Novocherkassk, Russia


Novocherkassk is a city in the Rostov region, is a city of regional significance with the status of an urban district. Population - 167 355 people. (2019), the area of ​​the urban district is more than 13.5 thousand hectares.

Novocherkassk has an officially approved coat of arms, flag and anthem.

In 1944-1963 Novocherkassk was the regional center of the Novocherkassk region.

On June 2, 1962, in Novocherkassk, a demonstration of workers' protest against price increases was brutally suppressed (see Novocherkassk execution).

In the urban boundaries of Novocherkassk, settlements were included as microdistricts: the Khotunok farm (in 1962), the urban-type settlements of Oktyabrsky (in 1966) and Donskoy (in 2004).


Novocherkassk (Russian pre-reph. Novocherkask) was founded on May 18 (30), 1805 as the capital of the Oblast of the Don Army (Don Cossacks), the founder of the city was Ataman Matvey Platov.

Before that, the capital was located in Cherkassk (now the village of Starocherkasskaya). The need to move the capital was caused by many economic, socio-political and natural circumstances. The main reason was the almost annual long-term flooding of Cherkassk with the waters of the overflowing Don in spring. As a protection against floods, an attempt was made to erect a protective earthen wall according to the design of Antony Ludwig de Romano, but its construction was not completed due to its high cost and unreliability. Another reason was the frequent fires in the former Cossack capital, built chaotically, without a general plan, in the fire of which up to half of the wooden buildings burned out. In addition, there were no reliable overland access roads to Cherkassk.

Despite the fact that ten of the eleven representatives of the villages that were part of the Cherkassk town, on the Cossack Circle refused to move the capital, Platov nevertheless made a presentation to the emperor with a request to allow him to move Cherkassk to another place. The permission was given in the highest decree of Alexander I of August 23, 1804.

Soon, engineer Lieutenant General F.P.Devolan, who had a rich experience in urban planning, arrived on the Don with the Tsar's instructions: together with Platov, choose a place for the future capital of the Don Army Land and draw up a plan for a new city. The commission of 12 people examined a number of places: the Aksai and Cherkassky mountains, areas of the villages of Zaplavskaya, Manychskaya, etc. She was attracted by the Biryuchiy Kut tract ("wolf's den") - a hill encircled by the Tuzlov rivers and the Don Aksay branch, advantageously dominating the surrounding steppe, which was important for defense in the event of an enemy attack. It was decided to recommend this place to the king.

On November 7, 1804, Devolan and Platov presented the plan of the future city and an extensive report to the emperor for consideration, which clearly embellished the advantages of the area chosen for construction. The city was designed in the best traditions of European urban planning, with spacious squares, wide avenues and boulevards buried in greenery. Devolan, calling the future Novocherkassk "little Paris", put squares in the logical basis of the city, on each of which there should be a church, and from each of the squares there should be radial streets. On December 31, 1804, having considered the plan and report of Platov and Devolan, Alexander I wrote with his own hand: “To be like this. Alexander".

On May 18 (30), 1805, on the day of the great Orthodox holiday of the Ascension of the Lord, the historic celebration of the laying of the new capital of the Don and the military church took place. By order of Platov, representatives of more than thirty villages with banners and military regalia were summoned to participate in the ceremony. In order to preserve the evidence of this event, three teenagers were present from each village. Furrows were plowed to mark the first avenues, streets and lanes. The laying of the foundation stone of the cathedral, then - the Gostiny Dvor, the Military Chancellery and the gymnasium. In a specially built crypt under the cathedral, a "silver-plated board" with a gilded coat of arms of the Don Army was immured, as well as gold and silver coins minted in 1805.

The text on the plate read:
“The city of the Don army, named New Cherkassk, was founded during the reign of the Sovereign Emperor and the autocrat of All-Russia Alexander the First, in the summer of 1805 May 18 days, which until now existed for 235 years on the banks of the Don on an island from this place directly to the south, a distance of 20 versts under the name of Cherkassk ".

A festively arranged move to Novy Cherkassk took place on May 9, 1806. With a cannon salute, Old Cherkassk accompanied the solemn procession to the new capital. New Cherkassk met the first settlers, led by Voiskov Ataman M.I. Platov, one hundred and one cannon rounds. The historical act of the successive transfer of the military, cultural, moral and other traditions of the Don Cossacks from the inhabitants of the former capital to the new one took place.


The construction of the city proceeded slowly, primarily due to the reluctance of the Cossacks to leave their habitable places, and besides, the new capital was located twenty kilometers from the Don, with which the Cossacks were closely connected throughout their history, because of this there were even plans to deepen Aksai. on the banks of which the new city was located. In fact, it was supposed to put the Don on a different channel, but due to a lack of funds, this plan was not implemented, and for more than three decades the question of the place of the capital of the Land of the Don Cossack remained unresolved. In 1837 it already seemed that the project of transferring the capital to the village of Aksayskaya, which was also on a hill, but adjacent to the Don, had triumphed. However, in the same 1837, Emperor Nicholas I personally examined Novocherkassk and the village of Aksayskaya and, after returning to St. Petersburg, ordered to keep the capital in its original place, because of the difficulties and futility of its transfer.

In the first half of the 19th century, the city was built only as a military center, there were administrative buildings, guest houses, taverns, wine cellars, hotels, houses of generals and nobles, city gardens, etc., only in the 1850s industrial buildings appeared in Novocherkassk. enterprises, however, all these industries employed less than one thousand people with almost twenty thousand inhabitants of Novocherkassk.

In 1870, by a decree of the Government Senate, the Land of the Don Cossacks was renamed into the Region of the Don Cossacks.

On the eve of the October Revolution, about sixty thousand people lived in Novocherkassk. About half (more than twenty-five thousand people) were service Cossacks with families. Noblemen - about three thousand people, persons of clergy - more than five hundred people. There were practically no merchants and peasants.

During the Civil War, Novocherkassk became one of the centers of the white movement for everyone who did not want to come to terms with the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks. During this time, the city's population almost doubled and amounted to more than one hundred thousand people. The Cossacks, under the leadership of Ataman Kaledin, preferred to isolate themselves from Soviet power by creating an independent Don region with a center in Novocherkassk. Later, under the leadership of Lavr Kornilov and General Mikhail Alekseev, the Volunteer Army was formed in Novocherkassk, which began the struggle against the Bolshevik regime. Throughout the war, Novocherkassk several times passed to the Bolsheviks, then to the White Guards.

On January 8, 1920, Novocherkassk finally passed into the hands of the Bolsheviks, having lost the status of the capital of the Don Cossacks.

In the summer - fall of 1941, due to the rapid offensive of the Germans, most of the enterprises were evacuated and the construction of new facilities (for example, a city tram) was frozen, however, in the fall of 1941, German troops were transferred to Rostov due to the advance of the Red Army, and only on July 25, 1942 the city was occupied by the Germans. Novocherkassk became the center of the formation of the Cossack Camp - a military formation on the side of the Wehrmacht. Novocherkassk was liberated by Soviet troops on February 13, 1943.

In 1962, a mass demonstration of workers took place in the city, known as the "Novocherkassk execution", which was brutally suppressed by the authorities with the participation of troops on the orders of Khrushchev.

On October 5-6, 1991, the Grand Circle of the Union of Cossacks of the Don Cossack Region took place, where Novocherkassk was assigned the status of a historical and modern center of the Don Cossacks.

On July 17-18, 1993, the United Supreme Circle of the Cossack troops of Russia and Abroad was held in Moscow, as a result of which Novocherkassk was proclaimed the world capital of the Cossacks.