Bryansk Oblast, Russia

The Bryansk region is located in the Central Black Earth region. It borders on the Smolensk region in the north, the Kaluga region in the northeast, the Oryol region in the east and the Kursk region in the southeast. In the south it has a federal border with Ukraine (Chernihiv and Sumy regions), and in the west with Belarus (Gomel and Mogilev regions).



Bryansk is the administrative center of the region and the most ancient city of the Central Black Earth Region.
Zhukovka is the cycling capital of the region.


Other destinations

Biosphere Reserve "Bryansk Forest"
Ovstug - the museum-estate of Tyutchev.

Bryansky Forest Nature Reserve





How to get there

By train
From Moscow from the Kievsky railway station on trains to Bryansk, Novozybkov and Klimovo, as well as on a transit train to Belarus. Travel time will be from 4 to 8 hours.

By car
From Moscow on the federal highway M3. From Smolensk or Orel on the highway A141 Smolensk-Oryol.


Physical and geographical characteristics


The Bryansk region lies in the western part of the East European Plain, occupying the middle part of the Desna basin and the wooded watershed between it and the Oka.



The climate is temperate continental. The average temperature in January is −7…−9 °C, the average temperature in July is +18...+20 °C.

A significant part of the region (about a quarter of the total area) is covered with forests. Forests of various types: coniferous, mixed and broad-leaved, as well as forest-steppe.

Minerals: deposits of sands, clays, chalk, marl and other building materials, as well as phosphorites.


Ecological problems

As a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on April 26, 1986, part of the territory of the Bryansk region was contaminated with long-lived radionuclides (mainly the Zlynkovsky, Klimovsky, Klintsovsky, Novozybkovsky, Krasnogorsky and Gordeevsky regions). In 1999, 226,000 people lived on the territory with a pollution level above 5 Ci/km², which is approximately 16% of the region's population.



The oldest Paleolithic sites on the territory of the Bryansk region are Khotylevo 1, Korshevo I, Korshevo II, Betovo (Middle Paleolithic), Khotylevo 2 and Khotylevo 6, belonging to the Gravettian culture (about 25 thousand years ago). Near the village of Eliseevichi, on the right bank of the Sudost River, there is an Upper Paleolithic site Eliseevichi II (23,000–21,000 years ago).

The territory of the Bryansk region has been inhabited by Slavic tribes since ancient times. In the 9th-11th centuries, northerners (the Kvetun settlement) lived along the banks of the Desna, the Vyatichi lived on the wooded watershed of the Desna and the Oka, and the Radimichi lived in the basin of the Iput and Besed. In the XII-XIII centuries, the Bryansk Territory was part of the Chernigov, and then Novgorod-Seversky principalities. Vshchizh (Shchizh) from the 11th century was the specific center of the Chernihiv principality. After the ruin of Chernigov by the Mongol-Tatars, the princely table around 1246 was transferred to Bryansk; Bryansk principality was formed. Since 1356, the Bryansk lands were under the rule of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, then the Commonwealth. At the beginning of the 16th century (according to the treaty of 1503), the region became part of the Muscovite state and became its southwestern outpost in the struggle against Lithuania, Poland and the Crimean Khanate.

According to the Deulinsky truce of 1618, the southern and western lands of the modern Bryansk region went to the Commonwealth.

After the victory over the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the lands were annexed to Russia. In 1654, the entire left bank of the Dnieper (Little Russia), including the southwestern lands of the Bryansk region, were administratively and militarily divided into regiments and hundreds. One of the largest Little Russian regiments was Starodubsky, approved as independent in 1663 (before that it was part of the Nezhinsky regiment). It consisted of 10 hundreds (Starodubskaya, Mglinskaya, Pochepskaya, Pogarskaya, etc.). In 1781, the division into regiments and hundreds was replaced by division into counties and governorships (from 1796 - provinces). Since 1802, Starodubshchina, from which Mglinsky, Novomestsky (later Novozybkovsky), Starodubsky and Surazhsky districts were formed, became part of the Chernihiv province.

The entire eastern (Great Russian) part of the Bryansk region (Bryansk, Karachevsky, Sevsky and Trubchevsky counties) since 1709 belonged to the Kiev province, including since 1719 it was part of the Sevsk province of this province. In 1727, the Sevsk province became part of the newly formed Belgorod province. In 1778, the Oryol governorship was formed, to which the counties of the abolished Sevskaya province were transferred (at the same time, the borders of the counties were changed, and new counties were formed, including Lugansk).

In the XVIII-XIX centuries. economic revival began. In the 18th century, a factory industry appeared. Since the second half of the 18th century, many lands of Starodubshchyna belonged to Hetman Kirill Razumovsky, who carried out large-scale construction here. In the eastern part of the Bryansk region at the end of the XVIII century. industrialist I. A. Maltsov, who founded a number of glass enterprises on local sands and wood fuel, widely develops the factory business. At the beginning of the XIX century. he also buys up all the metallurgical plants of the region and creates the Maltsovsky factory district, which also covers parts of the neighboring counties - Zhizdrinsky and Roslavl.

During the civil war, the provincial cities of Orel and Chernigov found themselves in the zone of active hostilities, in connection with which the Bryansk and Pochep district executive committees were given provincial powers back in 1918-1919. On April 1, 1920, the Bryansk Governorate was formed, which existed until October 1, 1929, when it was included in the Western Region.

On September 27, 1937, the Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR decided to abolish the Western region, dividing it into the Smolensk and Oryol regions. The current territory of the Bryansk region became part of the Oryol region.

In August-October 1941, the region was occupied by German troops. From the first days of the occupation, the struggle against the invaders took on the character of a nationwide movement. About 60 thousand partisans operated in the Bryansk forests, partisan units of S. A. Kovpak, A. F. Fedorov, A. N. Saburov were formed here. The invaders caused great damage to the region: cities (70% of the housing stock) and villages (111 thousand houses), industrial enterprises were destroyed and burned. After the liberation of the region (August-September 1943), extensive restoration work was carried out.

The Bryansk region was formed by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on July 5, 1944 from the cities and districts of the Orel region, located approximately within the boundaries of the previously existing Bryansk province. The region included the cities of regional subordination of Bryansk, Bezhitsa and Klintsy, as well as Brasovsky, Bryansky, Vygonichsky, Gordeevsky, Dubrovsky, Dyatkovsky, Zhiryatinsky, Zhukovsky, Zlynkovsky, Karachevsky, Kletnyansky, Klimovsky, Klintsovsky, Komarichsky, Krasnogorsky, Mglinsky, Navlinsky, Novozybkovsky , Pogarsky, Ponurovsky, Pochepsky, Rognedinsky, Sevsky, Starodubsky, Suzemsky, Surazhsky, Trubchevsky and Unechsky districts.



Order of Lenin (January 30, 1967) - for active participation in the partisan movement, courage and steadfastness shown by the working people of the Bryansk region in the fight against the Nazi invaders during the Great Patriotic War, and for the successes achieved in the restoration and development of the national economy.


History of administrative division

The region was created by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of July 5, 1944.

Initially, the Bryansk region was divided into 28 districts (separated from the Orel region): Brasovsky, Bryansky, Vygonichsky, Gordeevsky, Dubrovsky, Dyatkovsky, Zhiryatinsky, Zhukovsky, Zlynkovsky, Karachevsky, Kletnyansky, Klimovsky, Klintsovsky, Komarichsky, Krasnogorsky, Mglinsky, Navlinsky, Novozybkovsky , Pogarsky, Ponurovsky, Pochepsky, Rognedinsky, Sevsky, Starodubsky, Suzemsky, Surazhsky, Trubchevsky and Unechsky. At the end of 1944, the Churovichi district was formed, and Ponurovsky was renamed Voronoksky.

In 1956, the Churovichi district was abolished, in 1957 - Voronoksky and Zhiryatinsky, in 1959 - Zlynkovsky, in 1963 - Vygonichsky, Gordeevsky, Dyatkovsky, Karachevsky, Kletnyansky, Klimovsky, Komarichsky, Krasnogorsky, Mglinsky, Navlinsky, Pogarsky, Rognedinsky, Suzemsky, Surazhsky and Trubchevsky .

In 1964, the process of increasing the number of districts began. The Trubchevsky district was the first to be restored. In 1965, the Dyatkovo, Karachevsky, Kletnyansky, Klimovsky, Navlinsky, Pogarsky, and Surazhsky districts were formed. In 1966 - Komarichsky, Krasnogorsky, Mglinsky and Suzemsky, in 1972 - Rognedinsky, in 1977 - Vygonichsky, in 1985 - Gordeevsky and Zhiryatinsky, in 1989 - Zlynkovsky.




Main industries: mechanical engineering, metalworking, radio electronics, food industry, timber processing.

The largest / well-known enterprises:
CJSC "Maltsovsky Portlandcement" (Fokino). The largest cement producer not only in Russia, but also in Europe;
Bryansk Machine-Building Plant (BMZ).
The company, founded in 1873, produces railway locomotives, marine diesel engines, freight cars and more;

Bryansk Automobile Plant (BAZ) and Bryansk Wheel Tractor Plant (BZKT);
JSC "Bryanskselmash" Production of grain and forage harvesters;
ZAO "Group Silicon-El". Production of semiconductor devices;
Zhukovsky motor and bicycle plant, JSC GPP. Produces road, mountain, speed and cargo bikes; ATVs, motorcycles;
Zhukovsky plant of technological equipment, (JSC ZhZTO). Production of mini-boilers, production lines;
Bezhitsky steel plant. Produces steel castings, mainly for the railway industry;
JSC "Dyatkovo-DOZ". Production of chipboard, furniture;
CJSC "Bryansk Arsenal" Production of road machines: graders, asphalt pavers;
CJSC "Irmash" (plant of irrigation machines). Production of road construction equipment: asphalt pavers, light graders, complex road machines. Currently bankrupt;
Klintsovsky truck crane plant. Truck cranes with a lifting capacity from 15 to 40 tons;
JSC Research Institute "Izoterm" - development, manufacture of special technological equipment for microelectronics, crystal growth, equipment for nuclear power plants, medicine, railway depots;
TNV "Cheese Starodubsky" - production of cheeses, dairy products;
OAO Pogar Cigarette and Cigar Factory is the only manufacturer of Russian cigars;
JSC "Proletary" (Surazh). Production of cardboard and packaging;
CJSC Metaclay is a company established to implement a project for the production of modified polymers. The company's shareholders are Rosnano - 49%, OAO "Metalist" - 51%.



As of the end of 2020, there was only one power plant in operation in the Bryansk region — the Klintsovskaya CHPP with a capacity of 10 MW. In 2020, it produced 44 million kWh of electricity.



They grow fodder, cereals, industrial crops, potatoes and vegetables. Sugar beets are grown in the south-east of the region. There is dairy and meat cattle breeding, pig breeding and poultry farming; horse breeding and beekeeping.

In 2020, the volume of agricultural production is 99.9 billion rubles (102.3%), of which crop production is 46.0 billion rubles (100%), animal husbandry is 53.8 billion rubles (104.3%).


Animal husbandry

As of January 1, 2021, in the Bryansk region, farms of all categories kept 505.0 thousand heads of cattle (+22.5 thousand), including cows 205.6 thousand heads (+9.3 thousand), pigs 487.9 thousand heads (+174.1 thousand), sheep and goats 24.5 thousand heads (-0.2 thousand).

Produced in 2020: 295.3 thousand tons of milk (+0.7%). Milk yield per cow in farms of all categories is 5569 kg (+347 kg).


Crop production

The Bryansk region ranks first in Russia in terms of growing potatoes. In 2020, they dug up 854.0 thousand tons (+3.2%, the share of 12.6% of Russian production), the yield is 323 centners per hectare. 27 thousand tons of vegetables were harvested in the fields with a yield of 395 centners per hectare.

The Bryansk region sets records in terms of corn yields, harvesting 150-180 centners per hectare on individual farms.

The Bryansk region ranks first in Russia in terms of sunflower yield. With an average yield in Russia in 2020 of only 17.4 c/ha, the yield in the Bryansk region was 32.19 c/ha. In 2017 - 37.16 c/ha, in 2018 - 33.02 c/ha, in 2019 - 32.42 c/ha.

In 2020, the harvest of grain and leguminous crops amounted to 1 million 455 thousand tons, with a yield of 44.1 centners per hectare (+3.1 centners per hectare). 805.4 thousand tons of wheat were harvested, with a yield of 47.6 c/ha (+ 7.6 c/ha). 98.3 thousand tons of barley were threshed, with a yield of 40.6 centners per hectare (+4.9 centners per hectare). The average yield of buckwheat in 2020 is 12.5 c/ha (-2.3 c/ha), corn yield is 95.1 c/ha (+0.6 c/ha). 26.7 thousand tons of soybeans were harvested with an average yield of 20.9 c/ha (+4.6 c/ha). Rape threshed 96.8 thousand tons.



Due to the border position, there are several customs terminals in Bryansk and the region.

Railway transport is highly developed in the Bryansk region. The length of the main railway lines is 1132 km (network density - 32.5 km / 1000 km² - one of the largest indicators in Russia), most of them are electrified (an alternating current network is used).

Major railway junctions are Bryansk, Unecha, Navlya.

Most of the long-distance trains pass through Bryansk and Navlya along the Moscow-Kyiv line. Developed suburban communication. Most of the small branches for passenger traffic are closed, only Dyatkovo - Fayansovaya operate.

Federal highways pass through the region:
M3 / E 101 "Ukraine" Moscow - Kaluga - border with Ukraine.
P120 Orel - Bryansk - Smolensk - Rudnya - border with the Republic of Belarus.
A240 Bryansk - Novozybkov - border with the Republic of Belarus.

As of the end of 2010, the Bryansk region occupied one of the last places in Russia in terms of the number of personal cars per 1,000 inhabitants - 125.1 (ahead only of Dagestan, Ingushetia, Chechnya and Chukotka), which is almost half the Russian average (228.3 )

Bryansk International Airport is located 14 km southwest of the regional center.


Science, education and culture

The Bryansk region is one of 15 regions in which, on September 1, 2006, the subject "Fundamentals of Orthodox Culture" was introduced as a regional component of education.