Kirov Oblast, Russia

Kirov or Kirovskaya Oblast is the subject of the Russian Federation. It is part of the Volga Federal District. Refers to the Volga-Vyatka Economic District. The territory of the region is 120 374 km². The population is 1,138 112 people. (2023). The urban population is 78.7 % (2022).

The administrative center is the city of Kirov.

Other large cities of the Kirov region-Kirovo-Chepetsk, Slobodskaya, Vyatka Polyany, Kotelnich, Omutninsk, Sovetsk. The administrative division of the region includes 24 municipal regions, as well as five cities of regional subordination and one closed administrative-territorial education of federal subordination-Pervomaisky.

The Kirov region borders on nine constituent entities of the Russian Federation (more than any other subject of Russia): in the east with the Perm Territory and Udmurtia, in the north - with the Republic of Komi and the Arkhangelsk region, in the west - with the Vologda, Kostroma and Nizhny Novgorod regions, in the south - in the south with the republics of Mari El and Tatarstan.

It was formed on December 7, 1934 as the Kirov Territory by separation of the Gorky Territory, and from December 5, 1936 in accordance with the new Constitution of the USSR - as the Kirov region. Historically, the region was preceded by the Vyatka province, formed in 1780.



Kirov (Vyatka) - the administrative center of the region.
Slobodskaya - an old merchant city with a holistic preserved historical environment.
Kotelnich is a small city on the Trans -Siberian Highway with a cathedral, the starting point for traveling to the Nurgush Reserve, in the vicinity there is one of the world's largest location of the remains of fossil pariazaurs.
Kirovo-Chepetsk is an industrial city founded under the Soviet Union. Along the city there is one of the few narrow -blade railways preserved in Russia. On it you can get to the Museum of the Railway.
Yaransk is a small city with interesting architecture, including Temple.
Urzhum is the birthplace of the Soviet political figure Sergei Kirov, the Holy Trinity Cathedral should be seen in the city. The people are called the "capital of South Vyatka."
Nolinsk is a city of interesting county architecture. The wealth of the local merchants made it possible to build a large number of unique mansions. The birthplace of the oldest industries - Nolin gingerbread and lemonade.
Sovetsk (Kukarka) - the birthplace of many crafts known in Russia and abroad: Kukar lace, caps of cap, felting valenkov, chill.
Vyatka Polyans - the place of work of the designer of automatic weapons George Shpagin, you can visit museums and see the temple architecture.
Zuevka is a small city on the Trans -Siberian Autonomous Okrug with a memorial museum dedicated to the great Russian artist Viktor Vasnetsov, who was born in these places.
Lalsk is a historical merchant city with a well-preserved architectural ensemble of the XVIII-XIX centuries.


Other destinations

State natural reserve "Nurgush"
Nizhnevka resort area
The village of Istobensk - the cucumber "capital" of Russia


How to get

By train
From Moscow from the Yaroslavl station on trains following to Kirov or Trans -Siberia.

By car
From Moscow along the highway through Vladimir, Nizhny Novgorod, then through Semenovo, Urens or Yoshkar-Ola to Yaransk. It is possible to get through Kostroma or Vologda, but these routes are worse in terms of distance and quality of roads.


Physico and geographical characteristics


Kirov region, one of the largest in the non-chernozem zone of the Russian Federation, is located in the northeast of the Russian plain in the central-eastern part of European Russia.

The area of the territory is 120 374 km².



The relief of the region is hollowed with a common slope of the surface from the northeast to the south-west. The difference in absolute heights is 281 m (from 56 m to 337 m). In the central part of the region there are Vyatka Vyalya, in the northeast-the Verkhnekamsk Upland, in the north-the northern police.



In the region there are almost 20 thousand rivers with a total length of 66.65 thousand km. The northern Uvaly share the rivers of two pools - Severodvinsky and Volzhsky. Most of the region is occupied by the Vyatka River basin, which flows into Kama in Tatarstan. In the Kama in the region, only the upper course is located. Other large -flowing ones within the region include rivers of Molom, Top, Luza, Cobra, Chepz.

The total number of lakes in the region is 4.5 thousand. Together with the ponds, the number of closed reservoirs of the region is 5.5 thousand. The largest lakes: Akshuben - 85 hectares, Oryol - 63 hectares, Moueter - 32 hectares. The deepest reservoir of the region - Lake Lezhninskoye - 36.6 m. A unique Lake Shaitan is located in the Urzhum district.

The high swampy of the northern half of the region is characteristic. In the Verkhnekamsk district, swallowing reaches 40 % of the total area. The largest swamps: Volmenskoye - 13,514 hectares, Salarymyevskoye - 10,556 hectares, Kaisinsky - 10 517 hectares.



The climate is moderately continental. The proximity to the Arctic Ocean determines the possibility of invasion of cold air. Hence severe frosts in winter, frosts and sharp cooling in the summer months.

The average long -term temperature in January: −13.5 ... −15 ° C, July: +18 ... +20 ° C. The absolute maximum temperature reaches +38 ... +40 ° C, the absolute minimum: −45 ... −50 ° C.

On average, a relative humidity in the year is 75–79 %. From October to February, the average monthly humidity is 81-89 %. In the transition months of the year (March, September), it ranges from 74 % to 85 %. The dry air with a moisture content of 61-68 % is in May - June.

The region belongs to the zone of sufficient hydration. Precipitation goes every second day. On average, 500-680 mm falls in the region per year in the region, in the north - 590-680 mm, in the south - 500-550 mm. 60-70 % of precipitation falls on the warm season.

During the year, southwest and southern winds prevail. The average annual wind speed reaches 3-5 m/s. In summer, the winds are weaker (excluding squalls), in the fall increase in the fall and in the cold time they reach the maximum. The wind is usually gusty. Gusts occasionally reach 30-40 m/s, sometimes more.


Natural resources

The basis of the natural-resource potential of the region is the forest (mainly coniferous rocks), phosphorites, peats, fur, water and land resources. There is an exceptionally rare Mineral Volkonskit. Torf field deposits are widespread. The reserves of non -metallic mineral raw materials are great: limestone, marls, clays, sand and gravel. In recent decades in the east of the region, minor industrial oil reserves have been identified, as well as bentonite clays deposits. In the Verkhnekamsk district there is the largest in Europe the Vyatka-Kama field of phosphorites. The area is rich in mineral springs and therapeutic mud. In the territory of the Kumyon region there is a well -known resort village of Nizhnevkino, where residents of the Kirov region and other regions of Russia come for treatment and rest.


Particularly protected natural territories

There are 197 specially protected natural areas with a total area of 375.6 thousand hectares: the state natural reserve of federal significance “Nurgush”, three state natural reserves of regional significance - “Pizemsky”, “Bylina”, “Bushkovsky forest”, 189 natural monuments, of regional significance, Three medical and health areas. Work is underway to create the National Park "Atar Luke".



The state of atmospheric air in the Kirov region is stable. The most intensive pollution is noted on the territory of the concentration of industrial enterprises and the intensive movement of vehicles.

The water in the Vyatka River, whose pool occupies most of the region, is characterized by an increased iron content of natural in nature. The highest concentrations of harmful substances are concentrated on the site from the city of Slobodsky to the city of Kirov.

In 2007, a “list of potentially hazardous and critical objects of the Kirov region” was approved, which includes 65 objects, of which 3 chemically hazardous objects of the 3rd class of hazard: a mineral fertilizer factory of the Kirovo-Chepetsk Chemical Culture, a polymers of the Kirovo-Chepetsk chemical plant and a set of objects for the storage and destruction of chemical weapons "Maradykovsky" in the Orichevsky district.



On January 14, 1929, by the Decree of the Presidium of the All -Russian Central Executive Committee on the territory of the Nizhny Novgorod and Vyatka provinces, as well as the insignificant territories of the Vladimir and Kostroma provinces, the Nizhny Novgorod region is created. On July 15, 1929, the Nizhny Novgorod Territory was formed (since 1932 - Gorky), which included the Nizhny Novgorod region, Votsk (since 1932 - Udmurt) and the Mari Autonomous Regions and the Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

The territory of the former Nizhny Novgorod region is divided into 4 districts - Vyatka, Kotelny, Nizhny Novgorod and Nolinsky. In 1930, the districts were abolished, the regions were transferred to the direct subordination of the regional authorities. In 1930-1934, a policy was being pursued to disaggregate the regions.

On December 7, 1934, simultaneously with the renaming of the city of Vyatka in the Kirov in the Gorky Territory, the Kirovsky Territory was allocated, which included 37 districts of the Gorky Territory, the Udmurt Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, as well as the Votkinsk and Sarapul districts of the Sverdlovsk region.

On December 7, 1936, on the eve of the adoption of the Constitution of the RSFSR of 1937, the Udmurt Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was emerging from the Kirov Territory, the Kirov region itself was renamed the Kirov region. On October 22, 1937, by the Decree of the All -Russian Central Executive Committee from the Kirov region to the Udmurt Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, the Votkinsky, Sarapul, Karakulinsky and Kiyasovsky districts were transferred. In 1941, Oparinsky, Lalsky and Podosinovsky districts were transferred from the Arkhangelsk region.



The system of state authorities of the Kirov region is formed (according to the charter of the region):
Governor of the Kirov region - the highest official of the region;
The Legislative Assembly of the Kirov Region is the highest and only legislative (representative) body of state power of the region;
The Government of the Kirov Region is the highest executive body of state power of the Kirov region;
Other executive bodies of the Kirov region, formed by the Legislative Assembly and the Government of the region in accordance with the charter and laws of the region.

In accordance with the Charter, justice in the Kirov region is carried out:
Kirov Regional Court;
Arbitration court of the Kirov region;
district (city) courts;
The authorized court of the Kirov region (was not formed);
other courts created in the region in accordance with federal law;



Over the XX and XXI centuries, the share of the population of the Vyatka Territory in the population of Russia, which was 4.2 %at the end of the 19th century, decreased to less than 0.8 %. The population of the region according to Rosstat is 1,138,112 people. (2023). The population density is 9.45 people/km2 (2023). The urban population is 78.7 % (2022).

The national composition of the population
According to the 2010 population census:
Russians - 1 199 691 people,
Tatars - 36,457 people,
Mari - 29 598 people,
Udmurts - 13,639 people,
Ukrainians - 7718 people,
Persons who did not indicate nationality - 35,585 people.




The main industries: mechanical engineering and metalworking; non-ferrous and ferrous metallurgy, chemical, microbiological, forest, woodworking and pulp-paper, light, food industry, peat.



As of the beginning of 2020, 5 thermal power plants and one small hydroelectric power station with a total capacity of 972.55 MW were operated in the Kirov region. In 2019, they produced 4309.1 million kWh of electricity.



As of January 1, 2021, the rural population was 272,610 people, or 22 % of the population of the Kirov region.

The leading commodity industry in agricultural production is livestock, mainly a dairy-and-subject direction. The main agricultural crops grown: grain, potatoes, linen and vegetables. In the structure of grain, winter rye and faraway crops prevail. Agricultural production provides the food security of the region. Up to 20 % of livestock products are exported outside the region, mainly to the northern regions of the country.



The leading direction of the industry remains milk cattle breeding. Gross milk yield in 2020 750 thousand tons or 104 % to the level of 2019. On average, 7950 kg of milk is necessary from a cow in agricultural surgives of the region. 85 thousand tons were slaughter and poultry, 619 million eggs were obtained, which is 14 % more than a year earlier. The number of breeding cows of the dairy direction of productivity is 67 % of the total number of livestock in agricultural explosions of the region (34 % in Russia). Implemented 4.8 thousand heads of milk breeding young animals, 65 % outside the Kirov region.

As of June 1, 2021, there were 246.8 thousand heads of cattle (-0.3 %) in farms of all categories, including 101.8 thousand cows (+1.6 %), 238.4 thousand heads of pigs ( +14.6 %), 52.2 thousand sheep and goats (+0.1 %), 2844.1 thousand bird heads (+6.8 %).

In 2021, 733.6 thousand tons of cow's milk were produced in the agricultural expenses of the Kirov region, which is 3.4%higher than 2020. In the production of milk in agricultural exploration, fifth place in the Russian Federation. In 2021, 8040 kilograms of milk from one cow were needed in agricultural experts (in 2010 - 4820, in 2015 - 6536 kilograms).


Crop production

In 2022, farmers gathered a record crop of grain. 309.2 thousand hectares of grain and grain -combat crops are threshed, 825.8 thousand tons of grain were pounded, with a yield of 26.7 kg/ha.

In 2020, the gross harvest of grain and grain -combat crops amounted to 740 thousand tons, with a yield of 24.7 kg/ha (in 2019 730 thousand tons, yield of 26.1 c/ha). 299 thousand hectares are threshed.



In Kirov, there is a civilian airport Problovo. 25 km from Kirov is the landing site of Kuchana, designed to receive and issue aircraft of small aircraft. Airline Vyatkaavia is based on the landing site

The main passenger move of the Trans -Siberian Railway passes through the Kirov region, also a line connecting the northern regions with Central Russia Kirov - Kotlas. The total length of the railways is 1098 km.

A network of roads with solid coating with a length of 9086 km. The territory of the Kirov region pass the federal roads of the P176 and P243, which have access to the Komi Republic, the Kostroma region, the Perm Territory, the Republic of Chuvashia and Mari El. The A123 highway connects the region with the Arkhangelsk and Vologda regions. At the same time, there is a need to build roads connecting the Kirov region with other subjects of the Federation. So, there is still no road surface on the border of the Kirov region and Udmurtia along the road of Kirov-Glazov-Perm, which is why the profitable transport road is practically not used.

The main water line is the Vyatka River. The length of the operated waterways along Vyatka and its tributaries is 1800 km.

In connection with the development of peat domestic, in the region a network of narrow -gauge railways was built:



In the region there are 3.5 thousand monuments of history, culture and architecture, 883 monuments of archeology, urban planning and architecture, history and art were placed on state protection.

In the region there are 817 public (publicly accessible) libraries, 40 museums (literary houses-museums by A. S. Green and M. Saltykov-Shchedrin, local history, ethnographic, natural scientific, memorial and industry), several exhibition halls, more than 800 cultural institutions .


Competitions and festivals

In Kirov and the regions are regularly held:
All -Russian dance holiday for the prize of the People's Artist of the Russian Federation, professor, academician V. M. Zakharov,
All -Russian competition of masters of the artistic word "My Russia",
Interregional festival of national cultures "Firebird",
International Musical Festival "Vyatka Spring"
Open festival of social film and television programs "Vyatka",
All -Russian festival of modern man -made toy,
All -Russian Vasnetsovsky openier,
The festival of the author's song "Greenland",
Festival of folk crafts and crafts "Vyatka bastard",
"Istobensky cucumber" - a festival of folk art and humor.


Folk crafts

The region is famous for artistic folk crafts: Dymkovo painted clay toy, kapornya products, straws, pine root, wood, vine, Vyatka lace, flax products with traditional embroidery, ceramics.


Vyatka dialects

Belong to the North Russian dialect. Vyatka dialects are heterogeneous, which is explained by the different time of the settlements of the Vyatka land by the Russians and the nature of interaction with local non -Slavic dialects. The massive settlement of the Vyatka River basin began relatively late, in the second half of the XIV century, although the penetration of a few groups of Slavs into this territory could be much earlier. The main core of Russian immigrants on Vyatka during its early development was made up by Novgorodians and immigrants from the Novgorod northern colonies. The indigenous population of the Vyatka lands were various Finno-Ugric tribes-the ancestors of the Udmurts, Komi, Marie, and in the south-Turkic. Thus, the Russian dialects of the Vyatka Territory were formed in interaction with local Finno-Ugric, as well as Turkic languages (primarily Tatar). The ancient Novgorod dialect on Vyatka was changed and began to differ significantly from the maternal. The originality of the formation of Vyatka dialects lies in the fact that for a long time they almost did not interact with the Russian dialects of other areas, which is explained by historical conditions. In the pre -revolutionary period, the influence of the literary language was insignificant on peasant dialects. The combination of these two factors explains the originality of many phonetic, morphological and syntactic features of local dialects, and some of these features are very ancient, inherent in the Old Russian language.

In the field of phonetics have the following features:
The opposition (contrast) of brief and long sounds (both vowels and consonants) as a result of simplification of the groups of consonants and the loss of the iot (for example, “Delaiat” - “Makes,“ Kh. ” - tail);
The pronunciation of the soft “p” in front of the posterior consonants (quarters, cf. Russian lit. “Thursday”);
the presence of primordially soft hissing (w, w, h) and c (in other North Russian dialects they hardened);
The pronunciation e, as well as between the soft consonants in the place of the place (Nidil, cf. the Russian lit. "Week").

Vyatka dialects have the following morphological features:
a mixture of the ends of the dative and creative cases of plural nouns and adjectives;
a mixture of the ends of adjective and local cases in the male and middle gender of the only number;
The presence of postpositive particles consistent with the kind, number and case with nouns.



The largest religious community of the region is the Orthodox (Vyatka diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church). There is a noticeable number of Old Believers, especially in the northeast (Omutninsky, Afanasyevsky districts) and in the south of the region.

In the southern regions of the region, bordering the Republic of Tatarstan, the Sunni Islam (the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of the Kirov Region) was distributed. Bright also include Armenian and Jewish religious communities.

The new religious movements are represented by the communities of witnesses of Jehovah, Christian gospel (Pentecostals), Christian-baptists.



In the region there are 11 institutions (together with branches) of higher professional education (data as of August 16, 2016), 97 institutions of primary and secondary vocational education, 755 schools, 530 institutions of preschool education, 135 institutions of additional education of children.