revolution and came up with radical April theses. The Bolsheviks begin to form Red Guard detachments. At the same time, the first demonstrations against the Provisional Government take place.

After the failure of the June offensive at the front, the Bolsheviks declare their readiness to take power into their own hands and initiate unrest in July 1917 under the slogans “Down with the war!”, “Down with the capitalist ministers!”, “All power to the Soviets!”. However, on July 4 (17), Alexander Kerensky, gaining influence in the Provisional Government, disperses anti-government demonstrations, accusing the Bolsheviks of collaborating with German intelligence. 800 Bolsheviks, including Trotsky, find themselves in prisons, and Lenin first hides in a hut in Razliv, and then flees to Finland, which is not controlled by the Provisional Government. Kerensky becomes the head of Russia.

Having suppressed the performance of the left radicals, the revolutionary Provisional Government soon faced a new threat - an attempted military coup by General Kornilov in August 1917. The main purpose of the speech was to restore order and the need for a military dictatorship in the face of growing chaos. First of all, it was supposed to strengthen discipline at the front and introduce the death penalty for desertion. To fight the "Kornilovites" Kerensky turns to his yesterday's enemies, the Bolsheviks, for help. However, it does not come to an armed confrontation. The railroad workers block the movement of the Kornilov trains to Petrograd, and the agitators paralyze the rebels' resolve to take action. Kornilov's speech chokes, and he himself is arrested. On September 1, Kerensky de jure declares Russia a republic, while the Soviets are rapidly becoming Bolsheviks - Trotsky becomes the chairman of the Petrograd Soviet.


October Revolution

On the evening of October 25 (November 7), a blank shot from the Aurora cruiser signaled the start of an uprising. Armed detachments of sailors, workers and soldiers, under the leadership of the Bolshevik Antonov-Ovseenko, stormed the Winter Palace and arrested the Provisional Government at night. Kerensky managed to escape. The goal of the uprising was the destruction of the dual power system and the transfer of all power to the Soviets, which formed the highest body of Soviet power - the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, chaired by Yakov Sverdlov, and the government accountable to him (Sovnarkom), headed by the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin. Kerensky, with the help of the Cossacks, unsuccessfully tried to drive the Bolsheviks out of Petrograd. Simultaneously with the occupation of Petrograd, the Bolsheviks organize an uprising in Moscow, and after a week of fighting they win.

After the victory of the Bolsheviks, Russia was declared a socialist republic. Lenin signed the Decree on Peace and the Decree on Land (the abolition of landlord property and its complete confiscation), as well as other decrees: on the abolition of estates, the separation of church and state, on the transition to the Gregorian calendar. In addition, a reform of Russian spelling was carried out.

In November, elections were held for the All-Russian Constituent Assembly, in which the majority of the seats were won by the Socialist-Revolutionaries. The only meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on January 5 (18), 1918. The meeting confirmed the proclamation of Russia as a republic, but refused to recognize the decrees of Soviet power. The next day it was dispersed by the Bolsheviks.

On March 12, 1918, the Bolsheviks moved the capital from Petrograd to Moscow. In July 1918, the Bolsheviks adopted the first Constitution in the history of Russia.


Civil War

Despite the "triumphant march of Soviet power", opposition to the revolution emerged in a number of regions. The disintegration of Russia began, each new formation began to form its own armed groups. On March 3, 1918, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was concluded, which brought Russia out of the world war. The Bolsheviks recognized the independence of Finland, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Ukraine, pledged not to claim a part of Belarus. In July 1918, in Yekaterinburg, the Bolsheviks shot the former Emperor Nicholas II and members of his family.

Don became one of the centers of the White movement, the main idea of ​​which was "Russia is one, great and indivisible." In Novocherkassk, the Volunteer Army was formed to fight the "Reds". Another center of the anti-Bolshevik movement was the East of Russia, where the uprising of the Czechoslovak Corps took place. In Samara occupied by the Czechoslovaks, a Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly (Komuch) arose, which did not recognize the dispersal of the Constituent Assembly, claimed all-Russian power and formed the People's Army to fight the Bolsheviks. In September 1918, Komuch transferred power to the Provisional All-Russian Government (Ufa Directory). As a result of the military coup on November 18, power in the East of Russia passed to Admiral Kolchak, who became known as the Supreme Ruler of Russia. Kolchak's residence was the Siberian city of Omsk.

On December 24, 1918, Kolchak's army managed to capture Perm, and in the spring of 1919 it came close to the Volga. On May 30, 1919, General Denikin recognized the authority of the Supreme Ruler. Mannerheim offered Kolchak an attack on Petrograd by a 100,000-strong Finnish army in exchange for White recognition of Finland's independence, but Kolchak remained true to the idea of ​​"one and indivisible Russia." However, by November 1919, the Red Army, as a result of a large-scale counteroffensive, defeated the White armies and occupied Omsk, the capital of Kolchak. On this front, the famous commander Vasily Chapaev died in the fall. The White Guard fought back to Irkutsk. The Czechoslovaks, who wanted to quickly return to their homeland, gave Kolchak to the Socialist-Revolutionary Political Center. Power from the Political Center passed to the Bolsheviks, and they shot Kolchak in Irkutsk on February 7, 1920. The resistance to the “reds” in the East of Russia was led by Ataman Semyonov, but in the fall of 1920 he was forced to retreat to the territory of China.

In the south of Russia, after the occupation of the North Caucasus and Donbass by the Whites and the capture of Tsaritsyn (June 30, 1919), Baron Wrangel insisted on holding the Yekaterinoslav-Tsaritsyn line, concentrating 3-4 cavalry corps in the Kharkov region, and establishing interaction in the east with the troops Admiral Kolchak. However, on July 3, 1919, Denikin, while in Tsaritsyn, issued the so-called "Moscow directive", prescribing the offensive of the southern army of whites on Moscow. In August, the white armies of Denikin took Kyiv, in September-October Voronezh and Oryol. Being on the brink of disaster, the Bolsheviks, having negotiated with Poland and achieved a truce with them, removed the Red Army from the western front to the south, while the anarchist army of Makhno, supporting the Reds, raided the rear of the Whites. The campaign against Moscow by the White Army failed. By the beginning of 1920, the Red Army occupied Rostov-on-Don during the counteroffensive. White armies were evacuated from Novorossiysk to the Crimea. Denikin in the South of Russia was replaced by Wrangel. His last stronghold was the Crimea, from where, after the defeat, he was evacuated to Constantinople in November 1920.

After the defeat of Denikin in the south of Russia, in 1920-1921 the Red Army carried out a number of military operations in the Transcaucasus, as a result of which the independent governments of Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia were liquidated. These republics were Sovietized, but part of the territory of the former Russian Empire was occupied by the Turkish army (Kars region). The border between the states was established by the Moscow Treaty of 1921.

In the Western direction, the Bolsheviks in the autumn of 1919 defeated the North-Western Army of General Yudenich, who was trying to take Petrograd. In 1920, the Soviet-Polish war went on with varying success, ending with the defeat of the Red Army near Warsaw and the Riga Peace Treaty of 1921, which divided the territory of Ukraine and Belarus between the two countries. Thus the export of the revolution to Europe failed.

In the north of Russia in 1918 military contingents of interventionists landed in Murmansk and Arkhangelsk in support of the white movement. Until the end of 1919, active hostilities were not conducted on this front. After the interventionists were evacuated, at the beginning of 1920 the Red Army carried out an offensive operation, defeated the White troops and occupied Arkhangelsk and Murmansk.


As a result of the campaigns of the Red Army in 1920, they managed to return Central Asia to their sphere of influence.

The Civil War ended only in 1922 in the Russian Far East. After the defeat of the remnants of Kolchak's army, the Bolsheviks in 1920 created a buffer, formally independent Far Eastern Republic. In 1921, the Red Army defeated the White Army of Ungern in Mongolia, where pro-Soviet power was established. In 1922, the Red Army occupied Khabarovsk during an offensive operation. At the end of 1922, the Japanese interventionists evacuated from Vladivostok, and in October 1922, the Red Army occupied Vladivostok after fighting in Primorye. Only at the beginning of 1923 the last white detachments were defeated in Yakutia. This ended the Civil War in Russia.

Inside the RSFSR, the Bolsheviks had to fight throughout the Civil War against the uprisings of the peasants and their former allies: in 1918, a rebellion of the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries broke out in Central Russia. In 1921, Baltic sailors in Kronstadt also rebelled against the Bolsheviks. The dissatisfaction of the peasants was caused by the policy of war communism pursued by the Bolsheviks, primarily its integral part - the surplus appropriation. In 1920-21, large-scale anti-communist peasant uprisings took place in the Tambov province, as well as in Western Siberia. In 1920-21, the Bolsheviks defeated the anarchist army of Makhno (Makhnovshchina) in Ukraine. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, the Soviet government had to suppress the Basmachi movement in Central Asia.

The civil war and repressions by the Soviet authorities against a number of social strata, predominantly privileged in pre-revolutionary times, led to mass Russian emigration from the country. More than 1.5 million people left Russia, the new government practiced forced deportations of objectionable intellectuals (Philosophical steamboat).


Soviet period (1922-1991)

Interwar period (1922-1939)
After the end of the Civil War, the Bolsheviks were forced to abandon their plans for the immediate implementation of the communist utopia and announce a new economic policy, that is, to introduce a market economy under a one-party dictatorship.

On December 30, 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was formed, which initially included the RSFSR, Ukrainian SSR, BSSR and ZSFSR. In the course of the national-territorial demarcation in the USSR, new union republics were created, the territory of the RSFSR decreased.

Stalin's rise to power (1928)
After Lenin's death in 1924, a struggle for power between his associates began in the CPSU(b). By 1929, virtually all the reins of power were concentrated in his hands by the General Secretary of the Communist Party, Joseph Stalin, and the main contender for the role of leader, Leon Trotsky, lost in the internal party struggle and was sent abroad in 1929, and subsequently killed by an NKVD agent. After Stalin's victory in the internal party struggle, a cult of his personality began to form, and a totalitarian regime was established in the country.

Since 1928, forced industrialization and collectivization began in the USSR (unification of peasants into collective farms for mechanized agriculture). During the years of the First Five-Year Plan, DneproGES, Turksib, metallurgical and machine-building plants were built in the Urals and the Volga region (Uralmash, GAZ and others). In 1935, the Moscow Metro was opened.

There was a shortage of goods for many consumer goods, including foodstuffs. From the end of 1928, a card system was introduced, which was canceled only in 1935. At the same time, the free sale of products in commercial stores at very high prices was maintained. The policy of forcible collectivization and forced confiscation of bread from the countryside led to a massive famine in the USSR in 1932-1933, which led to the death of 7 million people. At the same time, the authorities used the Torgsin chain of stores to replenish the budget by selling food to citizens exclusively for currency and jewelry at inflated prices.

From 1928 until 1953, Stalin launched mass repressions in the USSR, which reached their peak in 1937-1938 (the Great Terror), accompanied by dispossession, deportation of peoples, carrying out "national operations", the expansion of the Gulag system, and the suppression of science (Lysinkovshchina). Stalin destroyed the internal opposition in the party (Moscow Trials), carried out mass repressions in the Red Army (Tukhachevsky Case) and the NKVD. According to researchers, only in 1937-1938, about 700 thousand people were shot.

In 1934 the USSR joined the League of Nations. In 1938-1939, in the Far East, the USSR had a number of border conflicts with Japan (Battles at Khalkhin Gol). In August 1939, the USSR signed a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany (the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact). At the same time, a secret protocol was attached to this treaty, according to which the USSR and Germany divided Eastern Europe.


World War II (1939-1945)

In September 1939, the USSR, after a military campaign against Poland, annexed the eastern lands of Poland. In late 1939 - early 1940, the USSR fought with Finland (Winter War), joining the Karelian Isthmus with the city of Vyborg. In the summer of 1940, the USSR annexed the Baltic States, as well as Northern Bukovina and Bessarabia, taken from Romania.

On June 22, 1941, the troops of the Third Reich and its allies invaded the territory of the USSR without declaring war. The German army, although inferior to the Soviet one in terms of equipment, surpassed it in terms of manpower; being fully mobilized for the start of the war, she was able to achieve a significant advantage in the directions of her main attacks. In the first weeks of the war, the Soviet Western Front perished, surrounded by two of the four German tank groups at the border. The second strategic echelon of the Soviet armies delayed the enemy near Smolensk for 2 months, after which the 3rd and 2nd German tank groups were transferred, respectively, to the Leningrad and Kiev directions. German troops approached Leningrad in early September, but did not storm the city and proceeded to blockade it. Near Kyiv, he was surrounded and the Soviet Southwestern Front was defeated. But the attack on Moscow was thus delayed for another month, and the Germans did not have time to achieve decisive successes before the autumn thaw. On October 20, a state of siege was introduced in Moscow itself. By November, the Germans came close to Moscow, but could not take the city. After receiving intelligence data that Japan would not attack the USSR until the fall of Moscow, military units from the Far East were transferred to Moscow. In December 1941, the Red Army launched a counteroffensive, defeated the German Army Group Center and pushed the Germans back 150-200 km from Moscow. In the south, Soviet troops liberated Rostov-on-Don. The German plan "Barbarossa" failed, the front stabilized. By the beginning of 1942, the forces of the Red Army and the Wehrmacht became almost equal in all respects.

In the spring of 1942, the Red Army suffered a major defeat near Kharkov, after which the German troops broke through the southern front and during the summer of 1942 occupied the Lower and Middle Don, a significant part of the North Caucasus, and already on July 17, 1942 came close to Stalingrad, where the Battle of Stalingrad unfolded. In August-November there were bloody battles in the city. On November 19, 1942, Soviet troops launched a counteroffensive and surrounded the enemy troops. On February 2, 1943, a large group of German troops surrendered in the city area. The liberation of the country began. The final turning point in the war occurred in the summer of 1943 as a result of the Battle of Kursk, the victory in which on August 25 is celebrated as the Day of Russian Military Glory. Soviet troops went on the offensive along the entire length of the front, went to the Dnieper and in November 1943 liberated Kyiv.

During the 1944 campaign, the Red Army inflicted a number of major defeats on the German troops, completely liberating the territory of the USSR and transferring hostilities to the territory of European countries. In June 1944, when some Soviet units had already crossed the Romanian border, the Anglo-American allies opened a second front in Europe. In early 1945, the Red Army defeated the German troops in Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia and by May took Berlin. On May 9, 1945, Germany capitulated. This day is celebrated in Russia as Victory Day. Soviet troops made a decisive contribution to the defeat of Nazi Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Hungary, partly Austria and Norway were liberated from Nazism.

The victory was won at the cost of huge losses: the USSR lost about 27 million people, more than 1000 cities were destroyed.

As a result of the war, part of East Prussia with the city of Königsberg, now the Kaliningrad region, and Transcarpathia were annexed to the USSR. Poland returned Bialystok, Przemysl. In August 1945, the Soviet army defeated the Kwantung Army of Japan, an ally of Germany, in Manchuria. On September 2, 1945, Japan capitulated, and as a result of the war, the USSR returned South Sakhalin, lost in the Russo-Japanese War, and annexed the Kuril Islands.


Post-war USSR (1945-1991)

After the war, a pro-Soviet bloc was formed, which included the states of Eastern Europe controlled by Moscow (Hungary, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany), as well as some Asian and African countries. The USSR became one of the founders of the UN and a permanent member of the UN Security Council.

Due to the drought, the policy of the authorities (export of grain abroad, surplus appropriation with the fulfillment of the plan at any cost), the general military devastation and the weakness of agriculture undermined by collectivization, a famine occurred in the country, the peak of which occurred in 1946-1947. Up to 1.5 million people died as a result of the famine. Millions of citizens suffered dystrophy and other serious diseases.

In 1947, a monetary reform was carried out, which had a confiscation character, which was accompanied by the abolition of ration cards, lower prices in commercial stores and which had little effect on improving the standard of living of citizens. The monetary reform exacerbated the problem of corruption in the USSR among senior party workers. In the future, there were annual reductions in retail prices for consumer goods, which somewhat improved the standard of living of Soviet people. At the same time, the standard of living of the average Soviet citizen remained low, and food was scarce until the death of Stalin in 1953.

Relations between the USSR and the West sharply worsened, which was expressed in the Cold War. An arms race has begun. Under the leadership of Academician Igor Kurchatov, an atomic bomb was created and tested in the USSR (1949), and in 1953 the first hydrogen bomb was tested.


Khrushchev's reign (1953-1964)

After Stalin's death in 1953, Nikita Khrushchev led the party and the country. With it, a period called the Thaw begins. At the 20th Congress of the CPSU, Khrushchev debunks Stalin's personality cult, de-Stalinization takes place in the country. Khrushchev strengthens his position in the party, under him in the 1950s and 1960s economic and economic reforms were carried out. Considerable attention is paid to the development of agriculture, in particular, a program for the development of virgin lands is being adopted, in addition, a housing program is being adopted, a significant amount of affordable housing was built in the USSR, the so-called Khrushchev.

Under Khrushchev, the Soviet space program was developed. Under the leadership of Sergei Korolev, the first artificial Earth satellite was launched in 1957. April 12, 1961 was the first manned flight into space. Yuri Gagarin became the first cosmonaut on Earth. The military consequence of the Soviet space program was the creation of intercontinental ballistic missiles capable of delivering a nuclear charge anywhere on the planet.

In 1956, Soviet troops put down an anti-communist uprising in Hungary. In 1962, the intensity of the Cold War reached its peak during the Cuban Missile Crisis, when the confrontation nearly escalated into a nuclear war between the two superpowers. After the conflict was resolved, the parties pursued a policy of "détente". At the same time, some revision of the Stalinist past led to a cooling of relations with China, which had embarked on the socialist path of development.

In 1964, Khrushchev was removed from all posts and retired. The party and the country were led by Leonid Brezhnev.


Brezhnev's reign (1964-1982)

The Brezhnev era was controversial. On the one hand, a period of political and economic stability began in the USSR, social benefits were provided for the broad masses of the population: a relatively stable standard of living, affordable housing, education, medicine, which made it possible to talk about the achievement of the level of "developed socialism". On the other hand, in the 1970s, especially since the second half of the 1970s, there was a certain stagnation in the development of the USSR economy and a tendency to maintain a deficit. The arms race was a big burden for the Soviet economy, the USSR lagged behind the scientific and technological revolution taking place in Western countries.

In 1965-1970, the Kosygin reform was carried out, the transfer of enterprises and collective farms to self-supporting, the acceleration of the growth of the Soviet economy in the 8th Five-Year Plan (1966-1970). All-Union shock construction projects (BAM, VAZ, KAMAZ, Atommash, the Druzhba oil pipeline) had a wide public response. By the mid-1970s, the USSR had achieved nuclear parity with the United States. In the late 1960s and 1970s, the space race continued. The first manned spacewalk took place in 1965. Soviet scientists explored the surface of the Moon with the help of the first planetary rovers: Lunokhod-1 and Lunokhod-2 (early 1970s). At the same time, attempts to send a man to the moon in the USSR failed, and the Americans were the first to land on the moon. In 1975, the docking in space of the Soviet and American spacecraft (Soyuz-Apollo) took place, which marked the end of the space race. In 1980, the USSR hosted the first Summer Olympic Games in Moscow.

Within the country, the dissident movement intensified, in particular the human rights movement, the beginning of which was the trial of Sinyavsky and Daniel (1965). In foreign policy, the USSR actively intervened in the internal affairs of the states of the Eastern Bloc (“Brezhnev Doctrine”). In 1968, Soviet troops put down an anti-communist uprising in Czechoslovakia. In addition, the USSR actively increased assistance to socialist countries around the world (Vietnam, Angola, Cuba, etc.). In 1979, the Soviet Union became involved in an unsuccessful Afghan war that stretched for 10 years until 1989.

In the first half of the 1980s, 3 elderly general secretaries die one after another: Leonid Brezhnev, Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko.


Perestroika (1985-1991)

By the mid-1980s, the economic situation in the USSR worsened in the country. This was caused by a growing technological lag behind the leading powers, a decrease in economic efficiency in all sectors of the economy, and a shortage of consumer goods (75% of production was made up of heavy industry products and the military-industrial complex). The USSR began to actively borrow money around the world, which was invested in a planned economy inefficiently. Political life was characterized by an increase in abuse of office and corruption. In 1985, the country was headed by Mikhail Gorbachev, who initiated great and profound changes in all spheres of life in Soviet society. At the April 23, 1985 plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Gorbachev announced a program of broad reforms under the slogan of "accelerating the socio-economic development of the country", that is, accelerating progress along the socialist path based on the effective use of the achievements of scientific and technological progress, activating the human factor and changing the order of planning.

In 1985-1986, the bulk of the old cadres of the Brezhnev draft were replaced with a new team of managers. It was then that A. N. Yakovlev, E. K. Ligachev, N. I. Ryzhkov, B. N. Yeltsin, A. I. Lukyanov and other active participants in future events were introduced into the leadership of the country. Nikolai Ryzhkov subsequently expressed the opinion that in case of refusal to start reforms, the situation could become much worse.

The XXVII Congress of the CPSU, held in February-March 1986, changed the program of the party: a course was proclaimed for "improving socialism" (and not "building communism", as before); it was supposed to double the economic potential of the USSR by 2000 and provide each family with a separate apartment.

By the end of 1986 - the beginning of 1987, Gorbachev's team came to the conclusion that the situation in the country could not be changed by administrative measures, and made an attempt to reform the system in the spirit of democratic socialism. This step was facilitated by two blows to the Soviet economy in 1986: a sharp drop in oil prices and the Chernobyl disaster.

In 1987, a course towards democratic socialism, self-support, glasnost, acceleration, perestroika and new thinking was proclaimed. In parallel, the country launched an anti-alcohol campaign and the next stage of the fight against corruption. Factories, enterprises, collective farms and state farms are switching to full cost accounting, self-financing and self-sufficiency. The country is legalizing non-state entrepreneurship in the form of cooperatives and joint ventures, as well as small private entrepreneurship. Socio-political organizations (including those of an extremist orientation) are registered and alternative elections to local Soviets are held. Commodity deficit and interethnic contradictions are aggravated (Armenian-Azerbaijani, Uzbek-Kyrgyz, Georgian-Abkhazian conflicts).

In 1989, the economic crisis worsened in the USSR. Against the backdrop of anti-communist revolutions in Eastern Europe, similar sentiments are spreading in society (Strikes of miners in the USSR in 1989). By 1989, it became clear that the reforms within the framework of socialism had failed, and the first talk began about the transition to a regulated market economy.

In 1989, the first free elections of people's deputies of the USSR took place, and in 1990 - the elections of people's deputies of the RSFSR.


The collapse of the USSR (1988-1991)

In 1990-1991, the economic and social crisis intensified in the USSR, the standard of living of Soviet citizens fell, food and commodity shortages increased, food stamps were introduced for the first time in many years. The republics of the USSR one after another proclaim their sovereignty, sentiments for independence are growing in the republics, interethnic clashes are taking place. In January 1990, in order to prevent the exit of Azerbaijan from the USSR, Soviet troops entered Baku, the fighting in the city led to the death of more than a hundred people. In January 1991, Soviet troops entered the Lithuanian capital Vilnius, where they stormed the television center. However, the central authorities denied their involvement in the introduction of troops into the city.

In March 1990, the Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR elected Gorbachev President of the USSR. In March, the 6th article of the Constitution was abolished, the CPSU was deprived of its leading role in society and the state.

In May 1990, Yeltsin was elected Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR. On June 12, 1990, the first Congress of People's Deputies of the RSFSR adopted the Declaration on State Sovereignty of the RSFSR. In 1990-1991, the years pass against the backdrop of confrontation between the allied and Russian authorities, the war of laws.

In 1991, in February-March, mass actions of disobedience to the allied authorities, miners' strikes took place in the USSR, and mass demonstrations of the democratic opposition took place in Moscow and Leningrad. On March 17, 1991, an All-Union referendum on the preservation of the USSR was held, in which 80% of the citizens included in the voting lists took part. Of these, 76.4% were in favor of preserving the Union. In April 1991, there were mass strikes in the country against price increases. A “budget war” begins, the republics do not transfer the taxes and other contributions they have collected to the union budget. Soviet President Gorbachev and the leaders of the union republics are negotiating in Novo-Ogaryovo to sign a new union treaty. During the referendum in the RSFSR, the post of president was established. On June 12, elections were held and Boris Yeltsin became the first president of Russia.

In August 1991, the conservative wing of the Soviet leadership was preparing to introduce a state of emergency in the country. On August 18, 1991, part of the top leadership of the USSR, the Government of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU organize an emergency committee - the State Emergency Committee and make an attempt to stop the collapse of the USSR, prevent the signing of a union treaty that actually abolished the USSR, introduce a state of emergency in the country. These events were called the "August Putsch".

On August 19, the State Emergency Committee declares a state of emergency in Moscow and a number of other regions, and sends troops into the city. August 19 The President of the RSFSR and the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR strongly resist the GKChP. August 19 - 21 mass protests and demonstrations in Moscow and Leningrad. On August 19, President of the RSFSR Yeltsin, speaking from a tank of the Taman division in front of the House of Soviets, calls the ongoing events a putsch and calls on Muscovites and the population of the country to resist the putschists. In Moscow, around the residence of the leadership of the RSFSR - the White House, thousands of Muscovites take up defense on the barricades, 10 tanks of the Taman division go over to the side of the defenders of the White House, Muscovites persuade the soldiers not to shoot and not to go against the people. During the three-day confrontation, it became clear that the army would not follow the orders of the State Emergency Committee, a split occurred in the troops. Faced with protests and mass resistance of Muscovites, the transition of some military units to the side of the defenders of the White House, the GKChP withdraws military units and tanks on August 21, which was its defeat. On August 22, 1991, members of the State Emergency Committee were arrested, and the leadership of the RSFSR, President Yeltsin and the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR are victorious.

After the defeat of the GKChP, the allied center represented by the President of the USSR Gorbachev began to rapidly lose power. Since the end of August, the dismantling of allied political and state structures began. The members of the GKChP themselves claimed that they acted with the consent of Gorbachev.

At the end of August 1991, the activities of the CPSU were first suspended and then banned. On August 24, 1991, Gorbachev resigned as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU and proposed that the Central Committee dissolve itself. The Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR was dissolved, in September 1991 the Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR and the Supreme Soviet of the USSR were dissolved. Instead of them, temporary inter-republican governing bodies were created, which did not have real power.


After the collapse of the State Emergency Committee, real power on the territory of the RSFSR began to pass to the President of the RSFSR Yeltsin and the Supreme Council of the RSFSR. RSFSR President Yeltsin resubordinates to the Russian leadership the allied army, police and KGB located on the territory of the RSFSR, allied ministries and departments, allied television and radio, banks, post office, telegraph.

In September 1991, almost all the union republics, except for the RSFSR, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, declared their independence. In September-November 1991, attempts were made to stop the political and economic collapse of the USSR, to sign a new union treaty, but they were unsuccessful. In the context of the rapid dismantling of the central government, M. S. Gorbachev relied on the resumption of work on the Union Treaty, but due to the diametrically opposed goals of the negotiators, they ended in nothing. By December 1991, the union structures were either abolished, or passed under the jurisdiction of the RSFSR, or were disorganized.

On December 8, the presidents of Russia, Ukraine and the Chairman of the Supreme Council of Belarus signed the Agreement on the Establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States (Belovezhskaya Agreement), in which the three republics stated "that the USSR as a subject of international law and geopolitical reality ceases to exist."

On December 12, 1991, the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR ratified the Belovezhskaya Agreement and denounced the 1922 union treaty.

On December 21, in Alma-Ata, 8 more former Soviet republics of the USSR joined the CIS. The Alma-Ata Declaration and Protocol on the Formation of the CIS were signed. (The Baltic republics and Georgia avoided participation in the CIS).

On December 24, 1991, the membership of the USSR in the United Nations was terminated - the place of the USSR was taken by the RSFSR (Russian Federation), which also received the rights of a permanent member of the UN Security Council. Having inherited the rights of the USSR in the organization, Russia has been considered its participant since 1945.

December 25, 1991 Soviet President Gorbachev resigned. Over the Kremlin there was a symbolic change of the flag of the USSR to the Russian tricolor. On the same day, the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR adopted a law on changing the name of the republic, which renamed the RSFSR into the Russian Federation (Russia).

On December 26, the Council of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (formed by the Law of the USSR dated 05.09.1991 No. 2392-I, but not provided for by the Constitution of the USSR), from which at that time only representatives of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan were not recalled, adopted a declaration No. 142-N, which stated the cessation of the existence of the USSR.

After the USSR ceased to exist on December 25, 1991, the Russian Federation became an independent state and was recognized by the international community as the successor state of the USSR.


Russian Federation (since 1991)

Russia in the 1990s
Since December 1991, Russia (Russian Federation) exists as an independent state.

In January 1992, radical economic reforms, the transition from socialism to a market economy, began with price liberalization in Russia.

In April 1992, the VI Congress of People's Deputies of the RSFSR refused three times to ratify the Belovezhskaya agreement and exclude from the text of the constitution of the republic the mention of the constitution and laws of the USSR, which later became one of the reasons for the confrontation between the Congress of People's Deputies and President Yeltsin and subsequently led to the dispersal of the Congress in October 1993 of the year. The Constitution of the USSR and the laws of the USSR continued to be mentioned in Articles 4 and 102 of the Constitution until December 25, 1993, when the Constitution of the Russian Federation adopted by popular vote came into force, which did not contain a mention of the Constitution and laws of the USSR.

President Boris Yeltsin and appointed by him and. about. Prime Minister Yegor Gaidar began to carry out radical liberal reforms in the country ("shock therapy") aimed at establishing a market economy. In the course of liberal reforms, prices were liberalized, small-scale privatization was introduced, and freedom of trade was introduced. The state actually stopped regulating the prices of goods. At the same time, freedom of trade was proclaimed, enterprises and citizens were given freedom of economic activity.

A severe crisis began in the country: property stratification into rich and poor increased many times over, a demographic crisis began, the population became impoverished. The redistribution of property was carried out under the flag of the privatization of state property, when a narrow group of people acquired large industrial enterprises (oligarchs) for nothing.

Radical reforms, as a result of which a significant part of the country's population became impoverished, provoked resistance from the Congress of People's Deputies and the Supreme Soviet of Russia, which was headed by Chairman of the Supreme Soviet Ruslan Khasbulatov and Vice President Alexander Rutskoi. In response, on September 21, 1993, Yeltsin adopted a decree dissolving the Congress and Parliament, which was declared unconstitutional and was the basis for Yeltsin's removal from the presidency. The constitutional crisis escalated, resulting in an armed conflict. In September-October 1993, bloody clashes took place between demonstrators, supporters of the Supreme Council and militia and troops loyal to the government. Demonstrators, supporters of the parliament, storm the Moscow City Hall, try to storm the Ostankino television center, after which President Yeltsin gives the order to bring the army into Moscow and suppress the rebellion. On the morning of October 4, tanks shelled the White House, forcing the deputies of the Supreme Soviet and its leaders Khasbulatov, Rutskoy and others to surrender. The Congress of People's Deputies and the Supreme Soviet were dispersed.

Yeltsin initiated a referendum on December 12, 1993, which adopted a new constitution for Russia. The president received broad powers, instead of the Supreme Council, a bicameral parliament was established, consisting of the State Duma and the Federation Council. The highest body of power - the Congress of People's Deputies - was abolished. The events of October-December 1993 finally ended the 76-year Soviet period in the history of Russia.

Against the backdrop of public confrontation, numerous post-Soviet conflicts flared up, one of which was the First Chechen War of 1994-1996. The North Caucasus has long become a region of increased terrorist threat.

Yeltsin was able to win in the second round in the 1996 presidential election. In 1998, Russia joined the international club of the Big Eight (G8). By the end of the 1990s, an economic crisis was brewing again in Russia, which manifested itself in the depreciation of the national currency and the inability of the state to pay debts on loans (1998 default). In 1998-1999, four governments changed in Russia. In August 1999, FSB director Vladimir Putin was appointed prime minister, to whom, after the start of the second Chechen war, on December 31, 1999, Yeltsin transferred full power.


Russia at the beginning of the XXI century

In 2000, Vladimir Putin became the second president of Russia. In the 2000s, a number of socio-economic and political reforms were carried out. At that time, Russia experienced economic growth and an increase in real incomes of the population: Russia's real GDP doubled in 2000-2008, GDP per capita also doubled in 2000-2008, Russia's public debt fell from 92% in 1999 to 7.5% in 2008. There was a strengthening of the "vertical of power" in the country and the establishment of dominance at all levels of power of the United Russia party, which supports the decisions of the president and government. The second Chechen campaign was successfully completed, ending with the reintegration of Chechnya into the Russian Federation.

In May 2008, First Deputy Prime Minister D. A. Medvedev was elected President of Russia, and V. V. Putin, according to an election agreement, took over as Prime Minister. In August 2008, Russia carried out a military operation against Georgia in order to liberate South Ossetia. Since 2008 (since its foundation) Russia has been a member of the G20 (Big Twenty), an international club of the world's largest economies. Since the second half of 2008, a serious economic crisis has been observed in Russia, the active phase of which came to naught by the end of 2009. At the end of 2011, Russia's GDP exceeded the pre-crisis figures of 2008, but the economic growth rates have significantly decreased.

On December 4, 2011, elections to the State Duma were held, as a result of which United Russia won for the third time in a row. The official results of the vote provoked significant protests in the country, and a number of political scientists and journalists noted various falsifications on the voting day. In 2012, according to another pre-election agreement, a “castling” took place, Vladimir Putin again became president, and Dmitry Medvedev took over as chairman of the government, after which the protests acquired an anti-Putin orientation, but they soon subsided.

In February 2014, Sochi hosted the first Winter Olympic Games in Russia. On March 18, 2014, Crimea was annexed to the Russian Federation (Ukraine and the UN General Assembly regard these events as an occupation). This event was preceded by a large-scale social and political crisis (Euromaidan) in the region caused by the change of power in Ukraine. As a result of the annexation of the Crimea, unrecognized by the countries of the West, a so-called anti-Russian war began against Russia. "sanctions war", which includes economic sanctions, as well as the exclusion of Russia from the G8. The ensuing slowdown in the economy, the sharp depreciation of the ruble and the fall in oil prices led to the fact that starting from December 2014, the country was hit by a socio-economic crisis.

Since January 1, 2015, Russia has been a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, which unites a number of CIS countries. Since September 30, 2015, Russia has been conducting a military operation in Syria against the militants of the Islamic State and Syrian opposition groups, which became the first large-scale military operations of post-Soviet Russia outside the former USSR.

In 2018, Vladimir Putin was re-elected for a fourth term. Also in 2018, Russia hosted the FIFA World Cup for the first time.

According to many political scientists, the Russian political system that has developed in the first decades of the 21st century is characterized by: authoritarianism, which is a super-presidential power based on the person of President Vladimir Putin and the cult of his personality (Putinism), statism, imitation democracy. In 2020, after the approval of significant amendments to the Russian Constitution, Vladimir Putin received the right to “zero out” his presidential terms after 2024, thus gaining the de facto right to be elected until 2036.

In February 2022, Russia recognized the independence of the Donetsk and Lugansk People's Republics, and on February 24, the invasion of Russian troops into Ukraine began. In response, a number of countries have imposed harsh economic sanctions against Russia.