Basegi Nature Reserve

Basegi Reserve is a state natural reserve in the Perm Territory, Russia. The city was founded on October 1, 1982 (Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR No. 531) with the aim of preserving a large array of indigenous Middle Ural spruce and fir forests located in the foothills of the Basega ridge. At the time of organization, the area of ​​the reserve was 19.3 thousand hectares; its territory included three mountain peaks, forming the Basegi ridge, and the adjacent forest.

In 1993, the reserve was expanded (order of the Council of Ministers of the Russian Federation No. 244-r dated February 15, 1993) due to its former buffer zone, which consisted partly of uncut primary forests, partly of relatively young felling areas. As a result of the expansion of the territory, the total area of ​​the reserve is 37 935 hectares, the buffer zone along the boundaries of the reserve is 21 345 hectares (Decision No. 29 of the Perm Regional Executive Committee dated 02.02.1983; Order of the Administration of the Perm Region dated 18.11.93 No. 557-r).

The reserve is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation. The administration of the reserve is located in the city of Gremyachinsk, at the address: Gremyachinsk, st. Lenin, house 100.


History of the reserve

A milestone in the environmental life of the Kama region in the 80s of the last century was the struggle for the creation of the Basegi nature reserve. The issue of organizing a nature reserve on the territory subordinate to the city of Gremyachinsk and the Gornozavodsky district has a long history.

Its creation was preceded by many years of expeditionary research. K.N. Igoshina studied the flora and vegetation of the Basegi ridge in 1934-1944. Participants of a complex expedition of the USSR Academy of Sciences also visited here, including famous ornithologists E.M. Vorontsov. and Uvarova V.Ya.

The question of creating a reserve was first raised in 1947 at a meeting of the academic council of the Natural Science Institute (ENI) at Perm State University. Famous scientists Krasovsky P.N. and Ponomarev A.N. proposed to organize a reserve on Basegi, taking into account the unique floristic composition, richness of the landscape and special forest conditions. In 1959 the oldest forester of the Urals N.I. Kerzhentsev again raised the issue of organizing a reserve with the aim of preserving typical areas of mountain forests. This idea found support among local authorities, and the Alexandrovsky City Executive Committee decided to create a state reserve. The total area was determined to be 106 thousand hectares. However, most of the forest areas that were planned to be given over to the reserve were transferred to the timber enterprises of the USSR Ministry of Forestry, and their industrial felling began.

In 1975, the presidium of the Gornozavodsky District Society for Nature Conservation (chairman of the society Borovikov N.A.) adopted a resolution “On the organization of a reserve of mountain forests of the Middle Urals.” In 1977, employees of the Perm forest experimental station Voronova O.I., Shergold O.E., Kanisev G.N. prepared proposals for a feasibility study of the project for creating the Basegi nature reserve.
In 1978, the first expedition, organized by the Department of Biogeocenology and Nature Conservation (BOP), headed by the head of the department Voronov G.A., went to the Baseg region. Under the leadership of Voronov G.A. Complex expeditions began to work, confirming the uniqueness of this territory.
On February 14, 1979, the regional executive committee made decision No. 32 “On the organization of the Basegi reserve in the Gornozavodsky district of the Perm region” with an area of 35.8 thousand hectares; it was called botanical and faunal and was intended to create a “launching pad” for the creation of a protected area on its basis. On behalf of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR, the State Planning Committee of the RSFSR reviewed and rejected this decision, pointing out the inadequacy of the feasibility study, the inconsistency of the decision with one of the points of the “Fundamentals of Forest Legislation” and the lack of indications of the departmental affiliation of the reserve and the sources of its financing. In this regard, the Perm Regional Executive Committee instructed the Department of BOP of Perm State University, together with the forestry department, to develop a project for organizing the Basegi nature reserve. Expeditionary work carried out during 1979-1981. University staff, students and scientists of Moscow State University, ENI scientists, forestry department employees, allowed us to get an idea of the landscapes, the nature of vegetation, soil cover, and the characteristics of flora and fauna. The only suitable territory was the mountainous zone of the Basegi ridge, where mid-taiga forests were preserved in an untouched state, where it was possible to preserve landscapes that play an important environment-forming and water-protective role. By the end of 1980, a project for organizing the reserve was prepared.

Thus, the creation of a reserve became an urgent need. Scientists and the public managed to convince the authorities that preserving the Basegi mountain range in its natural state will help avoid a number of dangerous phenomena: shallowing of watercourses, including tributaries of the Chusovaya River; widespread development of erosion of mountain slopes; sharp depletion of valuable plant communities; reduction in the number of game species. Among other things, the “valuable” forests on the gentler slopes of the ridge had been cut down by that time, and the resistance of the Ministry of Forestry weakened.

Finally, on February 11, 1981, the Perm Regional Executive Committee adopted decision No. 25 “On the organization of the Basegi reserve,” which was approved only a year and a half later, after lengthy meetings in various departments, publications in periodicals in support of the creation of the reserve, on October 1, 1982. by decision of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR No. 531. However, out of the original planned area of 38 thousand hectares, only 19.4 thousand hectares of the land fund were transferred to the reserve. Nevertheless, the reserve was created, and this was a great victory for Perm scientists and the scientific community in protecting the nature of the Kama region.

All these years of struggle for the creation of the reserve (since 1978), it was the team of the Department of Biogeocenology and Nature Conservation of Perm State University, its head Voronov G.A. (Doctor of Geographical Sciences, Professor, Honored Ecologist of Russia) were the driving, consolidating force that united scientists and the public in organizing the first state reserve in the Perm region.

Only in 1993, as a result of persistent efforts of scientists (primarily employees of the Department of Biogeocenology and Nature Conservation of PSU), the regional administration, and a number of publications, the area of the reserve was increased to 37,922 hectares.

From 1982 to 1985 Department staff conducted a detailed inventory of the flora and fauna of the Basegi Nature Reserve. The greatest increase in forest management and economic development was noted in the reserve from 1985 to 1986. It was then that the material base was thoroughly laid out: forest districts and a security system were created, cordons were built, machinery and equipment were purchased, and a housing stock of 8 houses appeared.

Since 1986, a scientific department began to function, headed by V.Z. Rubinstein, and since 1987 he became director of the reserve. It was under Rubinstein V.Z. Intensive preparations began for the expansion of the reserve and the opening of a new Vishera branch on its basis, which in 1991 received the status of an independent reserve.
The first biological survey of natural components of the environment was carried out much earlier (before the creation of the scientific activities of the reserve). Even before the opening of the reserve, employees of Perm University carried out inventory work on the flora and fauna. Therefore, the first lists of animals, insects, birds, and plants were partially included in the design of the reserve.
Over the more than twenty years of existence of the reserve, significant scientific work has been done on its territory by students and staff of Perm universities, Moscow State University and the scientific department of the Basegi reserve. The result of the work was a research report and a number of publications.

In 1987, the first book, “Chronicles of Nature,” was compiled, and in 1989, the second. In 1991, the third book “Chronicles of Nature” for 1987-1989 was created. Since then, books have been compiled annually. The lack of funds for maintaining the reserve and conducting environmental monitoring forces the scientific department of the reserve to look for contract work, win grants and conduct the necessary program at the expense of third-party funds. From 1995 to the present day, the reserve's scientific department has used the benefits of contract work to carry out research needed by the reserve. In particular, it becomes possible to widely cover areas outside the boundaries of the reserve. This makes it possible to collect information on the distribution, abundance and, in part, ecology of rare species of flora and fauna. Along with this, work continues to compile a database of environmental monitoring for all the years of the reserve’s existence. The transition to a qualitatively new level of creating electronic forms of the “Chronicles of Nature”, the possibilities of technical processing of the obtained materials allow us to make some generalizations of many years of research.

Today, the territory of the reserve has been expanded twice and amounts to 37,957 hectares, although the area of the protective zone has decreased and amounts to 21,345 hectares. The reserve has its own “address”. An environmental monitoring laboratory with a field branch on the territory of the reserve has been equipped. Here, on the territory, a research hospital has been operating since 1995; Colleagues from near and far abroad are interested in the experience of the scientific department. In the reserve, despite all the economic difficulties, the necessary amount of planned scientific, conservation and environmental education work is being carried out, the study of the natural landscapes of certain territories is being developed, and an attempt is being made to expand the territory again due to the cleared areas around the reserve.

In 2001, an environmental education department was created in the Basegi State Nature Reserve. Employees of this department organize and carry out environmental education work. Environmental awareness and education activities are supported by employees of the reserve's scientific department. There is a certain infrastructure: an information center in the administrative building, an ecological trail in a protected area. On-site events are also organized at educational and cultural institutions.
Environmental educational activities are carried out in the following main areas: work with the media, museum work and the organization of information centers for visitors, environmental excursions, work with schoolchildren, interaction with teachers, organization of environmental holidays and events, etc.

The basis for the active environmental and educational work of the reserve is the museum’s natural exhibition and information center in the administrative building. Various exhibitions are constantly organized here. At the information center you can watch films about animals and plants, about the Basegi Nature Reserve and other protected areas.

Working with schoolchildren is one of the priority areas of environmental and educational activities of the Basegi Nature Reserve. Children are the main participants in many events. Every year, holidays and promotions, competitions and quizzes are held dedicated to various dates of the environmental calendar. The environmental action “March of Parks” has become traditional in our small Ural town of Gremyachinsk. In recent years, thanks to the efforts of the reserve’s staff, other settlements in the Perm Territory have learned about this campaign.

In the summer-autumn period of the year, educational ecological excursions have been and remain an effective form of work. For this purpose, an excursion ecological route “To the top of Northern Baseg” has been created and is functioning in the reserve. In modern conditions, the activities of the environmental education department are aimed at solving the following tasks: increasing the public status of the Basegi reserve, creating a positive image of specially protected natural areas - a unique part of the national natural heritage.


Geographical position

The Basegi State Reserve is located on the territory of the Gremyachinsky urban district and the Gornozavodsky municipal district of the Perm Territory. The territory of the reserve includes the Basegi mountain range and adjacent foothills. The reserve is located at the watershed of the rivers Usva and Vilva - tributaries of the Chusovaya River. The territory is located within the western macroslope of the Main Ural Range.



The average annual precipitation is 730 mm, ranging from 450 mm to 1100 mm. The average annual air temperature is from -1.0 to -1.4 ° C. The maximum temperatures in summer can reach + 40.0 ° C, the minimum in winter is up to -48 ° C. The climate of this area is characterized by cold winters and cool summers with sharp daily temperature fluctuations.


Flora and fauna

The fauna of the reserve includes more than 520 species of animals, including over 45 rare ones. The reserve is home to 51 species of mammals, more than 150 species of birds, 2 species of reptiles, 17 species of fish and 3 species of amphibians. The flora is typical for the taiga zone, but Basegi is home to 17 species of plants that are not found anywhere else in the world, 14 relicts of the pre-glacial and post-glacial periods, 5 relics of the ice age, 3 plant species are listed in the Red Book of Russia (calypso bulbosa, Shiverekia Podolskaya, lobaria pulmonosa ), 24 species are included in the Red Book of the Middle Urals.

Species of the reserve included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation
Lobaria pulmonaria

Calypso bulbosa
Leafless mullet (Epipogium aphyllum)

Mnemosyne (Parnassius mnemosyne)
Bumblebee (Bombus paradoxus)

European grayling (Thymallus thymallus)
Common sculpin (Cottus gobio)
Common taimen (Hucho taimen)

Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)
Great Curlew (Numenius arquata)
Aquatic warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola)
European blue tit (Parus cyanus cyanus)
Gray Shrike (Lanius excubitor)
White-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla)
Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus)
Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)
Eagle owl (Bubo bubo)
Black Stork (Ciconia nigra)