Rostov Oblast, Russia

The Rostov Region is a constituent entity of the Russian Federation in the south of the European part of Russia, part of the Southern Federal District.

The administrative center is the city of Rostov-on-Don.

In the east, the Rostov region borders on the Volgograd region, in the north - on the Voronezh region, in the south - on the Krasnodar and Stavropol territories, the Republic of Kalmykia, in the west - on the Donetsk and Lugansk regions of Ukraine, annexed by Russia and considered by it as subjects of the Russian Federation.

In 2007, the Bank of Russia issued a 10-ruble commemorative bimetallic coin dedicated to the Rostov Region.



Starocherkasskaya - the center of the Don Cossacks until the 19th century
Novocherkassk - the Cossack capital after 1805
Belaya Kalitva



Other destinations

Rostovsky Nature Reserve - a habitat for wild horses
Vyoshenskaya Stanitsa - the museum-reserve of M. A. Sholokhov

Archaeological Museum-Reserve "Tanais", farm Nedvigovka. ☎ +7 (86349) 2-04-08. 09:00 - 17:00. The largest archaeological museum in Russia.

Since 2002, the only tractor races in the country, the Bizon-Track-Show, have been held in the Rostov Region. Mechanics of agricultural enterprises from Russia and abroad take part in unique competitions. Over the past time, tractor racing has become a real sports holiday for agricultural workers.

Rostov Academic Drama Theater named after Maxim Gorky
Rostov State Musical Theater
Rostov State Puppet Theater
Rostov Regional Academic Youth Theater (former Rostov Theater of Young Spectators)
Taganrog Order of Honor Drama Theater named after A.P. Chekhov, Taganrog
Volgodonsk Youth Drama Theater
Donskoy Drama and Comedy Theater named after V. F. Komissarzhevskaya (Cossack Drama Theatre), Novocherkassk
Shakhty Drama Theatre, Shakhty
Novoshakhtinsk Drama Theatre, Novoshakhtinsk

In Rostov-on-Don
Rostov Regional Museum of Local Lore
Rostov Regional Museum of Fine Arts
Museum of Contemporary Fine Arts on Dmitrovskaya
Museum of Russian-Armenian Friendship
Rostov Museum of Military History, Rostov-on-Don, (Budyonnovsky pr., 22.)
Museum of the North Caucasian Railway
Center for Contemporary Art "Tobacco Factory"

In Taganrog
Museum "Urban Planning and Life of Taganrog" (Sharonov's House, 1912), Taganrog city (Frunze st., 80)
Literary Museum of A.P. Chekhov, (the building of the former male classical gymnasium, where A.P. Chekhov studied), the city of Taganrog, (Oktyabrskaya St., 9)
Museum "House of A.P. Chekhov" (The house in which A.P. Chekhov was born and lived in 1860-1863), the city of Taganrog, (Chekhov St., 69)
Museum "Chekhov's Shop" (House of Moiseev, where A.P. Chekhov lived in 1869-1874), city of Taganrog, (ul. Alexandrovskaya, 100)
Museum "House of P. E. Chekhov, where in 1874-79. lived A.P. Chekhov, Taganrog, (Roza Luxembourg St., 77)
Museum of Faina Ranevskaya, Taganrog, (Frunze st., 10)
Museum of A. A. Durov, city of Taganrog, (per. A. Glushko, 44)
Museum of the writer I. D. Vasilenko, Taganrog city, (Chekhov str., 88)
Taganrog Art Museum, city of Taganrog, (Alexandrovskaya street, 54 and Lermontovsky lane, 22)
Taganrog Military History Museum, Taganrog city, (Admiral Kruys st., 20b)

In other settlements of the region
Archaeological Museum-Reserve "Tanais", Nedvigovka Farm
Donskoy Military History Museum, Nedvigovka Farm
People's military-historical museum complex of the Great Patriotic War "Sambek Heights", Sambek village
Novocherkassk Museum of the History of the Don Cossacks, Novocherkassk
Azov Historical, Archaeological and Paleontological Museum-Reserve, the city of Azov
Salsk Art Museum named after People's Artist V.K. Nechitailo, city of Salsk
Volgodonsk Art Museum, Volgodonsk city
Volgodonsk Ecological and Historical Museum, Volgodonsk city
Gukovo Mining Museum, Gukovo
Razdorsky ethnographic museum-reserve, the village of Razdorskaya
House-Museum of S. M. Budyonny, the village of Budyonnovskaya
The State Museum-Reserve of M. A. Sholokhov, the village of Vyoshenskaya
Aksai Military History Museum, Aksai city
Shakhty Museum of Local Lore, Shakhty
Museum "Legends of the USSR", Kamensk-Shakhtinsky


Eat and Drink

Don wines

In the mass consciousness, the Rostov region is not associated with winemaking, however, in the 2010s, local wine brands are gradually finding their connoisseurs. Don wines are far from mass production, and in terms of price to quality ratio they are inferior to competitors from neighboring regions - but more and more often this is not due to low quality, but due to the premium price tag due to small production volumes. The right bank of the Don is one of the world's northernmost areas of commercial grape growing. Frosts here reach minus 20, so viticulture is covered here: for the winter, the vine is wrapped in film and sprinkled with earth. Of course, this complicates and increases the cost of the process, but oenologists say that the alternating exposure to frost in winter and 40-degree heat in summer gives the final product unusual notes.

The Khazars were still engaged in winemaking on the Don, and the Don Cossacks bred several native varieties that tolerate cold weather well and are suitable for shelter cultivation: Siberian, Krasnostop Zolotovsky, Tsimlyansky black. “International” varieties are also grown here, such as Rkatsiteli and Cabernet Sauvignon, but it is better to leave them to the more southern regions, but native Don grapes grow only on the Don.

The anti-alcohol events of the 20th century hit commercial viticulture hard: now native varieties are planted in the vicinity of Tsimla (“Tsimlyansk wines” and “Chateau Sarkel”) and on the Don slopes between Pukhlyakovsky and Konstantinovsk (several small farms). There are almost no Don products in restaurants and federal supermarket chains: look for them in branded stores and in the local network of liquor stores "1001 bottles".



According to the decree 18 (29) .12.1707, among the first 8 provinces in the course of the provincial reform of 1707-1710. Azov province was formed. The administrative center of the Azov province was the city-fortress of Azov.

In the 19th century, almost the entire territory of the modern Rostov region of Russia was part of the region of the Don Cossacks, an administrative-territorial unit of the Russian Empire inhabited by Don Cossacks and governed by a special position. From 1786 it was officially called the land of the Don Army, in 1870-1918 - the Region of the Don Army.

In 1835, the land of the Don Cossacks was divided into seven administrative districts[4] of “chiefs”: Cherkassky (district administration in Novocherkassk), 1st Donskoy (village of Vedernikovskaya), 2nd Donskoy (village of Nizhne-Chirskaya), Ust - Medveditsky (village of Ust-Medveditskaya), Donetsk (village of Kamenskaya), Khopersky (village of Alekseevskaya), Miussky (village of Golodaevka)

By the beginning of the 20th century, the region of the Don Cossacks consisted of nine districts: the 1st Don, 2nd Don, Donetsk, Rostov, Ust-Medveditsky, Khopersky, Cherkassky, Salsky and Taganrog. In 1918, the Upper Don District was formed from parts of the Ust-Medveditsky, Donetsk and Khopersky districts. After the February Revolution, the power of the Cossack Circle (parliament) and the Army Ataman (elected by the circle) was restored in the Don Cossack Region.

After the October Revolution, the Don military government, headed by the Ataman A. M. Kaledin, refused to recognize the Bolsheviks and offered armed resistance. By the end of February 1918, Kaledin's forces were defeated, Novocherkassk and Rostov-on-Don were occupied by the Red Army. Ataman Kaledin committed suicide, his successor Ataman Nazarov was shot.

On the territory of the region of the Don Cossacks, the Don Soviet Republic was proclaimed. In March 1918, an uprising of the Cossacks against the Bolsheviks began, as a result of which, in May 1918, the creation of the All-Great Don Army was proclaimed in Novocherkassk - a state entity, temporarily (until the restoration of legitimate Russian power) independent. The supreme executive power was transferred to the elected ataman, legislative and advisory functions remained outside the circle. The flag of the Great Don Army was a tricolor flag with horizontal stripes: blue, yellow and red, which symbolized the unity of the three peoples of the Don: Cossacks, Kalmyks and Russians.

In 1918, Taganrog was briefly the seat of the People's Secretariat and the government of the Ukrainian Soviet Republic.

In 1919, the Headquarters of Denikin, the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in the South of Russia, was located in Taganrog.

In 1923, the Taganrog district was formed as part of the Donetsk province of the Ukrainian SSR, with the center in Taganrog.

On October 1, 1924, the Taganrog District became part of the South-Eastern Region of the RSFSR.

In 1929-1930, Taganrog was the center of the enlarged Don District of the North Caucasus Territory.

On September 13, 1937, by a decree of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR, the Azov-Chernomorsky Territory was divided into the Krasnodar Territory with a center in the city of Krasnodar and the Rostov Region with a center in the city of Rostov-on-Don. On January 15, 1938, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR approved the creation of these regions. Six months later, the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR confirmed this decision.

E. G. Evdokimov, a prominent figure in the Cheka / OGPU / NKVD, was appointed the first head of the region (First Secretary of the Regional Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks).

During the Great Patriotic War, 665,000 residents of the region went to fight for the front. About 340,000 returned.

From 1954 to 1957, the cities of Kamensk-Shakhtinsky, Krasny Sulin, Millerovo, Novoshakhtinsk, Mines and Alekseevo-Lozovsky, Bazkovsky, Belokalitvensky, Bokovsky, Verkhnedonskoy, Vyoshensky, Voloshinsky, Glubokinsky, Zverevsky, Kamensky, Kasharsky, Kievsky, Kolushkinsky, Konstantinovsky, Krasnogvardeisky, Krivorozhsky, Litvinovsky, Malchevsky, Migulinsky, Milyutinsky, Morozovsky, Nikolaevsky, Oblivsky, Oktyabrsky, Razdorsky, Selivanovsky, Skosyrsky, Tarasovsky, Tatsinsky, Tsimlyansky, Chernyshevsky, Chertkovsky districts were part of the Kamensk region.

October 1, 1958 - for the outstanding successes achieved by the working people of the Rostov region in increasing the production of grain and other agricultural products, for the successful fulfillment of high socialist obligations to sell 136 million poods of grain to the state in 1958, the Rostov region was awarded the Order of Lenin.


Physical and geographical characteristics

The distance in a straight line from Moscow is 756 km.



On the territory of the region, one of the largest rivers in Europe, the Don (length 1870 km), flows, the Tsimlyansk reservoir (volume 24 billion m³) is located. The main tributaries of the Don are navigable - the Seversky Donets and Manych rivers. Lakes occupy only 0.4% of the territory of the region. Part of the hydropower potential is realized at the Tsimlyanskaya HPP in the amount of 630 million kWh. In the south-west, the region is washed by the Taganrog Bay of the Sea of Azov.



Mineral raw materials include a group of fuel and energy resources, among them are the bituminous coals of the Eastern Donbass, especially anthracite, the best in the world in terms of caloric content. Deposits of non-metallic raw materials for metallurgy and the production of building materials are being developed. Explored gas reserves are estimated at 56.2 billion m³. There are also deposits of iron ore, flux limestone, building materials, common salt, and natural gas.



The forest fund of the region is small (2.4% of the region's territory) and is mostly represented by artificial forests that perform water protection and protective functions (70% of the total forest fund land area).

Sholokhov in the Pacific Don lists arzhanets, feather grass, wheatgrass, imurka, colza, henbane, spurge, wormwood, lily of the valley, sweet clover, wild oat, sage, iron ore, violet, tartar and tulip among the steppe herbs. Of the trees and bushes, willow, hawthorn, blackberry, blackthorn, black maple, wild rose, alder, viburnum, ash, aspen, oak and poplar are mentioned.


Animal world

Fauna is represented by grasshoppers, frogs, catfish, zander, carp, wolves, hares, foxes, ground squirrels, marmots, crows, woodcocks, thrushes, larks, lapwings, corncrakes, partridges, quails, ducks, bustards, geese, little bustards, nightingales, swans and kites, and it is also desirable to include the tarantula Atypus in the Red Book of the Rostov Region, the last of which was found in the area of the village of Trekhostrovskaya in the neighboring Volgograd Region and the Liskinsky and Kantimirovsky districts of the Voronezh Region in the mid-2000s.

In the Rostov region there are several separate mountains in different parts of the region.



In 2011, in the final ranking of socio-economic development of the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation, the Rostov Region ranked 39th, moving up 8 positions compared to 2010.

According to Rostovstat, in January-November 2011, the production index in the Rostov region amounted to 109.4%, while the national average is slightly higher than 105%. 108.7% was the production index of the manufacturing sector. Indicators of the volume of commissioning of multi-apartment housing construction increased by 22% compared to the period of January-November 2010. At the end of the year, agricultural products worth 140 billion rubles were produced in the region, the production index amounted to 111.5%.

In 2011, by 2010, the GRP in the region increased by 7.2%. The industrial production index of the region in 2011 amounted to 110.3% compared to the previous one.

In 2012, the Rostov region plans to increase the volume of the gross regional product by 6.4% compared to 2011. In the field of agriculture, the region intends to achieve an increase in gross output of at least 2.5%.

The revenue part of the budget for 2012-112 billion 48.4 million rubles, expenditure - 119 billion 775.2 million rubles. Thus, the budget deficit in 2012 amounted to 7 billion 726.8 million rubles, or 6.5% of expenditures.

In 2012, all districts of the region were supplied with gas. The last region where natural gas came was the Zavetinskiy region.

In 2015, the GRP reached 1 trillion 135 billion rubles.

In 2021, the region's own budget revenues amounted to 218.1 billion rubles. Budget expenditures amounted to 291.9 billion rubles.



The agricultural industry, food processing industry, heavy and agricultural engineering, coal industry, and automotive industry are developed on the territory of the region.

Large industrial enterprises (Sales volume (revenue), million rubles, 2011)
Taganrog Metallurgical Plant (25,724.20)
Taganrog Boiler Plant Krasny Kotelshchik, owned by OJSC Emilyance (since February 2012, part of OJSC Power Machines) (11,978.90)
TANTK them. Beriev
Novocherkassk Electric Locomotive Plant (17,146.10)
Rostov Electrometallurgical Plant (8,879.50)
Rostvertol (19,986.00)
Rostselmash (16,154.80)
Rostov NPP
Tsimlyanskaya HPP
Novocherkasskaya GRES
Novocherkassk Electrode Plant (5491.00)
Novoshakhtinsk oil products plant (53,952.00) is the second largest company in the region in terms of revenue, the 5th in the Southern Federal District (belongs to the Yug Rusi group of companies) and the 126th in Russia.
OJSC ASTON (food industry) (17,627.00)
OJSC Donskoy Tabak (9830.30)
JSC "Klever"
Salskselmash LLC


Light industry

OOO "Salsk footwear"
OJSC "Tsimlyansk Carpet Factory"
OJSC Gloria Jeans (15,075.70)
OOO Donskoy Pooh (Kamenskaya down and feather factory)
LLC "Donetsk Manufactory M" (belongs to the group "Megapolis")
BVN Engineering LLC


Large enterprises

OOO NPP Vibrobit



As of January 1, 2021, the rural population is 1,330,696 people, 32% of the population of the Rostov region.

The Rostov Region is a major producer of agricultural products (4.6% of Russian production, second only to the Krasnodar Territory). The main wealth of the region is its soil resources. In the general structure of the earth, chernozems make up almost 65%.

More than 60% of the gross agricultural output of the region is produced in the branches of plant growing. Of paramount importance in its structure is grain farming, under which about half of the sown area is occupied. In terms of gross grain harvest, the Rostov Region ranks third in Russia after the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories (6617 thousand tons in 2014). The main grain crop is winter wheat. Crops of corn, rice, millet, buckwheat and other cereal crops, and soybeans are widespread.

Large areas are occupied by vegetable growing. The region occupies the fifth place in the Russian Federation in terms of vegetable harvesting. Horticulture and viticulture have been established on an industrial basis. The region ranks sixth in Russia in terms of harvesting fruits and berries.

The Rostov region is one of the main regions of Russia for the cultivation of onions. On an industrial basis, it is cultivated using drip irrigation. The gross onion harvest in 2021 in the region amounted to 104.2 thousand tons.

The gross grain harvest in 2020 is 12 million 383 thousand tons (250 thousand tons more than in 2019), and in 2022 a record was set for harvesting -14.7 million tons of grain (16.5% compared to 2021 for the same term, the highest figure in the history of the Don region). More than 90% of the harvested wheat crop is food grain. The harvest of late grain crops (corn for grain, millet, sorghum, rice) amounted to 702 thousand tons. The gross harvest of oilseeds is 1 million 425 thousand tons. Of these, the sunflower harvest amounted to almost 1.3 million tons. The average grain yield in the region in 2019 was 34.1 c/ha (in weight after processing), including 35.6 c/ha of winter wheat.

The average sunflower yield in the region in 2020 was 19.0 c/ha, with an average yield in the Southern Federal District of 17.9 c/ha, in Russia 17.4 c/ha, and in the leading regions more than 30 c/ha.


Animal husbandry

In animal husbandry, the farms of the region specialize in the following areas - dairy and beef cattle breeding, sheep breeding, horse breeding and poultry farming. In terms of the number of cows, the Rostov region came in 4th place in Russia, sheep and goats - 7th, pigs - 12th, in the production of livestock and poultry for slaughter - 10th, milk - 5th, eggs - third place, wool - 5th place, honey - 5th place, rice - 3rd place.

As of April 1, 2021, there were 633.4 thousand (100.0% of data as of April 1, 2020) heads of cattle in farms of all categories, of which 300.1 thousand (99.4%) heads of cattle, 346 .7 thousand (100.7%) pigs, 1046.8 thousand (97.2%) sheep and goats, 13.4 million (95.4%) poultry.

In 2021, the Rostov region produced 312 thousand tons of meat in live weight, 1.1 million tons of milk, egg production is 1.4 billion pieces per year, which exceeds the figures for the previous year: in 2020 they amounted to 253 thousand tons of meat in live weight, 1096.7 thousand tons of milk, 1.7 billion eggs per year, wool - more than 2.9 thousand tons.

The average productivity of cows for 2019 in all categories of farms amounted to 4755 kg, while in agricultural organizations the productivity per cow was 6486 kg (an increase compared to last year was 441 kg), in peasant (farm) farms the productivity per cow was 5763 kg ( +392 kg). This was achieved through the introduction and systematic replacement of low-productive livestock with more highly productive ones. Basically, dairy cattle breeding is concentrated in the Zernograd, Kagalnitsky, Myasnikovsky, Matveyevo-Kurgansky, Millerovsky, Neklinovsky, Peschanokopsky, Chertkovsky districts.

In the region, a breeding plant of Vera LLC of the Matveevo-Kurgan district for breeding brown Swiss cattle and six breeding reproducers for breeding Ayrshire, Holstein, Black-and-White and Red-and-White breeds. The number of breeding stock is 10.0 thousand heads, including cows - 4.7 thousand heads. The share of pedigree livestock in agricultural organizations is 20.1%, including cows - 24.7%.

Beef cattle breeding is represented mainly in the eastern regions. Currently, the region mainly uses a pasture system for fattening livestock, due to the fact that with this growing technology, the cost of a pasture feed unit is 1.5-2 times cheaper than when using harvested feed. The share of cattle of the Kalmyk breed accounts for about 90%, there are small herds of the Kazakh white-headed breed (1200 heads), Hereford (more than 1000 heads), Russian polled (300 heads), Aberdeen-Angus (164 heads). The number of breeding stock is 26.3 thousand heads, including cows - 13.1 thousand heads. The proportion of pedigree livestock in agricultural organizations is 58.4%, including cows - 70.5%.



As of September 2020, 13 power plants with a total capacity of 7545.7 MW were operating in the Rostov Region, including one nuclear power plant, one hydroelectric power plant, three wind power plants and eight thermal power plants. In 2019, they produced 44,329 million kWh of electricity.

Thermal power engineering
The largest power plant in the Southern Federal District, which is part of OGK-6, is located in the region:

Novocherkasskaya GRES - 2258 MW
Also in the Rostov region there are thermal stations that are part of LLC Lukoil-Rostovenergo

Volgodonskaya CHPP-2 - 420 MW
Rostov CHPP — 160 MW
Shakhtinskaya GTPP — 100 MW
In the city of Tsimlyansk, there is the Tsimlyansk Hydroelectric Power Plant - 211.5 MW, which is part of Lukoil-Ekoenergo LLC.

Nuclear power
The Rostov NPP operates in the city of Volgodonsk - 4030 MW.

wind farms
The Rostov region is the leader among the regions of Russia in the use of wind energy: there are six wind farms with a total installed capacity of 560 MW:

Kamenskaya wind farm - capacity 98.8 MW;
Sulinskaya wind farm - capacity 98.8 MW;
Gukovskaya wind farm - capacity 98.8 MW;
Marchenkovskaya wind farm - capacity 120 MW;
Kazachya wind farm - 50 MW (first stage. In the fourth quarter of 2021, it is planned to launch the second stage of the same capacity);
Azov wind farm - capacity 90 MW.



On the territory of the Rostov region pass:
federal highway M4E 115 "Don" Moscow-Novorossiysk;
motorway A135 access road M4 "Don" - Rostov-on-Don;
motorway A260E 40 Volgograd - Kamensk-Shakhtinsky - border with Ukraine;
motorway A270E 50 M4 "Don" - Novoshakhtinsk - border with Ukraine;
highway A280E 58 Rostov-on-Don - Taganrog - border with Ukraine.

In the Rostov region there are railways related to the North Caucasian railway. Railway routes pass through the region, leading from the west, the center of the country, Siberia, the Urals, the Volga region and other regions to the south of Russia - to the regions of the Southern and North Caucasian federal districts (to the seaports of the Azov, Black and Caspian Seas), as well as to the resort zones of the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, Caucasian Mineral Waters and others.

The largest railway junctions of the Rostov region are Rostov-Glavny, Bataysk, Salsk and Likhaya.

The main railway station of the Rostov-Glavny station has the highest passenger traffic in the Southern Federal District - more than 3 million passengers a year.

The main water arteries of the region are the Don and Seversky Donets rivers. Taganrog (2.4 million tons), Azov (6.6 million tons) and Rostov-on-Don (12.9 million tons) have the status of seaports of the Sea of Azov and the largest cargo turnover. The largest infrastructure project in the lower reaches of the Don River is the construction of the Rostov Universal Port; in 2016, its 1st and 2nd cargo areas were built. The projected total capacity of RUE is 16 million tons of cargo per year. Developed on the initiative of the Azov-Don Shipping Company.



The largest companies (Sales volume, million rubles, 2011)
OOO Trading House Alfa-Trade (wholesale trade) (35,010.70) is the third largest company in the region in terms of revenue, the 8th in the Southern Federal District. Engaged in the wholesale of petroleum products, and retail - through a network of filling stations (it is the operator of the Gazprom filling station network)
OOO GAZPROM MezhRegionGaz Rostov-on-Don (wholesale trade) (25,377.50)
ZAO TNK Yug Management (wholesale trade) (24,469.40)
OJSC EVRAZ Metall INPROM (wholesale trade) (21,818.00)
OOO BN-Yug (wholesale trade) (20,874.30)
OOO OTK (wholesale trade) (17,121.30)
OOO OmniTrade (wholesale trade) (9,967.20)



The largest companies (Sales volume, million rubles, 2011)



In the Rostov region in 1989, on the basis of the regional division of the Zhilsotsbank of the USSR, the first commercial bank in the South of Russia, Rostovsotsbank, was created. The bank existed from 1989 to 1999, four branches of the bank operated in Rostov-on-Don. In addition, the bank had branches in the cities of Taganrog, Shakhty, Gukovo, and Donetsk. In 1998, Rostovsotsbank lost its solvency, but was able to ensure a full return of deposits to all depositors before the creation of the Deposit Insurance System, even before the revocation of the banking license.

As of 2022, there are 7 regional credit institutions and 21 bank branches in the Rostov region. The leading positions are occupied by Sberbank, VTB, Alfa-Bank, Rosbank, CB Center-invest and JSCB Fora-Bank.



1.2% of the gross regional product is income from tourism. The Rostov region has a rich historical and cultural heritage. The climatic conditions of the Taganrog Bay create favorable conditions for the development of the sanatorium and resort industry. On the Sea of Azov, on the territory of Taganrog, Azov, Azov and Neklinovsky districts, there are 10 sanatoriums (out of 14 in the Rostov region). The dry, hot climate of the region is favorable for the treatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Mineral waters and therapeutic mud form the basis of curative natural resources in the region. Rostov-on-Don, Konstantinovsk villages Starocherkasskaya, Romanovskaya are the centers of cruise tourism in the Rostov region on the Don River.

Tourists are attracted by a wide variety of museums dedicated to the history of the Don Cossacks, the formation of the Don region, its culture and art, as well as museums associated with the stay of famous figures: writers A.P. Chekhov and M.A. Sholokhov, Emperor Alexander I, chieftains M. I. Platov and M. G. Khomutov. Numerous Orthodox shrines: churches, monasteries, relics of saints revered by the Russian Orthodox Church, icons, are visited by thousands of pilgrims every year.

During the summer season of 2015, the Rostov region was visited by about 120 thousand tourists, of which 2.8 thousand were citizens of foreign CIS countries, 1 thousand were tourists from countries outside the CIS. The hotel fund in the region as of 2013 has 13,507 beds in 311 hotels.

The region has developed a tourist program "Silver Horseshoe of the Don" - a tourist brand of the Don region, including educational, water, ecological, rural, ethnographic and other types of tourism.

"Silver Horseshoe of the Don" is the common name of several routes connecting the tourist centers of the Rostov region. There are three routes - three horseshoes - Big, Medium and Small:
A large horseshoe passes through the cities - Taganrog - Rostov-on-Don - Novocherkassk - Mines - Belaya Kalitva - Kamensk-Shakhtinsky - Millerovo - Vyoshenskaya - Morozovsk - Tsimlyansk - Romanovskaya - Konstantinovsk - Azov.
The middle horseshoe passes through the cities - Taganrog - Rostov-on-Don - Razdorskaya - Kochetovskaya - Semikarakorsk - Vesyoliy - Proletarsk - Salsk - Tselina - Zernograd - Azov.
A small horseshoe passes through the cities - Taganrog - Tanais - Rostov-on-Don - Aksai - Novocherkassk - Starocherkassk - Azov.



As of 2000, there were 1766 preschool educational institutions in the Rostov region, in which 40% of preschool children were brought up, 1887 general education schools, where 618.9 thousand students studied (91 of them were schools with in-depth study), 14 gymnasiums (11 8 thousand students), 21 lyceums (7.2 thousand students), 19 private schools (1.3 thousand students).

In 2016, 19 higher education institutions and 29 university branches had a valid license.

Scientific and higher educational institutions
In Rostov-on-Don
Southern Federal University (SFU)
Southern Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SSC RAS)
Rostov State Medical University (RSMU)
Rostov State Conservatory S. V. Rachmaninov (RGK)
Rostov State University of Communications (RGUPS)
North Caucasian Scientific Center of Higher Education (SKNTS VSh). Now part of the UFU.
Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation (South Russian Institute of Management). Former SKAGS
Don State Technical University (DSTU)
Rostov State University of Economics (RGEU, RINH)
Rostov Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia
Institute of Water Transport named after G. Ya. Sedov
Rostov Institute (branch) of the All-Russian State University of Justice (VSUJU)
Private educational institution of higher education "Southern University (Institute of Management, Business and Law)"
Private educational institution of higher education "Rostov Institute for the Protection of an Entrepreneur"
Private institution of higher education "South Russian Humanitarian Institute"

In other cities of the region
Engineering and Technology Academy of the Southern Federal University (ITA Southern Federal University, Taganrog)
Taganrog Institute named after A.P. Chekhov ("TI named after A.P. Chekhov" (branch) FGBOU VPO "RINH", Taganrog)
Taganrog Institute of Management and Economics (TIUE, Taganrog)
South Russian State Polytechnic University (YURSPU, Novocherkassk)
Novocherkassk Engineering and Land Reclamation Institute named after A.K. Kortunov - branch of DonGAU (Novocherkassk)
Don State Agrarian University (DonGAU, Persianovskiy village)
Institute of Service and Entrepreneurship (branch) DSTU in Shakhty
Donetsk Institute of Business Management and Law of a private educational institution of higher education "SOUTH UNIVERSITY (IUBiP)" (Donetsk, RO)
Salsk Institute of Management, Business and Law of the private educational institution of higher education "SOUTH UNIVERSITY (IUBiP)" (Salsk)

Rostov-on-Don branch of the All-Russian State Institute of Cinematography named after Sergei Appolinarievich Gerasimov
Rostov Branch of Moscow State University of Technology and Management
Rostov branch of the Russian Academy of Justice
Rostov Branch of the Russian University of Trade and Economics
Rostov Branch of Moscow State Technical University of Civil Aviation
Rostov branch of St. Petersburg State University of Culture and Arts
Rostov Branch of the Russian Customs Academy
Rostov branch of the Moscow Financial Academy
Volgodonsk Engineering and Technology Institute (branch) of the National Research Nuclear University "Moscow Engineering Physics Institute" (MEPhI)
Don Cossack State Institute of Food Technologies and Business (branch of MSUTU)