Perm Kray, Russia

Perm region (unofficially - Prikamye) is a subject of the Russian Federation located in the east of the European part of Russia]. Included in the Volga Federal District and the Ural Economic Region. The administrative center is the city of Perm. Area 160,237 km². Population 2,508,352 people. (2023). The region includes the Komi-Permyak Okrug.

It is located in the eastern part of the East European Plain and on the western slopes of the Middle and Northern Urals, in the Kama River basin. It borders in the north with the Komi Republic, in the east with the Sverdlovsk region, in the south with Bashkortostan, in the west with Udmurtia, in the northwest with the Kirov region.

Formed on December 1, 2005 as a result of the merger of the Perm region and the Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug. The historical predecessor of the region was the Perm province formed in 1796, which, in turn, was preceded by Perm the Great.

Administrative division: 33 administrative districts; 25 cities, of which 14 are regional and 11 are regional; 26 urban-type settlements; closed administrative-territorial formation Zvezdny and Komi-Permyak Okrug as an administrative-territorial unit with a special status.



Perm stretches along the mighty Kama River for almost 70 kilometers, welcoming guests with giant industrial zones interspersed with residential areas. The center of Perm is relatively small and contains a solid building of the provincial city along with several interesting museums, including a collection of Perm wooden sculpture, unique for Russia. Another interesting area is the one that grew up around the Motovilikha arms factory of the same name, where the atmosphere of an old workers’ settlement reigns, complemented by a memorial perpetuating the revolutionary uprising of 1905. Perm is not the most interesting of Russian million-plus cities, therefore, unless you are interested in residential areas and industrial outskirts, 1-2 days is enough to get to know the city.

Kungur is located on the road from Perm to Yekaterinburg. The name of the city is firmly associated with the Kungur Ice Cave, where even in summer you can see bizarre growths of ice, and the New Year tree does not lose its relevance and needles throughout the year. After examining the cave, do not forget to visit the city itself, where you will find a solid merchant building, in perfect harmony with several old stone temples. In the vicinity of Kungur there is the most picturesque section of the Trans-Siberian Railway in the Urals, and by car it is not difficult to reach Mount Belaya, on the top of which stands the monastery.

Solikamsk is the oldest city in the Perm region. Founded in the 15th century and raised in the salt industry, it remained the center of northeastern Rus' for a long time. The stone buildings of Solikamsk were created at the turn of the 17th-18th centuries. In its integrity and significance, it is not inferior to the best cities of the Russian North: there are wonderful temples and stone chambers, but the most unusual attraction of Solikamsk is the old salt factory turned into a museum.

Usolye is the former capital of the Kama possessions of the Stroganovs and in ancient times one of the main cities of the Kama region. Having miraculously avoided flooding during the creation of the Kama Reservoir, Usolye turned into a city with one attraction - a temple complex in the Stroganov Baroque style, adjacent to which are chambers and several other buildings of the 18th century, surrounded by a considerable number of ruins. Combined with the apocalyptic view of the chemical industry of Berezniki located on the opposite bank of the Kama, Usolye is a strange, almost surreal place, but at least curious. In its vicinity there are several old villages with interesting churches built at the turn of the 17th-18th centuries and good views of the Kama River.

Cherdyn is located in the northern part of the Perm region. In spirit it is related to Soligalich, Lalsk and other “bear corners” with a rich history. You cannot get to Cherdyn by accident or on the way somewhere else, so only very purposeful travelers get here. In addition to the extensive pre-revolutionary buildings and not the most outstanding temple architecture, the city is interesting for its local history museum, which displays unique archaeological finds created many centuries before the Russian development of the Kama region. Along with Cherdyn itself, it is worth visiting ancient villages in this area, including Nyrob with a wonderful temple in the patterned style and Pyanteg, where the Epiphany Church of the early 17th century, the oldest building in the Perm region, has been preserved.


Northern Kama region

Berezniki is the gateway to the Northern Kama region. This relatively young and thoroughly industrial city is almost inevitable if you go to see Solikamsk and Cherdyn. It is also a convenient base for visiting Usolye, which has no infrastructure at all. Along with numerous and somewhat depressing industrial landscapes, Berezniki is interesting for its buildings of the Soviet period. There is also a stone temple from the middle of the 18th century, which is not the most remarkable by the standards of the Kama region. In addition to all of the above, Berezniki is notorious for the sinkholes that have arisen as a result of salt mining, which are gradually consuming the city and have already destroyed its railway station.


Mining District



South and west of Perm region



Other destinations

Vishersky Nature Reserve is located in the very north of the Perm region and contains its main peak - Mount Tulymsky Stone (1496 m). The reserve is located far from civilization; the road to it from Krasnovishersk takes many hours and requires an all-terrain vehicle. Tourists rafting along the Vishera often visit the Chuvalsky Stone ridge (929 m) located on the edge of the reserve. Another possible route is to climb the Tulym stone itself, while the rest of the reserve is closed to visitors.

The Berezovaya River is considered one of the most beautiful in the Urals. There are dozens of picturesque rocky outcrops along its banks, and several landing points allow you to vary the length of the water trip from 3-4 days to a week. They go to Berezovaya through the historical Cherdyn and Nyrob, where there are old stone churches and other interesting sights.

The Vishera River is longer than the Berezovaya River and is not inferior to it in beauty. This is a large river, one of the main tributaries of the Kama, descending from the mountains of the Northern Urals and emerging onto the plain in its lower course. Rafting along the Vishera can be combined with conquering one of the peaks of the Vishera Nature Reserve, and along the route you will find numerous rocks, some of which have preserved ancient rock paintings - pisanitsa. The area along the banks of the Vishera has an interesting industrial history; at the end of the 19th century, metallurgical plants operated here, traces of which are sometimes found in the middle of the taiga. They go to Vishera through Krasnovishersk, next to which there are also a couple of picturesque rocks and easy-to-climb mountain peaks.

Basegi Nature Reserve

Kungur Ice Cave



Russian. The Komi-Permyak language is found in the north-west of the Perm region.


How to get there

By plane
There is only one airport in the Perm region - in Perm. There used to be a small airport in Berezniki, but in recent years it has not been operating and it is not a fact that it will ever start again. A larger airport in Yekaterinburg, from where Perm is 5-6 hours away by bus or train. It is not advisable to travel to the Perm region through Kazan or Ufa.

By train
The Trans-Siberian Railway runs through the entire Perm region with many trains in eastern and western directions. It contains, among other things, Perm and Kungur. The Old Gornozavodskaya Railway - the first railway through the Urals - connects Perm with Nizhny Tagil, but there are no railways to the south to Bashkiria. From Izhevsk or Kirov to Perm it is 7-8 hours, so it is convenient to travel at night. Ekaterinburg is a little closer (5-6 hours), and there is even a special day train going there.

By bus
Taking into account the long distances, traveling to the Perm region by bus is not very convenient. Buses make sense only in the Bashkir direction, since there is no other way to get from Ufa to Perm (however, there are occasional planes). There is no regular transport to the north to the Komi Republic, and it is not always possible to travel by car. If you are traveling towards the Sverdlovsk region and want to bypass Yekaterinburg, rare buses from Perm to Nizhny Tagil and Serov are at your service.

By car
The Perm region in some places resembles Siberian regions, since there are very few roads leading into it. From the Kirov region, the P243 highway, some sections of which are chronically in poor condition, makes driving there almost impossible. From Udmurtia you can use the dam of the Nizhnekamsk hydroelectric station and enter the Perm region through Tchaikovsky or move along the right bank of the Kama: these routes are almost equivalent. Only local roads lead to Bashkiria, and before your trip it’s worth scouring the Internet to find out which road is currently more passable.

There are exactly two roads to the Sverdlovsk region: the P242 highway to Yekaterinburg and the highway connecting Chusovoy with Nizhny Tagil. The first is heavily loaded, the second is more free, and in both cases the crossing of the Ural ridge is something symbolic, since the mountains in this place are very low. 200 km to the north once ran the Babinovskaya road, connecting Solikamsk with Verkhoturye. Now there is no road there, and only desperate jeepers sometimes drive “along the old Babinovskaya road,” although most of the way they still have to take a detour. An ordinary traveler will not be able to get from the Perm Territory to the Sverdlovsk Region north of Chusovoy, but if you think about it, the road from Chusovoy is generally the northernmost road through the Ural Range.

Finally, if you are one of the desperate travelers who want to travel from the Perm Territory to the Komi Republic, then at your service is the road leading from Kudymkar to the north through Gainy and then joining the Kirov-Syktyvkar highway. This road is apparently passable, although hundreds of kilometers of dirt roads and unpredictable conditions in the off-season await you. The path north from Nyrob towards Troitsko-Pechorsk is identical to the old Babinovskaya road, i.e. Someone once managed to drive there, but it is not a road in any way.


Local transport

By train
There are few railways in the Perm region, and they cover only the industrial area in the northeast of the region. The Trans-Siberian Railway crosses the Perm region right through, but there are only two interesting cities on it - these are Perm itself and Kungur, between them you can travel by suburban or long-distance train. Suburban trains run on all local lines in the areas of Chusovoy, Lysva, Gubakha, Kizel, and Berezniki with a regularity typical for Russia, 2-3 times a day. These trains are often much slower than buses, but in some places they are a worthy alternative.

By bus
The Perm region is well covered by bus service. You can get to any city, but sometimes it takes a lot of time. The most natural route for a bus trip is from Perm to Solikamsk and Cherdyn with a stop in Usolye, as well as radial departures from Perm to Chusovoy and Kungur. You can leave Solikamsk towards Chusovoy, but buses run there much less often.

The bus service is quite orderly, there is a website with information about bus stations, schedules and even the ability to buy a ticket.

By car
While getting to the Perm region from other regions can be difficult, there are quite a lot of roads within the region. Almost all of them are two-lane and sometimes broken, but they reach all major cities and towns. The situation is worse in sparsely populated areas remote from Perm, where roads are passable only for SUVs and heavy equipment. For example, the last 100 km of the road to the Vishera Nature Reserve takes longer than the 300 km of the road from Perm to Krasnovishersk. If you are more interested in cities, traveling by car will not be a problem (subject to the unpredictable state of Russian roads, of course). If your goal is natural sites or hard-to-reach villages, you should seriously think about choosing a car and its preparation.

The main natural obstacle is the Kama River, through which there are only three stationary crossings: in Tchaikovsky, Perm and Berezniki. Taking into account the low density of cities and attractions, this is, in principle, sufficient, although there are also ferry crossings on the Kama River.


Physiographic characteristics


The Perm region is located on the eastern edge of the Russian Plain and the western slope of the Ural Mountains, at the junction of two parts of the world - Europe and Asia, with 99.8% of the region's area located in Europe, 0.2% in Asia. The maximum length from north to south is 645 km, from west to east - almost 420 km. The borders of the region are winding and have a length of more than 2.2 thousand km.



The Perm region is located in the MSC+2 time zone. The applied time offset relative to UTC is +5:00.



The Perm region is located in a temperate climate zone. In the Perm Territory, the Komi-Permyak Okrug, districts: Gainsky, Kosinsky, Kochevsky are equated to the regions of the Far North.

Winter is long and snowy. The average January temperature in the northeast of the region is −18.5 °C, in the southwest −15 °C. The minimum temperature (in the north of the region) was −56 °C, in summer up to +42 °C.



The relief of the Perm region was formed during the formation of the Ural Mountains about 250 million years ago and during the subsequent accumulation of sedimentary rocks on the crystalline foundation of the platform.

In the western part of the region (about 85% of its territory), located on the eastern edge of the Russian Plain, low-lying and flat terrain prevails.

In the eastern part of the region (about 15% of its territory), where the Ural Mountains pass, the relief is mountainous: mid-mountain for the Northern Urals and low-mountain for the Middle Urals. The border between them is drawn at the foot of Mount Oslyanka (59º N).

The highest mountains are located in the north of the region:
Tulymsky Stone (1496 m) is the highest peak in the Perm region;
Mount Humboldt (1410 m);
Isherim (1331 m);
Prayer stone (1274 m);
Martai (1132 m).

Among the mountains of the Middle Urals, the highest are in the Basegi - Middle Basegi ridge (993 m).



The rivers of the Perm region belong to the Kama basin. In the Perm region there are more than 29 thousand rivers with a total length of over 90 thousand kilometers.

Two rivers in the Perm region are large (more than 500 km long) - the Kama (1805 km) and its left tributary Chusovaya (592 km). 40 rivers over 100 km long. The largest of them:
Kama - 1805 km.
Chusovaya - 592 km.
Sylva - 493 km.
Vishera - 415 km.
Colva - 460 km.
Yaiva - 304 km.
Kosva - 283 km.
Spit - 267 km.
Veslyana - 266 km.
Inva - 257 km.
Obva - 247 km.

Small rivers (less than 100 km long) make up the vast majority of rivers in the region. Some of them are of historical significance, for example, the Yegoshikha River, at the mouth of which the city of Perm was founded.



The Perm region is rich in a variety of minerals, which is explained by the complex topography of the mountainous and flat parts of the region. The following are mined here: oil, gas, mineral salts, gold, diamonds, chromite ores and brown iron ores, peat, limestone, precious, ornamental and facing stones, building materials.

Oil was first discovered in the Perm region in 1928 near the village of Verkhnechusovskie towns. To date, more than 160 hydrocarbon deposits are known in the region, of which 89 oil, 3 gas and 18 gas-oil are being developed. Most of them are small. Mining is mainly carried out in the central and southern regions. The most developed deposits are: Polaznenskoye, Krasnokamskoye, Kuedinskoye, Osinskoye and Chernushinskoye. The northern fields (in the area of Solikamsk and Berezniki) are poorly developed, since the oil there lies at great depths under salt layers.

Coal has been mined in the region for more than 200 years. In the Kizelovsky coal basin, hard coal was mined, which for a long time played an important role in the fuel and energy balance of the region. The maximum volume of coal production was reached in 1960 and amounted to 12 million tons, after which the volume of production constantly decreased and exploration of new deposits was not carried out.

The Verkhnekamskoe potassium salt deposit, one of the largest in the world, is located in the Perm region. Sodium, potassium and magnesium chloride salts, as well as rock salt, are mined there. Its area is 1800 km², the thickness of the salt-bearing layers reaches 514 m.

The main Saranovskoye deposit is one of the largest chromite deposits in Russia. The development of iron and copper deposits known since the beginning of the 18th century is also underway. Gold deposits have been discovered in the Middle Urals (Gornozavodsky district, Koiva river basin) and in the Northern Urals (Krasnovishersky district, Vels and Uls river basins), but are not currently being developed.

In the north of the region, in the Krasnovishersky district, diamonds are mined. Diamond deposits were discovered in the Gornozavodsky district in the Koiva River basin, where the first diamond in Russia was found in 1829. High quality diamonds are used in the jewelry industry. Also in the region there are deposits of quartz, citrine, selenite, marble, and uvarovite.

The region is rich in various minerals used in dyes:
Volkonskoite is a rare clayey material used for the production of protective and decorative paints, enamels and pastes, usually green. There are 25 objects in the region, including the following deposits: Bozhyakovskoye, Selinskoye, Krutolozhskoye, Lapshinskoye, Efimyatskoye, Samosadkinskoye). The Chastinsky district is richest in volkonskoite.
Surik. There are three occurrences of red lead in the region - Solovinskoye, Shudinskoye (Elovsky district) and Paltinskoye.
Ocher. There are 42 manifestations in the region, which are located in Berezovsky, Gornozavodsky, Elovsky, Kisherstsky, Kosinsky, Kochevsky, Kungursky, Suksunsky, Uinsky and Chusovsky districts, in the territory of Krasnokamsk and Aleksandrovsk.

Also mined in the region are:
limestone is used to produce building lime. The balance of carbonate reserves for roasting takes into account seven deposits: Mount Matyukovaya, Severo-Sharashinskoye, Sharashinskoye, Gubakhinskoye, Vsevolodo-Vilvenskoye, Bolshe-Sarsinskoye and Chikalinskoye.
gypsum and anhydrite are used in the production of binders, dry gypsum plaster, gypsum fiber boards, gypsum panels, and plasterboard. The deposits of the Orda and Uinsky districts are characterized by a high content of gypsum. Deposits on the state balance sheet: Chumkasskoye, Sokolino-Sarkaevskoye, Ergachinskoye, Polaznenskoye, Deykovskoye, Selishchenskoye, Odinovskoye and Egorshiny Yamy.
In the Perm region there are 37 objects of expanded clay - fusible intumescent clay rocks, which are the main raw material for the production of expanded clay. They are located in Gainsky, Kishertsky, Kochevsky, Krasnovishersky, Lysvensky, Oktyabrsky, Solikamsky, Suksunsky and Chusovsky districts, as well as in territories subordinate to the cities of Aleksandrovsk, Kizel, Gubakha. The largest are the Sanatorskoye and Kostarevskoye fields.
There are clay deposits in almost all administrative districts of the region. The largest are Komarikhinskoye (Chusovsky district), Kamenskoye (Permsky district), Taushinskoye (Chernushinsky district), Balmashevskoye (Ordzhonikidze district of Perm), Baturskoye (Krasnokamsk), Kalinkinskoye (Usolsky district). Clay rocks and clearing sand are the basis for the production of brick and tile products.
Deposits of sand deposits are Bukorskoye (Chaikovsky district), Everzikovskoye (Lysvensky district), Mokrinsky district of the Sedinsky deposit (Kishertsky district) and a section of the Nichkovskoye deposit (Krasnovishersky district).
sand and gravel mixtures are loose natural accumulations of rounded rock fragments and minerals. ASG is used as a filler for concrete and asphalt concrete. 30 fields are being developed in the Perm region.



The predominant type of vegetation in the Perm region is forests. They cover 71% of the region's territory. The predominant tree species are spruce and fir. The share of deciduous trees increases in the direction from north to south.



In the Perm region there are 62 species of mammals (more than 30 of them are of commercial importance), more than 270 species of birds, 39 species of fish, 6 species of reptiles and 9 species of amphibians.


Specially protected natural areas

In the Perm Territory there are two specially protected natural areas of federal significance: the Vishera Reserve and the Basegi Nature Reserve, as well as about 300 territories of regional and about 130 territories of local significance.



The territory of the Perm region was inhabited by people already in the Paleolithic era (site of the Streltsy culture Garchi 1, sites of Elniki II, Ganichata I-II, Peshterny Log, Zaozerye, Sosnovka III, Egoshikha, etc.).

At the turn of the 1st and 2nd millennia, the southern territories of the modern Perm region came under the influence of the Volga Bulgaria, and then the Mongol-Tatar yoke.

In the middle of the 15th century, the Komi-Permyak medieval Great Perm Principality (Cherdyn Principality) was formed on the Upper Kama, dependent on the Grand Duchy of Moscow and, possibly, also on the Novgorod Republic (until 1472). Archaeologically, the principality covered the territory of the Rodanian culture. At the same time, Russian pirates appeared in the Kama region - ushkuiniki, who later became known as Cossacks. Some of the Cossacks, led by Ataman Ermak, were sent by industrialists the Stroganovs to conquer Siberia.

After joining the Russian state, the Perm lands were initially subordinate to the Solikamsk governor, and then became part of the Siberian province, formed by Peter I on December 18 (29), 1708. When the Siberian province was divided into provinces, the Perm lands fell into the Solikamsk and Vyatka provinces. On June 4 (15), 1724, the city of Kungur with the Kungur district was transferred from the Vyatka province to Solikamsk. On April 29 (May 10), 1727, the Vyatka and Solikamsk provinces were transferred to the Kazan province. On August 13 (24), 1737, the provincial governor was transferred from the city of Solikamsk to the city of Kungur. The Solikamsk province of the Kazan province was renamed the Perm province of the Kazan province.

In 1781, by decree of Catherine II, who bore the title of “Princess of Perm,” an independent Perm governorate was formed with the division of its territory into 2 regions - Perm and Yekaterinburg. The grand opening of the governorship and its center, the city of Perm, took place on October 18 (29), 1781. The governorship was part of the Perm and Tobolsk General Government, which on December 12 (23), 1796 was divided into Perm and Tobolsk provinces.

On November 3, 1923, the Perm province was abolished, and its territory was included in the Ural region with its center in Yekaterinburg. On February 26, 1925, the Komi-Permyak National District was formed. On January 17, 1934, the Ural region was divided into three regions (Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk, Ob-Irtysh); The territories of the modern Perm Territory became part of the Sverdlovsk region. On October 3, 1938, by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Perm region was formed by separating it from the Sverdlovsk region. From March 8, 1940 to October 2, 1957 it was called the Molotov region.

On January 28, 1967, the Perm region was awarded the “Order of Lenin” for the services achieved by the workers of the region in economic and cultural construction.

In 1977, the Komi-Permyak National Okrug was renamed an autonomous okrug. After the collapse of the USSR, with the adoption of the Constitution of Russia (1993), the district became an independent subject of the Russian Federation, however, territorially continuing to be part of the Perm region, which is also a subject of the Russian Federation, and being in contractual relations with the region.

On December 7, 2003, a referendum was held in which residents of the Perm region and the Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug supported the unification into a single subject of the Russian Federation - the Perm Territory. During the unification, no territorial changes were made; a new entity was formed on the territory of the Perm region, which territorially included the district. At the same time, the district lost the status of a subject of the Russian Federation and, accordingly, representation in the Federal Assembly. Based on the results of the referendum on unification, the Federal Constitutional Law was adopted, according to which the Perm Territory is considered formed on December 1, 2005.



Perm region is one of the economically developed regions of Russia. In 2018, the volume of gross regional product amounted to 1.318.472 million rubles.

The average salary offered to job seekers in the Perm region in 2020 was 45 thousand rubles. In January, this figure was about 40-41 thousand rubles. At the same time, the median salary offered was 35 thousand rubles.



The basis of the region's economy is a highly developed industrial complex. Key industries: oil, chemical and petrochemical, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, mechanical engineering, timber industry.

About 10 million tons of oil are produced annually in the Perm region. The leading mining company is LLC Lukoil-Perm. Oil production is concentrated in the south (Kudinsky, Kungursky, Orda, Osinsky, Chastinsky and Chernushinsky municipal districts) and the north of the region (Krasnovishersky, Solikamsky and Usolsky municipal districts).

Perm is home to large oil processing enterprises (LLC Lukoil-Permnefteorgsintez (PNOS)) and gas.

The leading branch of the chemical industry is the production of mineral fertilizers; the region accounts for 100% of the production of potash fertilizers in Russia. The world's largest deposit of potassium salts, Verkhnekamskoe, is located in the Perm region. Ore mining and potash fertilizer production are carried out in Berezniki (PJSC Uralkali) and Solikamsk (PJSC Uralkali). The Uralkali company is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of potash fertilizers.

The production of nitrogen fertilizers is located in Perm (OJSC Mineral Fertilizers) and Berezniki (OJSC Azot).

Enterprises of the petrochemical industry of the region carry out mainly primary processing of raw materials. The largest enterprises in the industry:
CJSC "Sibur-Khimprom" - Perm;
JSC "Metafrax" - Gubakha;
OJSC "Uralorgsintez" - Tchaikovsky.

In addition, in Perm there are enterprises producing activated carbon (Sorbent OJSC), washing powder (Henkel-Pemos), halogen-containing chemical products (Halogen OJSC), phthalic anhydride (Kamtex-Khimprom OJSC).

A coke plant is located in Gubakha (JSC Gubakha Coke).

Ferrous metallurgy is represented by a full-cycle plant (JSC Chusovsky Metallurgical Plant) and processing metallurgy enterprises (the largest is JSC Lysvensky Metallurgical Plant).

Non-ferrous metallurgy is based on the processing of ore from the Verkhnekamsk potassium salt deposit, containing magnesium and rare metals. The plants are located in Berezniki (titanium-magnesium plant of the VSMPO-Avisma corporation) and Solikamsk (OJSC Solikamsk Magnesium Plant). In Perm there is a plant for the production of secondary aluminum (JSC Perm Non-Ferrous Metals).

In mechanical engineering, the production of military products plays an important role. The largest mechanical engineering center is Perm; Aviation and rocket engines, oil production and mining equipment, gas-powered saws, communications equipment, ships, cables and other products are produced. The largest enterprises are the Motovilikha plants and the Perm engine-building complex.

Separate machine-building enterprises are also located in the cities of Lysva (production of turbogenerators), Kungur (production of oilfield equipment), Ocher (production of drilling equipment) and Aleksandrovsk (production of mining equipment), as well as the villages of Pavlovsky (Ochersky district), Suksun and Yugo-Kamsky (Perm region). Among the reasons for the crisis in the region's engineering industry, one can highlight the low level of state defense orders, as well as the specialization of most enterprises in the production of components and individual parts rather than final products, which prevents the implementation of an independent sales policy. The production of equipment for the extractive industries and railway transport is developing most successfully.

The timber industry complex of the region is based on the use of the richest forest resources of the Kama region. Logging facilities are located mainly in the north of the region. There are three pulp and paper mills in the Perm region: Krasnokamsk, Perm and Solikamsk (JSC Solikamskbumprom). On the territory of the region there is one of the country's largest enterprises producing plywood - NAO SVEZA Uralsky (Uralsky village, Nytvensky district of the Perm Territory).

The largest center of the region's food industry is Perm. There is a meat processing plant (Perm Meat Processing Plant OJSC, part of the Prodo group), a Perm dairy plant (a branch of the Unimilk company), margarine, flour milling, liquor and vodka (Permalko OJSC, part of the S.P.I. group), wine - a vodka plant (Uralalko OJSC, part of the Synergy group), two confectionery factories (Permskaya and Nestlé-owned Kamskaya), a cold storage plant (Perm Refrigeration Plant Sozvezdie OJSC, part of the Komos Group), baking production Other large centers of the food industry include Kungur (meat and milk processing), Krasnokamsk (meat processing), as well as Tchaikovsky, Lysva, Kudymkar, Vereshchagino.



The potential soil fertility of the Perm region is high with a humus horizon of significant thickness. It is advisable to cultivate vegetable and fodder crops on these soils. They also provide valuable hay and pasture land. However, a significant amount of arable land urgently requires the application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. Swamp soils (3.5% of the total area) after drainage by cultural and agrotechnical measures become valuable arable and forage lands. Agricultural lands occupy 20% of the territory of the Perm region. More than half of the territory of the region (59%) is occupied by lands of forestry enterprises.



There are the Perm branch of the Sverdlovsk Railway (formerly the Perm Railway named after L.M. Kaganovich), OJSC Shipping Company Kama River Shipping Company, Federal State Unitary Enterprise Perm Airlines, Bolshoye Savino International Airport.

Economic development is hampered by the almost complete absence of roads in the north of the Perm Territory and their extreme insufficiency in other areas. Due to the lack of roads, tourism to the picturesque Ural Mountains does not function. The large Kama River, which crosses the entire Perm Territory, is a difficult dividing barrier for communication, since only three road bridges have been built across it.

In 2015, 592,857 cars were registered in the region. According to this indicator, the Perm region took 24th place in the Russian Federation.