Amur Oblast, Russia

The Amur Oblast, popularly called Priamurie, is a Far Eastern subject of the Russian Federation, the capital of which is the city of Blagoveshchensk. Rosstat assigns it the code 10, and its registration code is 28, and the only official language is Russian. Established on the left bank of the Amur River, from which it takes its name, it is the only Russian oblast whose name does not come from the name of a city.

Located in Manchuria in the north-east of Asia, it is located in a vast area of plains on the left bank of the Amur River, surrounded by several mountain massifs. The first traces of settlement date back to the Upper Paleolithic, with the Selemdja culture. Populated by various Tungusic peoples, the region enters the periphery of the world of Imperial China in the Middle Ages. In the thirteenth century, the Daurs settled in the region following the Mongol invasions, and they were the first to face the Russians in the seventeenth century. Colonization in the region was a failure, the Russians losing during the border conflict with the Qing Dynasty, then having to give up the Amur River valley in 1689. It was only in 1858 that the annexation of the left bank of the Amur took place with the unequal treaty of Aigun. The Russians founded the Amur Oblast, colonized the region and massacred the Chinese living there, especially during the anti-Chinese pogroms of Amur in 1900. During the Russian Civil War, the Priamurie was controlled by the Far Eastern Republic, and after several territorial reforms, the oblast was recreated in 1948 as an independent administrative unit. Since then, the region has been industrialized, and it has become a strategic space center under the Russian Federation with the opening of the Vostochny Cosmodrome in 2016.

Populated by 756,198 inhabitants in 2023, it is one of the least populated regions in Russia, but one of the most populated in the far Eastern federal district. Its economy is centered on agriculture, industries as well as the energy sector with several important dams such as the Boureïa dam. Its natural heritage is rich, with large expanses of taiga untouched by human activities. The main protected areas are the Khingan nature reserve and the Zeia Nature reserve.



Khingansky Nature Reserve

Zeya Nature Reserve


How to get there

By plane
Ignatievo International Airport (IATA:BQS) is located in Blagoveshchensk by plane.

By train
The Trans-Siberian Railway runs through the territory of the Amur Region. The main stations of the region are: Arkhara, Bureya, Zavitaya, Yekaterinoslavka, Belogorsk, Svobodny, Shimanovskaya, Tyga, Magdagachi, Skovorodino, Urusha, Yerofey Pavlovich. There is a railway line to Blagoveshchensk, which branches off in Belogorsk.

In addition, the Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM) runs through the territory of the region. The main stations on BAM are Olekma, Tynda, and Febralsk.



The Amur Region was established on December 8 (20), 1858 within the borders: in the south and southwest - along the Amur; in the west — from the confluence of the Shilka and Arguni; in the northeast along the watershed of the Amur and Lena basins to the Stanovoi Ridge along it, Dzhugdyr, Jagda and Yam-Alin to the upper reaches of the Bureya, from They are in a straight line to the Amur River at the confluence of the Ussuri river. The territory of the region within these borders was 449,535 km2.

In 1858-1884, the region was part of the East Siberian General Government, then, from 1884 to 1917, it was part of the Amur General Government. On July 5, 1878, the coat of arms of the Amur region was approved. In 1904, part of the region, in the Urmi basin and the upper reaches of the Amguni, was transferred to the Primorsky Region.

During the civil war in 1918, the Amur Labor Socialist Republic existed on the territory of the region, from April 6, 1920 to November 16, 1922 it was part of the Far Eastern Republic, after its liquidation it became part of the Far Eastern Region. The Amur Region became the Amur Province within its former borders. Four counties were formed in its composition: Blagoveshchensk, Svobodnensky, Zavitinsky and Zeysky.

In 1926, the Far Eastern Region was transformed into the Far Eastern Territory, and two administrative districts were formed on the territory of the province: Amur (with its constituent districts: Alexandrovsky, Amuro-Zeisky, Ekaterina-Nikolsky, Zavitinsky, Ivanovsky, Mazanovsky, Mikhailovsky, Svobodnensky, Selemdzhino-Bureinsky, Tambov, Khingano-Arkharinsky) with the center in Blagoveshchensk and Zeisky (the districts of Zeisky, Mogochinsky, Rukhlovsky, Tygdinsky) with the center in the village of Rukhlovo, the districts of Nekrasovsky and Mikhailo-Semenovsky in the east of the province became part of the Khabarovsk district. In 1930, the district division was abolished, the districts came under direct subordination to the regional executive committee in Khabarovsk, in 1932 the regional division was restored — the Amur Region included the districts of the Amur and Zey districts, but without the abolished Amur-Zey (in 1931) and Ekaterina-Nikolsky (in 1930) districts. In 1934, the Zeya region was created within the borders of the former Zeya administrative district (and with the same zoning), abolished in 1937, its districts became part of the Chita region.

In 1932-1938, the region was part of the Far Eastern Territory, divided into Primorsky and Khabarovsk. The Amur Region was part of the latter until 1948.

On August 2, 1948, the region was separated from the Khabarovsk Territory into an independent region of the RSFSR, it included the districts of the Chita region (Zeisky, Skovorodinsky, Tygdinsky, Dzheltulaksky, Nyukzhinsky, Zeisko-Uchursky). At the same time, the Verkhnebureinsky district was transferred to the Khabarovsk Territory, so in 1948 there were 23 districts in the region. In 1953, the Nyukzhinsky district was abolished, in 1954 — Zeysko-Uchursky, in 1955 — Kumarsky.

In 1963, rural (Belogorsky, Bureysky, Ivanovsky, Mikhailovsky, Oktyabrsky, Seryshevsky and Tambov, since 1964 Arkharinsky and Mazanovsky) and industrial districts (Dzheltulaksky, Zeisky and Selemdzhinsky) were created. Blagoveshchensk district became part of Ivanovo, and Konstantinovsky — Tambov districts. In 1965, all industrial and rural areas were transformed back into administrative ones, and in 1967 the Blagoveshchensk and Konstantinovsky districts were re-formed.

In 1975, Zeya and Shimanovsk were classified as cities of regional subordination, and the urban-type settlement of Tyndinsky was transformed into the city of regional subordination of Tynda. In 1977, the Dzheltulak district was renamed Tyndinsky with the center in the city of Tynda, Tygdinsky — Magdagachinsky with the center in the urban-type settlement of Magdagachi.

Resolution of the Presidium of the Far Eastern Executive Committee "On the zoning of the Far Eastern Territory" dated November 1932
Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR dated August 2, 1948 "On the separation of the Amur Region from the Khabarovsk Territory into an independent region of the RSFSR"


Physiographic characteristics


The Amur Region is located in the south-east of the Russian Federation, in a temperate climate zone, between 48°51' and 57°04' s. w. and 119°39' and 134°55' v. d., it is part of the Far Eastern Federal District. The distance from its administrative center, Blagoveshchensk, to Moscow by rail is 7985 km, by air — 6480 km. The region is located closer to the North Pole (about 5,000 km) than to the equator (about 6,000 km).

The Amur region has no direct access to the seas. Its northeast is only 150 km away from the cold Sea of Okhotsk (known as the "ice bag"), and the middle regions are 500-600 km away. It is 600-800 km away from the warm Sea of Japan. The length from north to south is 750 km, and from northwest to southeast - 1150 km. In terms of territory, it is approximately comparable to Germany.

Most of the region is located in the basin of the Upper and Middle Amur, which determines its name.

The region, along with part of Yakutia, is included in the ninth time zone, in which the difference with Moscow time is six hours.



The climate of the Amur region is transitional from sharply continental in the northwest to monsoon in the southeast. The formation of such a climate is due to the interaction of solar radiation, the circulation of air masses and the following geographical factors: latitudinal position, the remoteness of the territory from the sea, the influence of the underlying surface in the form of relief, vegetation, and water bodies. On the map of climatic zoning of Russia, the main part of the Amur region is located in the monsoon Far Eastern region of the temperate climatic zone, and the northwest of the Amur region is located in the continental East Siberian region of the same climatic zone.

In the Amur Region, the Zeysky, Selemdzhinsky and Tyndinsky districts, as well as the cities of Zey and Tynda, are equated to the regions of the Far North. The border of the island permafrost passes near the confluence of the Selemdzhi with the Zeya, without reaching the Free One.

The climate is primarily characterized by the temperature indicators of the coldest and warmest months. The same indicators of different places are combined by isotherms. In January, the isotherms with the lowest rates are confined to mountainous areas. In the north of the region, the average January temperature drops to -29 °C. In the intermountain depressions below. Temperatures are rising towards the south. In the south there are isotherms from -25 °C to -21 °C. Winter is harsh in the region. Voronezh is located at the latitude of Blagoveshchensk, where the average temperature in January is -6 °C, and in Blagoveshchensk it is -21 °C. The absolute minimum is -45.4 °C.

Summers in the south of the region are very warm with sufficient or excessive moisture. There are July isotherms from 21 °C to 22 °C. Summers are also warm in the intermountain valleys of the north, where average July temperatures rise to 18-19 °C. In mountainous areas, the temperature with altitude reaches 12 ° C. The average absolute maximum temperatures in the north of the region can reach 38 °C, and in the south up to 42 ° C.

The annual rainfall in the region is high: in the northeastern mountainous and eastern regions, their magnitude ranges from 900 to 1000 mm. There is less precipitation in areas tending to the Amur and the lower reaches of the Zeya River. So, in the area of the village of Yerofey Pavlovich — up to 500 mm, in Blagoveshchensk — up to 570 mm, and in the area of Argali — up to 640 mm.

The entire region is characterized by a summer maximum of precipitation, which is due to the monsoon climate. Up to 70% of the annual precipitation may fall in June, July and August. Fluctuations in precipitation are possible. So, in summer, with increasing evaporation, absolute and relative humidity increases, and in spring, due to the dryness of the air, the snow cover mostly evaporates, and this results in a slight spring rise in the water level in rivers.



Landscapes of taiga, subtaiga and broad-leaved forests are represented in the Amur region. According to other sources, there is a forest-steppe in the south of the region. The Tukuringra—Jagda ridges divide the taiga into the middle and southern subzones. The latitudinal zonation is superimposed by the high-altitude zonation of the mountains, which makes the vegetation cover of the Amur region more complex, adding to its composition a char belt (alpine tundra) and a belt of elfin trees with fragments of stone-birch forests. The different distance to the Pacific Ocean contributes to the sectoral differentiation of vegetation: in most of the Amur region, the light coniferous taiga passes through the subtaiga pine-oak and larch-oak forests into the "Amur prairies" and oak-black birch forests, and the fir-spruce taiga appearing on the eastern outskirts of the region is replaced by the northern version of cedar-deciduous forests with secondary oak forests, linden, birch and aspen formations in their place

The floral composition of some plant communities is disclosed below. The Amur prairies were threatened with extinction due to the plowing of fertile meadow-chernozem-like soils (zonal vegetation on a zonal soil type.

Aquatic and near-aquatic plants: lotus, Schreber's brazenia, marsh whitefly, tetrahedral water lily, chastuchoid otelia, Korsakov's monochoria, Chinese trapella, white-leaved caldesia, floating hornbill, rdest, duckweed, floating salvinia, types of reed and cattail…
Settled meadows, including the "Amur prairies": dodging reed, Trinius vole, species of weinik, sedges, wormwood, peas, geraniums and violets, Tatar aster, patrinia scabiosolistnaya, krasodnev small, xiphoid iris, low lily, large-flowered shirokokol, Baikal skullcap, Chinese carnation, Lindley's horsetail, Manchurian serpukha, Turchaninov's lumbago, St. John 's wort large…
Broad-leaved valley forests and thickets of hawthorn: Japanese elm, Maksimovich poplar, Manchurian ash, Amur linden, Amur velvet, Manchurian walnut, split elm, small-leaved maples and Ginnala, common cherry, Ussuri pear, Amur lilac, Amur maakia, Daurian hawthorn, berry apple, Daurian rosehip, white svidina, honeysuckle golden, warty birch bark (small-flowered), mountain ash, Amur grapes, Chinese lemongrass, Daurian moonseed, dioscorea Nippon, ostrich, Asian frima, nettle, angelica, sedge…


Administrative-territorial division


The governor of the Amur Region since 2018 is Vasily Alexandrovich Orlov.

Elections to the Legislative Assembly of the Amur Region were held on September 19, 2021. One self—nominated candidate and seven parties entered the regional parliament: United Russia — 18 seats, the Communist Party — 3 seats, the Liberal Democratic Party, Just Russia - For Truth, the Party of Pensioners, New People and Communists of Russia — one seat each.

The Chairman of the Legislative Assembly is Konstantin Viktorovich Dyakonov.



Currently, the structure of industrial production has an energy and raw materials orientation. The main share is occupied by energy and gold mining.

Deposits and manifestations of placer and ore gold, silver, titanium, molybdenum, tungsten, copper, tin, polymetals, antimony, brown and hard coal, zeolites, kaolin, cement raw materials, apatite, graphite, talc, semiprecious, facing stones are known here.

The border position, the presence of significant resource potential, open up great opportunities for the region. According to the Comprehensive Plan of Socio-economic Development of the Amur Region until 2025, six centers of economic development have been identified: gas processing, mining, agro-industrial, energy, tourist and recreational and space, within which it is planned to implement capital construction, major repairs, modernization of social, transport and housing and communal infrastructure.

Major investment projects will become the basis of the centers of economic development:

the development of gold mining in the Selemdzhinsky district, the development of the Bam gold deposit, the increase in gold production at the Pokrovsky and Malomyrsky mines, the growth of coal production due to the increase in capacity at the Yerkovetsky section and the beginning of the development of the Ogodzhinsky deposit, the development of the Kuhn-Manye copper-nickel ore deposit, the Darmakan quartz sand deposit, the construction of an autoclave hydrometallurgical complex at the Pokrovskoye field;
construction and modernization of enterprises of the agro-industrial complex.
completion of the Nizhne-Bureyskaya HPP construction;
Tsiolkovsky — formation of the AMUR tourist and recreational cluster;
implementation of large—scale investment projects - construction of the Power of Siberia main gas pipeline and the Amur Gas Processing Plant;
construction of the Vostochny cosmodrome facilities, reconstruction of sections of the Lena federal highway, construction of entrances to settlements of the Amur Region from the Amur highway, construction and reconstruction of sections of highways of regional and local significance, a border bridge crossing the Amur River (Heilongjiang) near the cities of Blagoveshchensk (RF) and Heihe (PRC).

Over the period up to 2025, over 20,000 new high-performance jobs are expected to be created in the region, the share of the manufacturing segment of the economy will increase from 3 to 30 percent.

The Vostochny cosmodrome is located on the territory of the Amur Region.

In October 2015, construction of Russia's largest and one of the largest in the world Amur Gas Processing Plant with a capacity of up to 49 billion cubic meters per year, which will include the world's largest helium production complex with a capacity of up to 60 million cubic meters per year. The construction cost will amount to 790.6 billion rubles. At the peak of construction, up to 15,000 people will be involved, and about 3,000 jobs will be created at the plant itself. The plant was launched on June 9, 2021.

In the immediate vicinity of the Amur Gas Processing Plant (AGPZ) in August 2020, SIBUR began construction of the Amur Gas Chemical Complex (AGHC) for the production of polyethylene and polypropylene from raw materials of the AGPZ. It is expected that the AGC will become one of the world's largest enterprises for the production of base polymers. The planned date of commissioning is 2025.



Amur Gas Processing Plant is the second largest natural gas processing plant (42 billion m3 per year) and the world's largest helium producer (up to 60 million m3 per year).
Svobodnensky Wagon Repair Plant
Shimanovsky Machine-building Plant
680 Aircraft Repair Plant
Bureysky Crane Plant
Amur Metallist Plant
Shipbuilding plant



Bureyskaya HPP with a capacity of 2010 MW, annual output of 7.1 billion kWh
Zeyskaya HPP with a capacity of 1,330 MW, annual output of 4.9 billion kWh
Nizhne-Bureyskaya HPP with a capacity of 320 MW, annual output of 1.6 billion kWh
Blagoveshchenskaya CHPP with an electric capacity of 404 MW and a thermal capacity of 1005.6 Gcal/h.
Svobodnenskaya TPP — 160 MW and 434 Gcal/h
Raichikhinskaya GRES — 102 MW and 238 Gcal/h



As of January 1, 2020, the rural population of the Amur Region is 254,893 people.

In terms of distribution of agricultural land in the Far East, the Amur Region occupies a leading position, accounting for 38% of farmland and 59% of arable land in the Far Eastern economic region.

At the end of 2020, the Amur Region took first place in terms of agricultural production among all the constituent entities of the Far East (and it includes 11 constituent entities, including those more southern). The total cost of production amounted to 53.9 billion rubles, of which 28.4 billion rubles were in agricultural organizations. In 2020, the volume of agricultural production on farms increased by 4%, crop production increased by 8%, and livestock production decreased by 3.6%. The growth in crop production was due to an increase in gross yields of soybeans by 13.4% and grain crops by 15.6%.



Animal husbandry. Meat farming (Hereford, Aberdeen-Angus, Charolais), dairy farming, poultry farming, beekeeping, deer farming, fur farming, pig farming. In terms of the number of cattle, pigs and poultry, the region ranks second among the regions in the Far Eastern Federal District.

The number of cattle at the beginning of 2019 was 83 thousand heads, pigs - about 35.4 thousand heads, sheep and goats - 18.3 thousand heads, poultry - 2.1 million heads. 42 thousand tons of milk and more than 134 million eggs were produced. The average milk yield per cow is 6.2 thousand kg per year. There are 14 dairy farms producing milk.

The number of cattle as of July 1, 2020 is 74.8 thousand heads, including cows - 35.2 thousand heads, pigs - 31.3 thousand heads, sheep and goats - 18.3 thousand heads, poultry — 2.177 million heads. The main reason for the reduction in the number of cattle is associated with the decision to eliminate livestock farming in some agricultural enterprises. 12 agricultural enterprises and more than 120 farms are engaged in dairy farming.



Climatic conditions are favorable for the development of beekeeping. There are about 41.5 thousand bee families. The main honey plants are buckwheat, raspberries, linden, sunflower, sweet clover and meadow herbs. The main varieties of honey: linden taiga, flower, buckwheat and serpukhov. Production volume is 800 tons of honey per year.


Crop production

Plant growing. As of 2018, soybeans, triticale and wheat, winter and spring barley, buckwheat, winter and spring rye, oats, corn and sunflower for grain, peas, beans, flax, potatoes, vegetable and melon crops, annual and perennial herbs are grown, fodder root crops. Common vegetables include cabbage, beets, carrots, garlic, onions, cucumbers, tomatoes and herbs (sorrel, basil, dill, cilantro, arugula). In fruit and berry plantings, strawberries, honeysuckle, apples, pears, raspberries and currants are harvested.

Soybean is the main agricultural crop of the Amur region. Over the past eight years, the Amur region has seen a steady increase in the area of arable land involved in agricultural production. By 2024, it is planned to increase the sown area to 1.5 million hectares and achieve a gross harvest of soybeans of 2.2 million tons and grain crops of over 1.1 million tons.

In 2022, the absolute record for soybean harvest is 1,600 thousand tons (+40% by 2021), with a yield of 18.7 c/ha (+ 19%). Grain crops exceeded last year's figures by 6%. More than 30 thousand tons of potatoes were produced (+180%). Over 8.5 thousand tons of vegetables were collected (+54%). The production of soy protein isolate by the end of 2022 is expected to be about 5 thousand tons (2 times more than in 2021).

In 2020, 417.5 thousand tons of grain were collected (+15.4% compared to 2019), soybeans 978.6 thousand tons (+13.4%). The goal for 2021 is to increase the production volumes of grain crops - up to 530 thousand tons and soybeans - up to 1.3 million tons. There are plans to increase the region’s level of self-sufficiency in vegetables and potatoes.

In 2018, the sown area was 1,280 thousand hectares, of which soybeans - 990 thousand hectares (+26 thousand hectares by 2017), grains - 204 thousand hectares (+2 thousand hectares), potatoes - 13.7 thousand hectares (+7 thousand hectares), vegetables and melons - 2.8 thousand hectares (+0), forage crops - 71 thousand hectares (+2 thousand hectares). The gross grain harvest in 2018 amounted to 360 thousand tons in bunker weight (-35 thousand tons), soybeans - 1055 thousand tons (-210 thousand tons), potatoes - 201 thousand tons, vegetables - 49 thousand tons. The average grain yield per sown area was 17.6 c/ha, soybeans - 10.7 c/ha.

Amuragrocenter has the capacity to produce hydrated soybean oil, refined deodorized soybean oil, soybean food meal, toasted soybean feed meal, extruded feed soybean, complete feed and feed concentrates, protein-vitamin-mineral concentrates and premixes. His division, the Amursky oil extraction plant, the only one in the country, began producing soy isolate with a protein content of 90% and soy dietary fiber.



The Trans-Siberian Railway
Baikal-Amur Mainline
Amur-Yakutsk railway
Ulak — Elga railway Line
Federal Highway R-297 "Amur"
Federal Highway A-360 "Lena"
Ignatievo Airport
navigation on the Amur and Zeya rivers
Eastern Siberia — Pacific Ocean
oil pipeline Amur Gas Processing Plant
under construction Power of Siberia gas pipeline under construction



There are three state universities in the Amur Region, the State Medical Academy and the higher combined arms command school.


Regional media

The main operator of digital and analog terrestrial television and radio broadcasting in the Amur Region is the Amur Regional Radio and Television Transmission Center (a branch of RTRS Amur ORTPC).


Population and society


The population of the oblast is very unevenly distributed, most of it living in the south-west, where the population density is high. On the contrary, the northern and northeastern regions, due to the topography and climate, are underdeveloped. The agglomeration of Blagoveshchensk (which is part of the cross-border agglomeration Blagoveshchensk-Heihe), which also includes the districts of Blagoveshchensk, Ivanovo and Tambov, concentrates more than 300,000 inhabitants and has a density of 35.5 inhabitants/km2.

The maximum population of the population was reached in 1990 with 1,055,300 inhabitants. Since then, due to migration flows and rural exodus, the population has decreased. Migration flows began to be positive again during the 2010s.

The second agglomeration is that of Belogorsk, which also includes Svobodny and the Belegorsk districts of Svobodny and Serychevo, with a total of 174,600 inhabitants. The third agglomeration is Tynda and the adjacent villages, with just under 50,000 inhabitants. The agglomeration of Skovorodino is the fourth with its district, with about 26,000 inhabitants, and that of Raichikhinsk is the fifth with about 20,000 inhabitants.

As of January 1, 2023, the population amounts to 756,200 inhabitants, of which 239,200 inhabitants live in rural areas. The population density of the oblast is 2.1 inhabitants/km2.



Fauna and flora

The flora and fauna of the Amur Oblast represent a combination of species from different biomes, with those from Eastern Siberia, the Amur River region, the Okhotsk region, the Dauria and the high mountains. According to the Ministry of natural resources of the Amur Oblast, the oblast is home to 73 species of mammals, 341 species of birds, 77 species and subspecies of fish, 9 species of reptiles, 7 species of amphibians as well as more than 3,500 species of insects.

Among the species of the oblast are found in the river valleys the roe deer, the Manchurian hare, the pheasant, and the blue magpie. The high mountains are home to musk deer, Northern pika, snow partridge, wolf, fox or even the brown frog of Love. The taiga includes the squirrel, the lynx, the brown bear, the reindeer, etc. Among the species common in Siberia live in the oblast the sable, the wolverine, the capercaillie, the blackcurrant, but also in fish the grayling, the taimen, and the burbot. Among the protected fauna are the Siberian leopard cat (named Amur cat), the Asian black bear and the snow sheep. Protected birds include the golden eagle, the mandarin duck, the black stork, the white-necked crane and the Manchurian crane, the Chinese merganser, the white-tailed eagle, the Siberian grouse. The oblast lists in fish benefiting from protection the species of the genus Acipenser, the kaluga, the mandarin fish. In addition, the oblast is home to the Far Eastern tortoise, which is also protected.

In 2022, about 2,000 plant species were recorded on the territory of the oblast, including 21 rare species listed in the Red Book of Russia. Its flora is represented by its forests, which spread over 31,948,200 hectares in 2022, thus representing 62.9% of the territory as well as 12.7% of the forest area of the Far East. The vegetation is divided between coniferous forests (taiga), mixed forests and wooded steppe.

Just like the fauna, species representing several flora converge there, with the biomes of Manchuria, Okhotsk-Kamchatka, Eastern Siberia, the Pacific coast and Mongolia-Uria. There are thus plants from the subarctic region, temperate regions and the subtropical region. The Okhotsk-Kamchatka flora is represented mainly in the east and north-east of the region. These are large expanses of taiga, similar to the boreal forests of the Pacific coast of North America, and in the flora there are several species of birch, Japanese spruces and Khinghan firs.


Protected areas

At the end of 2022, the area of protected areas of regional and local importance amounts to 3,175,543 hectares, while the area of protected areas of federal importance amounts to 831,500 hectares.



The total volume of air pollutant emissions in 2022 amounted to 192,200 tons, an increase of 4.2% compared to 2021. Road transport emissions amounted to 23,800 tons, which is 2.1% less compared to 2021 and 3.5 times less compared to the level of 2013. Emissions from stationary sources amounted to 158,800 tons, increasing by 5.9% compared to the indicators of 2021, and increasing by 26.6% compared to 2013.