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Interesting information and useful tips
Description of Tver
Tver is a capital of Tver Oblast in the Central
region of Russia. It was found in the medieval times on the banks of
Volga river. Tver grew to become one of the largest and most
powerful principalities in medieval Russia. During Soviet rule it
was renamed to Kalinin, but after fall of Soviet Union Tver got its
historic name back.
Historically, the city was divided into 4 parts - located on the
right bank of the Volga and the T'maki Kremlin, as well as separated
from it by the corresponding rivers Zatmachye, Zavolzhie, and
Zatvereche. Nowadays, the city is also divided into 4 administrative
districts, coinciding with historical ones, however, only partially.
Central district - the central, historical part of the city
Zavolzhsky district - left bank of the city
Moskovsky district -
the eastern part of the city
Proletarsky district - the western
part of the city
Tver Travel Destinations
History of Tver
Foundation and formation
According to the most
famous version, the original settlement was at the mouth of the
Tvertsa River, where the Otroch Monastery later arose. But
archaeologists have established that the settlement was located on
the right bank of the Volga near the Tmaka River. Here in the 11th
century there could have been a small rural settlement.
the XII century, it was already a small trading settlement. In the
1135 Manuscript of Prince Vsevolod Mstislavich there is a mention of
Tver: it is said about the monetary collection of the Church of St.
John, also from the "Tver guest". In the "Legend of the Miracles of
the Vladimir Icon of the Mother of God", created in 1162 under
Andrei Bogolyubsky, it is written about the healing of the "Tver
In the chronicle, speaking about the campaign of
the Novgorodians against Vladimir, it is indicated that the
detachments of the Novgorodians and the Chernigov army united "On
the Volza and Tferi".
In VN Tatishchev's "History" it is said
that the Vladimir prince Vsevolod III, after he burned Torzhok,
ordered to build Tverd (that is, a fortress) at the mouth of the
river - this is the second version of the foundation of Tver. A
reliable chronicle source, in which Tver is directly mentioned for
the first time, is usually considered the agreement between the
Novgorodians and Prince Vsevolod of 1208. The first birch-bark
letter, found in Tver on the territory of the ancient Tver Kremlin
in the lower layer of the Kremlin-3 excavation site in 1983, dates
back to 1200-1220.
The date of the first mention of the city
in the sources (the news of the "Tver guest") is 1135. However, a
number of researchers note that this date is a later insertion into
the chronicle, and attributes the appearance of Tver to the
beginning or even the second half of the XIII century.
Archaeological research at the moment does not allow us to finally
establish the approximate time of the formation of Tver as a city.
On the one hand, during excavations on the territory of the Tver
Kremlin, individual wooden logs were found, which were dated by the
method of dendrochronology to the end of the 12th century. On the
other hand, constructions, cultural layers and finds that could be
unequivocally attributed to pre-Mongol times have not yet been
In the first third of the XIII century, Tver was part
of the Pereyaslavsky principality. In 1238 the city was devastated
by the Tatar-Mongols, but quickly recovered from the defeat.
The Resurrection Chronicle claims that the restoration of Tver after
Batyev's ruin was led by Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich. In the
historical literature, there is a hypothesis that Tver was
originally located on the left bank of the Volga at the mouth of the
Tvertsa and after the devastation of 1238 was transferred to the
right bank at the mouth of the Tmaka River.
Around 1247 Tver was allocated as an inheritance to Prince Alexander
Yaroslavich Nevsky, between 1252 and 1255 it passed to his brother
Yaroslav Yaroslavich, the founder of the Tver princely dynasty. In
1247 Tver became the capital of the Tver principality. The
historical core of ancient Tver was the Tver Kremlin.
geographical position of Tver on an important trade route connecting
Novgorod with northeastern Russia, and the relative distance from
the Horde contributed to the influx of population from other Russian
lands into the region. The city grew rapidly. In 1265 Tver became
the center of the diocese. Even the devastating fires of 1276 and
1282, typical of wooden old Russian cities, could not prevent the
growth of the city.
The growth of the city is primarily due
to the fact that the political role of Tver has changed. In 1264,
Prince Yaroslav of Tver became the Grand Duke of Vladimir, but
remained to live in Tver. Under Yaroslav's successor, his son Prince
Mikhail Yaroslavich, in Tver for the first time in Russia, after a
50-year hiatus, chronicle writing and stone construction were
resumed. The stone Three-domed Assumption Church in the Otroch
Monastery and the Transfiguration Cathedral were built. Along with
the Kremlin, there were also settlements inhabited mainly by
The evidence of the increased power of Tver was the
fact that in 1293 the Mongol-Tatar commander Dyuden did not dare to
storm the city. Tver princes, fighting for the great reign of
Vladimir, tirelessly fortified the city. The inhabitants of Tver
were among the first to rise up to an armed struggle against the
Horde: in 1317 they defeated the army of the Tatar military leader
Kavgady and the Moscow prince Yuri in the battle near the village of
Bortenevo (Battle of Bortenevskaya). In 1323-1325, the stone church
of Fyodor was built at the mouth of the Tmaka. In 1320, Princess
Anna married her eldest son Dmitry to Mary, daughter of the Grand
Duke of Lithuania Gediminas. Since that time, Tver established ties
with the principality of Lithuania, which did not stop until 1488.
Outstanding works of Old Russian literature have
been created in Tver: "The Tale of Mikhail Yaroslavich of Tver" by
Abbot Alexander, "A word of commendation to Prince Boris
Alexandrovich of Tver" by the monk Thomas, "The Tale of Mikhail
Alexandrovich", etc. Tver has developed its own original art school:
architecture and icon painting developed , book correspondence,
jewelry and arts and crafts. Its own coin was minted in Tver. Tver
merchants traded in Smolensk, Kiev, Vitebsk, Dorogobuzh, Vyazma,
Polotsk, Vilna, etc. On the territory of Zatmatsky posad there was a
Tatar guest house. The Tver craft reached a high level of
development, especially metalworking - in the XIV century, Tver
castles were sold in the Czech Republic.
In 1326, Alexander
Mikhailovich became the Grand Duke of Tver. In the summer of 1327,
after the arrival of the khan's ambassador Shevkal in the city,
rumors spread about the imminent conversion of the Tverites to Islam
and the expulsion of Alexander from the Tver throne. Although
Alexander himself called for "endure", on August 15, 1327 a powerful
anti-Horde uprising broke out in Tver. With the help of the Moscow
prince Ivan Kalita, it was brutally suppressed, Tver was ruined.
Alexander Mikhailovich, whose role in the uprising has not been
fully clarified, fled to Pskov. The suppression of the rebellion
marked the beginning of the decline of the political influence of
In the XIV century, in the midst of an ongoing struggle
with Moscow, the Tver princes continued to fortify the city, in 1372
a ditch was dug and a rampart was dug from the Volga to Tmaka (in
1375 the Moscow prince Dmitry Ivanovich (Donskoy) with a large army
could not take Tver). Large construction work was carried out in
Tver in 1387, 1395, 1413 and 1446-47 (as a rule, they were
associated with the aggravation of the political situation and the
threat from Moscow). Acting from the end of the 13th century as an
active enemy of the Horde, Tver until the second half of the 15th
century was subjected to repeated attacks by the Mongol Tatars and
In this struggle, Tver gradually lost its leading
position among the ancient principalities in North-Eastern Russia.
The role of the unifier of the Russian lands was assigned to Moscow.
The intense struggle undermined the strength of Tver, however, in
the XIV-XV centuries it remained a large trade, craft and cultural
center, one of the most developed Russian cities.
first half of the 15th century, under Boris Alexandrovich, Tver
experienced the last rise of its power as the center of an
independent principality. Extensive construction began. A stone
princely palace was built in the Kremlin, the second in time after
Bogolyubsky in North-Eastern Russia; stone cathedral bell tower
(1407); stone churches of Ivan the Merciful (1420), Boris and Gleb
(1438), Michael the Archangel (1455); stone churches in the
Fedorovsky and Zheltikovy monasteries. The economic upsurge of the
city was accompanied by extensive economic ties and diplomatic
activity (the journey of Afanasy Nikitin, the participation of the
Ambassador of Tver Prince Thomas in the Florentine Cathedral).
In 1488, Ivan III annexed Tver to the Moscow principality, and
the Tver prince Mikhail Borisovich fled to the Grand Duchy of
As part of the Russian kingdom and the Russian
In the 16th century in Tver, in the Otroch Monastery, two
well-known religious and public figures were in exile. In 1531-1551
Maxim the Greek lived here, and in 1568 the Moscow Metropolitan
Philip was exiled to the Tver monastery, who fell into disgrace from
Ivan the Terrible. A year later, passing through Tver on the road to
Veliky Novgorod, the tsar asked the prisoner for his blessing and
return to the throne, which Philip refused to Ivan the Terrible.
After that, according to the life of Saint Philip, Malyuta Skuratov
strangled the prisoner with a pillow. Despite the indisputable fact
of the death of Metropolitan Philip in the Otroch-monastery during
this period, there is no direct historical evidence of this event.
In the 16th century, the oldest surviving churches in the city was
built - the Trinity Church beyond the Darkness, known as the "White
In 1565, after Tsar Ivan the Terrible divided the
Russian state into oprichnina and zemstvo, the city became part of
In 1612, during the Time of Troubles, Tver was
completely devastated by the Polish-Lithuanian troops. The
restoration of the city proceeded slowly, only towards the end of
the century the city regained its craft and trade potential.
In 1701, by order of Peter I, a floating bridge on rafts was built
in Tver, which existed until 1900. In the 18th century, Tver
developed rapidly, the Church of the Ascension, the Resurrection
Church in the Volga region, the modern Assumption Church in the
Otroch-Monastery, the Catherine Church in Zatverechye, as well as
many civil buildings, many of which have survived to this day, were
built in the city. The oldest of them is considered to be the house
of the merchant Arefiev in the Trans-Volga region, which now houses
the museum of Tver life.
In 1763, the strongest fire destroyed the central
part of Tver, and ten years later the Trans-Volga side burned out.
By order of Catherine II, a whole "architectural team" was created
under the leadership of P. R. Nikitin, whose goal was to rebuild the
center of Tver in stone according to a regular layout. The main
features of this layout were the long axial Millionnaya (now
Sovetskaya) Street, named so because a million rubles were allocated
from the tsarist treasury for the construction of stone houses in
the city center; as well as the "Versailles trident" - a three-rayed
composition of streets converging at one point, created on the basis
of a similar urban planning technique in St. Petersburg.
1764-1766, the main attraction of Tver was erected - the Travel
Palace of Empress Catherine in the style of classicism with elements
of baroque, designed by MF Kazakov. At the same time, a city garden
was laid out between the Travel Palace and the Volga. The palace was
intended for the rest of the members of the imperial family on the
way from St. Petersburg to Moscow, from where it got its name.
From April 29 (May 10) to May 2 (13), 1767, during her journey
along the Volga, Catherine II visited Tver.
In 1809, the
Committee for the Improvement of the City was created in Tver, in
which the famous Moscow architect K.I.Rossi worked. According to his
projects, the Nativity of Christ Cathedral, residential buildings on
the embankment and in the city center were built. He also rebuilt
the Traveling Palace. At that time, the sister of Alexander I,
Ekaterina Pavlovna, who was married to the Tver governor, lived
here. She turned the palace into one of the centers of the country's
social life and a fashionable literary salon, where the high society
of Tver gathered and where many outstanding people from Moscow and
St. Petersburg came. NM Karamzin read here to Emperor Alexander
excerpts from his "History".
In the second quarter of the
19th century, according to the designs of the architect I. F. Lvov,
the Ascension Church, the House of the Nobility Assembly (now the
House of Officers), the ensemble of administrative buildings on
Octagonal (Lenin) Square and other civil buildings were erected. In
1839, Tverskiye Gubernskiye Vedomosti began to appear in the city.
In the 1860s, a public library and a museum were opened (today the
Tverskoy United Historical, Architectural and Literary Museum).
In 1851, movement began on the Nikolaev railway, which connected
Tver with St. Petersburg and Moscow. In the second half of the 19th
century, a steamship company, a weaving manufactory, a manufactory
of paper products, a mechanical plant for the production of parts
for textile machines, sawmills and other enterprises were opened in
Tver. In 1850-1860 three textile factories were founded in Tver. At
the same time, various schools and schools were opened: theological
seminary, the Tver women's teacher's school, the diocesan women's
school, the women's commercial school, and others. In 1900, a
permanent bridge across the Volga was finally erected in the city,
designed by the Czech engineer L. Mashek.
In 1901, an
electric tram was launched in Tver and street lighting began, and in
1904 a cinema was opened.
With the outbreak of World War I,
Russia experienced the problems of exchanging information with its
allies - France and England, since most of the European land lines
of communication passed through Germany. The key role in the
exchange of information between the allies was played by the Tver
special purpose radio station of the Russian military department,
whose task was to receive the allies' encrypted messages, direction
finding enemy radio stations and intercepting enemy messages with
their further retransmission through wire channels to the General
Staff. In 1916, in the workshops of the Tver radio station, MA
Bonch-Bruevich, who worked as an assistant to the station chief,
made the first domestic radio tube. During the First World War, the
Russian-Baltic Carriage Works and the aircraft fleet were evacuated
to Tver from Riga.
After the February Revolution of 1917, the
Provisional Executive Committee of Public Organizations was
organized in Tver, which worked until October 1917.
On October 28 (November 10), 1917, Soviet power was
established in the city.
In June 1918, the nationalization of
enterprises began in Tver: the carriage building plant and the
Morozovskaya manufactory were nationalized. plant "Ursul and K. M.
Meshchersky". In 1920, agricultural and medical technical schools
were opened, Proletkult was created, in the fall of 1920 the Society
for the Study of the Tver Region was formed, on March 21, 1921, the
"Tverskoy No. 1 Theater of the RSFSR" was opened. The continuing
civil war caused economic difficulties: in November 1920, tram
traffic was stopped, on January 1, 1921, the carriage building plant
was stopped, then - Perevolotsk, Rozhdestvenskaya and Morozovskaya
manufactories, which resumed work only after the end of the civil
war, and the carriage plant - only in 1926.
Since 1919, all the central streets and squares
were renamed in Tver, the Bolsheviks began to fight against the
church and confiscate church values. In the 1920s-1930s, dozens of
churches, which were architectural monuments of the 17th-19th
centuries, were closed and destroyed. In particular, in 1935 the
Cathedral of the Transfiguration of the Savior was blown up. The
general plan and layout of Tver was developed in 1925-1926 by the
architect-city planner A. P. Ivanitsky.
In the second half of
the 1920s, shock work became widespread at the enterprises of Tver,
and subbotniks were massively organized. In 1929, at the initiative
of the proletarian textile workers, the Treaty of Thousands was
signed in Tver - the first treaty on socialist competition in the
On November 20, 1931, the city of Tver in the Moscow
region was renamed Kalinin, in honor of the Soviet party and
statesman, a native of the Tver province, M. I. Kalinin. In 1935
Kalinin became the center of the Kalinin region. The city opened a
philharmonic society and a music school (1936), an art gallery
(1937), a number of original buildings were built: the military
academy on the Stepan Razin embankment (1935), the Zvezda cinema
(1937), the river station (1938) , ruined). The construction of new
avenues began - Kalinin, Tchaikovsky, Vagzhanova Street. There were
70 industrial enterprises in the city, including the largest in the
USSR in their industry, the car-building and KREPZ factories, three
universities, a pedagogical institute, three theaters, two cinemas,
See also: Defense of Kalinin and Occupation of
On October 17, 1941, the city was captured by units of
the 27th Army and 41st Motorized Corps of the 3rd Panzer Group of
Army Group "Center", but the enemy's further advance was delayed,
and completely stopped in the north-western direction. The 8th Tank
Brigade played a special role in this. The city was under German
occupation for about two months. On December 6, the Kalinin Front
launched a counteroffensive, and already on December 16, the city of
Kalinin was liberated by units of the 29th and 31st armies of the
Kalinin Front. During the occupation and street fighting in the
city, 7,714 buildings, 510.3 thousand square meters of living space
(56% of the housing stock) were destroyed, more than 70 enterprises
were decommissioned. Before the liberation of Rzhev (March 3, 1943),
the city of Kalinin was subjected to systematic raids by German
On November 1, 1945, the Council of People's
Commissars of the USSR adopted a resolution on the priority
restoration of 15 most important cities of the RSFSR, destroyed
during the war, including the city of Kalinin. The grandiose plan
for the restoration and reconstruction of the city was developed by
the architect N. Ya. Kolli, but it was not fully implemented. The
city was erected majestic buildings in the style of Stalinist
classicism: the drama theater (1951), the library. M. Gorky, the
technical school (now the building of the HT Technical University)
on Lenin Avenue (1957), the ensembles of Novopromyshlennaya Square,
Peace Square, Gagarin Square. A second bridge appeared in the city.
Elements of the Lieutenant Schmidt Bridge from Leningrad were used
as spans of this bridge. In 1947, an electrical equipment plant was
built, CHP-4 and an excavator plant were launched, the construction
of which had begun before the war. In 1950, a chemical fiber plant
and a silicate brick plant were opened in Zatverechye, a printing
plant was built in 1955, and a silk-weaving factory in 1957.
Since the beginning of the 1960s, the city has been intensively
built up using the methods of typical industrial housing
construction, especially actively in its southern part, on the
territory of the Moskovsky district. During the same period, large
enterprises were opened in the city: a worsted factory (1963), a
pharmaceutical factory and a meat-packing plant (1965), a fiberglass
and fiberglass factory (1966). The city continues to develop as a
major transport hub: in 1961, work on deepening the Volga and the
construction of a port was completed, in the same year a circular
highway was opened, connecting highways to Moscow, Leningrad, Rzhev,
Volokolamsk, Turginovo, in 1963 the electrification of the Kalinin
section of Oktyabrskaya was completed. railway, in 1967 a trolleybus
In 1969, a new General Plan of the city was
adopted (Lengiprogor, architect G.A. Bobovich). This period is
characterized by the massive construction of large-panel
5-9-12-storey residential buildings in newly formed planning units -
microdistricts. In the period 1970s - 1980s microdistricts appeared
in the city: Chaika, Yuzhny, Yunost, Khiminstuta, Pervomaisky, etc.
New industrial facilities were commissioned: CHPP-3 (1973),
Tsentrosvar plant (1974), scientific and production association
Tsentrprogrammsistem "(1974). In 1981, a third bridge appeared in
the city - Vostochny, connecting the Moskovsky district and
Zatverechye. By the beginning of the 1990s, there were about 80
industrial enterprises in 28 industries, 5 universities, a number of
research institutes, 11 secondary specialized educational
institutions, 14 vocational schools, 48 secondary schools, 3
theaters, 12 cinemas, 8 palaces of culture in Kalinin.
July 17, 1990, on the basis of a decree of the Presidium of the
Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, the city was returned to its historical
Tver in the post-Soviet period
In 1991, the seventh
General Plan of the city was approved (Lengiprogor, architects I. V.
Tarushkin and A. F. Chakurin), which continued the general
provisions of the previous General Plan of 1969. Due to the negative
economic consequences caused by the collapse of the Soviet Union,
there was no active development in the city. The only new
microdistrict built in the period of the 1990s - 2000s was the
Mamulino microdistrict, built in 1993 for a contingent of Soviet
troops withdrawn from East Germany. The new economic reality turned
out to be disastrous for the industry, especially the light one,
traditional for the city, as a result of which the largest
enterprises of Tver - the Vagzhanov factory, the Proletarka factory,
the Tver garment factory, the Khimvolokno combine, the Iskozh
combine - ceased operations, which caused an increase in the
unemployment rate and social tension. By the mid-2000s, significant
wear and tear of the housing and communal services had accumulated,
a large number of public transport routes were closed.
the mid-2000s, large-scale housing construction has been resumed in
the city, with the construction of high-rise buildings: Raduzhny
microdistricts (2007), Brusilovo (2008), Mamulino-2 (2011),
Mamulino-3 (2013), housing construction in the Southern residential
area ... Begins active construction of public buildings, shopping
and entertainment centers. At the same time, new industrial
enterprises are being commissioned.
From 2007 to 2011, at the
initiative of the Governor Zelenin, the Tver Socio-Economic Forum
was held annually at the end of June
Since the late 2000s, it
has hosted a number of sporting events of various levels.
How to get there
In Tver there is an airport
Migalovo, but there are no passenger flights to it. To enter the
city, you can use Moscow airports, the closest of which is
The most convenient way to get to
Tver from Moscow is the “Lastochka” electric trains, which depart
from the Leningradsky railway station from early morning to late
evening, just a few dozen flights. The journey takes 1.5-2 hours;
the cost is 520 rubles (February 2018). Also, regular electric
trains run to Tver from the Leningradsky railway station, the
journey time is from 2 up to 3 hours, depending on the number of
stops. You can take the passenger and fast trains going to St.
Petersburg or further with a stop in Tver, but it will be more
expensive and less convenient than on the "Swallow".
Petersburg, you can get on trains following to Moscow or through it,
is also true for other cities of the north-west (Veliky Novgorod,
Pskov, Petrozavodsk, Murmansk) and Tallinn. Trains leading from some
other cities of Russia to St. Petersburg also pass through Tver,
from other cities you will have to change trains in Moscow.
Suburban trains connect Tver with Torzhok, Vyshny Volochka and
1 Station Tver, Komintern street. Passenger
platforms in Tver Island, on them is the old station of the
traditional for the Nikolaev railway architecture, which serves now
as a turnstile hall. To board long-distance trains, you will also
have to go through the turnstiles, showing the ticket to the guards.
From the station underground passages lead to the station square,
where the new station building of Soviet construction is located
with the usual infrastructure for the station and the building of
suburban ticket offices. If you are traveling from Moscow or a
region, please note that there are no usual privileges for commuter
travel, for example, discounts for students, in the Tver region, it
makes sense to take a return ticket to the departure station.
station is located at some distance from the historical center, it
makes sense to use public transport, which runs quite often.
Tver is located on the federal highway M10 Moscow - St.
Petersburg. The route goes along the bypass road, to enter the city
from Moscow at the traffic police post in the village of Emmaus, you
should continue straight, and from St. Petersburg - turn left at the
traffic lights at the tank. The distance by road from Moscow is
about 170 kilometers, from St. Petersburg about 530 kilometers.
Through M10 and branches from it, the path goes to a number of
cities in the region: Torzhok, Vyshny Volochyok, Ostashkov,
In addition, the city has several regional routes:
28A-0480 (Р90) to Volokolamsk
28K-0576 (A112) to Staritsa, Rzhev,
28K-0058 (P84) in Bezhetsk, Kashin, Kalyazin
There are many intercity bus routes on the same M10.
Some of them do not have a stop directly at the bus station of the
city of Tver, however, you can ask to stop either in the adjacent
village of Emmaus (if you are coming from Moscow), or at the
intersection of the ring road with 50 years of October street (if
you are coming from St. Petersburg). From both these points you can
reach the city center by public transport. Shuttle buses No. 106 and
No. 206 run from Emmaus, and share taxis number 1, 2, 9, 14 and 27
run from the 50 years of October prospect (this way you can get to
any part of the city).
In addition, Tver is connected by bus
service with almost all cities of the region, it is worth looking at
the page of the respective city for more details. The most intensive
traffic is in Torzhok, Staritsa, Rzhev, Vyshny Volochyok, Bezhetsk,
Ostashkov, but buses can rarely go to a number of remote cities.
2 Bus Station, st. Comintern, 10 (near the station). Open 4:30 -
21:00. Departure of buses "Tver Avtotrans" and a number of private
carriers. There is a waiting room, a toilet (free on a bus ticket),
Wi-Fi. Exit to the platforms only through the building itself.
Stop at the hotel "Tourist" (opposite the station). Departure of
On the ship
There are no regular
flights along the Volga, but some cruise ships make a stop.
Transport around Tver
Travelers in Tver will almost certainly
have to use public transport services. Most of the traffic is done
by minibuses and buses. Electric transport has degraded in recent
years, only a few trolleybus routes are in operation, as well as one
tram (a few are officially “closed for repair”) connecting the
station and the bus station with the center and the Volga region.
The fare is 21 rubles per tram, trolleybus and bus, 25 rubles by
There are several international fast food nets in the city:
McDonalds,Burger King,KFC,Subway. Most of them located in the main
shopping malls food courts.
There is also Russian fast food
net Chicken House (with it biggest cafes near the bus and railway
stations) and a lot of another local cafes,canteens and restaurants.
Tourists in Tver should be careful not
to become victims of various kinds of fraudsters and pickpockets.
When traveling around the city, it is better to be attentive, not to
get involved in situations that you do not understand, for example,
street lotteries, not to raise the purse dropped by someone. Putting
money and documents away in a place that allows them to be
controlled. Moving under Tver in the dark in industrial or remote
sleeping areas should be avoided. Tver can be dangerous for people
with non-European appearance. There have been cases of attacks by
groups of nationalists on people of African or Asian descent.