Tver is a capital of Tver Oblast in the Central
region of Russia. It was found in the medieval times on the banks of
Volga river. Tver grew to become one of the largest and most
powerful principalities in medieval Russia. During Soviet rule it
was renamed to Kalinin, but after fall of Soviet Union Tver got its
historic name back.
Historically, the city was divided into 4 parts - located on the
right bank of the Volga and the T'maki Kremlin, as well as separated
from it by the corresponding rivers Zatmachye, Zavolzhie, and
Zatvereche. Nowadays, the city is also divided into 4 administrative
districts, coinciding with historical ones, however, only partially.
Central district - the central, historical part of the city
Zavolzhsky district - left bank of the city Moskovsky district -
the eastern part of the city Proletarsky district - the western
part of the city
Tver's foundation year is officially accepted to
be 1135, although there is no universal agreement on this date and
some estimates place it as late as the second half of the 13th
century. Originally a minor settlement of Novgorodian traders, it
passed to the Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1209. In 1246, Alexander
Nevsky granted it to his younger brother Yaroslav Yaroslavich (d.
1271), from whom a dynasty of local princes descended. Four of them
were killed by the Golden Horde and were proclaimed saints by the
Russian Orthodox church.
Formerly a land of woods and bogs,
the Principality of Tver was quickly transformed into one of the
richest and most populous Russian states. As the area was hardly
accessible for Tatar raids, there was a great influx of population
from the recently devastated south. By the end of the century, it
was ready to vie with Moscow for supremacy in Russia. Both Tver and
Moscow were young cities, so the outcome of their rivalry was far
from being certain.
Grand princedom Mikhail, the Grand
Prince of Tver, who ascended the throne of Vladimir in 1305, was one
of the most beloved of medieval Russian rulers. His policy of open
conflict with the Golden Horde led to his assassination there in
1318. His son Dmitry "the Terrible Eyes" succeeded him, and,
concluding an alliance with the mighty Grand Duchy of Lithuania,
managed to raise Tver's prestige even higher.
Dmitry's influence, Prince Ivan Kalita of the Grand Duchy of Moscow
engineered his murder by the Mongols in 1326. On hearing the news of
this crime, the city revolted against the Horde. The Horde joined
its forces with Muscovites and brutally repressed the rebellion.
Many citizens were killed, enslaved or deported. This was the fatal
blow to Tver's aspirations for supremacy in Russia.
second half of the 14th century, Tver was further weakened by
dynastic struggles between its princes. Two senior branches of the
ruling house, those of Kashin and Kholmsky, asserted their claims to
the grand ducal throne. The claimers were backed up by Moscow and
eventually settled at the Moscow Kremlin court.
Great Feudal War in the Grand Duchy of Moscow, Tver once again rose
to prominence and concluded defensive alliances with Lithuania,
Novgorod, Byzantium, and the Golden Horde. Grand Prince Boris of
Tver sent one of his men, Afanasy Nikitin, to search for gold and
diamonds as far as India. Nikitin's travelogue, describing his
journey from 1466 to 1472, is probably the first ever firsthand
account of India by a European. A monument to Nikitin was opened on
the Volga embankment in 1955.
Later history On 12
September 1485, the forces of Ivan the Great seized the city. The
principality was given as an appanage to Ivan's grandson, only to be
abolished several decades later. Last scions of the ruling dynasty
were executed by Ivan the Terrible during the Oprichnina. At that
turbulent time, Tver was ruled by Simeon Bekbulatovich, a former
khan of Kasimov. The only remnant of his ephemeral reign is a
graceful tent-like church in the village of Kushalino, 28 kilometers
(17 mi) northeast of Tver.
18th century The Tver's decline
was not irrevocable, however. With the foundation of St. Petersburg,
Tver gained importance as a principal station on the highway (and
later railway) en route from Moscow. It was much visited by Russian
royalty and nobility traveling from the old capital to the new one
In the course of the administrative reform carried
out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Tver was included into
Ingermanlandia Governorate (since 1710 known as Saint Petersburg
Governorate). In 1727 it was transferred to the newly established
Novgorod Governorate. In 1775, Tver Viceroyalty was formed from the
lands which previously belonged to Moscow and Novgorod Governorates,
and the whole area was transferred to Tver Viceroyalty, which in
1796 was transformed to Tver Governorate. Tver was the center of
Following a devastating fire of 1763, the
city was rebuilt in a Neoclassical style. Under Catherine the Great,
the central part was thoroughly reconstructed. Crumbling medieval
buildings were razed and replaced with imposing Neoclassical
structures. The most important of these are the Travel Palace of the
Empress (designed by the celebrated Matvei Kazakov), and the
Ascension church (designed by Prince Lvov and consecrated in 1813).
19th century In 1809 a committee was set up on
the improvement of the city, where he worked the famous architect of
the capital Rossi. His projects include Cathedral of Christ, and
houses on the waterfront and city center (a total of 30 buildings).
He also rebuilt Travel Palace. At this time, in the city lived a
sister of Alexander I, Catherine Pavlovna, who was married to the
governor of Tver, which turned the Palace into one of the centers of
social life of the country and fashionable literary salon, where
going to the high society of Tver and which was visited by many
prominent people from Moscow and St. Petersburg. Writer and
historian Nikolay Karamzin read here Emperor Alexander excerpts from
his "History". In the palace of the Prince of Persia took Khozrev
Mirza, who came to apologize for the killing of Alexander
Griboyedov, met the Prussian King Frederick William III. Additional
quarters for himself and his family to settle in the palace of the
Tver Alexander II.
20th century On 12 July 1929, the
governorates and uyezds were abolished. Tverskoy District, with the
administrative center in Tver, was established within Tver Okrug of
Moscow Oblast. On 23 July 1930, the okrugs were abolished, and the
districts were directly subordinated to the oblast.
November 1931, the city was renamed Kalinin after the nominal head
of state (1919–1946) and an affiliate of Josef Stalin, Mikhail
Kalinin, who had been born nearby. Simultaneously, Tverskoy District
was renamed Kalininsky District. On 29 January 1935 Kalinin Oblast
was established, and Kalininsky District was transferred to Kalinin
The last vestige of the pre-Petrine epoch, the Savior
Cathedral, was blown up in 1936. In 1940, the NKVD executed more
than 6,200 Polish policemen and prisoners of war from Ostashkov
The Wehrmacht occupied Kalinin for two months from
Tuesday, 14 October to 19 December 1941, leaving the city in ashes.
Kalinin was the first major city in Europe to be liberated from the
During the Cold War, Kalinin was home to the
Kryuchkovo air base, which is no longer in service. The city's
historic name of Tver was restored on 17 July 1990.
from the suburban White Trinity Church (1564) (Russian: Храм Троицы
Живоначальной, the Temple of the Lifegiving Trinity), there are no
ancient monuments left in Tver. The central part is graced with
Catharinian and Soviet edifices, bridges, and embankments. Tver's
most notable industries are a railroad car plant, opened in 1898, an
excavator factory, and a glass factory. Tver is home to Migalovo,
which is one of Russia's biggest military airlift facilities.
How to get there By plane In Tver there is an airport
Migalovo, but there are no passenger flights to it. To enter the
city, you can use Moscow airports, the closest of which is
By train The most convenient way to get to
Tver from Moscow is the “Lastochka” electric trains, which depart
from the Leningradsky railway station from early morning to late
evening, just a few dozen flights. The journey takes 1.5-2 hours;
the cost is 520 rubles (February 2018). Also, regular electric
trains run to Tver from the Leningradsky railway station, the
journey time is from 2 up to 3 hours, depending on the number of
stops. You can take the passenger and fast trains going to St.
Petersburg or further with a stop in Tver, but it will be more
expensive and less convenient than on the "Swallow".
Petersburg, you can get on trains following to Moscow or through it,
is also true for other cities of the north-west (Veliky Novgorod,
Pskov, Petrozavodsk, Murmansk) and Tallinn. Trains leading from some
other cities of Russia to St. Petersburg also pass through Tver,
from other cities you will have to change trains in Moscow.
Suburban trains connect Tver with Torzhok, Vyshny Volochka and
1 Station Tver, Komintern street. Passenger
platforms in Tver Island, on them is the old station of the
traditional for the Nikolaev railway architecture, which serves now
as a turnstile hall. To board long-distance trains, you will also
have to go through the turnstiles, showing the ticket to the guards.
From the station underground passages lead to the station square,
where the new station building of Soviet construction is located
with the usual infrastructure for the station and the building of
suburban ticket offices. If you are traveling from Moscow or a
region, please note that there are no usual privileges for commuter
travel, for example, discounts for students, in the Tver region, it
makes sense to take a return ticket to the departure station. The
station is located at some distance from the historical center, it
makes sense to use public transport, which runs quite often.
By car Tver is located on the federal highway M10 Moscow - St.
Petersburg. The route goes along the bypass road, to enter the city
from Moscow at the traffic police post in the village of Emmaus, you
should continue straight, and from St. Petersburg - turn left at the
traffic lights at the tank. The distance by road from Moscow is
about 170 kilometers, from St. Petersburg about 530 kilometers.
Through M10 and branches from it, the path goes to a number of
cities in the region: Torzhok, Vyshny Volochyok, Ostashkov,
In addition, the city has several regional routes:
28A-0480 (Р90) to Volokolamsk 28K-0576 (A112) to Staritsa, Rzhev,
Teeth, Toropets 28K-0058 (P84) in Bezhetsk, Kashin, Kalyazin
By bus There are many intercity bus routes on the same M10.
Some of them do not have a stop directly at the bus station of the
city of Tver, however, you can ask to stop either in the adjacent
village of Emmaus (if you are coming from Moscow), or at the
intersection of the ring road with 50 years of October street (if
you are coming from St. Petersburg). From both these points you can
reach the city center by public transport. Shuttle buses No. 106 and
No. 206 run from Emmaus, and share taxis number 1, 2, 9, 14 and 27
run from the 50 years of October prospect (this way you can get to
any part of the city).
In addition, Tver is connected by bus
service with almost all cities of the region, it is worth looking at
the page of the respective city for more details. The most intensive
traffic is in Torzhok, Staritsa, Rzhev, Vyshny Volochyok, Bezhetsk,
Ostashkov, but buses can rarely go to a number of remote cities.
2 Bus Station, st. Comintern, 10 (near the station). Open 4:30 -
21:00. Departure of buses "Tver Avtotrans" and a number of private
carriers. There is a waiting room, a toilet (free on a bus ticket),
Wi-Fi. Exit to the platforms only through the building itself. 3
Stop at the hotel "Tourist" (opposite the station). Departure of
On the ship There are no regular
flights along the Volga, but some cruise ships make a stop.
Transport around Tver Travelers in Tver will almost certainly
have to use public transport services. Most of the traffic is done
by minibuses and buses. Electric transport has degraded in recent
years, only a few trolleybus routes are in operation, as well as one
tram (a few are officially “closed for repair”) connecting the
station and the bus station with the center and the Volga region.
The fare is 21 rubles per tram, trolleybus and bus, 25 rubles by
Precautionary measures Tourists in Tver should be careful not
to become victims of various kinds of fraudsters and pickpockets.
When traveling around the city, it is better to be attentive, not to
get involved in situations that you do not understand, for example,
street lotteries, not to raise the purse dropped by someone. Putting
money and documents away in a place that allows them to be
controlled. Moving under Tver in the dark in industrial or remote
sleeping areas should be avoided. Tver can be dangerous for people
with non-European appearance. There have been cases of attacks by
groups of nationalists on people of African or Asian descent.