Rostov-on-Don (colloquially often Rostov) is the
largest city in southwestern Russia, the administrative center of
the Southern Federal District and the Rostov Region. City of
military glory (2008).
It was founded by decree of Empress Elizabeth Petrovna on December 15, 1749. It is located in the southeast of the East European Plain, on both banks of the Don River, 46 km from its confluence with the Sea of Azov, 1092 km south of Moscow.
Population - 1,142,162 people (2021), it is the eleventh most populous city in Russia. More than 2.16 million people live within the Rostov agglomeration (the fifth largest agglomeration in the country).
The city is a large administrative, economic, cultural, scientific, educational, industrial center and the most important transport hub of the South of Russia. Rostov is unofficially called the "gates of the Caucasus" and the "southern capital of Russia", as well as the "Don capital". On February 21, 2019, Rostov-on-Don was recognized as the regional capital at the legislative level.
In 2018, Rostov-on-Don was one of the cities that hosted matches of the World Cup.
Due to hostilities, all flights from the airport are canceled!
Platov Airport (IATA:ROV). ☎ +7 (863) 333-49-99, 8 (800) 1000-333. The new airport of Rostov-on-Don is located in an open field, 45 km from the center of Rostov and 25 km from Novocherkassk. There is absolutely nothing around, but in the terminal itself a good range of catering is announced, including the bakery "Bread Shop", pancake "Vkusnolyubov", Coffeeshop company, the Cutlet, Charter's pub. There are souvenir shops of FC Rostov, the Rostselmash plant, a fish shop.
Railway station "Rostov-Glavny" (located in the city center). ☎ +7 (863) 267-02-10, 238-36-00.
Railway station "Rostov-Prigorodny" (located next to the "Rostov-Glavny" in the city center). ☎ +7 (863) 267-02-10, 238-36-00.
Railway station "Rostov-Pervomaisky" (on the southwestern outskirts of the city). ☎ +7 (863) 267-02-10, 238-36-00. Accepts some transit trains in the direction of the North Caucasus.
From Moscow on the highway M4 "Don". There are several tolls along the way.
From Krasnodar along the M4 "Don" highway through Kushchevskaya. On the way there is a paid section from Pavlovskaya and after the intersection with a branch to the village of Samarskoye, but there is also a detour option along the Azov highway (Timashevsk - Starominskaya - Kanevskaya - Azov).
Bus station "Glavny" (near the railway stations "Rostov-Prigorodny" and "Rostov-Glavny"). ☎ +7 (863) 244-10-10.
Bus station "Prigorodny" (in the eastern part of the city closer to the exit to the M4 highway). ☎ +7 (863) 251-08-67.
On the ship
There is no permanent passenger service on the Don. There are cruise flights from Moscow, St. Petersburg and other cities.
Buses, trolleybuses, trams are used as public transport in the city.
Payment at the entrance to the driver, on the bus - 32 rubles (cash) or
30 rubles (contactless payment). There are also fixed-route taxis, the
fare is 32 rubles, payment upon exit. In public transport of
Rostov-on-Don (buses, trolleybuses, trams), the Rostov transport card is
valid. Transport. Purchase and replenishment is made in special
terminals. There are also social cards for students and pensioners,
which give the right to a 50% discount (from the contactless payment
The scheme of public transport, terminals for the purchase and replenishment of transport cards.
1 Drama Theatre. Maxim Gorky, pl. Theater, 1. An
outstanding monument of the era of constructivism. It looks like a
2 The building of the City Council, st. Bolshaya Sadovaya, 47.
3 Musical Theatre, st. Bolshaya Sadovaya, 134. It looks like a piano.
4 Don State Public Library, st. Pushkinskaya, 175a.
5 Paramonovskie warehouses, on the banks of the Don, between Sokolov Avenue and Universitetsky Lane. A complex of warehouse buildings of the 19th century in Rostov-on-Don. Monument of federal significance.
6 Mosaic in the underpass at the crossroads of st. Sadovaya and Voroshilovsky Avenue.
7 Mosaic in the underpass at the intersection of st. Sadovaya and Budyonovsky Avenue.
8 Marins Park Hotel Rostov (Hotel "Rostov"), Budennovsky Prospect, 59. The hotel building was built in the 1930s in the style of Soviet constructivism.
9th Rostov Regional Academic Youth Theater (Nakhichevan City Theatre).
10 "House of the Stalker", st. Moscow 76/32. The house where the actor Alexander Leonidovich Kaidanovsky lived, who played the main role in the film "Stalker".
11 House of Soviets, st. Socialist, 110. Administrative building of the 1930s in the city center. Built in the style of Soviet constructivism.
12 The building of the State Bank, Sokolov Ave., 22a.
13 DK Zheleznodorozhnikov North Caucasus Railway (Lendvorets), Rostov-on-Don, st. Guseva, 2a / 5 (You can get from the Central Market by tram number 7, exit at the Lendvorets stop).
14 Complex of residential buildings of the Novy Byt workers' cooperative.
15 Bolshaya Sadovaya Street (formerly Engels Street).
Central street of the city. It is crossed perpendicularly by two
important avenues: Budyonnovsky and Voroshilovsky.
16 Pushkinskaya Street (Pushkin Boulevard). Central pedestrian street
17 Theatrical Square. The main square of the city of Rostov-on-Don is located in the Proletarsky district.
18 City embankment. One of the largest and most beautiful in the country. It is famous for its monuments and fountains. edit
19 Soborny Lane. Pedestrian street in the historic city center
20 Soviet Square.
21 Rostov Cathedral, st. Stanislavsky, 58 (Cathedral
Square). Structurally, it is very similar to the Cathedral of Christ the
Savior in Moscow. Which is not surprising, since they were built by the
22 Surb Khach Church Wikidata element, in the area of the Northern residential area, below Kosmonavtov Avenue. Old Armenian church.
23 Memorial complex "Fallen soldiers", Frunze square.
24 Memorial complex "Kumzhenskaya grove".
25 Memorial complex in Zmievskaya Balka. Memorial to the "Victims of Fascism" erected in memory of the inhabitants of the city shot during the German occupation of 1942.
26 Alexander Column. The only pre-revolutionary
monument in Rostov-on-Don that survived the Soviet era.
27 Stela “To the Liberators of Rostov” (Monument-stele “To the Soldiers-Liberators of the City of Rostov-on-Don from Nazi Invaders”), Theater Square. The memorial was erected on the central square of Rostov-on-Don in honor of the liberation of the city from German troops. The grand opening of the monument took place on May 8, 1983. This monument was erected on the day of the 40th anniversary of the liberation of Rostov-on-Don and reminds the residents of the city and its guests of the tragedy of the war years.
28 Stela "City of Military Glory".
29 Monument to the founders of the fortress Demetrius of Rostov, corner of Bolshaya Sadovaya st. and Fortress Lane. The figurative composition depicting the fortress and its founders is the only way to see this very fortress and understand where it was located within the modern city.
30 Monument to St. Demetrius of Rostov, Cathedral Square
31 Monument to the pioneers (red horsemen) who liberated Rostov from the White Guards, pl. Soviets, corner of st. B. Sadovaya and Voroshilovsky pr.. Works by E. Vuchetich, originally intended for composition on Mamaev Kurgan.
32 Monument to a cart (Southern entrance to the city).
33 Monument to Empress Elizaveta Petrovna (Pokrovsky Square).
34 Monument to S. M. Kirov, at the intersection of the eponymous avenue and st. Pushkinskaya.
35 Monument to A.P. Chekhov, at the intersection of the street of the same name and st. Pushkinskaya.
36 Monument to A. S. Pushkin, at the intersection of the street of the same name and Voroshilovskogo Ave.
37 Monument to the Strike of 1902. Installed on a hill at the entrance to the Zheleznodorozhny district, from the observation deck you can see the city center.
38 Monument to Karl Marx (Frunze Square). edit
39 Monument to Peter and Fevronia.
40 Monument "Stepan Razin with his retinue" , st. Coastal.
41 Monument to Nakhalyonok, st. Coastal.
42 Monument to Grandfather Shchukar, st. Coastal.
43 Monument to Mikhail Alexandrovich Sholokhov, st. Coastal.
1 Circus, ave. Budennovsky, 45. ✉ ☎ +7 863 240-70-93.
3 Rostov Museum of Local Lore, st. Bolshaya Sadovaya,
79. ✉ ☎ +7 863 263-71-11. There is an interesting exposition that tells
about the history of these places from antiquity.
4 Rostov Museum of Fine Arts (building on Pushkinskaya), st. Pushkinskaya, 115. ✉ Wed-Mon 10:00 - 18.00.
5 Rostov Museum of Fine Arts (building on Chekhov) , Chekhov Ave., 60. ✉ Wed-Mon 10:00 - 18:00.
6 Museum of Contemporary Fine Arts on Dmitrovskaya , st. Shaumyan, 51. ✉ ☎ +7 863 240-38-72. Wed-Sun 12:00 - 19:00. For free.
7 Rostov Museum of Railway Engineering, st. Portovaya, 71 (or Cossack lane, 44a). Tue-Sun 10:00-17:00.
8 Rostov Museum of Cosmonautics, Stachki Ave., 231/2. ☎ +7 863 2928509.
9 Museum of the Central Internal Affairs Directorate for the Rostov Region, Bolshaya Sadovaya st., 29.
10 Academic Drama Theatre. Maxim Gorky, st. Theater
11 Rostov Musical Theatre, st. Bolshaya Sadovaya, 134/38.
12 Rostov Regional Philharmonic, st. Bolshaya Sadovaya, 170. ☎ 8 863 263-35-69. There are two halls in the building: large and small.
13 Theater 18+ , st. 18 Line, 8. ☎ +7 863 226-00-85, +7 863 296-16-92. Theater of modern dramaturgy
14 Park im. Maxim Gorky. The main place of rest for
citizens and tourists.
15 Revolution Park.
16 Park of culture and recreation "May 1".
17 Park im. Nikolai Ostrovsky. There is a children's railway on the territory.
18 Park of Aviators.
19 Children's Park them. Viti Cherevichkin.
20 Botanical Garden, per. Botanical descent, 7. ✉ ☎ +7 863 227-57-21. excursions 09.00-14.00. 150 rub. The largest in the south of Russia.
21 Levberdon. A recreation area on the left bank of the Don, which is an almost continuous line of cafes, restaurants, beaches and clubs. In winter, most of the establishments are closed.
22 Green Island. A corner of protected nature within the city, you can get there via a pontoon bridge, which is removed in winter.
23 Pokrovsky Square.
Central Market (Old Bazaar). It includes not only the
"official" food and clothing markets, but also a large flea market where
they sell from the ground or from their hands - anything. Here you can
feel the real atmosphere of the bazaar (not to be confused with the
market). In many ways, the Central Market is similar to Odessa Privoz,
but much larger.
Proletarian Market (Nakhichevan Bazaar). It includes not only the "official" food and clothing markets, but also a large flea market where they sell from the ground or from their hands - anything. Here you can feel the real atmosphere of the bazaar (not to be confused with the market).
Shop of Semikarakorsk ceramics, Voroshilovsky prospect, 38, Bolshaya Sadovaya, 77 and Budyonnovsky prospect, 61. Company store from a factory from the city of Semikarakorsk, Rostov region. Crockery and earthenware souvenirs with Cossack, Orthodox and other themes.
Market "Privoz", st. Sorge, stop "Kostanayskaya street".
Market "Kavras", on Stachki Avenue between st. Treneva and pl. Druzhinnikov (route taxi No. 44, trolley bus No. 12, stop "Stadion Lokomotiv").
Clothing market, st. Zorge (next to the shopping center "Thaler").
MEGA, Rostov region, Aksai, Aksai pr., 23. ☎ +7 863) 203-56-80.
SEC "Megacenter Horizon", Mikhail Nagibin Ave, 32/2. ☎ +7(863) 272-51-33, +7(863) 272-51-08. Mar 2016 edit
SEC "MEGAMAG", st. Poymennaya, 1. ☎ +7 (863) 203-11-01.
TRK "Sokol", Stachki Ave., 25. ☎ +7 (863) 290-80-71.
SEC "RIO", Mikhail Nagibin Ave., 17. ☎ +7 (863) 203-67-77.
Shopping center "Children's", st. Malinovsky, 9a. ☎ +7 (863) 218-36-59.
Astor Plaza shopping center, 49/97 Budyonnovsky Ave. ☎ +7 (863) 291-00-00, +7 (863) 291-00-00.
Shopping center "TsUM", st. Bolshaya Sadovaya, 46. ☎ +7 (863) 250-53-01.
Shopping center "Voskhod", st. Eremenko, 62. ☎ +7 (863) 200-93-56.
Shopping center "Mir", st. Vavilov, 67. ☎ +7 (863) 277-70-07. azone car dealership
Shopping center "Clover House", st. Tekucheva, 139/94. ☎ +7 (863) 268-86-97.
Shopping center "Metro", st. Temernitskaya, 58. ☎ +7 (863) 240-62-52.
SEC "Thaler", st. Sorge (buses 71, 67,94,96, minibuses 67a,85a,73,25,). ☎ +7 (863) 240-62-52.
The network of restaurants of Asian and European cuisine "Ris". Once a large and inexpensive chain of restaurants specializing in sushi. As the sushi craze has faded, most outlets have closed, with only a handful of establishments remaining for 2022; prices, respectively, have become slightly above average. Nevertheless, the institution remains very good in terms of price / quality ratio and, in addition to sushi and rolls, it can offer a very large assortment of alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks, there are also burgers, pasta and good desserts (but their range is large). There are applications for Android / iPhone with promotions and delivery orders, as well as Wi-Fi.
The network of democratic restaurants of Asian and European cuisine "Osaka". ☎ +7 (863) 300-57-57. low prices.
A network of democratic restaurants of Japanese and European cuisine "Assorti". low prices.
Chain of coffee houses "Drink coffee" , Cathedral lane, 21; Sokolov Ave., 45; Teatralny Ave., 47; Voroshilovsky pr., 18/18. There is Wi-Fi. Good feedback.
Beer restaurant "BirHof", st. Temernitskaya, 80. There is Wi-Fi.
Student cafe-dining room "Rus", st. Tekucheva, 145 (District of the Central City Hospital). Three-course lunch from 50 rubles.
Student cafe-dining room, in the main building of the SFU Pedagogical Institute at the intersection of the lane. Ostrovsky and st. Big Garden.
Snack "Mag-Express", st. Bolshaya Sadovaya, 32.
Modern dining room "Spoon-Povareshka", Budyonnovsky Ave., 74.
Canteen, pl. Teatralnaya (1st floor of the 14-storey glass building Atomkotlomash).
Cafe-dining room "Ginger", st. Bolshaya Sadovaya, 103.
Pizzeria "La Terraza", st. Bolshaya Sadovaya, 80. There is Wi-Fi internet.
Pizzeria "Tashir", st. Pushkinskaya, 229a; st. Pushkinskaya, 163-169; Stachki Ave., 25 (3rd floor of Sokol shopping center); st. Zorge, 33 (1st floor of the shopping center "Thaler"); Mikhail Nagibin Ave., 17 (level 3 of RIO shopping mall).
Restaurant of Russian cuisine "Kolkhoz", st. Socialist, 143a.
Author's restaurants of Vadim Kalinich (Eat and Drink Company). ☎ +7 (863) 235-36-00. 12:00-24:00. 26 restaurants in the Rostov region and Krasnodar region.
Restaurants of the Good Restaurants company, Budennovsky pr., 49/97, 3/5 floor. ☎ +7 (863) 200-90-13 (14). 12:00-24:00. 8 restaurants in Rostov-on-Don.
Restaurants of the Right Bank company. ☎ + 7 951 522 80 20. 12:00-24:00. 7 restaurants in Rostov-on-Don
Steakhouse “Wine and Meat”, 106, Socialist street. ☎ +7 863 262-33-93. 12:00-24:00. Very decent steaks.
Tea restaurant "Apsara", st. Shaumyan, 96. ☎ 40-93-48.
Gastropub "Bukowski", Krasnoarmeyskaya st., 168 / Gazetny per., 99.
Restaurant "Kan-Sin", Socialist street, 186/59. ☎ +7 863 297-58-95.
Club "Podzemka", pl. Combine builders (DK
Tesla club, st. Maxim Gorky, 151. ☎ 8 (863) 207-25-27.
Club "Honey", st. Krasnoarmeyskaya, 157. edit
Club - restaurant "Kalinka-House", Nagibina Ave. 12/2.
Club "Chester Pub", Budyonnovsky Ave., 1 G.
"BADLAND" bar , st. Vavilova, 68/4 (Harley-Davidson Rostov-on-Don Motor Show).
The lack of budget hotels in Rostov is compensated by a wide offer of apartments for rent. In terms of comfort, apartments are usually at the level of 3-4 stars, while the price is usually not higher than the price of a double room in the cheapest hotel.
Hotel "Western", st. Commonwealth, 66/110. ✉ ☎ +7 863 224-02-89, 222-68-73.
Hotel "Zvezda", per. Cathedral, 104. ☎ +7 863 232-93-38, fax: +7 863 232-29-60.
Hotel "Nadezhda", st. Vavilov 74b. ☎ +7 863 200 65 53.
Hotel "Marins Park Hotel" (Formerly "Rostov"), 59 Budennovsky Ave. ☎ +7 863 290-76-90.
AMAKS hotel, 19 Nagibina Ave. ☎ +7 863 238-47-46, 232-43-09.
Hotel "Baroque", Nagibina Ave., 55. ☎ +7 863 231-00-41.
DonExpocentre, 30 Nagibina Ave. ☎ +7 863 268-77-60, 268-77-61, 268-77-87.
Congress Hotel DON-PLAZA ****, B. Sadovaya, 115. ☎ +7 863 263-90-65.
The following mobile operators operate in Rostov-on-Don: MTS, Beeline, Megafon, Tele2, SkyLink.
WiFi works in many institutions of the city, in particular, in Vkusno i Tochka, in Rice restaurants, Drink Coffee coffee houses, and La Terraza pizzeria.
It is quite safe in the center of Rostov.
Founded in 1761 as a fortress of Dimitry of Rostov. The name was given to the church in the name of St. Demetrius, who for the last seven years of his life was Metropolitan of Rostov and Yaroslavl, and in 1757 was canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church. At the fortress, which was called Rostov in everyday life, a settlement arose, which they began to call simply Rostov; in 1796 it was transformed into a city with the same name. Later, to distinguish it from ancient Rostov, this city was called Rostov-on-Don.
Foundation of the city
Officially, the city was founded on December 15 (26), 1749, when Empress Elizaveta Petrovna founded the Temernitsky customs by her decree. By decree of Empress Elizaveta Petrovna dated August 18 (29), 1749, the customs house was to be founded in the city of Cherkassk, but the Cossacks found this impossible for their commercial activities, as they had certain duty benefits. And on the territory of customs, these benefits did not work.
The Empress, having considered the petition of Danila Efremov, received on November 23 (December 4), 1749, granted the request of the Cossacks and designated in a letter dated December 15 a place for customs at the mouth of Temernik, from where Rostov-on-Don originated:
In order to collect tariffs and internal duties from goods imported from the Turkish region and exported from Russia abroad, customs should be established along the Don River up from the mouth of the Temernik River against the tract called “The Rich Well”.
In the spring of 1750, a pier, warehouse, quarantine, garrison barracks were built in the customs house. Here, in 1756, the international "Russian and Constantinople Trading Company" was founded. Temernitsky port became the only Russian port in the south of Russia, through which trade was carried out with the countries of the Black, Aegean and Mediterranean seas.
In 1760-1761, to protect the lower reaches of the Don from Turkish raids by invaders and Crimean Tatar hordes, the construction of a fortress began at the Rich Well, according to the project of engineer-captain I. Vedenev. The management of the work was entrusted to the military engineer A.I. Rigelman. The fortress in the shape of a nine-pointed star had a circumference of 3.5 km and was located between the current lanes of Chekhov and Fortress, Gorky and Stanislavsky streets. The fortress had two outposts: Dolomanovsky and Soldatsky, which were located along the banks of the Don from the current Dolomanovsky lane to Voroshilovsky prospect. Inside there were seven longitudinal and seven transverse streets, and the territory was built up with various buildings to accommodate the garrison and store weapons. The garrison of the fortress consisted of more than four thousand people, another thousand lived in the surrounding settlements.
On April 6 (17), 1761, by decree of Elizabeth Petrovna, the fortress was given the name of Metropolitan Dimitry of Rostov and Yaroslavl (1652-1709), shortly before that, canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church. The name of the fortress and the settlement subsequently changed: the fortress of St. Demetrius, the fortress of Dimitri of Rostov, the Rostov fortress, simply Rostov, finally, to distinguish it from the ancient Rostov the Great, which is near Yaroslavl, Rostov-on-Don.
Over time, houses for merchants and clergy, trading shops, taverns, drinking houses, a prison and other buildings were erected here. In addition to permanent residents, up to three thousand people regularly came to work in the port, immigrants from Little Russia, present-day Ukraine, who settled in farms and villages near the fortress. The port of Rostov quickly became famous in Russia and abroad, attracting more and more Russian and foreign merchants. Wines, juice, oranges, lemons, dates, raisins, dried fruits, coffee, pearls, morocco, spyglasses, expensive fabrics, and luxury items were brought here from Greece and Turkey. In exchange, cheap agricultural products, bread, fish, metal and other goods were exported. Foreign goods went from here into the depths of Russia: to Moscow, Smolensk, Kazan, Orenburg, Vyatka and to numerous fairs.
The names of outstanding Russian military leaders are connected with the history of the fortress. In 1768, Admiral A. N. Sinyavin came here to supervise the construction of the shipyard, in 1783-1784 the commander of the fortress was commander A. V. Suvorov, here, after several years of service in the Baltic, Admiral F. F. Ushakov was transferred. The fortress had a large garrison, was armed with 238 guns and was used as a rear base for Russian troops for half a century. The fortress of St. Demetrius of Rostov played a significant role during the Russian-Turkish wars in the second half of the 18th century. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774, it served as a base for the offensive against Azov.
In 1779, to the east of the fortress, Armenians (immigrants from the Crimean peninsula) founded the city of Nor-Nakhichevan (Nakhichevan-on-Don). On March 9 (20), 1778, Empress Catherine II issued a Decree in the name of His Serene Highness Prince G. A. Potemkin, appointed in 1775 as the ruler of the Novorossiysk, Azov and Astrakhan provinces. The execution of the resettlement was entrusted to the commander of the Crimean army A. A. Prozorovsky. But he was not destined to carry out this Decree. Citing poor health, he asks for a two-year vacation. A young General A. V. Suvorov was appointed to his place. According to Suvorov's statements, in August-September 1778, 31,386 people left the Crimea, of which: Greeks - 18,407 souls, Armenians - 12,598, Georgians - 219, Vlachs - 162. Under the circumstances, the settlers repeatedly turned to A. V. Suvorov, sent deputies headed by Joseph Argutinsky (Hovsep Argutyan), the archbishop in charge of the Astrakhan diocese, to Petersburg. In the end, their petitions were crowned with success and their request was granted for the allotment of land for them to settle in the mouth of the Don near the fortress of Dimitry of Rostov. On December 9 (20), 1779, the settlers gathered on the land allotted to them to the east of the Dm fortress. Rostov, near the Midday camp, and the highest diploma was read to them. The new city was named "Nakhichevan", where the urban residents of Crimea settled, and the rural population - in the vicinity of the city, in the villages of Chaltyr, Topti (Crimea), Mets Sala (Big Sala), Pokr-Sala (Sultan-Saly) and Nesvita (Nesvetay ).
The well-known Russian architect I. E. Starov took part in the development of the plan for the new city. On August 9 (20), 1797, the fortress and Nakhichevan became part of the Rostov district of the Novorossiysk province.
By the end of the 18th century, in connection with the annexation of the Black Sea region to Russia, the fortress lost its strategic importance, the fortifications were dug down, and the territory of the fortress moved to the city. In 1802, Rostov became a county town of the Yekaterinoslav province. The fortress did not fire a single shot. After the demolition of ramparts and backfilling of ditches, the city was quickly cut through by a network of streets and alleys, instead of adobe and wooden ones, stone buildings began to be built, trading activity became the main occupation of the city residents. Multilingual speech, bright national costumes of Rostovites, lively life of the port city struck A. S. Pushkin, who visited Rostov in 1820 and 1828. In 1835, the garrison and military property of the Rostov fortress were transferred to Anapa.
Favorable geographical position at the crossroads of land and waterways contributed to the economic development of Rostov. A trading port was formed near its walls, which received ships of Russian, Greek, Italian, Turkish, Armenian, Persian merchants. In 1887, the city was included in the Don Host Region, which was the impetus for the further development of industry and landscaping. By its 100th anniversary, the city had about 15 thousand inhabitants, and by the 20th century over 110 thousand people lived in it. The basis of the economy of Rostov was trade, it was called a merchant city, but by the beginning of the 20th century, more than a hundred enterprises operated in Rostov, including such large ones as the Main Workshops of the Vladikavkaz Railway, the Aksai plow-building plant, shipbuilding, nail-wire, iron foundry factories, two tobacco factories. Moreover, every third enterprise belonged to foreign capital.
According to the 1897 census, 119,476 inhabitants lived in the city. The following were indicated as the native language: Russian - 94,673, Jewish - 11,183, Little Russian - 5612, Armenian - 1182, Polish - 1444, German - 1182, Tatar - 1172. district of Rostov-on-Don), in total, there was the following religious composition:
Orthodoxy - 111,760 (72.8%)
Armenian Apostolic Church - 25,605 (16.7%)
Judaism - 11,817 (10.6%)
Catholicism - 1656 (1.1%)
Protestantism - 1327 (0.9%)
Islam - 1397 (0.9%).
The followers of the Armenian Apostolic Church were concentrated in Nakhichevan (now the Proletarian region) and Myasnikovan (now the Northern region of Rostov-on-Don), which belonged to it, where they accounted for 61.2% of the population.
The All-Russian October political strike of 1905
began in Rostov with a strike in the Main workshops of the
Vladikavkaz railway on October 13 (26). On the morning of October 18
(31) in Rostov, the contents of the manifesto issued by Nicholas II
became known, the Social Democrats organized a demonstration of
workers and student youth. The demonstration ended on the square
between the prison and the tram depot. A grand rally was held here
with the participation of about 10 thousand people demanding freedom
for political prisoners. Cadets, Social Democrats spoke at the
rally, including some of those arrested on suspicion of opposition
activities and released during the rally. A large crowd of Black
Hundreds gathered with national flags and portraits of the tsar and
began throwing stones at the protesters and beating them up. For
protection, revolver shots were heard from the ranks of the
protesters. After the rally was dispersed by the Cossacks, a crowd
of Black Hundreds rushed to smash Jewish shops. On October 19-20,
the Jewish pogrom continued. Although in terms of the number of
killed (176 people) and wounded (about 500) it lost “first place” to
the Odessa pogrom, however, in terms of the proportion of victims
among the Jewish population, which amounted to more than 1% (in
Odessa, no more than 0.5%), it was the largest Jewish pogrom at the
beginning of the 20th century in Russia.
Simultaneously with the December armed uprising in Moscow on December 7–21, 1905 (January 3, 1906), a general political strike took place in Rostov, which developed into an armed uprising.
During the civil war of 1918-1920, Rostov played a prominent role as one of the centers of the White movement. The first formation of the Volunteer Army included the Rostov Volunteer Regiment from the student youth of Rostov-on-Don.
On the night of 9 to 10 (from 22 to 23) February 1918, the Dobrarmia left from here on their legendary Ice Campaign. The founder of the army, General M. V. Alekseev, wrote to his brother [source not specified 3254 days]:
“We are leaving for the steppes. We can return if only there is the grace of God. But you need to light a torch so that at least one point of light is among the darkness that has engulfed Russia ... ".
In Rostov there were shells, cartridges, uniforms, medical depots and medical personnel - everything that the small army guarding the approaches to the city so badly needed. Up to 16,000 officers who did not want to participate in its defense were on vacation in the city. Generals Kornilov and Alekseev did not resort at this stage to either requisitions or mobilization. The Bolsheviks of Sievers, having occupied the city after their departure, “took everything they needed and intimidated the population by shooting several officers”
On April 21 (May 4), 1918, Rostov was briefly occupied by another volunteer detachment - Colonel M. G. Drozdovsky, who came from the Romanian front.
On January 10, 1920, the 1st Cavalry Army under the command of S. M. Budyonny entered the city. The Soviet period in the history of Rostov-on-Don began on February 11, 1920, when the White Army finally left the city.
In the late 1920s, active construction began in Rostov-on-Don. In 1926, the giant of the Soviet agricultural engineering plant "Rostselmash" was founded. On November 29, 1935, the largest drama theater in the country was opened. M. Gorky with an auditorium for 2200 seats, where the famous director Yu. A. Zavadsky, actors V. P. Maretskaya and R. Ya. Plyatt worked. The architects of the theater were Shchuko and Gelfreich. The construction was carried out by a team of employees of "Theatrostroy", the director of which was A. M. Stambler.
On December 28, 1928, a resolution of the commission of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the USSR “On the unification of the cities of Rostov and Nakhichevan-on-Don into one city of Rostov-on-Don” was issued, after which the city of Nakhichevan-on-Don became the Proletarian district of the city of Rostov-on-Don. This association led to the construction of a number of administrative buildings in the city. In 1930, the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was demolished on Novy Bazar Square, and in 1929-1934 the building of the regional House of Soviets was built on the square (destroyed during the Great Patriotic War and partially retaining its historical appearance after reconstruction).
On September 13, 1937, by a decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, the Azov-Chernomorsky Territory was divided into the Krasnodar Territory with a center in the city of Krasnodar and the Rostov Region with a center in the city of Rostov-on-Don. In 1939, Rostov-on-Don already occupied the 4th place in the RSFSR in terms of the number of inhabitants - 510 thousand people. By 1940, the size of the city had more than doubled.
German troops occupied Rostov-on-Don twice: in the
fall of 1941 and in the summer of 1942.
For the first time, German troops approached the city on November 17, 1941. The offensive was led by the 3rd Panzer Corps of the 1st Panzer Army under the command of E. von Mackensen, consisting of the 13th and 14th Panzer Divisions, the 60th Motorized Division and the SS Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler Motorized Division. The city was defended by units of the 56th Army of the Red Army, under the command of General F.N. Remezov, which, along with other units, included the 339th Rostov Rifle Division and the Rostov Militia Rifle Regiment, formed from local residents.
On November 20, Wehrmacht troops entered the city. The 1st battalion of the SS division broke through to the railway bridge and captured it unscathed. A week later, on November 28, Soviet troops under the command of Marshal S.K. Timoshenko recaptured the city during the Rostov offensive. The liberation of Rostov was the first significant victory of the Red Army in the initial period of the war (June 22, 1941 - November 18, 1942).
Rostov-on-Don remained Soviet until July 1942, when, after the failure of the Red Army offensive near Kharkov, the German command launched an offensive against the Kuban and the Caucasus. On July 24, 1942, the 17th Wehrmacht Army entered Rostov.
The place of mass extermination of the civilian population was Zmievskaya Balka on the outskirts of the city, where the Nazis killed 27,000 Jews and 3,000 people of other nationalities. In total, the Nazis killed more than 40 thousand people, 53 thousand Rostovites were deported to Germany for forced labor.
On February 14, 1943, after the victory at Stalingrad during the general retreat of the Wehrmacht on the southern sector of the Eastern Front, Rostov-on-Don was finally liberated from German troops.
On August 9, 1945, the general plan for the
restoration of the city was approved, developed under the guidance of
Academician of Architecture V. N. Semyonov. And in November, Rostovites
learned that their city was included in the 15 largest and oldest
Russian cities to be restored in the first place. The city began to
recover very quickly. New enterprises were restored and built. Together
with them, the city itself was restored. The city embankment was
improved, which became one of the favorite places for recreation for
city residents. On May 9, 1959, the Eternal Flame was lit at the mass
grave on Karl Marx Square in Rostov-on-Don.
In 1961, the village of Alexandrovskaya, which became part of the Proletarsky district, was included in Rostov-on-Don. In 1963 the Rostov Academic Drama Theatre. M. Gorky
In 1965, a new Voroshilovsky bridge was opened. In 1969, the memorial complex "To the Fallen Soldiers" was built. The monument was erected in the place where 301 people were buried in 1943 - Soviet soldiers and civilians who fell during the German occupation and in the battles for the defense and liberation of the city.
In the 1970s, Rostselmash and other large enterprises of the city were reconstructed. During the Great Patriotic War, 2,500 workers and employees of the Rostselmash plant went to fight the Nazis in the army and the people's militia. Over three hundred combine builders were awarded orders and medals for military exploits, thirteen workers of the plant were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. In commemoration of these glorious deeds of the workers of the Rostselmash plant, in the park named after. N. Ostrovsky, the Stele of Heroes was installed. The initiators of its creation were in 1973 the workers of the plant. As a result of mass housing construction, large residential areas Western and Northern were built. In fact, the area of the city's housing stock has more than doubled in three decades.
In 1987, Rostov-on-Don became one of the cities of the USSR with a population of over a million people, ranking 23rd in this indicator.
The city is the largest center of business activity,
which confirms the presence in the city of a large number of regional
offices of the largest Russian banks and companies.
In Rostov, much attention is paid to the development of sports. A sports zone will be formed in the Northern residential area on Komarov Boulevard, including a universal sports and entertainment hall for 8,000 seats with a children's and youth sports school, a football and athletics sports core with a grandstand, a polymodule of sports grounds, a swimming pool, and hotels for 350 seats. In general, the functional organization of Komarov Boulevard provides for objects of mass entertainment events and sports and recreational activities, a walking area, a children's recreation area, as well as a zone of institutions and service enterprises in the sports park.
In 2000, Rostov-on-Don became the center of the Southern Federal District, confirming the status of a major regional center.
The headquarters of the now abolished North Caucasian Military District was located in Rostov. On July 6, 2010, the President of Russia signed a decree on the creation in Russia instead of six military districts - four unified strategic commands (USC). The USC "South" (Southern Military District) with headquarters in Rostov-on-Don included: the North Caucasian Military District, the southern part of the Volga-Ural Military District, the Black Sea Fleet, the 4th Air Force and Air Defense Command, the Caspian Flotilla.
On August 21, 2017, in the central part of the city, south of the Theater Square, there was a major fire that destroyed about 120 buildings.
Stele "City of Military Glory"
How the city of military glory Rostov-on-Don received not just a stele, as prescribed by federal law, but also a full-fledged attraction - the memorial complex "City of Military Glory" in Rostov-on-Don. The honorary title "City of Military Glory" was awarded to Rostov-on-Don by Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of May 5, 2008 No. 556 for the courage, steadfastness and heroism shown by the city's defenders in the struggle for the freedom and independence of the Fatherland.
The square in front of the airport building in Pervomaisky district, where the new memorial is located, was given the name Square of Military Glory by a decree of the city administration.
Rostov-on-Don is located in the southeastern part of
the East European Plain. The city is mostly located on the right bank of
the Don River, on the left bank there are some industrial enterprises
and shopping and entertainment centers (see Levberdon). The southwestern
outskirts of the city are adjacent to the Don River delta (Don girs).
Rostov-on-Don is located in the MSK time zone (Moscow time). The offset of the applicable time from UTC is +3:00. In accordance with the applied time and geographic longitude, the average solar noon in Rostov-on-Don occurs at 12:21.
The climate of Rostov-on-Don is temperate continental.
Average annual climatic indicators: temperature +9.9 °C, wind speed 3.2
m/s, air humidity 72%. Precipitation is about 618 mm per year.
Winter is mild and with little snow; the average duration of snow cover is 10-25 days. The average January temperature is -3.0 °C, the annual average minimum in winter is -19.4 °C, the absolute minimum was observed in January and was -31.9 °C in 1940. The duration of the heating season is 5 months.
Summers are hot, long and dry, with a predominance of sunny weather; the average July temperature is +24 °C. The absolute maximum was observed in July and amounted to +40.2 °C in 2020.
The type of relief of the city is directly related to its geographical zonality. The relief of the territory of Rostov-on-Don has a flat, ravine-beam character. Near Rostov-on-Don, the height of the right bank reaches 80 m. On the left bank rises the low Batay ridge, about 10 m high, and only near the city of Azov, the left bank of the Don rises significantly above the right. The main rocks are sedimentary, easily exposed to wind and water erosion due to heavy rains. The widespread processes of destruction of the earth's surface under the influence of gravity (landslides, screes) also contribute to the development of ravines. The very high ravine content of the territory of Rostov-on-Don is due to sedimentary rocks that are susceptible to destruction, the nature of the relief of the territory and the flowing work of waters. The Don valley is heavily indented with gullies and ravines of various sizes.
In 2008-2009, more than 40 projects for the
reconstruction and creation of landscaping facilities were developed in
Rostov-on-Don, most of which have already been implemented in the city.
In 2009, more than 6,000 trees were planted in the city. Perennial flowers were planted twice as less. Many annual flowers are planted annually - more than one and a half million pieces.
In recent years, most funds for landscaping were spent in 2008 - 202 million rubles, in 2009 - already 174 million, in 2010 - 54 million. In 2011, the administration spent about 63 million rubles on landscaping.
The largest river in the region, the Don, flows
through Rostov-on-Don. Other rivers also pass through the city,
including the Temernik and the Dead Donets.
On the territory of the city there are other reservoirs: springs, small rivers, lakes, as well as reservoirs, the largest of which are the Northern reservoir, the Rostov Sea.
A significant level of air pollution in the city of
Rostov-on-Don remains. The most significant sources of atmospheric air
pollution are motor vehicles (94% of emissions as of 2009) and railway
transport, enterprises of the fuel and energy and machine-building
complexes, agricultural holdings and construction industry enterprises.
The total amount of pollutants emitted from all stationary emission
sources in 2011 amounted to 33,895 thousand tons, of which 72% was
captured and neutralized by gas and dust collection plants, and 50.4%
was disposed of.
In the total volume of emissions of pollutants released into the atmosphere from stationary sources in 2011, 91.5% are gaseous and liquid substances, which are the most dangerous for public health.
The pollution of water bodies by industrial and untreated sewage, storm and waste waters continues; there is a shortage of conditioned water for household and drinking needs. Water quality control of reservoirs of 1 and 2 categories of water use in 2011 in the city of Rostov-on-Don established:
Indicators of microbiological pollution of reservoirs of the 1st category of water use (in places of water intake) amounted to 67.4% of water samples, chemical pollution - 5.4% of water samples.
In reservoirs of the 2nd category of water use (in recreation areas), microbiological contamination was found in 83.3% of water samples, and chemical contamination in 27.3% of water samples.
Exceeding the maximum allowable concentrations (hereinafter - MPC) in surface waters within the city of Rostov-on-Don was observed in terms of dry residue (0.1–0.4 MPC), oil products (0.2–1.3 MPC), hardness ( 0.3-0.7 MPC), iron (0.2-22 MPC) and other indicators.
Insufficiently treated wastewater affects the water in the Don River in terms of dissolved oxygen, nitrogen group, phosphates and other indicators.
The quality of water from springs located on the territory of the city of Rostov-on-Don in 2011 did not meet hygienic standards in terms of chemical safety (dry residue, total hardness, sulfates and sodium). According to microbiological indicators, the quality of spring water in 2011 amounted to 21.4% of positive water samples.
Central water treatment facilities were built in 1929, 1934, reconstructed in 1976, wear is 80-90%. The design capacity is 160 thousand m³ per day, but due to high wear it is only 80-100 thousand m³ per day.
Aleksandrovskie water treatment facilities were built in two stages by independent blocks in 1964 and 1984 and also supply water to the satellite towns of Bataysk and Aksai. The design capacity is 320 thousand m³ per day, the actual capacity is from 450 to 550 thousand m³ per day.
Wastewater enters the sewage treatment plant located on the left bank of the Don River. The capacity of wastewater treatment facilities is 313,000 m³ per day (1st and 2nd stages), in fact, about 320,000 m³ of wastewater is received per day.
As of 2018, the city is 86% sewered. The remaining 14% of the population of the city of Rostov-on-Don is not connected to a centralized sewerage system.
Since February 2021, the water from the taps has been black, green, brown. Rostovites complain of poisoning.
The provision of public green spaces within the city limits, when calculated in accordance with urban planning norms SNiP 2.07.01-89, is 244%, green spaces occupy 34.5% of the total area of urban land. At the same time, there is a significant lack of "green lungs" of the city according to GOST 17.5.3.01-78, which includes green zones (forests) around cities, outside the city limits. With such an assessment, the share of provision with green spaces from the normative provision with green spaces for the city of Rostov-on-Don is 26.5%.