Pskov is a city (since 903) in the north-west of
Russia, the administrative center of the Pskov region and the Pskov
district. It forms the urban district of Pskov located on the Great
River at its confluence with the Pskova River.
Pskov is one
of the oldest cities in Russia, first mentioned in the Laurentian
Chronicle under the year 903. In the years 1348-1510 - the capital
of the independent Pskov Republic. In 1510 it was attached to the
Grand Duchy of Moscow. Until the beginning of the 18th century,
Pskov was one of the largest cities in Russia and Europe, the most
important defensive and commercial center of the country. The Pskov
fortress consisted of five fortress rings (three of which are
preserved to this day), which made Pskov almost impregnable.
Throughout its centuries-old history, Pskov has more than once
become the center for conducting major hostilities, but was taken
only once, not counting the occupation during both world wars. After
the founding of St. Petersburg, Pskov lost its dominant position on
the western frontiers of the country, and after the Northern War,
the borders shifted far to the west and Riga and Revel (now Tallinn)
moved away from Russia, the value of Pskov as a trading and defense
center finally fell. During World War II, the city was occupied by
Germany for three years, during which time 3.5 thousand civilians
were killed. In December 2009, Pskov was awarded the title "City of
The population of the city - 210 501 people.
Pskov is an important tourist center of the Pskov
region and northwest Russia. Trinity Cathedral, Pskov Fortress,
Mirozhsky Monastery, Pogankin Chamber, a number of ancient churches
of Pskov are included in the list of the cultural heritage of the
Russian Federation. The city is also a major transportation hub, it
is located at the intersection of railways and major highways.
Developed a network of urban buses.
Destinations in Pskov
Pskov Krom (Pskov Kremlin). A citadel dating back
to the Middle Ages. The site includes the so-called Dovmont's city,
impressive remains of the 13th century Pskov excavated and turned
into a sort of an open-air museum. Pskov Museum, ul. Nekrasov.
7. Hosted in Pogankin's Palace, built in the late 17th centenary and
was one of the largest stone buildings in the area. The museum hosts
a large collection of silver, art and religious icons. Trinity
Cathedral (Троицкий собор) (Inside the Kremlin). Founded in 1138 and
rebuilt in the 1690s. Cathedral of the Transfiguration of the
Saviour (Спасо-Преображенский собор Мирожского монастыря). A former
cathedral and monastery now functioning as a museum. The 12th
century Byzantine-style frescos depicting biblical scenes are among
the few who survived the Mongol expansion into Eastern Europe.
Adminnsion RUB200. Pskov-Caves Monastery (Pskovo-Pechersky
Monastery), ☎ +7 811 4822145. The oldest functioning monastery in
History of Pskov
Pskov is one of the oldest cities in Russia. The name of the
city, originally Pleskov (historic Russian spelling Плѣсковъ,
Plěskov), may be loosely translated as "[the town] of purling
waters". It was historically known in English as Plescow. Its
earliest mention comes in 903, which records that Igor of Kiev
married a local lady, St. Olga. Pskovians sometimes take this year
as the city's foundation date, and in 2003 a great jubilee took
place to celebrate Pskov's 1,100th anniversary.
prince of Pskov was Vladimir the Great's youngest son Sudislav. Once
imprisoned by his brother Yaroslav, he was not released until the
latter's death several decades later. In the 12th and 13th
centuries, the town adhered politically to the Novgorod Republic. In
1241, it was taken by the Teutonic Knights, but Alexander Nevsky
recaptured it several months later during a legendary campaign
dramatized in Sergei Eisenstein's 1938 movie Alexander Nevsky.
In order to secure their independence from the knights, the
Pskovians elected a Lithuanian prince, named Daumantas, a Roman
Catholic converted to Orthodox faith and known in Russia as Dovmont,
as their military leader and prince in 1266. Having fortified the
town, Daumantas routed the Teutonic Knights at Rakvere and overran
much of Estonia. His remains and sword are preserved in the local
kremlin, and the core of the citadel, erected by him, still bears
the name of "Dovmont's town".
Pskov Republic By the 14th
century, the town functioned as the capital of a de facto sovereign
republic. Its most powerful force was the merchants who brought the
town into the Hanseatic League. Pskov's independence was formally
recognized by Novgorod in 1348. Several years later, the veche
promulgated a law code (called the Pskov Charter), which was one of
the principal sources of the all-Russian law code issued in 1497.
For Russia, the Pskov Republic was a bridge towards Europe; for
Europe, it was a western outpost of Russia. Already in the 13th
century German merchants were present in Zapskovye area of Pskov and
the Hanseatic League had a trading post in the same area in the
first half of 16th century which moved to Zavelichye after a fire in
1562. The wars with Livonian Order, Poland-Lithuania and Sweden
interrupted the trade but it was maintained until the 17th century,
with Swedish merchants gaining the upper hand eventually.
importance of the city made it the subject of numerous sieges
throughout its history. The Pskov Krom (or Kremlin) withstood
twenty-six sieges in the 15th century alone. At one point, five
stone walls ringed it, making the city practically impregnable. A
local school of icon-painting flourished, and the local masons were
considered the best in Russia. Many peculiar features of Russian
architecture were first introduced in Pskov.
1510, the city fell to Muscovite forces. The deportation of noble
families to Moscow under Ivan IV in 1570 is a subject of
Rimsky-Korsakov's opera Pskovityanka (1872). As the second largest
city of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, Pskov still attracted enemy
armies. Most famously, it withstood a prolonged siege by a
50,000-strong Polish army during the final stage of the Livonian War
(1581–1582). The king of Poland Stephen Báthory undertook some
thirty-one attacks to storm the city, which was defended mainly by
civilians. Even after one of the city walls was broken, the
Pskovians managed to fill the gap and repel the attack. "It's
amazing how the city reminds me of Paris", wrote one of the
Frenchmen present at Báthory's siege.
traditional role as a vital border fortress and a key to Russia's
interior. As a consequence, the city's importance and well-being
declined dramatically, although it has served as a seat of separate
Pskov Governorate since 1777.
During World War I, Pskov
became the center of much activity behind the lines. It was at a
railroad siding in Pskov, aboard the imperial train, that Tsar
Nicholas II signed the manifesto announcing his abdication in March
1917, and after the Russo-German Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference
(December 22, 1917 – March 3, 1918), the Imperial German Army
invaded the area. Pskov was also occupied by the Estonian army
between 25 May 1919 and 28 August 1919 during the Estonian War of
Independence when Bułak-Bałachowicz became the military
administrator of Pskov. He personally ceded most of his
responsibilities to a democratically elected municipal duma and
focused on both cultural and economical recovery of the
war-impoverished city. He also put an end to censorship of the press
and allowed for the creation of several socialist associations and
Under the Soviet government, large parts of the city were
rebuilt, many ancient buildings, particularly churches, were
demolished to give space for new constructions. During World War II,
the medieval citadel provided little protection against modern
artillery of Wehrmacht, and Pskov suffered substantial damage during
the German occupation from July 9, 1941 until July 23, 1944. A huge
portion of the population died during the war, and Pskov has since
struggled to regain its traditional position as a major industrial
and cultural center of Western Russia.
Get in By plane Pskov Airport (Аэропорт Псков) (PKV IATA)
have flights from Moscow Domodedovo airport three days a week, on
Monday, Wednesday and Friday. As of August 2012 the lowest fare is
By train From Saint Petersburg
daily long-distance trains departing from Saint Petersburg's
Vitebskii Station to Pskov. Also there is a commuter train
(elektrichka) departing from Baltiskii Station six days a week (no
schedule on Tuesdays). The train departs at 7:25AM and arrives to
Pskov at 11:30AM, this train usually has a lot of passengers so if
you want to have a seat by the window (or any seat at all, for that
matter) make sure to arrive beforehand. As of August 2012 the ticket
costs 464 RUB.
From Moscow A daily night train leaves
Moscow each evening at 4:55PM from the Leningradsky station and
arrives to Pskov the next day at 7:30AM.
From Luga There
are two daily commuter trains and also the commuter train and both
long-distance trains from Saint Petersburg make a stop in Luga
From Minsk A long-distance train departs from Minsk two times
a week, on Monday and Thursday.
By bus Bus station, 21
Vokzalnaya st. Direct connections available with Moscow, Saint
Petersburg, Velikiy Novgorod, Smolensk, Kursk, Minsk, Vitebsk,
Novopolotsk, Pinks, Tallin, Kiev, Odessa.
There are several
daily bus routes from Saint Petersburg. The travel times given below
are according to schedule, and of course they are subject to change
due to road work and weather conditions.
From bus station №2
you can ride on one of the several long-distance buses which make a
stop in Pskov. The cost of the ticket is 420 RUB as of August 2012.
The travel time is around 5 hours and 20 minutes. This bus station
is at Naberezhnaya Obvodnogo Kanala 36, close to Obvodny Kanal metro
station. There is a dedicated bus service between Saint
Petersburg and Pskov run by a local company. Tickets must be booked
in advance by phone call or through the web-site and the price is
500 RUB as of August 2012. The buses depart from Park Inn
Pulkovskaya hotel, close to Moskovskaya metro station. The travel
time is 4 hours. Ecolines operates two routes to Pskov. The buses
depart from Vitebskii train station, close to Pushkinskaya metro
station, Ecolines office is located there as well. The travel time
is around 5 hours. There are 2 buses per day to Novgorod, 4hrs
ride, costs 470 RUB.
By car When driving, Pskov is along
the M20-RUS.svg highway, linking Saint Petersburg with the border to
Consulates Estonia Estonia (Pskov office of the
General Consulate of Estonia), Narodnaya street, 25, ☎ +7 8112
725-380, fax: +7 (8112) 725-381, e-mail: Consulate.Pskov@mfa.ee.
Latvia Latvia, Narodnaya street, 25, ☎ +7 8112 720-237, +7 8112
741-052, fax: +7 (8112) 724-056, e-mail: email@example.com.
Mon-Fri, 9-30AM - 4PM. Netherlands Netherlands (Representation at
the Consulate of Estonia), Narodnaya street, 25, ☎ +7 8112 725-380,
fax: +7 (8112) 725-381, e-mail: Consulate.Pskov@mfa.ee.
Centers France Slovenia France and Slovenia (French and Slovenian
visa service provided by the Consulate of Latvia), Narodnaya street,
25, ☎ +7 8112 720-237, +7 8112 741-052, fax: +7 (8112) 724-056,
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Mon-Fri, 9-30AM - 4PM.