Kostroma Oblast, Russia

The Kostroma region is located in the northeastern part of Central Russia.

Along with the Ivanovo region, it is a rather inaccessible region of the central part of Russia, which most people associate with cheese making and a developed jewelry industry. A significant water artery, the Volga River, flows in a short section of the territory along the southwestern edge of the region, and here is the historical city of the Golden Ring - Kostroma, famous for the Ipatiev Monastery and classicism in the building of the city. The rest of the region is that still wilderness with small towns scattered among the forests, each of which, however, has its own peculiarity: the baroque of Nerekhta, the historical heritage of Galich, or, for example, the balneological resort of Soligalich, may be of interest to the traveler. It borders on the Vologda region in the north, in the south - on the Ivanovo and Nizhny Novgorod regions, in the west on the Yaroslavl region, in the east on the Kirov region.



Administratively, the region is divided into 8 cities of regional subordination and 24 districts.

Based on the terrain, the following geographical areas can be distinguished:
Kostroma lowland - in the west
Galich upland and Volga-Unzhenskaya lowland - in the central part of the region
Northern Uvaly - in the northeast of the region



Kostroma is the administrative center of the region and the city of the Golden Ring
Galich is an ancient Russian city, the center of the historical Galich principality
Nerekhta is a county town with well-preserved architecture of the 18th century.
Soligalich - the settlement of Sol-Galitskaya since 1335, churches and monasteries, a balneological resort
Sudislavl is an urban-type settlement, a typical small town with a history of the 19th century
Chukhloma is a small town on the shores of Lake Chukhloma, in the vicinity of the city is the family estate of the Lermontovs and Avraamiyev Gorodetsky Monastery
Sharya is a major railway station on the Trans-Siberian


Other destinations

Krasnoe-on-Volga is a village 35 km south of Kostroma, a major center of jewelry production.

Ipatiev Monastery


Getting here

By train
From Moscow from the Yaroslavl railway station on the branded train No. 148YA "Kostroma", travel time less than 7 hours (night). Or on the Transsib trains following to Sharya, Khabarovsk and Vladivostok.

From St. Petersburg from the Moscow railway station train (trailer cars) St. Petersburg-Kostroma


Physical and geographical characteristics


The Kostroma region is located in the northeast of the European part of Russia. The length from north to south is 260 km, from southwest to northeast - 500 km. It borders in the north - with the Vologda region, in the south - with the Ivanovo and Nizhny Novgorod regions, in the west - with the Yaroslavl region, in the east - with the Kirov region.



The climate is temperate continental with cold winters and warm summers.

The climate of the region is temperate continental. Average January temperatures range from −11.9°С in the southwest (Kostroma, Nerekhta, Volgorechensk, Krasnoe-on-Volga) to −14.0°С in the northeast (Pavino, Bogovarovo, Vokhma); July from +17.0°С in the northwest (Soligalich) to +18.5°С (Ostrovskoye, Kady, Sudislavl); April from +2.0°С to +3.5°С; October from +1.5°С to +3.0°С. The average annual temperature is from +1.5°C in the northeast (Bogovarovo) to +3.0°C in the southwest (Kostroma, Nerekhta, Volgorechensk, Krasnoe-on-Volga). The absolute maximum air temperature is +37°С, the absolute minimum is −53°С (Soligalich). Precipitation: from 530 mm/year in the northeast and north (Bogovarovo, Vokhma, Soligalich) to 600 mm/year in the west (Bui), with a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter. The amount of precipitation prevails over evaporation. Vegetation period - 110-140 days. The total temperatures of the growing season are from 1600°C to 1900°C. The frost-free period lasts from 100 days in the north to 130 days in the south. Snow cover lasts an average of 150-155 days. The average date for the appearance of snow cover is the end of October, the average date for the destruction of the snow cover is mid-April. The maximum thickness of the snow cover reaches 55-80 cm in February-March. The average number of sunny days per year is 124. In summer, the prevailing wind direction is northwest, in winter - southwest. The average wind speed is 4.0 m/s.

The time of the beginning of freeze-up on the rivers is the beginning of November, the opening time is the end of March - the beginning of April. The ice thickness reaches 60 cm by the end of winter. Ice drift lasts 3-6 days.



The region is located within a moraine-hilly, sometimes marshy plain. In the west - the Kostroma lowland, in the central part - the Galich-Chukhloma upland (height up to 292 m). Along the lower reaches of the river. Unzha - Unzhenskaya lowland. In the north is the Northern Uvaly Upland.


Geological structure

The territory of the Kostroma region is located on the northeastern closure of the Moscow syneclise, the axis of which extends in the latitudinal direction through the central part of the region along the Galich-Sharya line.

Archean, Proterozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic formations are known within the region. The thickness of the sedimentary cover reaches 2200–2900 m.

On the eroded surface of pre-Quaternary deposits (Upper Permian, Lower Triassic, Middle and Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous) there is a complex of Quaternary deposits, to which most of the explored deposits of building materials are confined.


Water resources

2632 rivers with a length of up to 10 km, 535 rivers with a length of more than 10 km, 22 rivers with a length of more than 100 km flow through the territory of the region. The most important rivers of the region are the Volga, as well as the rivers Kostroma, Unzha, Vetluga included in its basin. The length of the Volga (section of the Gorky reservoir) in the region is 89 km. The largest lakes of the Kostroma region are Galich and Chukhloma. Water resources of surface water bodies are 50.7 km³.



The central part of the region from its southern border to the head of the river. Unzhi and r. The boundary is represented by clays, marls, silts and sands. In the river valleys (Unzha, Neya, and others) there are outcrops of phosphorites, oil shales, and clays. Dolomites and limestones occur close to the surface only in one very limited area - along the axis of the Soligalichskaya structure, which is a gently sloping, elongated from SW to NE. Deposits of carbonate rocks are confined to these deposits: Bedinskoye, Zayatskoye, Turovskoye. Clays of the Callovian-Kimergian stages are of practical interest for building industrial materials, which can be used in the production of mineral wool and coarse ceramics. Separate varieties of Hauterivian-Barremian clays, the most consistent in quality, suitable for the production of expanded clay. Low-micaceous Aptian sands in the Kostroma and Galich regions are suitable for use in molding production. Covering loams, which are the main raw material for the production of bricks, are of major importance for the building materials industry.


Flora and fauna

The forested area of the region is on average about 62%. The northern and northeastern regions are the richest in forests, where the forest cover reaches 72.5%. The tree species that determine the background of the region's vegetation cover are coniferous spruce and pine. Currently, in the forests of the region, coniferous species occupy 49.5% and deciduous - 50.5% of the forest stand. Of conifers, 27.2% are spruce and 22.3% are pine. Of hardwoods, 41.4% are birch, and 9.1% are aspen and other hardwoods. The flora of the Kostroma region currently contains 1759 plant species. There are also 94 introduced and 46 alien species. The flora of the Kostroma region includes 7 species listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation: 6 species of the orchid family and 1 species of lichen. To date, the number of studied vertebrates in the Kostroma region is 366 species, including mammals - 56, birds - 251, fish - 41, cyclostomes - 1, amphibians - 11, reptiles - 6. The world of insects has about 3 thousand species. On the territory of the Kostroma region, there are 21 species of vertebrates listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation.


Regional symbols

The official heraldic symbols of the Kostroma region are the coat of arms and the flag. The coat of arms was introduced by the Law of the Kostroma Region of April 28, 2006 No. 13-4-ZKO "On the Coat of Arms of the Kostroma Region", the flag - by the Law of the Kostroma Region of April 28, 2006 No. 14-4-ZKO "On the Flag of the Kostroma Region" (decisions were made by the Kostroma Regional Duma April 20, 2006)).

The symbolism of the coat of arms and flag is based on a golden (yellow) ship decorated on the bow with an eagle's head and wings, with seven rowers, with a pennant at the stern, with a sail and a flag with a black double-headed eagle with imperial crowns, a scepter and an orb (state emblem of the Russian Empire the time of Alexander III). The image of the ship basically corresponds to the main element of the coat of arms of the Kostroma province in 1878.



In January 1929, after the liquidation of the provinces, the territory of the former Kostroma province became part of the Ivanovo industrial region. The Kostroma region was formed by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR "On the formation of the Kostroma region as part of the RSFSR" dated August 13, 1944 No. 801/1 (Article 9 as amended by the law dated July 20, 2000 No. 100-WKO) by separation from the Ivanovo region.



The population of the region according to Rosstat is 571,785 people (2023). Population density - 9.50 people / km² (2023). Urban population - 74.6% (2022).

More than 114 nationalities live on the territory of the Kostroma region, the majority are Russians - 96.6%. The working-age population is about 59.8%, younger than able-bodied - 15.7%, older than able-bodied - 24.5% (as of January 1, 2011) The average age of the population is 37.8 years.



The main legislative act, in accordance with which the system of authorities of the region functions, is the Charter of the Kostroma region.

The highest official of the region is the governor (head of administration) of the Kostroma region, who, on the principles of unity of command, forms and heads the administration of the Kostroma region - the highest executive body of the region. In 1990-1996, Valery Petrovich Arbuzov was the head of the regional administration. After the defeat in the elections of the head of the regional administration in December 1996, V.P. Arbuzov headed the Kostroma distillery.

In December 1996 and in December 2000, Viktor Andreevich Shershunov was elected governor (head of administration) twice in a row. In April 2005, President of Russia V.V. Putin proposed his candidacy for a new gubernatorial term. On May 11, 2005, the inauguration took place. Early in the morning on September 20, 2007, V. A. Shershunov died in a car accident in the Moscow region. On October 25, 2007, Slyunyaev Igor Nikolayevich was appointed to the post of governor of the Kostroma region, whose powers were terminated ahead of schedule. On April 13, 2012, Sergey Konstantinovich Sitnikov became the governor.

The legislative body is the Kostroma Regional Duma. It currently consists of 35 deputies. Chairman of the Duma of I and II convocations in 1994-2000. Andrei Ivanovich Bychkov was elected. In 2000, it was headed by Valery Petrovich Izhitsky (KPRF). Following the results of the elections of 2005 and 2010 to the Duma of the IV and V convocations, A. I. Bychkov was again elected its chairman.

On October 10, 2010, the elections of deputies of the Kostroma Regional Duma of the fifth convocation were held, in which 228,325 people took part, which is 40.29% of the number of voters included in the voter lists. All regional lists of regional branches of political parties received more than 7% of the votes of voters who took part in the voting, the regional branches of political parties that nominated them will be represented in the regional Duma.

The largest number of votes in the regional electoral district was received by the Kostroma regional branch of the United Russia party - 113,962 or 49.94% of the number of voters who took part in the vote, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation - 44,776 or 19.62%, " Liberal Democratic Party of Russia" - 33,043 or 14.48%, "Fair Russia" - 28,912 or 12.67%.



The total volume of the gross regional product of the Kostroma region for 2015 amounted to 157.7 billion rubles, according to this indicator, the region ranks 18th in the Central Federal District.

The location of the Kostroma region in the center of the European part of the Russian Federation is a prerequisite for turning the region into a center that provides interregional and international cooperation in a number of aspects: economic, informational, transport, communication, social, cultural and others. The main railway lines (connecting Moscow with Vladivostok), waterways and motorways pass through its territory, connecting the northwestern directions of the Russian Federation.

The Kostroma region belongs to the industrial and agricultural regions. The traditional production orientation of the Kostroma region is forestry and agriculture, electric power and mechanical engineering, and the textile industry.



On the territory of the Kostroma region, there are ready-made sectoral territorial production complexes that have good competitive potential in the All-Russian, and in some areas - on an international scale. These complexes include: a jewelry center in the village. Red-on-Volga and Kostroma; the center of the chemical industry in Bue; machine-building complex in Kostroma, Galich; shipbuilding complex in Kostroma; meat and dairy complexes in the west and south of the region; timber and timber processing complexes in the east of the region. The enterprises of the region are leaders in Russia in the production of oil and gas and lifting equipment, parts of a cylinder-piston group, elements of a microprocessor-based engine control system, shipbuilding products, cotton yarn, linen and semi-linen fabrics, sawn timber, fibreboard (FB) and chipboard (PB), plywood , laminated floor and wall tiles.



As of the beginning of 2021, 4 thermal power plants with a total capacity of 3815.8 MW were operated in the Kostroma Region. In 2020, they produced 10,356 million kWh of electricity. A feature of the region's energy sector is the sharp dominance of one power plant, the Kostromskaya GRES, which accounts for more than 90% of the installed capacity and electricity generation.

The Kostroma region belongs to the energy-surplus territories of the Central Federal District. Electricity consumption for own needs of the Kostroma region is about a quarter of the generated electricity. Today, four thermal power plants operate in the region: Kostromskaya GRES (state district power plant) in Volgorechensk, CHPP-1 and CHPP-2 (thermal power plants) in Kostroma, and Sharyinskaya CHPP.

Kostromskaya GRES is one of the largest thermal power plants not only in Russia, but also in Europe. Here, for the first time in the practice of world power engineering, a unit with a capacity of 1.2 GW was installed. After the state district power plant entered the design mode of operation, the total capacity of the regional power plant increased almost five times and now stands at about 4 GW. Kostromskaya GRES is considered the most economical, as more energy is generated per unit of fuel consumption than at similar plants.

The total capacity of all power plants in the region is such that it allows not only to meet its own needs, but also to supply electricity to neighboring regions: receiving 14% of electricity from outside, the Kostroma region supplies 80% to other regions.

In 1979, the construction of the Kostroma NPP began in the Buysky district. The project provided for the construction of two reactors, their type changed several times. The first stage of the settlement of builders and operators of Chistye Bory and a number of infrastructure facilities were built 16 km south of the town of Buya. After the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, construction was suspended, and in the early 1990s it was completely frozen. In October 2008, the state corporation Rosatom decided to resume construction on the basis of the unfinished Kostroma NPP, but in 2011 the project was postponed indefinitely.



A fundamental step in the development of the region is its transformation into a major transit junction of highways. Work in market conditions, instability of financing, restructuring of the industry have become a serious test for the Kostroma road builders. But, despite all the difficulties of the transition period, the road complex of the region, the able-bodied, active team of road workers were preserved, which gave positive results. The construction of a transport corridor of inter-regional significance "St. Petersburg - Yekaterinburg" continues, with the commissioning of which access to St. Petersburg and Western European transport communications will be provided.

The narrow-gauge railway of the Belnikovsky peat enterprise is located in the village of Nomzha, Neisky district.

Gasification of the Kostroma region is of global importance in the development of the region and is of the most important social and industrial nature. The main task at the present stage is the construction of the Bui-Sharya gas pipeline.



As of January 1, 2021, the rural population is 169,360 people, about 27% of the population of the Kostroma region.

The agro-industrial complex of the region is concentrated mainly in the south-west of the region. The traditional leaders of the region — the Kostroma and Galich regions — account for about 60% of the total volume of agricultural products sold. Climatic and natural-geographical conditions contribute to the development of traditional branches of agriculture, primarily meat and dairy farming, crop production of technical and industrial crops.

animal husbandry
The Kostroma breed is the first Soviet breed of cattle, which was approved in 1944 by order No. 1121 of the People's Commissariat for Agriculture of the USSR.

In the USSR, six workers of the tribal state farm "Karavaevo" in the Kostroma region were twice awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor.

As of November 1, 2021, the average milk productivity in agricultural organizations is 5177 kg of milk per cow. In just ten months of 2021, agricultural organizations and peasant (farm) enterprises produced 79 thousand tons of milk, of which 50.5% were produced by 10 agricultural producers.

As of January 1, 2021, there were 47.8 thousand (-4.6%) heads of cattle in farms of all categories, of which 21.5 thousand (-0.5%) heads of cows, 35.1 thousand ( +7.1%) pigs, 11.9 thousand (-10.6%) sheep and goats, 0.3 thousand (-5.2%) horses.

Crop production
In 2021, the yields of domestic and foreign potato varieties were compared in the Kostroma Region — 34 varieties of foreign selection and 50 varieties of domestic potato selection were planted.

In 2021, the gross harvest of grain and leguminous crops amounted to 43.5 thousand tons of grain in bunker weight, with a yield of 14.9 q/ha. The highest yields are in Kostroma - 29.7 c/ha, Galich - 18.2 c / ha, Buysky - 15.3 c / ha, Nerekhtsky district - 13 c / ha. 37.3 thousand hectares of grain crops and leguminous crops were harvested, of which 7.6 thousand hectares were harvested for fodder purposes, and 29.1 thousand hectares were harvested for grain.

In 2021, 31.9 thousand tons of potatoes were harvested in agricultural organizations from an area of ​​1400 hectares. Potatoes are grown in 12 districts. Leaders in the collection of farms in the Kostroma region: Mechta LLC harvested 9.9 thousand tons from 290 hectares; LLC "Kostroma potato" harvested 3.7 thousand tons from 120 hectares; LLC "Minskoye" with 83 hectares 2.5 thousand tons. The leaders in potato yield are the farms of the Kostroma region with an average yield of 256.2 centners per hectare, Krasnoselsky region 209 centners per hectare and Nerekhtsky region 175.1 centners per hectare.

In 2021, 8.2 thousand tons of vegetables were harvested in agricultural organizations from an area of 368 hectares, of which: cabbage - 3.7 thousand tons; carrots - 2.4 thousand tons; beets - 2.0 thousand tons; others - 0.2 thousand tons. The average yield is 223.8 q/ha. High yields in Mechta LLC - 333.3 centners per hectare (Kostroma district), Ershova Yu. S. Farm Farm - 200 centners per hectare (Nerekhtsky District), CJSC Borovikovskoe Uchkhoz - 200 centners per hectare, IP Nikolaeva L. V. - 200 c / ha and IP Yakovlev D. E. - 162 c / ha (Krasnoselsky district). The leader in terms of volume is the Kostroma region with 5.8 thousand tons, in the Krasnoselsky region with 1.2 thousand tons, the Buysky region with 0.8 thousand tons and the Nerekhtsky region with 0.4 thousand tons.

In 2021, 83 tons of berries were harvested: cranberries, honeysuckle, raspberries, strawberries and blueberries, which is 104% of the 2020 level. The main producers of berry products are Krem LLC, IP K(F)X Tsareva D.A., IP K(F)X Rakhimov N.M. and IP K(F)X Voronov M.A., who are representatives of Kostroma, Sudislavsky and Buysky districts. LLC "Krem" in the Kostroma region collected more than 25 tons of cranberries. In Buysky district, 46.7 tons of garden strawberries were harvested from an area of 10.8 hectares - the farmer received a grant for the development of a family farm and bought machinery and equipment for tillage. A businessman from the Kostroma district, using state support from Agrostartup, equipped a greenhouse for growing strawberries on his farm. In addition, at the initiative of the governor, those producing fruits and berries are subsidized by planting perennial plantations, the cost of technical modernization, the construction of storage facilities and the introduction of land into circulation. It is thanks to such support that a farmer in the Sudislavsky district grows honeysuckle on an area of 12.5 hectares, another hectare is occupied by raspberries. In 2022, the farmer plans to harvest 37.5 centners and 4 centners of berries, respectively.

Sown areas of the main agricultural crops for the 2020 harvest: Forage crops 134.0 thousand ha, cereals 39.5 thousand ha, potatoes 5.0 thousand ha, industrial crops 2.0 thousand ha.

The gross harvest of grain and leguminous crops in 2020 amounted to 47.6 thousand tons of grain, of which 14.2 thousand tons of wheat, 10.9 thousand tons of barley. The average yield was 16.6 q/ha.



Currently, OAO Gazprom is implementing a gasification program in the region, which is designed until 2028, the total amount of the program from all sources will exceed $177 billion. Natural gas enters the region through gas pipelines: Gorky - Cherepovets, Gryazovets - the ring gas pipeline of the Moscow region. Now the cities of Kostroma, Nerekhta, Volgorechensk, Buy, Galich, as well as Kostroma, Nerekhtsky, Buysky, Krasnoselsky, Susaninsky, Galichsky and Sudislavsky municipal districts are provided with natural gas.


Timber industry complex

One of the leading and promising in the economy of the Kostroma region is the timber industry.

The forest area of the Kostroma region is 4.7 million hectares. of which 4.6 million hectares are on forest fund lands. the forest cover of the region is 74.2%. The total timber stock is 726 million m³. The State Forest Register as of January 1, 2012 provides the following data for the Kostroma Region: total forests - 4632.4 thousand hectares, of which 4397.0 thousand hectares are covered with forest vegetation. Protective forests - 638.8 thousand hectares. Operational forests - 3993.6 thousand hectares. The average stock of plantations per 1 hectare of forested land is 163 m³, including 169 m³ in coniferous lands, 158 m³ in softwoods.

The strategic direction of development of the region's forestry complex is the development of capacities for deep processing of wood in order to use low-grade and hardwood, as well as secondary wood raw materials (wood waste).

In the general structure of the industrial production of the region, the products of the complex take the second place after the electric power industry. The increase in efficiency in this sector is due to the implementation, in fact, of a cluster approach to the development of woodworking (Sharyinsky and Manturovsky districts of the region), including the development of softwood pulping, MDF and OSB boards, intensification of the use and reproduction of forests, road construction, including logging.

The timber industry group of goods forms about 70% of the region's exported products. The region has long since moved from the export of roundwood to the export of processed wood and finished products from it. Currently, high-quality plywood, chipboard and fiberboard boards, furniture and furniture blanks, and veneer are exported. Products of regional enterprises are mainly exported to non-CIS countries.

In order to develop production, the enterprises of the timber industry complex continue to work on the implementation of investment projects, on expanding the range of products.


Foreign economic activity

Dynamically developing, the Kostroma region uses every opportunity to establish and improve mutually beneficial relations with other regions of the country and foreign partners. In 2011, foreign trade turnover amounted to $595.6 million, 21.2% more than in the same period last year), including exports - $208.9 million (by 15.2%), imports - $386.7 million (by 24.7%). The trade balance was negative - $177.8 million.

In the current year, there has been a decrease in foreign trade turnover. In January-June 2012, it amounted to $257.4 million, which is 7% lower than the corresponding period last year, including exports - $98.1 million (a decrease of 6.1%), imports - $159.3 million (decrease by 7.5%). The trade balance was negative - $61.2 million.

The foreign economic activity of enterprises and organizations of the region is carried out with 66 countries, including 9 countries of the CIS and 57 countries of the far abroad. The main partners of the Kostroma region are: the Netherlands, Kazakhstan, Ireland, China, Germany, Ukraine, Italy, Uzbekistan, Czech Republic, Latvia, Turkey, USA, Poland, Great Britain, France, Egypt.

The basis of the export of the region is the timber group of goods, more than 70%. The largest exporters are OJSC Fanplit, OJSC Manturovsky Plywood Mill, OJSC Kronostar. In the structure of exports, metals and metal products account for 8.9%, linen fabrics - 1.8%, curtains - 2.2%.

The structure of imports is dominated by medicines (more than 50%), machinery and equipment (about 30%). The largest participants in foreign economic activity in import operations are CJSC Astellas Pharma, CJSC Kostroma Automotive Components Plant, CJSC Mezhregiontorginvest.


Social sphere


Most of the institutions of higher and secondary vocational education are located in the city of Kostroma: three state civilian universities, a military academy, a theological seminary, branches and representative offices of state and non-state universities, 8 secondary vocational schools. In the district centers there are: an agricultural technical school and an art school in Bui, an agricultural technical school, an industrial college, a pedagogical college in Galich, a polytechnical technical school and a medical school in the city of Nerekhta, an agricultural technical school, a medical college, a pedagogical college, a polytechnical technical school in Sharya, as well as institutions primary vocational education (lyceums and colleges).

Since April 1, 2010, the Kostroma Region has been participating in an experiment in teaching the course "Fundamentals of Religious Cultures and Secular Ethics" (includes "Fundamentals of Orthodox Culture", "Fundamentals of Islamic Culture", "Fundamentals of Buddhist Culture", "Fundamentals of Jewish Culture", "Fundamentals of World Religious Cultures”, and “Fundamentals of Secular Ethics”). Every year since 2009, the youth educational forum “Patriot” has been held. In the summer, the tent camp spreads on the banks of the Volga, 40 km from Kostroma, winter shifts are held at the Lunyovo recreation center.


Standards of living

In 2011, the real cash income of the region's population increased by 2.7% compared to 2010. Monetary income per capita amounted to 14628.9 rubles, exceeding the level of 2010 by 12.2%.

In January-June 2012, real cash incomes of the population of the region increased by 9.5% compared to the same period last year. Monetary income per capita amounted to 15,183 rubles, which is 13.8% higher than the corresponding period in 2011.

Thanks to the decisions taken to increase wages for public sector employees, to activate the real sector of the economy, the nominal accrued average monthly wage in 2011 in the Kostroma Region increased by 10.1% compared to 2010 and amounted to 14,890.5 rubles, in January - May 2012 - by 14.1% compared to the corresponding period last year and amounted to 16,143.1 rubles.

The number of registered unemployed citizens as of January 1, 2012 is 4,012 people, the registered unemployment rate is 1.1%, the coefficient of tension in the labor market of the region is 1.0 people per one vacancy declared in the employment service.

During January-June 2012, the number of registered unemployed citizens decreased by 254 people and as of July 1, 2012 amounted to 3758 people. The level of registered unemployment was 1.03%. As of July 1, 2012, the coefficient of tension in the labor market of the region amounted to 0.5 people per one vacancy declared in the employment service, which is 0.5 percentage points less than at the beginning of the year.



Medical assistance to the population of the Kostroma region is provided by a network of health care institutions of three levels: district, interdistrict and regional.

Since January 1, 2012, 5 medical districts have been created in the region to provide medical care to the population at the inter-district (specialized inter-municipal) level. The structure of the network includes 67 healthcare institutions, including 2 institutions of federal subordination (FGUZ "Kostroma psychiatric hospital of a special type with intensive supervision of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation", FGUZ "Disinfection station in Kostroma").

The existing system of medical care in the Kostroma region includes 4 stages:
the 1st stage is pre-medical - 330 FAPs and FPs are provided, which are deployed in 24 municipalities;
2nd stage - primary medical outpatient care provided by 83 outpatient departments of health care institutions;
Stage 3 - primary inpatient medical care is provided by 33 hospital medical institutions (of which: district - 5, city - 3, district - 19, district hospitals - 5, maternity hospital - 1);
Stage 4 - specialized medical care is provided by 25 regional state health care institutions.
According to the results of 2011, there are 15 offices of general practitioners in the region. To provide emergency and urgent medical care to the population, there is an ambulance station in the city of Kostroma and 23 departments of district and city hospitals. Sanitary aviation medical care is provided by the air ambulance department of the OGBUZ "Kostroma Regional Hospital". Since 2010, medical examinations have been carried out for orphans and children in difficult life situations in stationary conditions. There are 3 Health Centers in the region, one of them is for children.


Social protection of the population, guardianship and guardianship

A system of social protection of the population, guardianship and guardianship has been formed in the region. It includes: the department of social protection of the population, guardianship and guardianship of the Kostroma region, 9 territorial bodies, 26 comprehensive centers for social services for the population, 15 social rehabilitation centers for minors, 7 orphanages, 2 out-of-town health centers for recreation and rehabilitation of children, 12 houses - boarding schools, the regional rehabilitation center for children and adolescents with disabilities "Forest Fairy Tale", the Romanovsky Rehabilitation Center for the Disabled in the Kostroma Region, the Kostroma Regional Center for Assistance to Families and Children of the OGKU "Center for Social Payments". In the total volume of expenditures of the regional budget for 2012, expenditures on social protection will amount to 18.3%.



The measures taken to stimulate the birth rate, prevent and treat diseases, improve the system of health care, motherhood and childhood, strengthen the material and technical base of the region's medical institutions contribute to slowing down the rate of natural decline in the population of the Kostroma region. The Kostroma Region maintains a leading position in the Central Federal District in terms of fertility. In 2011, the birth rate was 12.3 births per 1,000 population (January-May 2012 - 12.4), the death rate was 16.6 ppm (January-May 2012 - 16.7).