Location: Kostroma Oblast



Hotels, motels and where to sleep

Restaurant, taverns and where to eat

Description of Kostroma

Kostroma (Кострома) is the administrative center of the Kostroma region. The ancient historical Russian city is located on the banks of the Volga, 80 km downstream from neighboring Yaroslavl. Unlike the latter, the transport accessibility of Kostroma is worse, so the main flow of tourists flocks to the city in the summer on cruise ships. A short sightseeing tour will give you an idea of the city, but it will hardly allow you to understand Kostroma. It is better to come here specifically for at least a couple of days for leisurely walks around the city.

Kostroma is a city in the European part of Russia, the administrative center of the Kostroma region, a major river port. Located at the intersection of the Volga and Kostroma rivers. Founded in 1152 by Yuri Dolgoruky and has the official status of "historical". Included in the Golden Ring of Russia. It is famous for its textile and jewelry industry, and is also considered the cheese capital of Russia.

The city of Kostroma is designated as the birthplace of the New Year's character Snegurochka.


Travel Destinations

Kostroma is rich in attractions. In the city of the Golden Ring, which is the most remote from Moscow, as well as Central Russia, the historical buildings of the central part of the city have been well preserved. As a trading city, Kostroma is not very rich in temple architecture, although the Ipatiev Monastery, or the Church of the Savior in Ryady, is a must-see in the itinerary for travelers, which is hard to miss. It is also interesting to study the ensemble of civil architecture, concentrated mainly around Susaninskaya Square, and on the outgoing streets.


Ipatievskaya Sloboda

Ipatiev Monastery. Considered the cradle of the Romanov dynasty, in 1613 Mikhail Romanov was crowned king in the Trinity Cathedral. The monastery was first mentioned in chronicles in 1432, but it was probably founded much earlier. The monastery was visited by all Presidents of the Russian Federation during their term of office.

Trinity Cathedral. Trinity Cathedral Church (1650-1652), part of the architectural ensemble of the Ipatiev Monastery.
Church of St. John the Evangelist in Ipatievskaya Sloboda.
Kostroma settlement, museum - reserve. One of the oldest ethnographic museums, a landscape museum-reserve. In it you can see the wooden architecture of the 16th-19th centuries. Along the picturesque river Igumenka, there are residential peasant houses and many outbuildings: mills, barns, baths - in total about 30 monuments of wooden architecture of the Kostroma Territory and neighboring Nizhny Novgorod and Vologda regions. Thematic expositions are open inside most of the buildings. The objects located on the territory of the museum-reserve are always in demand by filmmakers: film crews often work on the territory of the museum-reserve, shooting both feature films and popular science films.



Obelisks of the Moscow outpost.
Ostrovsky Arbour (Беседка Островского). On the banks of the Volga, near the river station in 1956, Ostrovsky's gazebo was built. It stands high above the river, on an embankment that has been preserved from the ramparts of the ancient Kostroma Kremlin. The arbor in its architectural forms resembles old garden and park arbors in Russian estates. The gazebo has seven columns. Today, the gazebo is one of the main attractions of the city. Kostroma residents love to visit here and bring their friends and guests to this place. And not only because this place is associated with the name of Ostrovsky, but also because the view from here is unusually beautiful.
Old pier. A few years ago, the legendary landing stage turned into one of the main attractions of the city on the Volga. It is located precisely on the Volga coast, near the Moscow outpost. Tourists from all over Russia get acquainted with Kostroma thanks to the "Staraya Pier". Here, down to the smallest detail, everything reminds of the glorious merchant city and Ostrovsky's "Dowry".
Berth. Motor ship pier, one of the places of attraction and the water gates of the city. During the hours and days of the arrival of the ship, the place at the pier is seething with trade.
Susaninskaya area
Fire Observation Watchtower. An outstanding architectural monument of the Classicism era, one of the sights of the city, the main decoration of the central Susaninskaya Square.
Trading lines. Petty, Kvass, Red, Tobacco.... a trade and warehouse complex of the late 18th-early 19th centuries, which occupies several blocks from Susaninskaya Square to the former Kremlin in the very center of Kostroma. This is an exemplary monument of urban planning art of the time of Catherine's urban reform.
Present places.
Borshov's house. An architectural monument of the Classicism era, one of the largest estates in the city of the first quarter of the 19th century, which has an exceptionally important town-planning significance in the development of the center. Architect N. I. Metlin. The building is part of the civil architecture ensemble of Susaninskaya Square along with the Fire Tower and Guardhouse.
Guardhouse (Kostroma State Historical, Architectural and Art Museum-Reserve).
Church of the Savior in Ryady (XVIII century).
Monument to Ivan Susanin.
Monument to the dog.
Monument to Yuri Dolgoruky. The monument to the founder of Kostroma, Yuri Dolgoruky, was erected in the early 2000s on Sovetskaya Street, opposite house 3. Its night illumination will come in handy if you want to take a picture at the monument.
Lenin monument. It is located on a monumental pedestal from the monument in honor of the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty, and the unnaturally long right arm may have been taken from another sculpture.


Out of center

Church of the Resurrection on Debre. The temple complex, consisting of the summer Resurrection Church, the winter Znamenskaya Church with a tiered bell tower and a fence with holy gates, restored at the beginning of the 21st century, connected by a covered passage to the western porch of the Resurrection Church. The main pearl of the complex - the Church of the Resurrection on Debre - was built in 1651 at the expense of the merchant guest K.G. Isakov, and its Three Saints chapel was consecrated even before the main temple. Before the revolution, the church went through several major reconstructions, and acquired its current appearance during the scientific restoration of 1969. A significant part of the interior of the church has changed little since the middle of the 17th century. The main volume has preserved perspective portals and fairly sooty murals, and in the Trekhsvyatitelsky aisle one can see well-preserved murals, carved royal doors, and a magnificent table iconostasis.


Right bank

Epiphany Monastery.
Epiphany Cathedral.
Church of John Chrysostom.
Temple of Alexander and Antonina in Selishche, st. Verkhnee-Selishchinskaya, 35a.



Monument in honor of the founding of the city of Kostroma.
Monument of Glory in honor of the Kostroma veterans of the Second World War.

Civil architecture
Old station. The wooden station of the old dead-end station Kostroma, located on the right bank. The station is now a freight station, the building is used for housing



Theophany Convent, Bogoyavlensky Convent, Epiphany- Anastasia Monastery (Богоявленско- Анастасиин Монастырь)


What to do

Museum Kostroma Sloboda, st. Enlightenment, 1b (next to the Ipatiev Monastery). ✉ 100 RUB Museum of Wooden Architecture
Kostroma Art Museum, Mira Ave., 7.
Museum of flax and birch bark, st. Valentina Tereshkova, 38.
Terem Snegurochka, st. Camp, 38.
Residence of the Snow Maiden, st. Simanovsky, 11. ☎ +7(4942)45-30-61. 11:00 - 18:00 (Wed.-Sun.). 150 r., 200 r. In her residence, the Russian Snegurochka conducts excursions to the Room of Miracles, interactive programs and master classes all year round. In addition, there is a Post Office where you can order a letter for the New Year, Birthday and any other holiday.
Cheese Museum.
Jewelery Museum.
Museum of theatrical costume, st. Simanovsky, d.8.
Romanov Museum (Романовский Музей)

Kostroma State Drama Theater named after A. N. Ostrovsky.
Kostroma Regional Puppet Theatre.
Kostroma Chamber Drama Theatre.
Kostroma Folk Theater "Polynomial".

Park Berendeevka. Park "Berendeevka" - a place of rest for Kostroma residents and guests of the city. Huge area for an active and relaxed family holiday.



Getting in

By plane
Three times a week, the Kostroma Aviation Enterprise flies to St. Petersburg on an An-26 turboprop. There are also flights to Anapa in summer. The airports of Yaroslavl and Ivanovo are relatively close, but they are only slightly more active than Kostroma.

Kostroma Airport (Sokerkino) (IATA: KMW) (7 km northeast of the center of Kostroma, near the highway to Bui).

By train
Daily from Moscow from the Yaroslavsky railway station on the branded train No. 148YA "Kostroma", travel time less than 7 hours (night) and from St. Petersburg on the train "St. evening night). You can also get on the trains of the Trans-Siberian Railway, following to Sharya, Khabarovsk and Vladivostok.

Another option is to get through Yaroslavl and then by bus or train.


By car
Routes pass through Kostroma:
A113 Ivanovo - Kostroma (via Furmanov, Privolzhsk, Volgorechensk);
P98 Kostroma - Verkhnespasskoe (via Makaryev, Sharya, Manturovo, Vokhma);
P99 Kostroma - Bui;
M8 Moscow - Severodvinsk: entrance to Kostroma from Yaroslavl.

When driving from Moscow on the federal highway M8 in front of Yaroslavl exit to the right (easy to miss) onto Kostroma highway, which is also part of the M8, then 70 km. The Kostroma highway is mainly two-lane, with separate four-lane segments, the quality of the roadway is good.

Kostroma does not have a bypass road, so all transit traffic goes through the city, including the only bridge across the Volga. In the city itself there are broken roads, motorists should be careful. Parking lots, even in the city center, are chaotic, without the traditional atrocities of newfangled traffic organizers.

By bus
The Kostroma bus station regularly operates interregional (to major cities in nearby regions), intercity (in the region) and suburban flights.

On the ship
Kostroma has a river port, but regular passenger traffic is limited: local transportation is carried out by motor ship of the Moskva type, in the summer the port receives cruise ships.


Get around

Bus #13 shuttles between the main square (Susaninskaya ploshchad) and Hypatiev Monastery. Trolleybus #2 runs between the main square and the train station. Public transport should cost you about 10 RUR per ride (as for 2010).



The city gave its name to the famous Kostroma cheese. Kostroma is often called the cheese capital of Russia. For the sake of curiosity, it is worth trying this delicious dairy product, which is sold at a specialized fair, the Cheese Exchange in Red Rows, and if you like it, then take it with you. Local and souvenir goods are based on the specialization of local production. You should pay attention to jewelry, as well as products made from linen, birch bark and clay.

Cheese exchange.
Trading lines.
Gift shop (Kostroma souvenirs), st. Ostrovsky 2/1.
Aunt Moti. A network of stores of useful products and gifts of natural origin.
"Art shelf" (handmade goods, souvenirs, gifts)  , Tchaikovsky Street, house 9. ☎ 89536665061. 12:00-20:00. Shop for handicrafts, souvenirs and gifts.


Hotels, motels and where to sleep

Hostel "Dom-Kom", Kostroma, Yubileynaya st., 59. ☎ +79036343355. 07:00-23:00. 500 rub.
Hotel "Ipatievskaya Sloboda", Beregovaya, 3a. ☎ +7-4942-319444.
Hotel "Samokovskaya", Samokovskaya st., 10A. ✉ ☎ +7-4942-440455, fax: +7-4942-440455. Double room from 900 rubles / day.

Average cost
Hotel "Azimut", st. Trunk, 40. ☎ +7-4942-390505.
Hotel "Aristocrat", Mira Ave., 159A. ☎ +7-4942-353735.
Hotel "Golden Ring", st. 104, Nizhnyaya Debrya. ☎ +7(4942) 622-444, fax: +7(4942) 622-500. In 2014: 2700 rubles for a single room, 3000 - standard for two; 3500 rub. superior room, 6500 rubles. for spacious apartments. The hotel is located on the banks of the Volga, but the name of the street seems to hint that this is not the most accessible place. It is strange that the multi-storey building does not have an elevator. The description of the rooms on the website is correct.
Business hotel, May 1, 24a. ☎ +7 (4942) 471212. The cost of 1-2 local numbers is 3000 rubles per day.
Hotel complex "Volga", st. Youth, d.1. ☎ +7 (4942) 777-000. 2500-4000 r. The largest and most prominent hotel in the city, which was built in Soviet times during the era of the development of the Golden Ring as a tourist route. Despite the presentable appearance, the decoration and condition of the rooms sends guests back to the Soviet past: falling mattresses, Soviet plumbing, sockets falling out of the walls and other joys of everyday life. The restaurant deserves a separate negative, with forgetful waiters and not very high-quality cuisine. Wi-Fi is available on all floors, but under load it may not work at all. The panoramic view from the window to the Volga at least somehow brightens up everyday inconveniences.
Hotel "Snegurochka". The hotel is located near the Terem Snegurochka, relatively popular with travelers with children. The terrible soundproofing of the rooms will definitely allow guests to hear the noise from the neighboring room at any time of the day or night.


Restaurant, taverns and where to eat

Cafe "Samovar" (pancake "Skovorodka")  , Simanovsky, 6. ☎ (4942) 31-80-58. Sun-Thu from 10:00 to 22:00, Fri-Sat from 10:00 to 24:00. Cafe of Russian cuisine in the center of Kostroma.
Cafe-pizzeria "Bravo Star" (formerly "Attic")  , st. Lermontova, 1a. ☎ 7(4942) 47-20-03. from 11:00 to 23:00.
Pizzeria-billiards "Bravo Star"  , st. Lenina, d.100b. ☎ 7(4942)45-04-12. from 11:00 to 23:00.
Canteen "Limpopo", st. Sovetskaya, 13. ☎ +7 (4942) 31-90-53. Specializes in baking.
Cafe "Black Pyramid"  , st. Kalinovskaya, 40. ☎ +7 (4942) 45-37-45.
Self-service cafe "Russian Traditions".

Average cost
Cafe "Barkas", Nizhne-Naberezhnaya, 66. ☎ (4942) 63-08-29. Sun-Thu from 12:00 to 24:00, Fri-Sat from 12:00 to 02:00. Cafe of European cuisine on the right bank of the Volga with a panoramic view of the historical part of Kostroma. A memorable ship-style interior, several halls, open and closed summer verandas, an interesting menu, large portions. There is a children's room and a children's menu.
Coffee house "Horns and hooves", st. Sovetskaya, 2 (center). ☎ +7(4942)31-52-40. 8.00-22.00. Excellent interior, with life-size figures and a plot from books about Ostap Bender. It seems to be called a coffee shop, but you can have a delicious lunch.
Cafe "Susanin House"  , st. Ivana Susanin, 54. ☎ +7(4942) 30 11 20. on weekdays 08.00-24.00, on weekends 11.00-24.00. Business lunches in the form of a food warmer on weekdays from 11 am to 4 pm. On weekends from 11 am to 5 pm there is a children's room with an animator. After 19.00 there is often live music. The establishment is popular, so it is better to book a table for dinner.
Fiori Coffee House, Bolshoi Flour Rows, 6. Positions itself as an "Italian coffee house", but the menu includes both beer and hodgepodge. There is live music (guitar).
Trattoria "Pinocchio", st. Sovetskaya, 59. from 11 to 24. Another institution nostalgic for Italy. Pizza, pasta, and for some reason rolls.
McDonald's, October Square, 1.
Cafe "Prague". ☎ +7 (4942) 313572. Czech cuisine.
Cafe "Izba". Dining room for set meals during the day and a la carte service after 17.00. Trying to be original, with a claim to haute cuisine, they overdid it. With all the richness of the surroundings and the normal level of service, the cafe leaves a general feeling of a C grade.

Beer house "Owns and Ours", Davydovsky-3, 32 (shopping center AVOKADO, left wing, 1st floor). ☎ +7(4942) 41-44-22. 11.00-24.00.
Restaurant "Metelitsa", st. Lagernaya, 38/13 (in the hotel complex "Snegurochka"). ☎ +7(4942) 42-32-31, 42-78-11.
Shesh-Besh, st. Sovetskaya, 14 A. A chain restaurant with an oriental interior and oriental cuisine. Menu is small, portions are small.
Restaurant "Slavyansky", Molochnaya Gora, 1. ☎ +7(4942) 31-54-60, 47-27-02. 12.00–24.00. Restaurant of Russian cuisine. Delicious and good service.
Restaurant "White Sun", st. Lesnaya, 2 (on the banks of the Volga). ☎ +7(4942) 37-31-37. Restaurant with Caucasian, European and Russian cuisine. Film-themed interior.
Restaurant "Darling, I'll be late"   , st. Lower Debrya, 2/15. ☎ +7 (4942) 499-009. 12:00-2:00. 500₽.

Coffee houses
Capella  , st. Red Rows, 1 (east side). ☎ +7 (920) 392-51-23. 10:00–22:00.


Precautionary measures

Do not go to Pervomaisky district



There is no single scientifically based view on the origin of the city's name.

The most common version is a hydronym: the name is derived from the river on which it stands. But on the Postal Map of the Russian Empire in 1760 and on the General Map of the Russian Empire in 1745, the city of Kostroma is located on the Vassey River. Which makes the opposite more likely: the river subsequently received the name of the city at its mouth.

“Kostra” (or “kostrika”) in East Slavic dialects denotes parts of the stems of spinning plants, in particular flax, which was one of the foundations of the economy of the Kostroma Territory. In Fasmer's dictionary, this toponym is associated with an East Slavic ritual character, which was a straw doll that was symbolically burned during the summer ritual cycle - on Semik or Peter's Day ("Kostroma's funeral").

The allocation of the formant -ma in some cases is controversial, and the basis of the kostr- is not typical for the pre-Russian hydronymy of this region. However, the indigenous population of these lands was of Finno-Ugric origin (conditionally referred to as "Kostroma Merya").

One of the interpretations is given by L. Skvortsov. Referring to the fact that in the ancient chronicles the words “kostra”, “kostroma”, “kostrum” generally denote a fortified place, he believed that this common name of the fortress remained with the city that had arisen. This assumption echoes the controversial version put forward by Prince A. Kozlovsky, who derived the name of the city by analogy with the geographical location of the Kostrum castle (later the city of Tallinn). The word comes from the Latin clostrum meaning "castle". But the same author puts forward another version of the origin of the name - from the forest harvested in winter on the banks of the rivers with large "bonfires", rafted in the spring from Buevsky and Kostroma counties. It is also interesting in terms of etymology that in the time of Kozlovsky (1840), the Merya tribes were attributed to the Slavs.

As the local historian N. A. Zontikov writes, “on the question of the origin of the name of the city of Kostroma, there have always been two main points of view: the first is that the city got its name from the Kostroma River, the second is that its name comes from the name of a pagan deity.” This scientific discussion has not yet come to an end.



Physical location
Kostroma is located on the Kostroma lowland, on both banks of the Gorky reservoir of the Volga, at the old mouth of the Kostroma River - 65 km from Yaroslavl, 105 km from the city of Ivanovo and 370 km northeast of Moscow.

The distance from the Moscow Ring Road along the highway (M8 Kholmogory, then P600) is 350 km. The total area of the territory within the city limits is 144.5 km².



Kostroma is located in the time zone MSK (Moscow time). The offset of the applicable time from UTC is +3:00. In accordance with the applied time and geographic longitude, the average solar noon in Kostroma occurs at 12:16.



The climate is temperate continental, the influence of the Atlantic Ocean is great. The average annual temperature is +3.6 C°, the average annual wind speed is 3.1 m/s, the average annual air humidity is 79%.

The main rivers of Kostroma are the Volga (Gorky reservoir) and its left tributary Kostroma, the level of which was raised by the backwater of the Nizhny Novgorod hydroelectric power station. Kostroma is located on both banks, 597-603 km from the source of the Volga (Upper Volga), here the river changes its direction and turns to the southeast. The right bank of the Volga is high and steep, while the left bank is low. The width of the Volga within the city is about 600 meters.

Within the city, near the Ipatiev Monastery, there is the old bed of the Kostroma River, now it is an additional ship passage leading to the shipyard and the slop-repair point of the port of Kostroma. The bed of the Kostroma River was blocked by a dam within the city in 1955-1956, which led to the creation of the Kostroma reservoir (an extension of the Gorky reservoir). The new artificially created mouth of the Kostroma River is located 12 km upstream near the village of Samet.

On the territory of the city, several rivers and streams flow into the Volga and Kostroma (most of them are enclosed in pipes for a considerable length): the most significant of them are the Zaprudnya, the Sula (an underground channel in the city center) and the Black River.

The average water flow of the Volga near Kostroma is 1110 m³ / s, (the average long-term value of the level of the Gorky reservoir near Kostroma is 84.28 m).

The Volga River is the main source of the city's water supply. According to the chemical composition, the water in the Volga River is characterized as soft, low-mineralized, with a low content of chlorides and sulfates. The content of chlorides is 26–30 mg/l (MPC 350 mg/l), sulfates 6.0–7.2 mg/l (MPC 500 mg/l), hardness 2.6–2.8 mol/l (MPC 7, 0 mol/l), total mineralization 137–164 mg/l (MPC 1000 mg/l). In general, the Volga water is characterized by high color (color varies from 28 to 70 deg, average 46 deg), high content of organic matter (permanganate oxidizability 9–18 mg O2/l, COD - up to 60 mg O2/l), low turbidity (3 -7 mg/l, during the spring flood in spring it can briefly increase up to 20 mg/l). Most indicators of anthropogenic pollution (the content of pesticides, heavy metals, oil products, etc.) are within the limits accepted for drinking water. However, in terms of the content of phytoplankton in the summer months and, periodically, in terms of the level of microbiological pollution, the water quality deteriorates, which requires additional purification steps. Along with the surface source, underground deposits located to the north of the city (Bashutino) are used. The explored capacity of the deposit is, according to various sources, 24-33 thousand m³ per day. The water in the spring meets drinking standards in all respects, except for the iron content (1-2 mg/l).



The city of Kostroma, in accordance with federal legislation and heraldic rules, has official symbols - a coat of arms, a flag, an anthem, reflecting historical, cultural, national and other local traditions and features (Article 4 of the Charter of the city of Kostroma).

The historical coat of arms of Kostroma was approved on October 24, 1767, restored on July 5, 1878, and re-restored on October 7, 1992. The coat of arms of Kostroma is the first city coat of arms in the history of Russia. Depicts the Tver galley, on which Empress Catherine II arrived in Kostroma.
In the azure field, sailing to the left along the azure waves with silver crests, a golden galley with stowed silver sails and ten golden rowers; on the mast - the Imperial standard.

On August 22, 2002, the historical coat of arms was approved as the current symbol of the city.

The flag of Kostroma was created on the basis of the symbols of the coat of arms. There is no officially approved anthem of Kostroma.



Archaeological excavations in the center of the modern city have revealed scattered finds of Fatyanovo axes - they probably come from a destroyed burial ground of the Bronze Age. On the left bank of the Sula River, stucco pottery was found from the middle - second half of the 1st millennium (that is, the period preceding the Slavic colonization), indicating the settlement of the Finno-Ugric peoples.

According to archeology, the finds found by archaeologists at the site of the first Kostroma Kremlin date back to the end of the 11th century: glass women's bracelets. Metal writing for birch bark letters were found in the estates of ordinary artisans.

The date of foundation of Kostroma is officially considered to be 1152. This date was proposed by the historian V. N. Tatishchev, who connected this event with the activities of Yuri Dolgoruky in the north-east of Rus'. Establishing the date of the city's emergence, V.N. Tatishchev used various sources that have not survived to our time.

During excavations on the right bank of the Volga in the territory of Gorodishche, archaeologists discovered objects related only to the eras of the final bronze age, the early Iron Age (I millennium BC) and the period from the 17th century to the 17th century. up to the present. Therefore, it can be assumed that at the time of the Tatar invasion there was no city on the right bank of the Volga, and life on Gorodishche for some reason ceased during the early Iron Age and began again after the founding of Kostroma on the left bank of the Volga in the 11th-12th centuries. The hypothesis about the location of the settlement associated with the founding of Kostroma on the banks of the small river Sula, near its confluence with the Volga, was tested by historians and archaeologists in 1951. Ceramic objects found at the intersection of Ostrovsky and Pyatnitskaya streets showed that intensive urban life took place in this area only starting from the 12th century and it did not exist in earlier periods. Apparently, the historian V. N. Tatishchev, who suggested that Yuri Dolgoruky founded Kostroma in 1152, was close to the truth. The fact that Dolgoruky was familiar with this region is an annalistic record of his campaign along the Volga on ships from Rostov the Great to the land of the Kazan Bulgarians. The foundation in the XII century on the Kostroma land of the city with the southern name Galich is another evidence of the active development of the lands by the South Russian Slavs.

The hypothesis that Kostroma was founded in the 12th century on an elevated place near the Sula River, near its confluence with the Volga, in addition to the finds of archaeologists, is supported by the fact that the oldest Fedorov Church of the city, known since the 13th century, stood right here. Its location is well documented by the fact that only in the 17th century the wooden Fedorovsky church was dismantled due to dilapidation and immediately a stone one was erected, but the main altar was called Bogootsovsky, and only a chapel was made Fedorovsky. The message of the chronicle that in 1276 the Kostroma prince Vasily was buried in the Fedorov Church indicates that by this time the church had become a city cathedral, which, according to tradition, should stand in the “city”. One of the documents says that the Fedorovskaya Church was located "on the square near Mshanskaya Street" and that there are still remains of the "old scree", that is, the city's earthen fortifications. One can only assume that the city was located on both banks of the Sula River, but more on the right bank, towards the Kostroma River, since the most ancient monasteries stood in this part of the city - Anastasevsky, Spaso-Zaprudnensky, Ipatiev. The area on the left bank of the Sula was called Debrey, and its main street, which developed in the 15th-16th centuries, was Borovoy Debrey. The name of the river - Sula and one of the ancient streets of Desyatilnich is clearly of southern Russian origin and indicates that among the first inhabitants of the city there were many southern Slavs.

XIII-XVII centuries
The first chronicle mention of the existence of Kostroma dates back to 1213, it is associated with strife between the sons of the Grand Duke of Vladimir Vsevolod the Big Nest. This year, Prince Konstantin of Rostov burned Kostroma, which supported his brother, Vladimir Prince Yuri: "and burn it all, and the people are taken out." After the victory, in 1216-1217 Konstantin handed over Kostroma to his infant son Vasily.

The fate of Kostroma during the invasion of Batu in 1238 is not known for certain: the invaders "captured everything on the Volga to Galich Mersky."

After 1239, Kostroma was restored by the Grand Duke of Vladimir Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, who built a wooden church in the city in honor of the patron saint Theodore Stratilates, whose name he bore in baptism. In 1246, the city passed into the specific possession of the youngest son Vasily. In the same year, Kostroma became the capital of the Kostroma specific principality, which separated from the Vladimir-Suzdal Rus.

In 1272, Vasily Yaroslavich became the Grand Duke of Vladimir - the head of all the specific principalities of North-Eastern Rus'. He did not go to capital Vladimir, but remained in specific Kostroma, thereby making the city the capital of North-Eastern Rus' until his death in 1276.

In the XIII-XIV centuries, fortified monasteries appeared around Kostroma, protecting the approaches to the city: Ipatiev and Nikolo-Babaevsky.

In 1364, Kostroma became part of the Moscow principality, since then its history has been inseparable from the development and culture of the all-Russian state.

The fourth Moscow birch-bark charter dates back to the last quarter of the 14th century, in which Kostroma is mentioned: “We went, sir, to Kostroma.”

The wooden city at the mouth of the Sula was often subjected to predatory attacks by the ushkuins, so in 1419 it was moved to a new elevated place, which became known as the Kostroma Kremlin. It was there that the first stone building in the city, the Assumption Cathedral, was built.

Around 1468, the city was visited by Afanasy Nikitin, who mentioned it in his travel notes "Journey Beyond the Three Seas".

In 1565, Tsar Ivan the Terrible divided the Russian state into oprichnina and zemshchina, the city became part of the latter and belonged to it until February 1567.

During the Time of Troubles, Kostroma was twice taken by the detachments of the Polish Pan Lisovsky and was subjected to terrible devastation. In 1609, the Kostroma militia played an important role in the fight against the next Pretender, expelling supporters of False Dmitry II who had taken refuge there from the Ipatiev Monastery. The Kostroma detachments joined the militia of Minin and Pozharsky. In the Ipatiev Monastery in 1613, Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov was called to the kingdom and, thus, Kostroma became the "cradle" of the royal and imperial Romanov dynasty.

After the Time of Troubles, the defensive fortifications of the Kremlin were rebuilt in Kostroma, and an extensive trade and craft settlement and settlements spread around. By the middle of the 17th century, in terms of economic development and the number of inhabitants, Kostroma became the third largest craft city of the Russian state after Moscow and Yaroslavl with a developed textile, leather, soap, silver and icon-painting industry. Blacksmithing, pottery, construction trades were developed. At the same time, a large trading center appeared in Kostroma, and an English trading post was established in the city. In the second half of the 17th century, an outstanding school of fresco and icon painting was formed in Kostroma.


Provincial city

As a result of Peter's reforms, in 1708 Kostroma became a provincial town of the Moscow province. On July 16 (27), 1744, the Kostroma diocese was established.

In 1767, Catherine II established the emblem of Kostroma with the image of the Tver galley, on which she arrived in Kostroma. After the fire of 1773, the Kremlin and the surrounding quarters were thoroughly rebuilt, and a new Gostiny Dvor was built. By the end of the century, the cathedral bell tower was completed, which towered above the surrounding buildings, thereby organizing the spatial environment of the city. Since 1778, Kostroma has become the center of the Kostroma governorship. In 1781, Catherine II approved the master plan for the development of Kostroma, according to which defensive ditches were filled up, earthen ramparts were torn down, and the building of the city began with shopping arcades and civil buildings.

From the middle of the 18th century, the development of Kostroma as a textile center began: in 1751, the merchant I. D. Uglechaninov built the first linen factory. In terms of the volume of linen fabrics produced, Kostroma quickly took the first place in Russia. There were also 12 tanneries and 18 brick factories, 6 cloth manufactories, a bell foundry, a tile and other factories. Kostroma became a major trading pier on the Volga transit route.

In December 1796, by decree of Emperor Paul I, the city became the center of the established Kostroma province. In 1797 Paul I visited Kostroma.

The city owes the visit of Nicholas I to Kostroma in 1835 the renaming of the central Ekaterinoslavskaya Square to Susaninskaya and the decree on the erection of a monument to Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich and the peasant Ivan Susanin (opened on March 14 (26), 1851). Since 1838, the first periodical, the newspaper Kostroma Gubernskie Vedomosti, began to appear weekly.

In 1858, Emperor Alexander II and Empress Maria Alexandrovna came to Kostroma, and in the summer of 1881, Emperor Alexander III with Empress Maria Feodorovna and heir Nicholas.

In 1870, the first water supply system was built in Kostroma, in 1880 a post and telegraph office, in 1891 a museum of antiquities was opened. In 1894 there were 36 churches in Kostroma. In 1895, the first five-story building was built in Kostroma (a hostel for workers and employees of the Association of the Novo-Kostroma Linen Manufactory).

The beginning of the 20th century was marked by a revival of social and economic activity in the city. In 1905, the second (after Ivanovo-Voznesensk) Council of Workers' Deputies in Russia was created in Kostroma. In 1913, the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty was widely celebrated in Kostroma: Emperor Nicholas II and his family visited the city. For this event, a power plant was built, the second stage of the water pipeline was opened, the center was landscaped, the foundation was laid for a grandiose monument to the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty, a number of civil structures were built, including the Romanov Museum and the Romanov Hospital.


As part of the USSR

On January 14, 1929, by a decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the USSR, the Kostroma province was abolished. Kostroma loses the status of a provincial city and is included first in the Ivanovo and then in the Yaroslavl region.

Industrialization was expressed in the accelerated development of enterprises in the textile, light and wood processing industries, as well as textile engineering. In 1932, the construction of a railway bridge across the Volga was completed. According to the project of engineer I. D. Zvorykin, a flax factory is being built, where labor-intensive processes were mechanized. The construction of production buildings and residential buildings for workers was completed in 1935, in 1936-1938 work was carried out on the installation of equipment. By the end of the 1930s, the population had almost doubled due to the influx of labor from the peasants. In 1932, a textile institute was established, and in 1939, a teacher's institute.

In the 1930s, many temples were destroyed or rebuilt in the city. The most famous destruction of the temple complex of the Kostroma Kremlin in 1934, churches and chapels in the center. Even earlier, in September 1918, Susaninskaya Square was renamed Revolution Square, and the destruction of the monument to Ivan Susanin began (completely dismantled by 1934).

During the Great Patriotic War, hospitals, military schools and the civilian population were evacuated to Kostroma. Near Kostroma in the fall of 1941, the Yaroslavl Communist Division was formed. Thousands of Kostroma residents were awarded orders and medals for their exploits at the front and rear, 29 of them were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.

On August 13, 1944, the city of Kostroma became the administrative center of the newly formed Kostroma Region.

In the 1950s-1980s, in addition to the textile and woodworking industries, new promising industries were intensively developed in Kostroma: energy, mechanical engineering and metalworking, radio electronics and instrument making.

At this time, intensive industrial and housing construction is carried out: industrial zones and residential microdistricts are being formed. New objects of social infrastructure appear and existing ones are modernized (the medical building of the regional hospital (1981), the ambulance station (1982), the circus (1984), the building of the archive of the Kostroma region (1984), the Philharmonic Society (1988), etc.).

The tourist infrastructure was developed, in 1958 a historical and architectural museum-reserve was organized on the basis of the Ipatiev Monastery, behind the southern wall of the monastery along the left bank of the Igumenka River in the 1960s a museum complex of wooden architecture was formed. In 1970, traffic was opened on an auto-pedestrian bridge across the Volga River; in 1972, the movement of trolleybuses began; In 1986, an auto-pedestrian bridge across the Kostroma River connected the territory of the Ipatievskaya Sloboda with the central part of the city. The Volga hotel complex was built on the left bank of the Volga (1977). In 1987, for the first time, a holiday was held in Kostroma - City Day, which coincided with its 835th anniversary.