Vladivostok, Russia


Description of Vladivostok

Vladivostok - a city and port in the Far East of Russia; political, cultural and economic center of the region; the administrative center of Primorsky Krai and Vladivostok city district. Located on the Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula and the islands in the Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of ​​Japan.

The destination of the Trans-Siberian Railway. One of the largest seaports of the Far Eastern basin. The main base of the Pacific Fleet. The largest scientific and educational center of the Far Eastern region, including the Far Eastern Federal University and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Founded as a military post "Vladivostok" in 1860, in 1880 received the status of the city. Since 1888 - the administrative center of the Primorsky region, since 1938 - the Primorsky Territory. From October 12, 2015 - a free port (port zone that uses special customs, tax, investment and related regulations).


Getting here

By plane
Vladivostok is the second largest airport in the Far East after Khabarovsk. There are flights to Moscow (3-4 times a day, 8-9 hours, Aeroflot), Novosibirsk via Irkutsk (S7), Yekaterinburg via Irkutsk (Ural Airlines). Direct flights to St. Petersburg are rare and irregular. Aeroflot's subsidiary Aurora and S7 operate many flights in Siberia and the Far East: Krasnoyarsk, Magadan, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (2 times a day), Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (2 times a day). Some of them are carried out with a landing in Khabarovsk. Thus, several times a day you can fly to Khabarovsk (1.5 hours). International flights are mainly Aeroflot and S7: Seoul, Tokyo, Harbin, Hong Kong, Beijing. Korean Airlines also flies to Seoul - this is the most popular international destination. There is an exotic Air Koryo flight to Pyongyang, the main way to get into North Korea.

Knevichi Airport (IATA:VVO). The airport is located 40 km north of the city. This is the closest place to Vladivostok with a relatively flat relief; it is simply impossible to build an airport closer. In fact, it adjoins the city of Artyom, and from the northern side, opposite from Vladivostok. The airport has two terminals, of which the old one (B) is not in use. All flights depart from the new Terminal A. It is shiny and well-maintained, but the sparseness of the situation resembles some kind of government agency. It stands in an open field, there is nothing around at all. Free Wi-Fi is intermittent.

Entering the building, you will find yourself in a hall with a very high ceiling, an abundance of armchairs, a corner of the Coffee City coffee shop and a fish store that sells a wide variety of fish products produced in Primorye (prices are slightly higher than in ordinary supermarkets). 24-hour luggage storage is located on the same floor behind the escalator, 240 rubles/day (2013). There are local car rental desks, as well as MTS and Megafon. At first glance, there is nothing else here, but it is worth going up the escalator to the third floor to the departure area: there is a post office with Internet access (Tue–Sat 9:00–18:00), a gift shop, as well as a cozy El Vino bar , offering wine and snacks (the most decent food outlet at the airport, salads cost 200 rubles, there is no hot food). If you walk further to the right from the escalator, you will find a Sberbank branch, a Richies hot dog stand (9:00–20:00) and, for lovers of cheap food, a Pit Stop kiosk (8:00–21:00), where there are pies for 30-40 rubles a piece.

The domestic departure lounge is spacious and empty. It has a souvenir shop and a Coffee City coffee shop, where for 120-150 rubles you will be offered coffee from a paper cup and beautiful cakes on a paper plate. The menu also includes salads, soups and pasta. They cost a lot, but, perhaps, they are still served in normal dishes. Finally, there is a Korean soda machine, which is the end of the contents of this hall.

How to get there:
Electric trains (former Aeroexpress) run 5 times a day from the railway station of Vladivostok, the journey takes 50 minutes. This is the most convenient, although quite expensive (350 rubles, 2015) way to get from the airport to the city. At the airport, the station is adjacent to the new terminal. The trains also have a suburban class (20-70 rubles), intended for those who travel around the city of Vladivostok or Artyom. However, you will not be able to use it and save money, since at the airport you need to go through the turnstiles again, and the ticket is checked on the way.
Bus number 107 to Vladivostok railway station (70 rubles). It goes once an hour or even less often, on the way a little more than an hour if there are no traffic jams
Bus number 7 to the city of Artyom (every 20-30 minutes), then you need to get off at the bus station and change to another bus - for example, to Vladivostok.
Taxi: officially at the airport it costs 1,500 rubles, when ordering from the city, prices start at 800 rubles, depending on where you are going. Taking into account the considerable distance to Vladivostok, taxi drivers can call absolutely exorbitant amounts: be careful.
All buses leave from a stop directly in front of the terminal. Transit intercity buses from Bolshoi Kamen, Partizansk and Nakhodka to Ussuriysk and Spassk also stop there.

By train
Only 5 or 6 long-distance trains a day reach Vladivostok: when moving from Vladivostok, they all go at least to Khabarovsk (12-15 hours), after which one turns to Komsomolsk-on-Amur (26 hours) and Sovetskaya Gavan (40 hours). ), another one leaves for Blagoveshchensk (33 hours), and three others move along the Trans-Siberian Railway at least to Krasnoyarsk (3.5-4 days). At least one train per day eventually reaches Moscow, which takes a little more than 6 days.

Vladivostok is a dead-end station, so trains to Nakhodka return back (to the west), and from Ugolnaya station they go further east towards Artyom. Direct-to-Pyongyang carriages do not enter Vladivostok, stopping only in Ussuriysk.

There is no rail connection with China. You can take a bus to the village of Pogranichny, from where a commuter train runs to Suifenhe once a day - however, it’s easier to immediately get to Suifenhe by bus, and then transfer to the Chinese train to Harbin. However, it is faster to go by bus to another border crossing - to the town of Hunchun, which is in the area where the borders of Russia, China and North Korea cross, and leave from there to Harbin or even to Beijing by high-speed train.

Electric trains from Vladivostok are mostly local, to the city of Artyom and back. Electric trains run three times a day to Nakhodka (Pacific station) and once a day to Ussuriysk. Another one or two electric trains pass through Ussuriysk, reaching Spassk-Dalny and even Lesozavodsk (Ruzhino station).

Railway station (Vladivostok-City), Aleutskaya st. 2. Station of Vladivostok - the extreme point of the Trans-Siberian Railway. It is located in the very center of the city (5 minutes on a footbridge from the central square), but in a lowland, and therefore almost invisible from afar. The station is one of the best architectural monuments in Vladivostok and one of the most beautiful stations in Russia in general: be sure to take at least 5-10 minutes to explore it! From a practical point of view, the station is convenient, because it is small and cozy. The entrance from the street will lead you to a waiting room with rows of metal chairs. The corridor leads to the suburban ticket office, passing a cafeteria with dried-up reheated food and equally unappetizing salads, while the long-distance ticket office is located two floors below. WiFi promised.

Luggage storage (self-service) is located right next to the waiting room, on the site of the former buffet. Works around the clock, 110-150 rubles / day (2013). There are rest rooms, tel. +7 (423) 224-80-81. Oct 2021

Other stations:
First River. Wikidata element Stopping point to the north of the center, next to a large market. In general, there is nothing to do here.
Second River, at the end of Russian street. Located in the same area next to the bus station. All trains stop, including Aeroexpress. Long distance trains do not stop. The new station building shines with cleanliness and comfort: it even has escalators, and also a buffet (7:00–21:00), where they sell store-bought cookies and pour tea. You can sit on metal chairs in the waiting room. Access to the platform through the turnstiles.
Lugovaya, Tram st. It is located to the east of the center at the end of Svetlanskaya street, from here it is not far from Sportivnaya street and a large Chinese market. The station stands on a side branch leading to the port, and not on the main highway ending at the station. Sometimes electric trains come here from the station, making a circle through the First River, but more often electric trains arrive at Lugovaya from the north, from Coal.
Cape Churkin, st. Kalinin. The final station of electric trains coming to Lugovaya. A lone platform in the middle of a freight station.

By car
In Vladivostok, the A370 Ussuri highway from Khabarovsk ends (730 km). From China, you can come through the border crossing of the village. Border (Grodekovo station) - Suifenhe (220 km), from Mudanjiang 380 km, from Harbin 750 km. There is no road to North Korea, there is no road bridge across the border river Tumannaya (Tumangan), although even if there was a road, you would still not be allowed on it.

By bus
Buses come to Vladivostok from all over the Primorsky Territory: the most frequent connections are with the cities of Artyom and Ussuriysk (every 15-20 minutes, on the way 1 hour and 2 hours, respectively: mostly passing buses), buses also go to Nakhodka (every 30 minutes, every 4-4.5 hours or 3 hours for express buses), Spassk-Dalniy (every 1-1.5 hours, 5 hours on the way), Dalnegorsk (9 times a day, 11 hours) and other interesting places in Primorsky Krai. Once a day there is a bus to Khabarovsk (15.5 h).

International connection with the Chinese cities of Suifenhe, Mudanjiang (9 hours) and Harbin (13 hours). Tickets are sold at the international box office of the bus station, although many recommend buying directly from carriers: Primoravtotrans (tel. +7 (423) 245-03-95) and ATP Primorye (tel. +7 (423) 240-05-55). From time to time there is also a bus to Hongchun and Changchun via Slavyanka.

Bus station, st. Russian, 2. ☎ +7 (423) 232-33-78 (inquiry), +7 (423) 232-34-78 (ticket booking). 6:00–22:00. The bus station is located in the area of the Second River near the railway station of the same name on the border of a huge market: from the outside it seems that this is one of the many market buildings. In fact, the building of the bus station is brand new and quite cozy - maybe a bit crowded. Inside there are many metal chairs, a newsstand, a souvenir shop and a Coffee Express bar counter with a coffee machine. Luggage storage is open 7:00-19:00 (break 11:00-12:00). Exit to the platform through the turnstiles, they monitor this: you won’t be able to get on the bus without a ticket. If you want to eat, head to the market or look for grocery stores along Russkaya Street.

Please note that the bus station is located 7 km from the center: it takes a long time to get to it in case of traffic jams, which, however, is compensated by the relatively quick departure of buses from the city. If you are coming from the airport, get off at the station Vtoraya Rechka, before reaching the station.

Suburban buses depart from various parts of the city, but most of them will not be needed by the average traveler. Russky Island and other interesting places in the vicinity are served by public transport.

On the ship
Almost all water communication has the status of a suburban one, so you can sail away from Vladivostok, but it’s difficult to sail there from afar. From August 2022 there is a ferry to South Korea.

Ferry terminal. 8:00–18:30. The ferry terminal around 2022 was moved to a new building in the corner of the bay. There is no buffet, but there is a cafe on the way to the seaport, and there is enough food at the railway station. With the construction of bridges, motor ships became relatively rare, ferries to Russky Island disappeared. You can sail to the islands of Popov and Reinecke. The Donghae ferry docks here.



Public transport
The bus is the main form of public transport. Trolleybuses run on two routes near the bus station, the tram runs along the only short route along Lugovaya Street east of the center.

Buses run quite often, they have an extensive route network, which, however, is constantly changing “taking into account the wishes of the residents”, which is why the residents themselves do not really know where and what routes are. The Vladivostok bus also does not have an official website, there is an unofficial one and another one, it is not at all clear which one, with a poorly working interactive map. There are almost no stopping signs, there are no timetables at all. At the central stops there are electronic scoreboards. Fare: 28 rubles (2020), payment to the driver when exiting through the front door. Part of the routes is served by the carrier VPOPAT, they are operated by air-conditioned MAN buses. Viewing the city from them is inconvenient, because the windows are covered with advertising. Buses to Russky Island are city buses and are paid at the same rate. There are many routes to the oceanarium past the FEFU campus, there is only one route further along the island, there is no schedule at the stops.

The Vladivostok funicular is one of the sights of the city, a favorite attraction of the townspeople and an obligatory point of the excursion program, which appeared half a century ago - back in 1962 at the direction of Khrushchev.

It is also the fastest way to get to the upper part of the city, from where the observation deck offers a beautiful view of the city - the Golden Horn Bay, the Churkin area, Cape Egersheld and Russky Island, as well as both recently built cable-stayed bridges - without overcoming the 400 steps of the underlying "ladder health” (local joke) and a rather busy bypass road under the funicular. Previously, the main passengers of the funicular were students of the Far Eastern Federal University - the old educational buildings are located near the upper and lower stopping pavilions. On the other hand, the upper station is at a road junction, and people go there to look at the road junction and the highway bridge from above, so if you are not interested in cars, then you can not waste time.

The ticket is bought from the driver, the price is about 10 rubles. The route is single-track, 183 meters long, with a siding in the middle (a common cause of fright for city guests), the flights are synchronized, the flight duration is about 1.5 minutes. A special service monitors the technical condition, so the funicular may be unavailable from time to time. As a rule, repairs and maintenance are carried out in the summer.

Many electric trains serve as urban ones. They run infrequently, but given traffic jams and the general chaotic nature of city transport, they can be useful - especially in order to cross the city through.

Electric trains running every 1-2 hours in the direction of Artyom (including the airport) make intermediate stops at the Second River and Coal: travel with "suburban class" tickets, which cost only 21 rubles from the Vladivostok station to the Second River (2017), as bus. There are also electric trains that bypass the main station and follow from the north (from Ugolnaya or even earlier stations) to Lugovaya and further to Cape Churkin. These trains are tied to rush hours: they run several times in the morning and evening, but there are no trains during the day.

By car
The car is very useful for traveling around the outskirts and the surrounding area, driving to the tops of the hills, searching for the forts of the Vladivostok fortress, but you should not drive it in the city center. There is very heavy traffic in Vladivostok, on weekdays the streets are busy from 8 am to 10 pm, or even longer. Traffic jams, of course, are not the same as in Moscow, but they occur regularly. If we add to this a complex road network, steep ascents and descents, non-trivial junctions, one-way streets, then it is clear that driving in Vladivostok requires some experience and good endurance.



The city has a large number of viewing platforms: at the top of the funicular, from the Eagle's Nest hill in the central part of the city, in the Egersheld area on Mayak and Cape Churkin to the sea and islands. Also worth noting is the Ferris wheel located in the Sports Harbor.



The center of Vladivostok has a regular rectangular layout, complemented by steep ascents and descents: there are almost no flat areas here. The main streets are Svetlanskaya, running from west to east, and Aleutskaya, running from south to north, with Okeansky Prospekt paired with it. One block from Svetlanskaya is the pedestrian Admiral Fokin Street - Vladivostok Arbat.

Train Station. Wikidata element Built in 1912 in pseudo-Russian style, designed by architect N. V. Konovalov. Formally, the style is the same as at the Yaroslavsky station in Moscow - the western end of the Trans-Siberian - but the station in Vladivostok gravitates more towards modernity. This is the same perfect monument of time and style as the Vitebsk railway station in St. Petersburg. The station building is already striking from the outside: details, window decoration, tiles and roof bends are carefully worked out in it. Nevertheless, the most interesting thing is waiting inside, where the ceiling paintings, the patterns of flights of stairs and figured railings are just as detailed. Pay attention to the former restaurant hall, where the fast food is now located: the “checkered” walls create a wonderful feeling of volume. Finally, the structure of the station is unusual. The waiting room, which you enter from the street, is actually located in the gallery above the railway tracks. This is a non-electrified track, which is often lined with trains of mail and baggage cars: an unprecedented spectacle in Central Russia, and quite a common occurrence in the Far East.
On the platform next to the station there is a steam locomotive and a kilometer sign "9288", marking the end of the Trans-Siberian Railway. Not everyone can drive it in its entirety, so just linger at the station, sit on the platform and try to appreciate the scale. In general, the Vladivostok railway station is quiet, cozy, non-fussy and perfectly suitable for the end of the world's largest railway.
It is interesting that there is a sea station behind the railway station - this is a rather rare combination. Station Square remembers many historical events, and in our time is used for demonstrations, since it is here that the monument to Lenin stands, facing the sea. Evil tongues claim that Ilyich says "You are on the right path, comrades!", while pointing in the direction of Japan. Nearby is the Soviet post office building, at the end of which there is an obscure metal installation with a famous quote from the same classic: “Vladivostok is far away, but this is our city.”

Former marine station, st. Nizhneportovaya, 1. ☎ +7 (423) 249-73-58. It is directly adjacent to the railway and is connected with it by a pedestrian bridge. The building is completely given over to offices, although a waiting room with a beautiful fountain has been preserved on the ground floor. You can sit and drink coffee, thinking about the hard fate of water transport.

Central square. Does not contain a monument to Lenin, since it already stands in front of the station. Instead, there is a large monument to the fighters for the power of the Soviets in the Far East. Pretentious and rather boring, and in general the area is very unsightly. On one side it faces the railway tracks and the station, the other side faces Svetlanskaya Street with pre-revolutionary buildings, and the late Soviet building of the regional committee rises right on the square. The railway passes through a tunnel under the square.

Triumphal Arch (Nikolaev Triumphal Gates) , st. Peter the Great (between Svetlanskaya and Korabelnaya emb.). It was built in honor of the visit to the city and the laying of the railway by the future Emperor Nicholas II, who visited Vladivostok in 1891. The stone four-pillar arch in the pseudo-Russian style was destroyed in 1927. At the end of 2002 the monument was restored.

Center building. quite curious. On Svetlanskaya and Aleutskaya streets, as well as the pedestrian Admiral Fokin street, almost all the buildings were built before the revolution, but after 1890, so the pseudo-Russian style and eclecticism dominate here. Spend an hour or two walking around: there are few masterpieces, but in terms of the quantity and quality of old buildings among the Far Eastern cities, Vladivostok can only be compared with Khabarovsk, and the very fact that and how they built here just 30-40 years after the founding of the city, sometimes in the absence railway and 8000 km from the capital, is already unique. Unusual street names, as a rule, come from the names of ships based in Vladivostok at the time of the city's development: for example, Aleutskaya Street got its name from the schooner Aleut.

Bridge across the Golden Horn Bay (Golden Bridge). A huge cable-stayed bridge was built in 2008-12. as part of a city development program. There is a special charm in cable-stayed bridges, since their supports go up into the sky, and the cables create a beautiful, almost openwork grid from afar, which looks great both day and night. Although the bridge wedged rather roughly into the very center of the city, passing directly over Svetlanskaya Street, it looks great. The pedestrian passage on the bridge is closed, but you can ride on it as much as you like - even by bus, even by car. The bridge offers wonderful views of the city and the bay, but it is also interesting to look ahead through the windshield: the interlacing of cables creates the feeling of a luminous tunnel. Contrary to the name, there is nothing gold on the bridge.

Millionka  (Western part of Admiral Fokin Street). in the past, Vladivostok's Chinatown, several blocks with an intricate system of courtyards, elegant facades of houses and absolutely chaotic internal buildings. Until the middle of the 20th century, there were many Chinese in Vladivostok, and, unlike today, they lived quite isolated and isolated. Millionka had its own laws, crime flourished. The police did not dare to appear here. The special status of Chinatown was maintained even after the revolution, until a strong-willed decision was made in 1937 to liquidate the quarter and evict the Chinese from the city. Since then, Millionka has been just a colorful, once slum, but now an increasingly respectable area with many historical buildings: mostly one- and two-story, but with a complex system of gates, terraces, galleries. It cannot be said that this is Chinese architecture, but it is not very typical for Russia either. Reminiscent of old, but non-central areas of coastal cities, such as Odessa or Rostov-on-Don, but analogies with Odessa Moldavanka are more than appropriate here - except that Millionka is located in the very center of the city and is increasingly losing its shanty component.
The most colorful is the rectangular block north of Admiral Fokin Street: gloomy back streets, dirty facades and strange graffiti on the walls are still preserved here. The quarter to the south is largely ennobled, but there is also interesting.


East of the center

The center of Vladivostok does not have a clear boundary: to the east of the bridge across the Golden Horn, the pre-revolutionary quarters are increasingly diluted with Soviet architecture, and the city itself is losing its regular rectangular layout due to the complex terrain, but there are still a lot of old buildings here, so it’s very interesting to walk around.

Lutheran Church, Pushkinskaya st. 14. Built in 1907-09. in neo-gothic style. In principle, this is a completely standard thing, but, apparently, one of the most eastern Lutheran churches and Gothic buildings in the world. It is not entirely authentic and is more used as a concert hall, which is reminiscent of the chairs placed in the hall, however, beautiful stained-glass windows correct this picture, and cozy wooden beams on the ceiling give the building a flavor.


Egerskjöld (Lighthouse)

The Shkota peninsula (aka Egersheld, also known as the Mayak district) is the southern tip of Vladivostok, it starts at the railway station and protrudes into the sea for 6 km. A good half of the peninsula is occupied by a trading port. Everything else is a chaotic and generally uninteresting building of different times, you can even ignore it, but the magnificent panoramas of the sea and the bay are worth coming here.

Tokarevsky lighthouse. The lighthouse stands on the southern tip of Egersheld - more precisely, already behind the peninsula. It is connected to the mainland by a narrow cape, the Tokarevskaya cat, which is flooded with water during strong winds. However, even if the wind prevents you from going to the lighthouse, get at least to an intermediate island with a power line support: from there there are wonderful views in all directions - the city, Egersheld, the bridge over the Golden Horn, rocks, hills, Russky Island, scurrying there boats here. It is also interesting how different the calm sea in the bay to the north of the lighthouse and the rough open sea to the south are. One of the best panoramic points in the city. Here, the specifics of Vladivostok as a sea city are especially acutely felt - instead of the usual cyclists or skateboarders for other cities, the townspeople like to come here at the end of the working day with their sailing boards or scuba gear. Or, just sitting in a car, watch the surf boil and the sun set behind the distant mountains in the west, on the border with China. The final bus "Mayak" is located about a kilometer from the cape. On the way, be sure to go up to the cliff, which offers a postcard view of the lighthouse itself.

Cross Hill. It rises above the trading port, breaking off to it with a rock. From the top there is a magnificent view of the city, the sea, the port, bridges and distant hills. The top of Krestovaya is completely uncultivated; a path leads there, starting at the end of Samarskaya Street. At the top is a memorial stone informing about the plans of the Supreme Council to erect a monument to Lenin here. The Orthodox cross standing in the neighborhood puts the most fat cross on these plans.


Vladivostok fortress

Vladivostok fortress. The Vladivostok fortress is the main fortification of the city of Vladivostok and its environs. The fortress is a complex of unique defensive structures built in the late 19th - early 20th centuries. The Vladivostok citadel is considered the most fortified of all the fortifications erected and rebuilt at that time, which was the experience of the Russo-Japanese War. The final version of the fortress project was formed in 1910. At the beginning of 1913, strength tests were carried out in the abolished Warsaw fortress, according to the established results of these and other field experiments, it was recommended to increase the thickness of concrete structures. Concrete structures on the fortifications of the 1910 project differ from land fortifications erected in 1900-1904. That is, the new buildings were more powerful, and the roof structures were much higher, moreover, the buildings of 1910 were almost completely devoid of any "architectural excesses". In 1914, with the outbreak of the First World War, the supply of cement stopped, which affected the construction of the fortress. In 1917, construction work completely stopped. In 1923 the fortress was abolished. By that time, Soviet power had come to Primorye. All remaining armaments were dismantled, the administrations and headquarters were disbanded, and the fortifications were abandoned. In October 1996, a museum was opened on the territory of the fortress, called the Vladivostok Fortress. The museum's unique expositions tell visitors about the history of the fortress and artillery, as well as about the past of the city itself and Primorsky Krai. Here you can see every corner of the fortification.



Monument to G. I. Nevelsky. The monument to the Russian admiral is the oldest in Vladivostok.
Monument to the Fighters for Soviet Power in the Far East.
Monument to Count N. N. Muravyov-Amursky. The monument is located in the park where the ashes of Muravyov-Amursky are buried.
Monument to Ya. L. Semyonov. Monument dedicated to the first mayor of Vladivostok, merchant and entrepreneur. The monument was erected in 1995.
Monument to V.K. Arseniev.
Monument to S. G. Lazo.
Monument to S. O. Makarov.
Monument to N. G. Kuznetsov.
Monument to the Heroes of the cruiser "Varyag", the Marine Cemetery of Vladivostok.
Monument to Ilya Muromets.
Monument to the sailors of the Soviet merchant fleet who died during the Second World War.

Natural objects
Golden Horn Bay.
Russian Island.

Just interesting places
Monument to one horsepower. In Vladivostok, near the art gallery, there is an art object that is somewhat reminiscent of the Trojan horse - a monument to one horsepower - an iron horse with a motorcycle engine inside. The design of this topical modern sculpture was developed by Primorye artist Igor Borisovich Obukhov, and the manufacturing technology was developed by the director of the Metalworking Center Alexei Porsin. The horse was created for the exhibition dedicated to the tenth anniversary of the Institute of Mechanics, Automation and Advanced Technologies (IMAPT). Initially, the monument to horsepower stood in the building of the motor transport faculty, and during the exhibition of Obukhov the horse was transported to the gallery, where it stands to this day. The students nicknamed this iron animal Orlik. During the "Night of Museums" campaign, the monument to one horsepower became the central figure of the "Acceleration" performance.


What to do


Museum of the History of the Far East named after V.K. Arseniev, st. Svetlanskaya, 20. ✉ ☎ +7 (423) 241-11-73. 10:00–19:00. 200 rubles (2016).
Military History Museum of the Pacific Fleet (Pacific Fleet), st. Svetlanskaya, 66. ✉ ☎ +7 (423) 221-64-92. Wed–Sun 10:00–18:00. 100 rubles (2013). It is also a kind of historical museum, in which, if you omit the military-patriotic component, you can learn a lot of interesting things about the development of the Far East.
Memorial house-museum of V.K. Arseniev (House of the Traveler Arseniev) , st. Arsenyeva, d.7b. ☎ +7 (423) 251-58-53. 10:00–19:00. 200 rubles (2019). Vladimir Klavdievich Arseniev (1872-1930) - traveler, writer, scientist, ethnographer, who devoted 30 years of his life to the study of the Far East. In the house, which has now become a museum, Arseniev lived for only a year, from 1929 to 1930. It is alleged that the living environment and the scientist's study are preserved here.
Museum "Vladivostok Fortress" (Military-Historical Fortification Museum), st. Battery, 4a. ☎ +7 (423) 240-08-96. 10:00–18:00, in winter 10:00–17:00. 100 rub. A solid historical museum, which even has archeology, but most of the exhibits are still devoted to the fortress and various military affairs. Huge collection of weapons. The exposition is located in the casemates of the Nameless Battery and in the open air. The entrance to the territory of the museum is in the depth from the street, follow the signs.
Submarine S-56, Ship embankment. ☎ +7 (423) 221-67-57. 10:00–20:00. 100 rubles (2013).
Primorsky Oceanarium, Russky Island. ✉ ☎ +7 (423) 2239422. 10:00-20:00 Tuesday, Thursday - Sunday. 1000 rub. Primorsky Oceanarium FEB RAS.
Memorial ship "Krasny Vympel" (Krasny Vympel), Ship embankment. ☎ +7 (423) 222-51-70. 09:00-21:00. Ship-museum of pre-revolutionary construction.
Museum of Automotive Antiquity, st. Sakhalinskaya, 2a (Near the eastern ring of the tram line). ☎ +7 (423) 221-24-77. 10:00-18:00. 200 rub.
Museum 18+  , Embankment 5v. ☎ +7 (924) 25-35-111. 750 rub. Exhibits on all aspects of sexual relations. Visit with a guide only.


Churches and monasteries

St. Seraphim Monastery. St. Seraphim Monastery is the only island monastery in the Far East region of Russia. It was founded in 2002 with the blessing of the Archbishop of Vladivostok and Primorsky on Russky Island, where the most important fortifications have been located for more than a century. According to the inhabitants of the monastery, the island location of the monastery has a very favorable effect on the mood of prayer. It is known that before the October Revolution there were more than a dozen military Orthodox churches here, from most of which only the foundations have survived to this day. Only the building of the restored temple survived, which is under the jurisdiction of the 34th Siberian Rifle Regiment. This camping regimental church was established in 1904 and was located in a barrack that simultaneously accommodated about 800 people. In 1914, it was moved to a new brick building, and the new temple was consecrated in honor of Seraphim, the miracle worker from the island. After the regiment was sent to the front in 1917, the temple came under the control of the Vladivostok diocese. In the 1920s, services in St. Seraphim Church continued, but only with the permission of the NKVD, and the building itself belonged to the Council of Workers and Peasants of Primorsky Krai. With the beginning of an active anti-religious campaign in the country, almost all churches in the Primorsky Territory were closed, including the Church of St. Seraphim. In order to save the temple building from complete looting, it was converted into a club. In 1995, the Orthodox community expressed a desire to restore the temple building, which at that time belonged to the Navy. Soon the dilapidated building was handed over to believers. The first divine service was already held in 1997. And on October 6, 2001, by the decision of the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church, this parish was transformed into the St. Seraphim Monastery. Divine services are held in the monastery church on all holidays and on Sundays.


Church of the Holy Martyr Tatyana. The Church of the Holy Martyr Tatyana in Vladivostok is one of the city's iconic sights. A small but very cozy temple-chapel is located in the square between Sibirtseva and Pushkinskaya streets, not far from the funicular station, near the main entrance to the former building "A" of the Far Eastern State Technical University (FESTU). The chapel-temple of St. Tatiana was erected in 2000. The construction of the temple was carried out by a group of architects and students who studied at the Architectural Institute of the Far Eastern State Technical University. Professor V. Mora supervised the construction work. The Church of the Holy Martyr Tatyana entered the complex, which includes a chapel, a belfry and a monument to the disciples who died during the Great Patriotic War. In 2002, a particle of the relics of the holy martyr Tatiana (Tatiana) was brought to the temple from the Pskov-Pechora Monastery, which they decided to place in the kiot of the icon. According to the original project, the chapel was designed without an altar part, as a result of which communion and weddings were not performed in the chapel, but only baptisms, prayers and memorial services were held. This situation could be corrected only by erecting an altar. In 2003, the addition of the altar began, which lasted less than a year. The new extension very harmoniously fit into the architectural project of V. Mora. In 2004, just on Tatyana's day, the first liturgy was held in the chapel. The main visitors to the Church of the Holy Martyr Tatyana are students and teachers.

Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin in Vladivostok. The Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin in the city of Vladivostok is located on Svetlanskaya Street. The laying of the Assumption Church on the slope of the hill (Pushkinskaya) took place in June 1861. It was the first religious building in the city. The construction of the temple was carried out by the soldiers of the detachment of the 3rd company of the 4th line battalion, who were lodging in the city of Vladivostok. The solemn consecration of the temple was planned to be held in 1862 on the feast of the Annunciation, but due to the illness of the hieromonk, the ceremony had to be postponed to April. The temple was small: 19 meters long and 8.5 meters wide. In appearance, the temple was an ordinary log house and only a wooden cross over a gable roof indicated the purpose of this building. In August 1876, shortly before the feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, not far from the existing church, a new church was laid - the Assumption Cathedral, designed by V. Shmakov. However, construction was stopped. Some time later, in 1886, a new project of the cathedral was prepared, the author of which was the architect Miller. The solemn consecration of the cathedral took place at the end of 1889. The temple could accommodate about a thousand worshipers. The height of the main dome was 35 m. In January 1899, this cathedral received the status of a cathedral. In 1932, the Assumption Cathedral was closed, and in 1938 it was completely destroyed. A residential building was built on the foundations left from the cathedral. In 1997, the city authorities decided to transfer to the Orthodox Church the former building of the cathedral house, which was previously part of the complex of the destroyed cathedral. Even before the revolution, this building was used as a treasury, a library, a rest room for the clergy, utility rooms, and later - as a DOSAAF school. The rector of the resurgent parish, Archimandrite Sergei (Chashin), put a lot of effort into making the Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary a real gem not only of Vladivostok, but of the entire Primorsky diocese. In 1997, the first service was held in the temple. In 2001, the church was crowned with domes and crosses, and by Easter 2002, a three-tiered iconostasis was installed here. In 2004, the walls of the temple were decorated with amazing murals on gospel stories. In April 2006, a solemn consecration of the temple in honor of the Dormition of the Most Holy Theotokos took place.


Church of Igor Chernigov. Church in honor of the Right-Believing Prince Igor of Chernigov, located in Vladivostok along the street. Fountain, is one of the attractions of this beautiful city. The temple is dedicated to the memory of the soldiers of the Department of Internal Affairs of the Primorsky Territory, who died in the line of duty. The brick church was erected as soon as possible - in June 2006. The rite of consecration of the capsule and the foundation stone of the church of the Holy Right-believing Prince-Passion-bearer Igor of Chernigov was performed by Archbishop Veniamin in co-service with the clergy of the diocese. The construction of the temple was completed in March 2007. It was then that the solemn consecration of the church took place. The architectural design of the Church of Igor Chernigov in Vladivostok was developed by the famous architect Valery Moor. The total height of the two-story church is about 21 m. Each of the floors covers an area of 78 sq.m. The lower floor was consecrated in the name of the patron saint of soldiers - the holy Great Martyr Demetrius of Thessalonica. It houses the baptistery (baptismal). As for the upper tier, it was consecrated in the name of the holy noble prince-martyr Igor of Chernigov, whose name the temple bears. The top floor is the main worship space. At the solemn ceremony of consecrating the church, the leadership of the Internal Affairs Directorate of the Primorsky Territory presented the church with an icon of the Holy Prince Igor of Chernigov as a gift. This icon, measuring 50 by 40 centimeters, was made by the famous local icon painter Sergei Shchekalov. The icon depicts Prince Igor Chernigov with a cross, holding a sword in his hands. The icon became the patronal icon for the church. Near the temple of Igor Chernigov there is a memorial to the soldiers of the Internal Affairs Directorate.

Church of St. Andrew the First-Called in Vladivostok. The Church of St. Andrew the First-Called in Vladivostok is a small, single-domed, snow-white temple located on Korabelnaya Embankment not far from the memorial complex "Battle Glory of the Pacific Fleet", which was erected in honor of the soldiers who died on the fronts of World War II. The church can accommodate no more than 40-50 people. The decision to build the church was made in the summer of 2003 by the command of the Pacific Fleet. The solemn consecration of the foundation stone took place in August 2004 and the construction of the chapel began. The main initiators of the construction were the largest naval structures: the Pacific Fleet, the Far East Navy and the Federal State Unitary Enterprise, as well as the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. The author of the project of the temple building was the Architectural Institute of the Far Eastern State Technical University under the guidance of the famous professor V. Moor and the Central Design Institute of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. In May 2005, on the eve of the celebration of the 60th anniversary of the Victory, Archbishop Veniamin of Vladivostok and Primorsky held a solemn consecration of the chapel in honor of St. Apostle Andrew the First-Called. The interior of the church building is decorated with icons. On the icons you can see the faces of many warriors, for example, George the Victorious, Fyodor Ushakov, Demetrius of Thessalonica and others. The Church of St. Andrew the First-Called became a successful completion of the appearance of the new building of the historical center of the city.


Cathedral of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin. The Cathedral of the Intercession of the Holy Mother of God is one of the architectural sights of the city of Vladivostok. The laying of the foundation of the temple was completed in May 1900, the initiator of its construction was the priest Alexander Muravyov. The cathedral was the second most important parish church in Vladivostok. The first was the Assumption Cathedral, ruthlessly demolished, like the Pokrovsky Church, under Soviet rule. On holidays, the church was visited by thousands of Orthodox. The church had three entrances, many windows and a large central dome, thanks to which a lot of light entered the temple. The consecration of the temple took place in September 1902. Around the same time, a parish school was opened here. In 1923, the cemetery, which was located near the temple, was closed, and the building itself was soon transferred to the renovation community. Further, the temple was used as a club building. In 1935, the temple was blown up, and on the site of the Pokrovsky cemetery, it was decided to build a city park of culture and recreation. Brick from the temple was used in the construction of the Pedagogical Institute. In 2004, the Archbishop of Vladivostok and Primorsky Veniamin, during a prayer service, together with the city clergy, consecrated the beginning of the construction of the temple. The archbishop personally laid the foundation stone for the church and the relics of Hieromartyr Konstantin of Bogorodsky. Since that time, the revival of the Church of the Intercession of the Most Holy Theotokos began in its former place. The author of this project was a team of DNIIMF architects led by Alexander Kotlyarov. Externally, the temple is made in the Old Russian style and is very similar to its five-domed predecessor. The total area of the temple reaches 600 square meters, and the height together with the cross is 40 m.

Cathedral of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker. The Far East of Russia has long been famous for its ancient shrines - Orthodox cathedrals and temples. Such shrines of the Far East include the majestic Cathedral of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker in Vladivostok. Compared to other temples, this cathedral is quite young. It was founded in 1996 by local priests and consecrated in the name of St. Nicholas, who is considered the patron saint of sailors and the military. People come here to communicate with God, share their problems and receive consolation. Every Sunday, the rector of the temple conducts a service. Every time a large number of parishioners come to listen to his sermon. It was the rector of the temple - Father Valery - in the early 2000s. acted as the main initiator and made a lot of efforts to reconstruct the Cathedral of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker after the difficult 90s. The rector of the temple asked all city organizations and enterprises to donate money for this charitable cause, thanks to which they managed to raise a decent amount for restoration work. From the very beginning it was planned that the cathedral would be built in the Novgorod style, however, as it turned out, this was a very costly undertaking. Therefore, it was decided to build the temple in the usual, classical style. The new cathedral is decorated with eight golden domes made in Zadonsk. The interior is decorated with beautiful frescoes by masters specially invited from famous Russian art centers. The cathedral has a beautiful carved altar, graceful rose windows and a beautiful room for the choir. The consecration of the cathedral took place in 2003. In the same year, all work on its restoration was completed. The Cathedral of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker fits perfectly into the landscape of Vladivostok - it rises on the main city square, and its domes are visible from afar.



Clover House, Semenovskaya st., 15 (Center, north of the station). ☎ +7 (423) 2-301-209. 10.00-21.00 seven days a week, supermarket around the clock. A six-story mall on a busy intersection with a bus plaza. In the basement there is a Fresh25 grocery supermarket, a children's center, cafes and restaurants. It was built on the site of the city's famous square "with elephants". This building is interesting because it is one of the ten ugliest buildings in Russia according to the Russia Beyond website. Put into operation in 2007.
Cheryomushki, Zaporozhskaya st., 77 (Southern part of the city, near the Golden Bridge). ☎ +7 (423) 264-61-60. 10.00-20.00 seven days a week, Sambury supermarket 10.00-22.00. A five-story shopping and entertainment center in the area of Cape Churkin with an area of about 35 thousand square meters. m. On the ground floor there is a Sambury grocery supermarket, on the fifth floor there is a food court and an Illusion Park multiplex with 5 halls. From the top floor there is a good view of the bay.
Sedanka City   , st. Poletaeva, d. 6D (Northern outskirts of the city, on the highway). ✉ ☎ +7 (423) 209-30-00. 10:00-21:00 seven days a week. Shopping and entertainment center, the second largest in the city (total area 94,000 sq.m.). Anchor tenants: Sambury hypermarket, M-Video, Kidburg. It is located respectively in the suburban area of Sedanka.
Friendship, st. Russian, d. 4 (Northern part of the city, near the bus station). ☎ +7 (916) 965-50-56. 10:00-22:00 seven days a week. Shopping and entertainment center, the third largest in the city (total area 63,000 sq.m.). Anchor tenants: Sambury supermarket, Eldorado, Detlandia. It is located in the area of the Second River next to the railway of the same name. station and city bus station.
Kalina Mall   , st. Kalinina, 8 (southern coast of the Golden Horn). 10:00-22:00. The new TVK Kalina Mall is one of the largest trade and exhibition complexes in the Far East. With a total area of 102,000 sq.m, it is located on Cape Churkin. Anchor tenants: Sambury, M.Video, Posuda-Tsentr, Zara, H&M, KinoMax IMAX.
Book Shop. Sells local history literature from a local publishing house.



Despite the proximity of the sea and various oriental cultures, the food in Vladivostok is as Russian as anywhere in Moscow or Voronezh. With the exception of smoked sockeye salmon, which is typical for the Far East, you will still have to look for local fish and seafood in public catering: except that shrimp and squid are found on the menu a little more often than usual. Numerous Chinese restaurants immediately attract attention in the center, which, however, are very different: from quite authentic to outright fake ones, with Russian waitresses and tea bags. In numerous Chinese markets, there are literally dozens of so-called "chifaneks", which may seem dirty and lurid, but the food is tasty, inexpensive and surprisingly safe. Chifanki are especially popular in the Sports Market.

Of course, there is sushi in Vladivostok, but at the same prices as everywhere else in Russia. Japanese cuisine “for their own” is practically not noticed in the city, with the exception of the Tora restaurant, opened in the spring of 2015 by some crazy Japanese IT people, exactly “for their own”, with dishes NOT from the list long worn out by sushi bars (read, ordinary Japanese canteen food). The prices are quite democratic and at the average city level, the quality is mediocre by Japanese standards, more than by domestic standards. Korean cuisine is rare and largely "Russified" (not to mention the fact that it is presented rather in the North Korean version), although it is still curious.

In stores and markets, the situation is a little different: you can still feel like you are in the Far East. In addition to the obligatory shelf with soy sauces and other Chinese products, pay attention to the fish department, and even better, even the fish part of some market. There are a lot of fish - chum salmon, flounder, herring, halibut - but the notorious lightly smoked sockeye salmon dominates: the taste is unusual, but it is difficult to call it a delicacy. Plenty of shrimp, huge crabs for sale, smoked octopus is also not uncommon: in short, there is plenty to choose from. Prices, however, are high, especially for red caviar and sturgeon, which are hardly cheaper here than in other Russian regions. It is also interesting that, unlike other coastal cities, Vladivostok has neither a centralized fish market nor an embankment with fish restaurants. The city is ours!

Finally, Vladivostok is famous for its confectionery. The local factory produces dozens of types of sweets and chocolates named after various objects of the Far East (Zaliv Posyet or Sakhalin Island chocolate is an excellent souvenir), but the most interesting thing here is Primorskie sweets, that is, Bird's Milk, which is considered by many to be the most tender and correct bird's milk in Russia. Unfortunately, these products are not found in every store: look for branded ones. Unfortunately, the quality of these products is declining every year due to the replacement of components with cheaper ones.

In the minds of the mass local consumer, the city is associated with such products as pyanse, doshirak and milkis, which are considered the national heritage of the city. Many residents of the west of the country are unaware of their existence and wonder how this can be eaten.

Of the well-known chain federal franchises, the following brands are represented in the city: McDonalds (3 restaurants), Cinnabon (5 coffee shops), Hesburger (4 outlets), KFC (7 outlets), Burger King (2 outlets), Dodo Pizza (1 outlet) and Ebidoebi (1 point).

Canteen No. 1 (Kopeyka), st. Svetlanskaya, 1. Sun–Thu 7:00–1:00, Fri–Sat around the clock. A typical city canteen, embellished with ironic Soviet posters and the same slogans. There are at least a dozen hot dishes on the menu, all very edible. There is also a bar. There is a network of branches in the city.
Oki-Doki (Oki-Doki)   , st. Svetlanskaya, 7. Mon–Fri 10:00–22:00, Sat–Sun around the clock. A network of fast food pizzerias, consisting of 3 establishments at Svetlanskaya, 7, Aleutskaya, 11 and Lugovoi, 18.
Don't cry! (Historical public dining room), Svetlanskaya, 10 (Hotel Versailles). 09:00-22:00. Inexpensive dining room with a beautiful interior in the historic building of the Versailles Hotel.
Canteen on Tikhaya, Sakhalinskaya, 54. 09:00-20:00. 200 rubles. Inexpensive restaurant with homemade food.

Average cost
Cafe Koritsa  , st. Mordovtseva, 3 (Semyonovskaya sq.). ☎ +7 (423) 277-02-12, +7 (423) 226-04-35. 10:00–24:00. Hot dishes: 200–400 rubles (2013). It has all the signs of a coffee house, but in fact it is just a cafe, with a menu that is not very long, but very diverse and creatively compiled. Do not look for exotic seafood, but shrimp, squid and other more or less standard ingredients are found here in rather unusual combinations.
Cafe "Chan Li", Okeansky Ave. 10B. ✉ ☎ +7 (423) 251-61-71. Hot dishes: 250–350 rubles (2013). An example of a Chinese restaurant that you should not go to (unless, of course, you are interested in Chinese cuisine, and not its Russian imitation). There is borscht on the first page of the menu, there is no brewed tea. The setting is extremely primitive.
Cafe Grilletta, st. Svetlanskaya, 17. 11:00–24:00. Hot dishes: 200–300 rubles (2013). An inconspicuous Chinese restaurant in the central square, where the railway tracks leave the tunnel. The staff practically does not speak Russian. Taking into account the general primitiveness of the situation (there is a bucket of water and a ladle in the toilet), the prices look slightly overpriced, but the food here is quite natural.
Cafe "Mirine", Okeanskiy pr. 17 (TC "Fresh Plaza"). 11:00–21:00. Hot dishes: 350–500 rubles (2019). Billed as a "real Korean food" cafe. The cuisine is definitely not real, since even by Russian standards it is only moderately spicy, but in general this is a good place for a quick and slightly exotic snack. The cafe shares the same hall with the Royal Burger fast food, so at first glance it is a little uncomfortable, but the plates, bowls and bowls in which food is served make up for these shortcomings. Each dish contains at least five plates containing rice, Korean carrots, pickled eggplants and all sorts of other things. Curious. Later, more points of this network appeared, for example, in the shopping center Kalina Mall and Sedanka City.
Novik  , pos. Russian, Shallow settlement 8. ☎ +7-924-121-44-66. 10:00–22:00. 2500 r. The restaurant specializes in fresh seafood. The reviews are contradictory and one of the complaints is that the dishes are served in disposable dishes.

Bar "Another place"   , st. Admiral Fokin, 16a. ☎ +7 (423) 240-81-43. 12:00–2:00. Hot dishes: from 250 rubles (2013). A small atmospheric bar with a rich selection of drinks and excellent cuisine. A favorite place for local expats, creative people, journalists.
Restaurant Zuma  , st. Fontannaya, 2. ✉ ☎ +7 (423) 222-26-66. Sun–Thu 11:00–2:00, Fri–Sat around the clock. Hot dishes: from 300 rubles (2013). Pan-Asian restaurant. In other words, a mixture of everything: Japanese, Chinese, Vietnamese, as well as Russian-style fish dishes, decorated with the chef's imagination. Several halls, beautiful interior, subdued light - in general, a good place for a leisurely dinner. WiFi. They say that this place was included in a certain rating of the best restaurants in the country.
Restaurant "Eagle's Nest", st. Aksakovskaya, 1, 19th floor (on the observation deck). ✉ ☎ +7 (423) 265-15-51. 12:00–24:00. Hot dishes: from 400 rubles (2013). Currently under renovation.

Coffee houses and tea houses
English bakery Five o'clock  , st. Admiral Fokin, 6. ✉ ☎ +7 (423) 294-55-31. Mon–Fri 8:00–21:00, Sat 9:00–21:00, Sun 11:00–21:00. Pies: 40–60 rubles (2013). It is not known what is English here, although tea with milk seems to be served. Nevertheless, cheap pastries attract a lot of people. Cozy interior with small tables for two. During the day it can be crowded.
Cafe Montmartre, st. Svetlanskaya, 9/6. ☎ +7 (423) 241-27-89. A cozy cafe right in the center of the city, where you can relax, talk, drink a cup of good coffee, as well as taste one of the best Pavlova cake desserts. However, most visitors do not recommend this cafe.
Cafe "Theme", st. Svetlanskaya, 31 (cinema "Ussuri"). 9:00–24:00. Desserts: from 150 rubles (2013). Art Nouveau urban cafe: pay attention to the wall paintings and the shape of the wrought-iron glass coasters on the bar counter. There are quite original desserts in the display case - for example, cheesecakes here have a jelly-like shape. Taste qualities are not obvious, but the format is interesting. Hot dishes are also on the menu. WiFi.
Confectionery Con tempo, st. Admiral Fokin, 4 (2nd floor). ☎ +7 (423) 200-36-14. Mon–Fri 10:00–22:00, Sat–Sun 11:00–23:00. Cakes: from 80 rubles (2013). One of several pastry shops on the central pedestrian street. It has good coffee and cakes at reasonable prices. It is interesting that inside there is a very large hall and relatively few tables: dances are supposed. The atmosphere is relaxed, there is no hot food. WiFi. edit
Coffee house "Darling", st. Svetlanskaya, 33 (GUM, 1st floor). ☎ +7 (423) 222-65-52. Mon–Sat 9:00–20:00, Sun 9:00–19:00. Cakes: from 50 rubles (2013). Inexpensive cafe with cute desserts from the Nostalgia confectionery. The setting is really nostalgic. The menu also includes not very cheap soups and hot dishes.
Coffee shop, st. Svetlanskaya, 61. ✉ ☎ +7 (423) 222-52-01. around the clock. Cakes: from 150 rubles, hot dishes: from 300 rubles (2013). One of the few 24-hour coffee shops in the city frankly borrows style from the Moscow Shokoladnitsa: the same brown and beige tones and the same long European menu, in which desserts smoothly turn into salads and main dishes. However, tea is served here in heavy cast-iron teapots, and scrambled eggs are covered with a stylish cap. Overall, it's nice, but not cheap. Free WiFi.
Tea house "Seven cups", st. Semyonovskaya, 23. ☎ +7 (423) 222-26-54. 10:00–20:00. It is not so easy to find good green tea in Vladivostok, but here it is for sure. A tiny establishment “for its own” in some places looks like kitsch - there are a lot of different Chinese things on the ceiling and on the walls - however, the dishes here are absolutely correct, you can sit on the mats, taking off your shoes, and the tea, of course, is authentic. The hosts will be happy to hold a tea ceremony for you and generally talk about different things. However, this is more of a club than a cafe, so it's even more interesting to listen to what others are talking about.
Network of confectionery "Cherry Orchard", Semenovskaya st. 1.


Night life

The city has a large number of nightclubs and music bars. The most famous are the following:
Cuckoo Club.



See You Hostel  , st. Krygina, 42a, apt. 133 (Egersheld). ✉ ☎ +7 (4232) 248-77-79. 500 rubles / person (2014). Multi-bed rooms only. Kitchen, WiFi.
Hostel "On the Arbat", st. Fokina, 11 (center). ✉ ☎ +7 (914) 705-16-82. From 750 rubles/person (2014). 2 and 4-bed rooms. WiFi.
3Hostel "Optimum"  , st. Aleutskaya, 17 (center). ✉ ☎ +7 (423) 272-91-11, +7 (914) 702-91-11. 700 rubles/person, double room: 1700 rubles (2014).
Neptunea Hostel Vladivostok, st. Uborevicha, 20A, building 6 (150 meters to the left and up from the TV center). ✉ ☎ +7 (950) 291-47-72. around the clock. from 500₽. The hotel is located in the city center.
Antilopa Hostel, st. Svetlanskaya, 23 (center). ✉ ☎ +7 (914) 792-71-15. 500 rubles/person, double room: 2000 rubles (2014).
Hotel "Forget-me-not", st. Avrorovskaya, 4 (almost in the center). ☎ +7 (423) 225-82-96. 800 rubles / person (2009). The second floor of the dormitory of the technical school, and that says it all.
Hostel "Bamboo", Russian 2-b (Next to the bus station.). ✉ ☎ +7 (423) 200-16-14. around the clock. 800 rub.

Average cost
Hotel "Granite", st. Kotelnikova, 13 (First River, eastern part). ✉ ☎ +7 (423) 220-38-65. Economy: from 2200 rubles, standard: from 3300 rubles (2013). The old Soviet hotel offers rooms without renovation as "economy", and rooms with renovation as "standard", and both of them are one- or two-room (former suites). Amenities are everywhere, guests generally recommend. WiFi.
Hotel "Sailor"  , st. Posyetskaya, 38 (center). ☎ +7 (423) 249-94-99. Double room: 2100–2600 (2013). Guests recommend it as a good economy class hotel.
Hotel Azimut   , st. Embankment, 9-10 (center). ✉ ☎ +7 (423) 246-20-90, +7 (423) 241-19-41, fax: +7 (4232) 41-2021. Double room: from 2700 rubles (2013). It consists of two buildings - "Amur Bay" and "Vladivostok" - separated by 200 meters from each other. The Amur Bay building has an interesting feature: it stands on a steep slope, so that one side is completely covered with soil. Thus, all hotel rooms are located on one side and have balconies overlooking the sea. The main entrance and parking are located on the side of the slope (I would like to call in from the beach), so the journey through the floors of the hotel begins with a ride down the elevator. In the Vladivostok building, the even-numbered hotel rooms overlook the sea, while the odd ones face the city. There is also a business center (Internet, mail, copying, printing) and great ironing suits! The price includes a swimming pool and a gym, there is a sauna (paid separately). Breakfasts are included in the price. In the summer of 2008, there was no wireless Internet in principle, although it was promised on the site. For the Internet, you had to go up to the central hall, where there are two sockets. By 2013, the situation has not changed much, and in general, almost none of the guests recommend this hotel.
Novik Country Club  , Shallow Village 8. ☎ +7‒924‒121‒44‒66. 10:00 - 22:00. 2500. Hotel on Russky Island with a large area by the sea. Nearby there is a seafood restaurant and parking.

Hotel "Pearl", st. Bestuzheva, 29. ☎ +7 (423) 241-43-87, +7 (423) 230-22-41. Double room: 3600 rubles (2013). Unanimously bad reviews. edit
Lotte Hotel   , st. Semyonovskaya, 29 (center). ✉ ☎ +7 (423) 240-22-33. From 9000 rubles (2013). The Hyundai Hotel was built in 1997. Mostly good reviews. Visiting "stars" stop in it. In 2015, it was awarded the status of the first five-star hotel in the Far East. Since the summer of 2018, it has been renamed the Lotte Hotel.
Hotel "Novotel" (Novotel), Partizansky prospect, 44B. ☎ +7 (423) 242-04-04. From 5500 r. (2021). Hotel of the large Accor chain, introduced in 2021.



All federal cellular operators are represented in Vladivostok: MTS, MegaFon, Beeline, TELE2 and Yota.



In Vladivostok there are consular departments (many honorary ones) of many countries of the world. Among them are the consulates of the USA, Japan, China, Canada, South Korea, Australia, Great Britain, New Zealand, Germany, Vietnam, Philippines, India, Ukraine, Bangladesh and Thailand. There used to be a US consulate as well, but it closed in December 2020.


Precautionary measures

A port is a rather tense place in any country. Particular care is needed in the area of railway stations and near car markets.


History of Vladivostok

Foundation of the city
For a long time, the Russian government has been looking for a stronghold in the Far East; this role was alternately performed by Okhotsk, Ayan, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Nikolaevsk-on-Amur. By the middle of the 19th century, the search for an outpost came to a standstill: none of the ports met the necessary requirement: to have a convenient and protected harbor, close to trade routes. The forces of the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia, Nikolai Muravyov-Amursky, concluded the Aigun Treaty, began active exploration of the Amur region, and later, as a result of the signing of the Tianjin and Beijing treatises, the territories of modern Vladivostok were annexed to Russia. The very name Vladivostok appeared in the middle of 1859, was used in newspaper articles and denoted the bay. On June 20 (July 2), 1860, the transport of the Siberian flotilla "Manjur" under the command of Lieutenant Commander Aleksey Karlovich Shefner delivered a military unit to the Golden Horn Bay to establish a military post, which now officially received the name Vladivostok.

The port can be considered the best of all. He reminds many of Olga, but only smaller than her, cozier, but warmer and more fun. However, the same oaks all around, the same picturesque mountains. In the lowlands the rivers murmur; there are many springs on the banks. Our post set up the other day, with its white tents, looks good in a group of oak trees that have not yet been cut down and have only just been cleared.
- The first days of the port in the description of the ethnographer Sergei Maksimov.

19th century - early 20th century
On October 31 (November 12), 1861, the first civilian settler, merchant Yakov Lazarevich Semyonov, arrived in Vladivostok with his family. On March 15 (27), 1862, the first act of buying land was registered, and in 1870 Semyonov was elected the first headman of the post. Local self-government emerged. By this time, a special commission had decided to designate Vladivostok as the backbone port of the Russian Empire in the Far East. In 1871, the main naval base of the Siberian military flotilla, the headquarters of the military governor and other maritime departments were transferred to Vladivostok from Nikolaevsk-on-Amur.

However, even after that, attempts to transfer the construction of the main Russian naval base in the Far East to St. Olga Bay did not stop. In 1879, the commission of the Ministry of War even made such a decision, leaving only the functions of a commercial port for Vladivostok. Supporters of Vladivostok, along with numerous protests, even organized a press campaign in defense of Vladivostok. To finally resolve the issue in the spring of 1879, an officer of the General Staff, Major General M.P. Tikhmenev, was sent to the Far East, who, along with other assignments, was instructed to conduct a detailed military-strategic study of the Russian coast of the Sea of ​​Japan, including studying the military and economic significance points "claiming to be a military port." Tikhmenev's decisive choice in favor of Vladivostok and the aggravation of relations with China finally resolved the controversial issue.

In the 1870s, the government encouraged resettlement in the South Ussuri Territory, which contributed to an increase in the population of the post: according to the first census in 1878, there were 4163 inhabitants in it. The city position was adopted and the city Duma, the position of the city head were established, the coat of arms was adopted, although Vladivostok was not officially recognized as a city.

Due to the constant threat of attack by the British fleet, Vladivostok was also actively developed as a naval base.

In 1880, the post officially received city status. In the 1890s, there was a demographic and economic boom associated with the completion of the construction of the Ussuri branch of the Trans-Siberian Railway and the Chinese Eastern Railway. According to the first Russian census on February 9 (21), 1897, 28,993 inhabitants lived in Vladivostok, and ten years later the city's population tripled.

The first decade of the 20th century was characterized by a protracted crisis caused by the political situation: the government shifted its attention to Port Arthur and the port of Dalniy, the Boxer Rebellion in North China in 1900-1901, the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, including the bombing, and finally the first The Russian Revolution led to stagnation in the economic activity of Vladivostok.

Since 1907, a new stage in the development of the city began: the loss of Port Arthur and the Far East again made Vladivostok the main port of Russia on the Pacific Ocean. The free port regime was introduced, and until 1914 (until the First World War), the city experienced rapid growth, becoming one of the economic centers of the Asia-Pacific region. The population of Vladivostok exceeded 100 thousand inhabitants with a large national diversity: at that time Russians made up less than half of the population. Large Chinese, Korean and Japanese communities have developed in the city. The social life of the city flourished; many public associations have been created, from charitable ones to hobby groups.


World War I, revolution and occupation

During the First World War, there were no active hostilities in the city. However, Vladivostok has become an important transshipment point for the import of military equipment for the troops from allied and neutral countries, as well as raw materials and equipment for industry. The rapid growth in the volume and range of cargoes arriving at the port (in 1916, the port's cargo turnover exceeded 2 million tons of cargo) required its urgent expansion and technical re-equipment.

Immediately after the October Revolution, during which the Bolsheviks came to power, the “Decree on Peace” was announced - and, as a result of the Brest Peace Treaty concluded between the Leninist government and Germany, Soviet Russia withdrew from the First World War. On October 30, the sailors of the Siberian Flotilla decided to "rally around the united power of the Soviets" - power passed to the Bolsheviks. However, on June 29, 1918, Czechoslovak troops overthrew Soviet power in the city, and in the fall, US troops (August 15, 1918), Japan, Italy and Canada entered it.

Throughout 1919, the region was engulfed in guerrilla warfare. To avoid war with Japan, at the suggestion of the Soviet leadership, on April 6, 1920, the Far Eastern Republic was proclaimed. The Soviet government officially recognized the new republic in May, but in Primorye, where there were significant forces of the white movement, a riot occurred and the Amur Zemsky Territory arose.

In October 1922, the troops of the People's Revolutionary Army of the Far Eastern Republic under the command of Jerome Uborevich occupied Vladivostok, ousting White Army formations from it. In November, the Far Eastern Republic was liquidated, becoming part of the RSFSR.

Soviet period
By the time Soviet power was established, Vladivostok was in decline: the retreating forces of the Japanese army removed all material values from the city. Life was paralyzed: there was no money in the banks, the equipment of enterprises was plundered. Due to mass emigration and repressions, the population of the city decreased to 106 thousand. In 1923-1925, the government adopted a plan for a “recovery three-year plan”, during which the activity of the trading port was resumed, which became the most profitable in the country in 1924-25. The recovery period was distinguished by its own characteristics: the Far East did not find war communism, but immediately fell into the situation of the New Economic Policy.

In 1925, the government decides to accelerate the industrialization of the country. The first five-year plans changed the face of Primorye, making it an industrial region, partly as a result of the creation of numerous concentration camps in the region. In the 1930s and 1940s, Vladivostok served as a transit point for the delivery of prisoners and goods for the Sevvostlag of the Soviet super trust Dalstroy. The notorious Vladivostok transit camp was located in the city. In addition, in the late 1930s and early 1940s, the Vladivostok forced labor camp (Vladlag) was located near the station Vtoraya Rechka.

Vladivostok was not a place of hostilities during the Great Patriotic War, although there was a constant threat of attack from Japan. In the city, the first in the country, a "Defense Fund" was created, to which Vladivostok residents brought personal values. During the war years, Vladivostok processed imported cargo (lend-lease) almost 4 times more than Murmansk and almost 5 times more than the Arkhangelsk group of ports.

By the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR "Issues of the Fifth Navy" of August 11, 1951, a special regime was introduced in Vladivostok (it began to operate on January 1, 1952); the city becomes closed to foreigners. It was supposed to remove from Vladivostok not only foreign consulates, but also the merchant and fishing fleet and transfer all organs of the regional authorities to Voroshilov (now Ussuriysk). However, these plans were not implemented.

During the Khrushchev thaw, Vladivostok received special attention from the state authorities. For the first time, Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev visited the city in 1954 to finally decide whether to secure the status of a closed naval base for him. It was noted that at that time the city infrastructure was in a deplorable state. In 1959, Khrushchev revisits the city. The result is a decision on the accelerated development of the city, which was formalized by the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of January 18, 1960 "On the development of the city of Vladivostok." In the 1960s, a new tram line was built, a trolleybus was launched, the city became a huge construction site: residential microdistricts were erected on the outskirts, and new buildings for public and civil purposes were erected in the center.

In 1974, Vladivostok was visited by the 38th President of the United States, Gerald Ford, who arrived to meet with the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Leonid Brezhnev. At the meeting, a protocol to the Treaty on the Limitation of ABM Systems and the Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Tests were signed, which helped curb the arms race.

On September 20, 1991, President of the RSFSR Boris Yeltsin signed Decree No. 123 “On the opening of Vladivostok for visiting by foreign citizens”, with the entry into force of which, on January 1, 1992, Vladivostok ceased to be a closed city.

Modern period
The collapse of the USSR greatly affected the economy of the city. State defense enterprises were deprived of orders, which led to unpaid wages and unemployment. The surviving fishing enterprises have mainly switched to exporting fish and seafood to Japan. In the 1990s Vladivostok has become a center for illegal fishing, as well as timber smuggling and the resale of Japanese cars. Due to the decline in living standards, the birth rate has fallen and migration to the central regions of the country has increased: if in 1992 the population of the city was 648 thousand people, then by 2010 it was 578 thousand.

At the beginning of the 21st century, there has been an improvement in the social and economic situation.

On November 4, 2010, Vladivostok was awarded the title of "City of Military Glory", and in 2012 a stele was erected on this occasion.

In September 2012, the APEC summit was held on Russky Island. To prepare for the summit, the state invested about $20 billion in the development of the city's infrastructure. The main objects of construction were: the bridge over the Golden Horn Bay and the bridge to the Russian Island, the new air terminal complex "Knevichi".

In 2012, for the APEC summit in Vladivostok, on Russky Island on the shore of Ajax Bay, the most modern campus in Russia of the Far Eastern Federal University and the embankment were built. FEFU is the largest educational, research and innovation center in the Far East, attracting the scientific community, high-tech business from Russia and abroad. Students from Russia and Asian countries study there.

There are 4 theaters in Vladivostok, more than 30 museums. The Primorskaya Picture Gallery has a collection of Russian, Soviet and foreign paintings and drawings, numbering more than 5,000 items. When founded in 1929, the gallery received canvases from the collections of the Hermitage, the Russian Museum and the Tretyakov Gallery, but most of the collection is made up of works by contemporary Primorye artists and sculptors.

The Primorsky Opera and Ballet Theater was opened in 2013. The technical equipment of the theater building and its acoustic system are among the best in Russia. The architectural feature of the building was a glass facade, made according to the principle of "cube in cube".

On May 31, 2017, the anthem of Vladivostok was approved.



The name "Vladivostok" is derived from the words "own" and "East", by analogy with Vladikavkaz (1784).

In Chinese, since the Qing era, the name Haishenwai or Haishenwei (海參崴 / 海参崴) has been common, which means "bay of trepang". Now in the PRC, the transcription from Russian (符拉迪沃斯托克 Fuladivositoke) is officially adopted, but the name Haishenwai is still widely used. Maps published in Taiwan only use Haishenwai, while maps in the PRC list it in brackets.

In Japanese during the Meiji period, the consonant hieroglyphic name 浦塩 (uradzio, “Salt Bay”) was chosen to designate Vladivostok. Today, the Japanese mostly write foreign place names in katakana (ウラジオストク, Urajiosutoku), and hieroglyphic writing is almost non-existent.

Unofficial titles
In relation to Vladivostok, the media use such epithets as “the Pacific gate of Russia”, “the fish capital”, “our city”, “Russian San Francisco”.



Geographical position
Vladivostok occupies the Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula. The territory within the boundaries of the settlement is 325.99 km² or 32,599 hectares.

It stretches for a distance of about 30 km from south to north and almost 10 km from west to east (without the Sandy Peninsula), it is washed by the waters of the Amur and Ussuri bays, which are part of the Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan.

The city, together with five rural settlements subordinate to it and about 50 islands of Peter the Great Bay, forms the Vladivostok urban district with a total area of 590.14 km² or 59,014 hectares, including the area within the boundaries of six settlements - 441.05 km² or 44,105 hectares.

The river network is underdeveloped, heavily regulated, represented mainly by small rivers and streams. The largest and most significant among them: Explanations, First River, Second River, Sedanka, Bogataya - all flow from east to west and, except for the Explanation River, flow into the Amur Bay. There are reservoirs on the rivers Sedanka and Bogata.

The highest point of the historical part of the city is the Eagle's Nest hill, 199 m above sea level (according to other sources, 214 m). In the city limits, the peaks of Vladivostok are Mount Vargina (458 m) and Refrigerator Hill (257 m). In the territories subordinate to Vladivostok, which are part of the city district, a significant peak is Mount Russkikh (291 m) on Russky Island.

The shortest distance to Moscow on the surface of the Earth (at an altitude of 0 m above sea level) is 6430 kilometers, by rail - 9288 kilometers. Distance to other, closer cities: Seoul - 750 km, Tokyo - 1060 km, Beijing - 1340 km, Hong Kong - 2820 km, Manila - 3330 km, Bangkok - 4400 km, Singapore - 5400 km, Darwin (Australia) - 6180 km . Vladivostok is in the MSK+7 time zone. The offset of the applicable time from UTC is +10:00. According to the applied time and geographic longitude, the average solar noon in Vladivostok occurs at 13:13.



The climate of Vladivostok is moderate monsoon. It is characterized by a clearly pronounced contrasting change of seasonal air masses. At the same time, the climatic conditions of the city are among the most favorable in the Far East of Russia.

The winter period (November-March) is characterized by frosty, dry and clear weather, which is facilitated by the movement of dry cold air by the north and northwest winds of the winter monsoon. The average wind speed during this period is 6–9 m/s. Precipitation in the form of snow falls a small amount - 14-24 mm, and air humidity is 59-60%. In the first half of winter, heavy, often wet snow can fall, breaking trees.

In spring, southeast winds prevail with an average speed of 6.4 m/s. With high humidity, the weather remains cool. In late spring, drizzling rains and fogs occur, the amount of precipitation is in the region of 7-26 mm.

The calendar summer in Vladivostok is divided into two distinct periods. The first half is characterized by cool and overcast weather, with drizzling rain and fog. The second half is characterized by warm weather with prevailing southeasterly winds at an average speed of 5.3–5.8 m/s. In summer, typhoons with heavy rains are typical, when wind speeds increase 5-8 times, up to 20-35 m/s. Humidity reaches maximum levels of 87-91%. Climatic summer lasts from the end of June to the end of September.

Warm, dry and sunny weather prevails in the first half of the calendar autumn. September is characterized by southeasterly winds, which are replaced by northern ones in October-November. The amount of precipitation gradually decreases in winter. The first frosts usually come in early November.

The average annual air temperature in the city is +4.9 °C. The warmest month is August, with a temperature of +19.8°C, the coldest month is January -12.3°C. The absolute maximum temperature +33.6°C was recorded on July 16, 1939 and July 17, 1958, the minimum −31.4°C was recorded on January 10, 1931. The water temperature in August and early September is +21..+23° C (maximum +26.5°C). Due to the complexity of the relief, the sum of active air temperatures in the city ranges from 2200 to 2800°C.

The average annual rainfall is 840 mm. The record maximum daily precipitation of 243.5 mm occurred on July 13, 1989 (Typhoon Judy). The absolute maximum precipitation for the month, 521 mm, was recorded in August 2019. The average annual pressure is 763 mmHg.


Flora and fauna

The city is located at the junction of altitudinal zones and broad-leaved forests. The flora of the city, located in the southern subzone of mixed coniferous-deciduous forests, includes more than 1000 species of vascular plants: subtropical elements of the local flora account for 3% of the total number of species, the Manchurian oak complex accounts for up to 70%, the taiga complex accounts for 13%, and the local arcto - mounted species - 1%.

Among the most common are Manchurian ash, Japanese elm, flat-leaved birch, ash-leaved, false acacia locust, and viburnum vesicle. In places, ancient black fir forests have been preserved, but at present secondary forests predominate: oak-maple-linden forests, on the islands - oak-maple-birch forests, in river valleys - willow, elm and ash forests. Pine nuts, hazel, forest berries, mushrooms, ferns, wild garlic, and medicinal plants grow in suburban forests.

In the plantations of the city there are rare species listed in the Red Book of Russia and the Red Book of the Primorsky Territory. Among them: calopanax seven-lobed, small-leaved alder-leaved, Ussuri pear, Manchurian apricot. Kalopanaks is represented in the natural plantations of the Minny Gorodok park and in the alleys of Russkaya and Kirov streets, Okeansky Prospekt. A unique grove of 700 small-fruited trees has been preserved in the park of the Mine Town. In the green spaces of parks and gardens, you can find Sakhalin cherries and willow plums.

Of the birds in the city there are at least 50 nesting species, among them: pigeons, sparrows, black-tailed gulls, white-throated swift, magpie, Kamchatka wagtail, white-bellied tit. Of the insectivores in the forests, there are: the Amur hedgehog, the Ussuri mole (mohera), the tundra, large-toothed and large shrews. Of the bats in the summer and on flying bats, the following were noted: bats, brown long-eared bat, leather-like bat, two-colored leather, and tube-billed bats. Of the lagomorphs, the bush hare. Of the rodents - flying squirrel, common squirrel, Asian chipmunk, field, forest and house mice, baby mouse, gray and black rats, muskrat, red-gray and Far Eastern voles. Among the predators are the raccoon dog, the fox, the badger, the weasel, the weasel, and the Far Eastern forest cat.

The coastal waters of Vladivostok are rich in marine animals. Here are found: herring, smelt, saffron cod, flounder, greenling, rudd, pelengas, mussels, trepangs, scallops, octopuses and crabs.


Ecological situation

In the "Rating of the ecological development of cities in Russia - 2014", compiled by the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia, Vladivostok took 69th place among 94 participating cities [Earlier, in 2013, Vladivostok ranked 45th in this rating among 85 participating cities.

In Vladivostok in 2014, there was an “elevated” level of air pollution, the content of nitrogen dioxide is approximately twice the maximum allowable concentration (MAC). The unfavorable state of the air is due to the large number of vehicles. Parking cars on the roadway contributes to air pollution, as it creates "traffic jams". Emissions from production facilities, such as MUPV Spetszavod No. 1 (garbage incineration plant), CHPP-1, CHPP-2, etc., have a lesser effect.

For Vladivostok, washed by the sea from three sides, a big problem is the high pollution of the surrounding waters of the Amur and Ussuri bays, the Eastern Bosphorus and, especially, the Golden Horn, which in December 2013, the representative of Roshydromet declared the dirtiest water area in Russia.

Thus, according to the report on the environmental situation in the Primorsky Territory of 2014, the surface of the Golden Horn Bay was covered with floating debris and oil slick by 91-100%. At the same time, the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water has decreased, and now exceeds the MPC by 1.5–2 times. The bioplankton that lives in the bay is poisonous, and eating the fish caught here is dangerous. In 2015, the water quality in the Golden Horn improved to "moderately polluted", and the average annual concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons decreased to 1 MPC. By 2018, 14.2 million m³ of wastewater is annually discharged into the bay, of which 9.4 million m³ is untreated.


Environmental measures

The main sources of pollution of sea waters near Vladivostok are industrial and sewage effluents from Vladivostok and other settlements, as well as polluted waters of rivers flowing into the sea nearby. Historically, Vladivostok developed as a city without treatment facilities, in which almost all wastewater was directly discharged into the sea. In the 1990s-2000s, only 2% of the city's wastewater was treated.

During the preparation of Vladivostok for the APEC 2012 summit, three complexes of treatment facilities were built and the fourth was reconstructed. As a result, the design capacity of the treatment facilities increased to 380 thousand m³ per day (Northern treatment facilities - 50 thousand m³ per day, Central - 160 thousand m 10 thousand m³ per day).

In 2012, the governor of the Primorsky Territory, Vladimir Miklushevsky, announced a complete cessation of the discharge of untreated sewage into the sea. In fact, the largest, southern treatment facilities, although they were built, for a long time did not work at their design capacity due to sewer collectors not connected to them. In 2013, only 30% of the city's effluents were treated, in 2016 - already about 85%. According to other data, in 2016, 75% of the part of the effluents that are discharged into the Golden Horn Bay were treated, in physical terms, only 126 thousand m³ per day were treated. In 2016, only three out of seven wastewater outlets were switched to treatment facilities. The Explanation River, which flows into the Golden Horn Bay, in 2017 was a muddy, sewer-smelling river. Biologists, having taken several samples from the bottom of the bay in its dirtiest part (the area of the mouth of the Explanation River) in 2017, did not find benthic life forms in any of them - microorganisms and organisms that live on the bottom.



Number, dynamics, age and sex structure

According to the All-Russian Population Census of 2010, the permanent population of the city of Vladivostok amounted to 592 thousand people (the urban district - 616.8 thousand people). According to the data of the Primorsky State Statistics Service for 2016, the permanent population of the urban district was 633,167 people. Since the founding of the city, its population has been actively growing almost all the time, with the exception of the periods of the Civil War and the demographic crisis of the 1990s and the beginning of zero. In the 1970s, the population exceeded 500 thousand, and in 1992 it reached a historical maximum of 648 thousand people. The average population density is 1831.9 people/km².

In recent years, there has been a positive trend towards a gradual increase in the population, both due to migration processes and due to an increase in the birth rate. Over the past five years, the population has increased by 30 thousand: since 2013, there has been a positive trend in natural growth, and in 2015 it amounted to 727 people.

In the age structure of the population of the city, a large proportion is the population older than working age, which is explained by the process of demographic aging. The age composition of the population: younger than able-bodied - 12.7%, able-bodied - 66.3%, older than able-bodied - 21%. The population of Vladivostok, as well as the whole of Russia, is characterized by a significant excess of the number of women over the number of men.

According to the 2021 census (officially - 2020), the urban population of Vladivostok as of October 1, 2021 amounted to 603,519 people, the population of the urban district (including, in addition to Vladivostok, the villages of Russky, Trudovoye, Popova, Reineke and the village of Beregovoye) - 634,835 people.

According to the 2020 All-Russian Population Census, as of October 1, 2021, in terms of population, the city was in 26th place out of 1,119 cities in the Russian Federation.


National composition

According to the All-Russian Population Census of 2010, representatives of more than seventy nationalities and nationalities live in Vladivostok. Among them are the largest (more than a thousand people): Russians - 475.2 thousand people, Ukrainians - 10,474 people, Uzbeks - 7109 people, Koreans - 4192 people, Chinese - 2446 people, Tatars - 2295 people, Belarusians - 1642 people, Armenians - 1635 people, Azerbaijanis - 1252 people.

According to studies, since 2002, a change in the ethnic composition of the city due to migration processes has been noted: the share of Uzbeks has increased 14.4 times, the share of Chinese and Tajiks has increased 5.4 times, the Kyrgyz - 8.5 times, Koreans - 1.6 times. times. More than half of the Koreans of Primorsky Krai live compactly in two cities - Vladivostok and Ussuriysk. More than 80% of the Uzbeks of Primorye live in Vladivostok. As noted, the proportion of Ukrainians, Belarusians, Russians, Tatars traditionally living in the city has decreased.

There is a widespread opinion about Vladivostok as a multinational city. However, it is noted that today Vladivostok does not have the same multinational diversity as in the period from the 19th century to the Great Patriotic War, when there were entire national quarters in it, including the Chinese Millionka, the Korean Slobidka, the Japanese quarter of Nihondzin Mati. The historical German, French, Estonian, American diasporas of the city, the Central Asian diasporas of the beginning of the 21st century have been little studied.



Vladivostok is the center of attraction for the population of the south of Primorsky Krai, around which an urban agglomeration has developed. It is characterized as formed, but not yet developed. An opinion is expressed that between Vladivostok and Nakhodka one of the few polycentric agglomerations for Russia has developed - conurbation. According to the expert assessment of the Government of the Russian Federation, as of January 1, 2010, the total population of the agglomeration was 1,199,063 people.

On October 28, 2014, an agreement was signed between four municipalities on the creation of the Vladivostok Agglomeration administrative project, which includes the Vladivostok city district itself, the Artyom city district, the Nadezhda municipal district and the Shkotovsky municipal district. According to the administrative project, the area of ​​the agglomeration is 5308 km², the population is 807 thousand inhabitants (2015).

The population within the boundaries of the zone of continuous urban development of the Vladivostok agglomeration is 700 thousand people. The largest of the secondary points included in the agglomeration of continuously built-up spaces is the city of Artyom. 1 million people - the population within the zone of intensive pendulum migration.

Today, scientists consider the agglomeration as an integrated railway network, the presence of an international airport, industrial housing construction, a single electric power industry, a reservoir and an 80-kilometer water conduit, integrated systems of logistics, industrial production, agriculture, tourism of Vladivostok and adjacent territories, everyday commuting labor migration and mass motorization the population of these territories.


Notable natives and residents

The names of many outstanding personalities are associated with Vladivostok, including explorers and navigators, military leaders, scientists, poets and war heroes. Among them: doctor, scientist, the first poet of the city Pavel Gomzyakov, Igor Tamm - Soviet theoretical physicist, Nobel Prize winner in physics, Yul Brynner - American actor, Oscar winner, Ilya Lagutenko - Russian musician, founder of the Mumiy Troll group ".


Administrative unit

Within the framework of the administrative-territorial structure of the region, Vladivostok is a city of regional subordination, to which 5 rural settlements are subordinate; within the framework of the organization of local self-government, it forms the municipality of the city of Vladivostok with the status of an urban district, which includes 6 settlements (1 city located on the Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula, as well as 5 rural settlements: located on the coastal islands of the villages of Russky, Popova and Reineke, the village of Beregovoye on the Peschanoy Peninsula and the village of Trudovoye to the northeast of the city).


Administrative division

Administratively, the city is divided into 5 districts:


Local governments

The charter of the city approved the following structure of local governments:
The City Duma is a representative body
The head of the city is the highest official
Administration is an executive and administrative body
Chamber of Control and Accounts - control body
The history of the City Duma of Vladivostok dates back to November 21, 1875, when 30 "vowels" were elected. Big changes in it took place after the Revolution of 1917, when the first general elections were held and women were allowed to vote. The last meeting of the Vladivostok City Duma took place on October 19, 1922, and on October 27 it was officially abolished. In Soviet times, its functions were performed by the City Council. In 1993, by presidential decree, the Soviets were dissolved, and until 2001, all attempts to elect a new Duma were unsuccessful. The Duma of the city of Vladivostok of the 5th (current) convocation began work in the fall of 2017, consisting of 35 deputies.

The head of the city of Vladivostok, on the principles of unity of command, manages the administration of the city of Vladivostok, which he forms in accordance with federal laws, the laws of the Primorsky Territory and the charter of the city. The structure of the city administration is approved by the City Council on the proposal of the head. The structure of the administration of the city of Vladivostok may include sectoral (functional) and territorial bodies of the administration of the city of Vladivostok.



The coat of arms of Vladivostok in an updated version was approved in 2014, and in 2015 its registration was restored in the State Heraldic Register of the Russian Federation (No. 984). The heraldic description of the coat of arms of the municipality reads: “In the green field of the shield, a golden tiger with scarlet (red) eyes and tongue, walking along a rocky silver slope to the right, raising its front right paw”.

The flag of Vladivostok, approved in 2012, is a rectangular horizontal red panel with two diagonal blue stripes forming an oblique cross, the diagonal blue stripes are framed by a white border. In the center of the flag there is an image of the coat of arms of Vladivostok with additional elements of status and city symbols.


External Relations

The city has extensive external relations, which are being developed by the Department of International Relations and Tourism of the Vladivostok Administration. Foreign relations began to develop actively after the abolition of the city's secrecy regime in 1992. Currently, Vladivostok is a member of several international organizations, including the Asia-Pacific Cities Tourism Development Organization, the Asia-Pacific Cities Summit, the Association of Mayors of the Cities of Siberia, the Far East and the West Coast of Japan.

A large number of foreign missions are located in Vladivostok, and a Representative Office of the Russian Foreign Ministry has been opened. By the number of foreign representations, the city is in third place in the country, second only to St. Petersburg and Yekaterinburg. Consulates of 23 countries are located in Vladivostok, of which 13 are honorary. Agreements on the establishment of sister city relations have been concluded with 14 cities of China, the USA, the Republic of Korea, the DPRK, Japan, Ecuador and Malaysia, friendship and cooperation agreements have been signed with 10 cities.

In 2012, Vladivostok hosted the first APEC summit in Russia. International conferences are held annually, including the Eastern Economic Forum.



Vladivostok is a major economic center of the Far East and a leader among the cities of Primorsky Krai, distinguished by the concentration of labor, financial and production resources. The city has a diversified economy, represented by developed manufacturing industries (engineering, shipbuilding, ship repair, food production, etc.), wholesale and retail trade, services, transport and communications. In an unfavorable position are: construction, agriculture, energy, gas and water supply. More than 46 thousand enterprises and organizations are registered in Vladivostok; 92.9% of them are private.

According to a study by the Institute for Urban Economics, Vladivostok in 2015 took 18th place in the economic rating of cities - the capitals of Russian regions. The gross urban product (GMP) of the city amounted to 393 billion rubles. In terms of per capita GMP amounted to 623.5 thousand rubles (17th place). In 2015, the Vladivostok agglomeration ranked 15th in terms of the size of the economy in the country. The GMP of the agglomeration amounted to 22.8 billion international dollars; in terms of per capita - 24.4 thousand international dollars.

In 2013, Forbes ranked Vladivostok the 30th best Russian city for business. The advantages of the city's economy included large-scale investments in fixed assets and the low comparative cost of connecting to networks. In 2014, Secret of the Firm magazine placed Vladivostok in 32nd place in the Best Cities of Russia ranking based on human capital and entrepreneurship indices. Vladivostok is the headquarters of the DNS company, which is included in the rating of the two hundred largest private companies in Russia according to Forbes magazine.


Sea port

Vladivostok is a link between the Trans-Siberian Railway and the Pacific sea routes, which makes it an important cargo and passenger port. It processes both coastal and export-import general cargoes of a wide range (bulk, dry bulk, refrigerated, liquid (petroleum products), fish products, timber and lumber, containers, cars and construction equipment). 20 stevedoring companies operate in the port. The cargo turnover of the port of Vladivostok, including the total turnover of all stevedoring companies, amounted to 21.2 million tons in 2018.

In 2015, the total volume of foreign trade of the seaport amounted to more than 11.8 billion dollars. Foreign economic activity was carried out with 104 countries, and the largest percentage of its volume fell on China, the Republic of Korea, Japan, the USA, Germany and Taiwan.

The main export items are fish and seafood, timber, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, and ships. The main imports were food, medicines, clothing, footwear, household appliances and ships.



The city has developed ship repair, woodworking, construction, chemical, energy, food, printing and medical industries; the number of industrial enterprises is about two thousand. In 2013, Vladivostok ranked 106th in the ranking of Russian industrial cities, with a production volume of 48.9 billion rubles.

Industrial engineering mainly includes shipbuilding and ship repair, as well as the production of equipment for the fishing industry (instrument-making, tool and radio factories). Among the large companies: Dalzavod, Vostochnaya Verf, Izumrud, Dalpribor, Varyag, Vladivostok Enterprise Elektroradioavtomatika. Yong is suspended.) In 2015, the plant produced 31.8 thousand vehicles.

The food industry is represented by fish processing enterprises (Dalmoreprodukt, Fishing Collective Farm Vostok-1, Dalryba, Pacific Directorate of Fisheries Exploration and Research Fleet, Intraros, Roliz, Vladivostok Fish Processing Plant), meat processing plants (Ratimir, Trading House VIK), bakeries (Vladkhleb and its subsidiary Khlebny Dom), a dairy plant (Vladivostok Dairy Plant), a confectionery factory (Primorsky Confectioner), factories of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages (branch of Moscow-Efes Brewery, Coca-Cola HBC Eurasia).


Trade, finance, services

About 40% of organizations in Vladivostok are engaged in trade and services. In 2015, the retail trade turnover amounted to 181 billion rubles, public catering - 7.9 billion, paid services - 75.7 billion. organization of agricultural fairs. Of these: 955 grocery stores, 873 industrial stores and 64 shopping centers. The city has the largest car market in Russia "Green Corner". Based in Vladivostok, DNS is the tenth largest retailer in the country in terms of revenue.

Vladivostok is the financial center of the Far East region. Since the beginning of 2015, the Far Eastern Main Branch of the Bank of Russia has been located in the city. The financial market of Primorye is the most saturated in the Far Eastern Federal District: 30% of banking sector entities, 35% of joint-stock companies and non-credit financial organizations are concentrated here. The city is home to the headquarters of several large Russian banks, including: Primsotsbank, Far Eastern Bank, Primorye, Primterkombank. The project of the International Financial Center of Vladivostok is being developed. Work is underway to create an enterprise exchange, fish and diamond exchanges.



The energy market of Vladivostok in 2014 reached the volume of 24 billion rubles. Electricity and heat energy for the city is generated by Vladivostok CHPP-1 and CHPP-2. During periods of peak load, part of the electricity comes from the Primorskaya GRES, located in the village of Luchegorsk. Since 2012, CHPP-1 switched to gas. As of 2018, the station has no electric power, thermal power is 350 Gcal/h. After the construction of the Sakhalin – Khabarovsk – Vladivostok gas pipeline, CHPP-2, which generates more than half of the city’s electricity, began to be converted from coal to natural gas, a full transition is scheduled for 2017 (at the beginning of 2015, 10 out of 14 boilers, 4 coal-fired boilers are in disrepair).

In 2018, the Vostochnaya CHPP with a capacity of 139.5 MW was put into operation, which is able to provide about 20% of the city's electricity needs.



The headquarters of the largest telecom operator in the Far East Far East Telecommunications Company (now the Far East macro-regional branch of PJSC Rostelecom) is located in Vladivostok. March 31, 2011 Dalsvyaz announced the complete digitalization of the telephone network in Vladivostok.

On the night of July 9-10, 2011, Vladivostok switched to seven-digit telephone numbering. The number 2 was added to the existing numbers. Vladivostok became the 15th city in Russia and the first in the Far East with a seven-digit telephone number.

Currently, there are five GSM, 3G, 4G cellular operators operating in the city: MTS, MegaFon, Beeline, Tele2 Russia, Yota. Vladivostok became the first city in the Far East to launch a 3G network. On November 25, 2008, the Beeline operator launched a 3G network in Vladivostok in the commercial operation mode. The MTS 3G network in Vladivostok has been in commercial operation since February 1, 2009. On July 17, 2012 the Yota company included a 4G LTE network in Vladivostok.



Vladivostok is the closest city to the countries of the Asia-Pacific region with a European culture, which is attractive for tourists. The city is included in the Far Eastern tourism development project "Eastern Ring". As part of the project, the Primorsky Stage of the Mariinsky Theater was opened, and the plans include opening branches of the Hermitage, the Russian Museum, the Tretyakov Gallery and the Museum of the East. Vladivostok was included in the top ten Russian cities for recreation and tourism according to Forbes, and also took 14th place in the National Tourist Rating.

In addition to cultural, the city is the center of marine and recreational tourism in the Peter the Great Bay. On the coast of the Amur Bay is the Vladivostok resort area, which includes 11 sanatoriums. Tourists are also attracted to Vladivostok by the Primorye gambling zone. Its advantage is the geographical proximity of China. The first Crystal Tiger Casino, run by a major chain from Macau, received 80,000 visitors in less than a year.

In 2017, the city was visited by about 3 million tourists, including 640 thousand foreigners, of which over 90% were tourists from China, the Republic of Korea and Japan. The basis of domestic tourism is business tourism (business trips to exhibitions, conferences), which accounts for up to 70% of the incoming flow. Diplomatic tourism is also developed in Vladivostok, as there are 18 foreign consulates in the city. There are 46 hotels in the city, with a total fund of 2561 rooms. In Vladivostok, the majority of travel companies in Primorsky Krai (86%) are concentrated, and their number in 2011 was 233 companies.

The Vladivostok International Biennial of Visual Arts has been held every two years since 1998.



Automobile transport

Vladivostok is the most motorized city in Russia; The car is the main means of transportation for citizens. In 2015, 422.6 thousand vehicles were registered. Vladivostok ranks fifth in terms of the size of the car fleet among the cities of the Russian Federation, second only to Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Yekaterinburg. Such a large number of cars causes serious problems: constant traffic jams, environmental degradation.

The street and road network of Vladivostok is characterized by low density and is 902 kilometers, of which 16 kilometers are the federal road M-60 Khabarovsk - Vladivostok, 54 kilometers are regional roads and 700 kilometers are city streets, roads and driveways. For the APEC 2012 summit, several large road transport facilities were built, including a cable-stayed bridge across the East Bosphorus to Russky Island and a cable-stayed bridge across the Golden Horn Bay, which significantly relieved traffic in the city center. Since 2011, the length of roads has increased 6.2 times. The plans for the development of the road network include the construction of the Vladivostok ring road. The project provides for the construction of a route along the Amur Bay and its connection to the transport network of Russky Island, through the bridge to Elena Island from Cape Egersheld.

As one of the measures to combat traffic jams, the introduction of paid parking in the city center is being considered.


Public transport

The main type of public transport in Vladivostok is the bus. There is also a trolleybus, tram, funicular, sea boat and ferry.

The city has a developed network of urban and suburban bus routes. 95% of traffic is carried out by commercial buses. The total bus fleet for 2014 was 563 units produced in 2011-2013, of which 157 are municipal. There are two municipal bus carriers operating in the city: VPOPAT-1 and VPATP-3. In total, 31.6 million passengers were transported by public buses in 2014.

Electric transport in Vladivostok is considered "dying". During the preparations for the APEC-2012 summit, the length of tram tracks was reduced from 18.4 to 5 km (the tram tracks were dismantled), and the length of the trolley bus contact network decreased from 45 to 4.5 km. As a result, only two trolleybus and one tram route remained in the city. However, 22,883 passengers use electric transport daily (about 8.5 million passengers per year). An initiative group has been created in the city, fighting for the preservation of electric transport. In 2017, the last sections of the tram line along the street were dismantled. Svetlanskaya.

A funicular operates in Vladivostok, and remote areas of the city and island territories are connected by sea lines (ferries and boats). In recent years, the number of passengers on water transport has sharply decreased (by 900 times from 2011 to 2014). In 2014, boats and ferries transported only 1.2 thousand people.

Due to the large length and rugged terrain that is difficult for the development of an automobile road network, commuter trains within the city, to the Ugolnaya station, are used as urban transport. Passenger traffic is about 6.7 million people a year. The construction of a light metro is being discussed.

Residents of Vladivostok make from 462 thousand trips by public transport on weekends and up to 782 thousand on weekdays, using 289 stops and transfer points for this; transportation is carried out by 21 private motor transport companies, as well as Elektrotransport OJSC, which manages the funicular, trams and trolleybuses, and Mortrans LLC, which provides passengers with sea boats and a ferry.


Intercity transport

The sea port, the Vladivostok region of the Far Eastern Railway is the terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railway, the presence of the federal highway A370 "Ussuri" connecting the city with Khabarovsk and the regional road A188 connecting it with Nakhodka and the Vostochny Port, make Vladivostok a major transport hub connecting the countries of the South-Eastern Asia, Russia and Western Europe. The railway network of the city is adapted for the movement of heavy trains weighing more than 8 thousand tons. More than 20 million passengers pass through the Vladivostok railway station every year.

Through Vladivostok passes the international transport corridor "Primorye-1", which exists for container transportation between the northern provinces of China and the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. The route connects the city with Chinese Harbin and Suifenhe by rail and road. In 2015, it transported goods with a total weight of 835.5 tons gross.

The port of Vladivostok is one of the main cargo transshipment ports of the Far East basin. The port has 3 passenger berths for shipping lines. There are berths for passenger ferries and boats in the area of the Marine Station.

Vladivostok International Airport is one of the largest in the Far East. For the APEC 2012 summit, it was modernized and can now receive aircraft of all types. Its route network includes more than 30 destinations, flights to which are constantly operated by Aeroflot companies - Russian Airlines, S7 Airlines, Aurora, Yakutia, Ural Airlines, KrasAvia, IrAero, Pegas Fly, Asiana Airlines, Korean Air, Air Koryo, China Southern, etc. In 2016, the airport served 1 million 829 thousand passengers, becoming the 14th busiest in Russia.


Urban beautification

Housing stock

Vladivostok is home to a significant part (31.7%) of the housing stock of Primorsky Krai — 13.5 million m². The share of multi-apartment residential buildings is 89.3%, individually defined buildings - 7.5%, specialized housing stock (including hostels) - 3.2%. The share of dilapidated and dilapidated housing in the entire housing stock is 0.9% or 123.9 thousand m². Of these, 40.1 thousand m² falls on the emergency fund. There are 448 dilapidated and dilapidated apartment buildings in the city, of which 94 are dilapidated, and 215 dilapidated individual houses.

The housing management complex of Vladivostok is under the responsibility of the Department of Housing Fund Maintenance of the City Administration, 97 organizations providing services for the management of apartment buildings are operating, and the City Public Council on Housing and Public Utilities has been organized. A school of housing and communal services has been opened in Vladivostok - a municipal project of the annual series of seminars on housing issues. For 4 years of work, more than 11 thousand citizens have passed the school.

In 2015, only 32% of residents were satisfied with the work of urban housing and communal services. Most of the public utilities provide services to the population of poor quality.


Water supply and heating

The basis of the Vladivostok water supply system is made up of three reservoirs: located on the territory of the city district Pionerskoye and Bogatinskoye reservoirs, as well as the Artyomovskoye reservoir located on the Artyomovka River in the Shkotovsky district. The operation of the reservoirs is managed by the Primorsky Vodokanal enterprise. Treatment facilities for 50 thousand cubic meters of water per day were built at the Pionerskoye reservoir. Water from two other reservoirs also passes through them. Since 2012, sodium hypochlorite has been used instead of chlorine for cleaning, and disinfection with ultraviolet radiation has been carried out.

The water supply network of the city consists of three main zones: the lower zone (5-30 meters above sea level), the middle zone (30-60 meters) and the upper zone (60-130 meters). The relief of the city greatly affects the water supply system. A large number of water-pressure substations for supplying water to high-rise buildings, located high above the level of the general communications system, often provokes a failure of the water supply system during a power outage. Currently, Vladivostok does not have a guaranteed water supply system.

Hot water supply and heating in the city is carried out centrally by CHPP-1 and CHPP-2, as well as boiler houses, of which there are more than eighty in the city. Most boiler houses run on fuel oil. Despite the fact that Vladivostok is the end point of the Sakhalin-Khabarovsk-Vladivostok gas pipeline, only a few infrastructure facilities have been gasified in the city: CHPP-1, partially CHPP-2 and a gas boiler house on Russky Island.



According to the General Plan of the Vladivostok City District, the area of public green spaces (parks, gardens, squares, boulevards in the residential area of the city) in 2010 was 591 hectares and corresponded to 9.8 m² per inhabitant. It was planned to increase it to 882 hectares by 2015, however, in reality, the area of plantations decreased by 1.3 times compared to 1980. In 2015, there were less than 1 m² of plantings per inhabitant of the city, which is 5 times lower than the norm.

According to other data, already in 2006 the actual provision of citizens with green spaces in Vladivostok itself (excluding forests located outside the city and on the islands) was no more than 10% of the norm.

On the territory of Vladivostok there are three city parks with a total area of about 46 hectares, 9 gardens with an area of 15 hectares and more than 60 squares with an area of about 100 hectares. The largest in Vladivostok is the Mine City park, its area is about 36 hectares. On its territory, unique small-carp groves, calopanax trees, various types of decorative seaside maples, Amur arizema sinusia, violets and a number of other representatives of the urban flora have been preserved. On its territory there are also three artificial reservoirs, with an area of 4 hectares. The park is in a neglected state, there is a plan for its reconstruction.

Pokrovsky Park, with an area of 8 hectares, is located on the slope of the Eagle's Nest hill, in the historical center of the city. It is the most comfortable and, due to its location, is popular with the townspeople. In recent years, as part of the Clean City program, benches, lamps, a decorative fence, and new alleys have been installed in the park. In 2016, the park was reconstructed. Dzhuleby T.S., which expanded the green zone in the Pervorechensky district of the city.

Based on the results of the inventory of those tree plantations carried out in 2021, for which the administration of Vladivostok is responsible, it became known that 140 species of trees and shrubs were used in the landscaping of this city, of which only three species were used in skeletal plantings, namely: Manchurian ash, low elm  and ash-leaved maple. In addition to them, the top ten most numerous trees included: false acacia locust, flat-leaved (white) birch, Pennsylvania and nasoleaf ash, Maksimovich's poplar, dense-flowered pine and whole-leaved fir. Taken together, the Far Eastern red-leaved maples - false-siboldov, Manchurian and Ginnala - were found in quantities significantly smaller than the ash-leaved maple recognized as an undesirable weed. Not only magnolias, catalpas and other exotic species, but also many Far Eastern relics turned out to be rare for urban landscaping: spiky yew, calopanax, Amur velvet, high aralia, Amur maakia and others.

In the plantations of the city there are rare species listed in the Red Book of Russia and the Red Book of the Primorsky Territory. Among them: seven-lobed calopanax, toothed oak, small-leaved alder-leaved, Ussuri pear, Manchurian apricot. Kalopanax is represented in the natural plantations of the Minny Gorodok park and in the alleys of Russkaya and Kirov streets, Okeansky Prospekt. A unique grove of 700 small-fruited trees has been preserved in the park of the Mine Town. In the green spaces of parks and gardens, you can find Sakhalin cherries and willow plums.

The following errors in urban planning and landscaping are pointed out: cutting down ecologically important forests on the wind-blown peaks of hills and planting tall trees under the wires.


Social sphere


There are 114 educational institutions in Vladivostok, with a total number of students of 50.7 thousand people (as of 2015). The municipal education system of the city consists of preschool organizations, primary, basic, secondary schools, lyceums, gymnasiums, schools with in-depth study of individual subjects, centers of additional education.

The municipal educational network includes: 2 gymnasiums, 2 lyceums, 13 schools with in-depth study of individual subjects, one elementary school, 2 basic schools, 58 secondary schools, 4 evening schools, one boarding lyceum, one boarding school. Three schools in Vladivostok - Technical Lyceum, Gymnasium No. 1 and Secondary School No. 23 - are included in the Top 500 Schools of the Russian Federation rating. At the municipal level, the city system of school Olympiads operates, and a city scholarship has been established for outstanding achievements of students.

In 2016, branches of the Academy of Russian Ballet and the Nakhimov Naval School were opened.

Professional education in Vladivostok is provided by dozens of colleges, colleges and universities. The beginning of higher education was laid in the city with the founding of the Oriental Institute. At the moment, the largest university in Vladivostok is the Far Eastern Federal University. More than 41 thousand students study in it, 5 thousand employees work, including 1598 teachers. It accounts for a large share (64%) of scientific publications among Far Eastern universities.

Also, higher education in the city is represented by such local universities as the Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, the Far Eastern State Institute of Arts, the Far Eastern State Technical Fisheries University, the Admiral G. I. Nevelskoy Maritime State University, the Pacific Higher Naval School and the Pacific State Medical university. There are branches of the Russian Customs Academy, the Modern Humanitarian Academy, the International Institute of Economics and Law and the Far Eastern Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, St. Petersburg University of the State Fire Service of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia.


The science

In 2014, 32 scientific organizations worked in the city, with 4949 employees. The total amount of research in monetary terms amounted to 5.6 billion rubles. The largest scientific organization in Vladivostok is the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The following institutes of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences are located directly in Vladivostok: Institute of Automation and Control Processes, Institute of Applied Mathematics, Institute of Marine Technology Problems, Institute of Chemistry, Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry. G. B. Elyakova, Institute of Biology and Soil, Institute of Marine Biology, Botanical Garden-Institute, Far Eastern Geological Institute, V. I. Ilyichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pacific Institute of Geography, Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East.

Another major scientific organization is the Pacific Research Fisheries Center (TINRO-Center), which is not part of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Far Eastern Regional Research Hydrometeorological Institute, Roshydromet. Medical science is represented by the G. P. Somov Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology. Technical science is represented by the Far Eastern Research, Design and Technological Institute for Construction, which is part of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences.

The Society for the Study of the Amur Territory, the oldest Far Eastern scientific organization, retaining its name, now functions as the Primorsky Regional Branch of the Russian Geographical Society. In 1899, the Society established the F. F. Busse Prize.

Dozens of international and regional scientific conferences and seminars are held in Vladivostok, with the involvement of Korean (Seoul University, Inyo University, Gangnam University) and Chinese (Chinese Academy of Sciences) scientific organizations. The institutes of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences hold the annual Festival of Far Eastern Science “Window to Science”.



The first hospital in Vladivostok, the Primorsky Regional Clinical Hospital No. 1, opened on August 15, 1893. Today it is one of the largest multidisciplinary medical institutions in the Primorsky Territory, with 700 inpatient beds. The hospital sees over 17,000 patients annually and performs more than 6,000 surgeries. City Clinical Hospital No. 2 is the largest hospital complex in Primorsky Krai (923 beds). The hospital serves more than 38 thousand patients annually. In total, there are 38 hospitals in Vladivostok, with a fund of hospital beds - 9455 units, and 104 polyclinics. There are 5963 doctors working in the healthcare sector (as of 2014). Among the new healthcare institutions: FEFU Medical Center on Russky Island, which operates according to the standards of foreign clinics and diagnostic centers.

Of all the diseases in the city, the most common are respiratory, injuries and poisoning, and diseases of the genitourinary system. The number of oncological diseases, HIV infection, drug addiction is growing. The least common diseases of the endocrine system and congenital anomalies; tend to reduce alcoholism, substance abuse. In general, the overall incidence of the city's population decreased from 573.3 thousand people in 2011 to 521.1 thousand people in 2014. The problems of the city's medicine include a lack of diagnostic equipment, a significant reduction in antenatal clinics, and a shortage of personnel.



The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the city of Vladivostok is responsible for the protection of public order and the fight against crime in the city. Its staff consists of 2905 employees, including 1987 police officers, 844 ordinary employees and 74 uncertified employees.

Over the past three years, the crime rate in the city has been on a downward trend. If in 2013 17581 crimes were registered, then in 2015 - 15147. The number of grave and especially grave crimes, including murders, crimes against property (theft, theft of vehicles, robberies, robberies) has decreased. More were registered: facts of intentional infliction of grievous bodily harm, thefts from apartments, facts of fraud, illegal arms trafficking and rape. At the same time, the number of rapes doubled in 2015, including a large number of cases of violence against minors.

In 2015, 101 crimes committed by organized groups and criminal communities were registered on the territory of the city, 73 were solved. Today, several criminal groups operate in Vladivostok, among them the most influential: "Pukhovsky", a Chechen group, "Trifonyata-Yuriny", " Alexei", "Petraki".

Corruption is a major problem in the city. For 2015-2016 dozens of corruption cases were initiated. The defendants are both officials (from heads of municipalities to members of the team of the governor of Primorye) and entrepreneurs whose business is connected with the government. The last high-profile case was the arrest of the head of the city, Igor Pushkarev. At the same time, it is noted that not one of the heads of Vladivostok in recent history has escaped criminal prosecution.


Culture and art

Vladivostok is the cultural center of Primorsky Krai. Dozens of cultural institutions have been opened in the city - museums, theaters, art galleries, cinemas, a philharmonic society. Vladivostok is a center of art education, with many art and music schools; The Far Eastern State Institute of Arts was opened in the city. The Vladivostok library system unites 27 libraries, with a total book fund of 1 million 616.3 thousand copies. The number of users of public libraries is about 120 thousand people.

Vladivostok has a large layer of cultural heritage, there are more than 700 monuments of history and culture, which is 51.7% of the monuments of Primorsky Krai. Among them, 15 are of federal significance, 583 are of regional significance, and 17 have been identified objects of historical and cultural value. Vladivostok has a high urban and historical value due to the preserved historical planning, architectural and historical ensembles, many monuments of history, architecture, archeology, and a complex of fortifications.



In 1884, the first museum in the Amur region was founded in Vladivostok - the Museum of the Society for the Study of the Amur Territory. In 1891 the first exhibition was opened. In Soviet times, the Oceanarium of the Pacific Research Fisheries Center, the Museum of the History of GUM, the Military History Museum of the Red Banner Pacific Fleet, the Primorsky Regional Art Gallery, the Scientific and Zoological Museums of the Far Eastern State University, the Museum of Border Troops, the Museums of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Primorsky Oceanarium, etc.

The city experienced two so-called "museum booms": in the 1970s and the second half of the 1990s. The nineties saw the flourishing of private museums, the resumption of activities of mothballed museums (for example, the Dalzavod Museum). Currently, there are six state museums in Vladivostok. In 2014, they were visited by 558.6 thousand people.

The most famous museum in Vladivostok is the Primorsky State United Museum named after V. K. Arseniev, leading its history from the first Vladivostok Museum of the Society for the Study of the Amur Territory. In 2015, The Art Newspaper Russia named it the most visited regional museum in Russia. The number of visits amounted to more than 421 thousand people.

In 2019, the first federal museum-reserve in Primorye was created on the basis of the Vladivostok fortress, which includes several hundred objects (more than 800) on the dominant heights of Vladivostok, its suburbs and Russky Island, which until recently have been in various forms of ownership and varying degrees of preservation . On September 5, 2019, within the framework of the V Eastern Economic Forum, the opening of the first exposition of the Museum-Reserve “Vladivostok. Fortress Time” with a total area of 250 square meters.


Galleries and exhibition halls

The active development of art museums in Vladivostok began in the 1950s. In 1960, the Artist's House was built, in which there were exhibition halls. In 1965, the Primorsky State Art Gallery was singled out as a separate institution, and later, on the basis of its collection, the Children's Art Gallery was created. In Soviet times, one of the largest venues for exhibitions in Vladivostok was the exhibition hall of the Primorsky branch of the Union of Artists of the RSFSR. In 1989, the gallery of contemporary art "Artetazh" was opened.

In 1995, the gallery of modern art "Arka" was opened, the first exposition of which consisted of 100 paintings donated by the collector Alexander Glezer. The gallery participates in international exhibitions and fairs. In 2005, the non-profit private gallery "Roytau" appeared. In recent years, the centers of contemporary art "Salt" (created on the basis of the FEFU Art Museum) and "Zarya" have been active.



In total, there are five professional theaters in the city. In 2014, they were visited by 369.8 thousand spectators. The Primorsky Regional Academic Drama Theater named after Gorky is the oldest state theater in Vladivostok, opened on November 3, 1932. The theater employs 202 people: 41 actors (including three folk and nine honored artists of Russia).

The Primorsky Pushkin Theater was built on the initiative of the Assembly of Clerks of the city of Vladivostok and was called the Assembly of Clerks - Pushkin Theatre; is currently one of the main cultural centers of the city. In the 1930s and 40s, the theaters that are still operating today were successively opened: the Drama Theater of the Pacific Fleet, the Primorsky Regional Puppet Theater, and the Primorsky Regional Youth Drama Theater. The regional puppet theater gave 484 performances in 2015, which were attended by more than 52 thousand spectators. The theater has 500 puppets, 15 artists work. The troupe regularly goes on tour (to Poland, Japan, South Korea, the Far East).

The musical theater in Vladivostok is represented by the Primorsky Regional Philharmonic, the largest concert organization in the Primorsky Territory. The Philharmonic organized the Pacific Symphony Orchestra and the Governor's Brass Band. In 2013, the Primorsky Opera and Ballet Theater was opened. On January 1, 2016, it was transformed into a branch - the Primorsky Stage - of the Mariinsky Theatre.



The first circus performance took place in Vladivostok in 1885, in the Lamberger Circus. After that, more than ten circuses of various kinds were opened in the city, until in 1973 the modern building of the Vladivostok Circus was opened on Svetlanskaya Street. The designers were Solomeya Gelfer and Georgy Napreenko, the chief designer was Vladimir Shemyakin. In December 2017, the reconstruction of the circus was completed. On December 16, 2017, the first performance took place in the renovated building, but only orphans, gifted children and families of builders could see it. The rest - from December 23. The guests of the circus were presented with the program "Emperor of the Lionesses". The project also includes the construction of a hotel for circus workers, a parking lot and a viaduct.



In 2014, there were 21 cinemas in Vladivostok, and the total number of screenings was 1,501,000.

Most of the cinemas in the city are Ocean, Galaxy, Moscow (formerly called New Wave Cinema), Neptune 3D (formerly called Neptune and Borodino), Illusion, Vladivostok - are restored cinemas built back in the Soviet years. Among them, Okean stands out with the largest (22 by 10 meters) screen in the Far East of the country, located in the city center near Sportivnaya Gavan. Together with the cinema "Ussuri", it is the venue for the annual international film festival "Pacific Meridian" (since 2002). Since December 10, 2014, the IMAX 3D hall has been operating at the Okean cinema.



Vladivostok is a major center of event and festival culture. The city hosts several dozen festivals, forums, public holidays and events a year. The most famous is the Pacific Meridian International Film Festival of the Asia-Pacific Region. In addition to it, such major events are held in the city: the National Folklore Festival "Pancake Day", the ice half marathon "Vladivostok Ice Run", the Classical Music Festival "Far Eastern Spring", the Festival "Museum Night", the Pacific Tourism Forum, the Pacific Fashion and Style Week Style Week, Green Marathon, Summer in Russian Festival, Holi Festival of Colors, V-Rox Music Festival, Vladivostok Fortress City Festival, Eastern Economic Forum, Traveler’s Day International Festival, Bridges International Half Marathon Vladivostok”, International Festival of the Russian Language and Culture of Twin Cities “Vladivostok Unites the Asia-Pacific Region”, International Jazz Festival, International Congress of Fishermen.



The most massive denomination in Vladivostok is Orthodoxy, represented by different directions: the Russian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate), the acephalic (autonomous) Far Eastern Diocese of ROCOR, the Old Believers, the Armenian Apostolic Church.

The parishes of the ROC MP make up the Vladivostok diocese as part of the Primorsky Metropolis. The diocese of Vladivostok with its center in Vladivostok was created by a resolution of the Holy Synod of January 25, 1945, which existed until 1949. It was revived in 1988 as the diocese of Vladivostok and Primorsky. It has a network of Sunday schools, a theological school and an Orthodox gymnasium, and publishes the monthly newspaper Primorsky Blagovest.

Old Believers make up a significant proportion of the Orthodox in the Far East. They actively populated the region during the tsarist period, but in Soviet times, due to repressions and emigration, their number dropped sharply. The Old Believer community began to recover in the 1980s. In Vladivostok, there is a relatively large community of Old Believers, in which a significant part is made up of young believers.

In the 1990s, the Catholic and Lutheran communities revived. The number of their parishioners is not large. There are also five Baptist, Adventist, Methodist, Pentecostal, Presbyterian, Charismatic and other Christian congregations in the city.

Protestantism is quite widespread and has deep historical roots. In particular, the urban communities of Evangelical Christians-Baptists and Seventh-day Adventists lead their history continuously from pre-revolutionary times, they successfully survived the most difficult anti-religious campaigns of Soviet power.

In 1990, with the passage of the Religious Freedom Act, the Presbyterian mission was revived; in 1991, the first church was opened in Nakhodka; in 1995, a seminary was founded, which in 1998 moved to a new building in Vladivostok, and was named the Vladivostok Presbyterian Theological Seminary. For 1998-2015 105 people graduated from the seminary, 17 of them became pastors, 19 - preachers.

Vladivostok is the center of Protestant church associations - the Association of Churches of Evangelical Christian Baptists of Primorsky Krai and the Primorsky Association of Missionary Churches of Evangelical Christians. With the assistance of Protestant movements, the Vladivostok branch of the Russian Bible Society was opened.

Organizations of para-Christian denominations — Jehovah's Witnesses and Mormons — are active. Vladivostok is the center of religious life for the Mormon Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: in 1999, the organization's Vladivostok mission was opened.

There is also a Jewish community in Vladivostok. The Jewish Religious and Cultural Center operates.

In 1995, the Buddhist community resumed its activities. Today, the center of the Diamond Way of the Karma Kagyu School has been opened in Vladivostok. Every year, giving lectures, the Danish religious figure Ole Nydahl visits the city.

The largest Muslim community in Primorye has developed in the city. In 2013, Abdulla Damir Ishmukhammedov, Mufti for the Far East from the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of the Asian part of Russia (SUM AChR), estimated the number of Muslims living in Vladivostok at 60,000. Uzbek, Tajik, and Kyrgyz Muslim organizations were registered in the city, and a prayer house was opened.

There is also a Hare Krishna community in Vladivostok. Periodically, there is evidence of the existence in the city of religious groups of Scientologists, Baha'is, neo-pagans, followers of the Ringing Cedars of Russia and other so-called "new religious movements".


Architecture and sights

Planning and development

Vladivostok is located on a complex terrain, which makes it difficult to develop and, at the same time, forms a "magnificent natural amphitheater, spectacularly opening towards the sea." Historically, the first buildings of the city were the buildings of a military post, located on the shores of the Golden Horn Bay. Then the urban area began to expand, occupying the northern and western shores to the Amur Bay and deep into the peninsula. The central street of the city - Svetlanskaya - repeats the outlines of the coastline, and the streets perpendicular to it rise along the slopes of the hills. In the 1880s - 90s, the city began to expand and occupy the territory of the hills, as well as remote low-lying territories - the Cooper's Pad and partly the valley of the First River.

The development of Vladivostok during the Russian Empire developed in several periods: the first rise in construction occurred in the 1870s - 80s, when the main port on the Pacific Ocean was transferred to the city and it was appointed the center of the Vladivostok General Governorate; the second - for the period of the beginning of railway construction; the third came in the period after the Russo-Japanese War. If in 1886 there were 68 buildings in Vladivostok, then by 1914 there were already 8484 of them, most of which were made of stone.

In the first Soviet five-year plan, the "Plan for the existing and projected location of the city of Vladivostok" (1928) was adopted. The implementation of the construction program influenced the appearance of the city: more multi-storey buildings appeared, one-story wooden buildings of the era of the first settlers disappeared. Groups of large buildings appeared on the outskirts of the city, as a result of which the scale of the sea panorama began to be enlarged. In the 1960s, after the decision was made to accelerate the development of the city, Vladivostok experienced another construction boom. A new general plan was adopted, providing for "the transformation of Vladivostok into a city convenient and comfortable for the life of its population, beautiful and expressive in appearance, which should have corresponded to the status of Vladivostok as an" outpost of socialism "on the Pacific Ocean."

The modern city has a complexly dissected layout, historically formed in the process of its development. It retains the orthogonal, radial and free planning of streets, taking into account the landscape. The mainland of Vladivostok is divided into six planning districts. "Central" includes territories from the valley of the First River to the Golden Horn Bay and the valley of the river Explanation. This is the historical center of the city. The layout here has a perpendicular street system. In recent years, the appearance of the area has changed dramatically due to the construction of a bridge across the Golden Horn Bay.

The planning area "Yuzhny" occupies the territory of the Cherkavsky (Goldobin) peninsula and the northern slopes of the valley of the river Explanation. The Western planning area includes the territory of the Shkota (Egersheld) peninsula. On the northwestern coast of the peninsula, on the bulk territory, a recreational zone with beaches is being formed. The Severny planning area occupies the territory from the Academgorodok of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences to the valley of the First River. The Kurortny planning area occupies the territory of the sanatorium-resort zone in the Sedanka-Okeanskaya area, the Sadgorod resort area, the recreational area on the coast of the Ussuri Bay, the territories adjacent to the Okeanskaya-Lazurnaya highway, the territory of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Here, residential low-rise and high-rise buildings are developed along the coast of the Amur Bay, low-rise buildings in the Chernaya Rechka valley and in the northern part of the region.



Historically, Vladivostok developed according to the canons of European architectural traditions. To date, the city has about 500 architectural monuments and more than 100 fortifications of the Vladivostok fortress.

The city center has preserved the historical ensemble of the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. Here you can observe all the styles that were represented at that time - from neoclassicism of the late 19th century and various trends of modernity, to neoclassicism of the 1930s-1950s. At that time, many famous architects worked in Vladivostok: Alexander Gvozdziovsky, Georgy Yungkhendel, Dmitry Shebalin, Ivan Meshkov, Sergei Vincent, A. N. Bulgakov, Nikolai Konovalov, Jacob Shafrat, Yu. L. Wagner, Vladimir Planson and others.

In the city you can find buildings erected in a variety of architectural styles: Russian style (Triumphal Arch, Post Office Building, Vladivostok railway station), Neo-Gothic (Catholic Church of the Most Holy Theotokos, Lutheran Church of St. Datta, a pediment with a bull's head on the facade of the Refrigerator), neoclassicism (Women's Gymnasium of Maria Sibirtseva, etc.), Art Nouveau (GUM building, etc.), half-timbered style (House No. 68 on Svetlanskaya).

From the Soviet period, there were monuments in the styles of constructivism (Palace of Culture of Railway Workers, Marine Station), Stalinist Empire (the complex of buildings "Gray Horse", a house on Aleutskaya Street, the building of "Dalrybvtuza", Primorsky Regional Drama Theater of Youth), Soviet functionalism (Administration Building of Primorsky edge), as well as a typical residential development.

The modern urban development of Vladivostok is chaotic. Pseudo-historical styles have spread, among which are: red gothic, Russian style, new commercial baroque, neo art deco. There are cases of unscrupulous reconstruction: the Ussuri cinema, the building of the Society for the Study of the Amur Territory of the OIAK and the house of Eleonora Prey, according to experts, have lost their historical appearance.

Significant architectural projects in recent years include the reconstruction of the Tsesarevich Embankment, the complex of buildings of the Far Eastern Federal University, the Primorsky Stage of the Mariinsky Theatre, Vladivostok International Airport and the Zarya Center for Contemporary Art.


Monuments and buildings

In Vladivostok, there are more than 50 monumental monuments under state protection, including the monument to the Fighters for the Power of the Soviets, the Rostral Column in honor of the 100th anniversary of Vladivostok, the Memorial Complex on Korabelnaya Embankment with the ship-museum "Red Vympel" and the submarine S-56, etc.

The fortifications of the naval fortress Vladivostok are located within the city. To date, 16 forts and more than 100 other objects of long-term fortification have survived from all the structures - strong points, artillery batteries, coastal caponiers, powder magazines. In 1995, the fortress was given the status of a monument of history and military-defensive architecture of federal significance. The military-historical fortification museum "Vladivostok Fortress" was organized, with a fund of more than 40 thousand items.

Millionka is a historical "Chinatown" that existed in Vladivostok at the end of the 19th - the first half of the 20th centuries. It was liquidated in 1936, as a place of compact residence of the Chinese diaspora, the Chinese population was forcibly deported. Prior to liquidation, the quarter was considered a hot spot where prostitution, smuggling, opium smoking and gambling flourished. Today in Millionka there are cafes, bars, galleries, guided tours, although it is noted that over time "the gloomy charm of this area is irretrievably gone."

Among city buildings, the lighthouses of Vladivostok are among the sights. The oldest is a lighthouse on Skrypleva Island, opened on March 1, 1877. Opposite, forming the "sea gate" of the city, there is the Basargin Lighthouse. It is located on the territory of a military unit, therefore it is not accessible to tourists, but at the same time, it is one of the most recognizable symbols of Vladivostok, depicted on postcards, magnets, stamps and in movies. Lighthouse Tokarevsky is also included in the list of the most famous sights of the city.

At the corner of Svetlanskaya, 8, an art object dedicated to Stirlitz is installed. It is a panel made of a single sheet of metal, on which the silhouette of a scout is cut.



Many old Vladivostok cemeteries ended up within the boundaries of modern development and were abolished during the Soviet era. The first cemetery in Vladivostok, Uspensky Pogost, was opened in the 1860s and closed in 1937. In its place, there is currently a square near the Vladivostok Art School. Formerly prestigious in tsarist times, the Pokrovsky cemetery was closed in 1923, and the Central Park of Culture and Leisure (now Pokrovsky Park) was opened in its place. Also, at various times, the Egersheld and Soldier cemeteries were abolished by the Soviet authorities. In 2011, 15 burial sites were identified in Vladivostok, thirteen of which need improvement. Six cemeteries are active: Sea, Lesnoye, Central (near Morgorodok), Ajax and Podnozhye (on Russian Island) and another nameless one on Popov Island. In addition to the existing ones, there are memorial cemeteries: the Cemetery of the Czechoslovak Legionnaires, the Fraternal Reburial of the Shot at the Forest Cemetery.



Currently, there are 30 modern school stadiums and sports grounds with artificial turf, four swimming pools in Vladivostok. The percentage of provision of schools with sports facilities is 44.5%. 9 thousand people are involved in sports schools, which is 20% of all students. More than 500 mass sports and recreational events are held on the territory of the city district a year.

Vladivostok has a developed sports infrastructure, including:
Stadiums (Vanguard, Vympel, Dynamo, Stroitel).
Sports complexes (Regional House of Physical Education, Voskhod, Dynamo, Spartak, Yunost, Olympian, Bastion), Yubileiny sports and recreation complex, Polyus indoor skating rink, Fetisov Arena .
Pools ("Olympic", "Voskhod", "Youth", "Spartak" (Fitness club "World Class"), "Harbor", "Champion").
Rowing sailing base "Bereg".
Tennis courts (Tennis club Vladivostok, Metsar Olympus Tennis, tennis courts on Dalpress, Tennis club on Dnepropetrovsk).
Kartodrom "Snake".
Winter recreation center "Kometa" (alpine skiing, skating, snowboarding).
KSK "Rosso", "Favorite", "Fast Horse", Kazachy Stan.

Among the most famous sports clubs are:
Hockey club "Admiral" (founded in 2013)
Football club "Dynamo-Vladivostok" (recreated in 2021)
Football club Luch (lost professional status in 2020)
Basketball club "Spartak-Primorye" (from October 4, 1999 to 2003 "Spartak-VSUES")
Basketball club "Dynamo-Vladivostok"
Women's volleyball team "Primorochka"
Speedway club "Vostok"
Professional mini-football club "Portovik"
Seven Feet Yacht Club

In 2006-2009, four clubs took part in the highest sports leagues of Russia and continue to play: football Luch-Energia, basketball Spartak-Primorye, speedway Vostok, badminton Primorye.

The annual Peter the Great Gulf Cup, the Russian sailing championship in the Konrad-25R class, takes place in the waters of Peter the Great Bay. Since 2004, the championship for the Cup of the Governor of Primorsky Territory in rowing on boats of the Dragon class has been held in the waters of Sportivnaya Gavan.

In 2007 and 2009, the final of the Russian Beach Volleyball Cup was held in Vladivostok.

In September 2021, a decision was made to hold the VII International Sports Games "Children of Asia" Vladivostok-2022 and to create infrastructure for this at the All-Russian Children's Center "Ocean".


Mass media


Vladivostok is the most information-rich city in the Far East. However, since 2008, the advertising market in the city has been declining, which has negatively affected a number of print media; in the most unfavorable position were the regional publications Komsomolskaya Pravda, Arguments and Facts - Primorye, and Moskovsky Komsomolets in Vladivostok, which had previously been issued in large circulations. The leaders in citation in Primorye in 2015 were mainly news agencies and online media, and the first line was occupied by the PrimaMedia news agency.

The city's media operate as part of several publishing groups and media holdings: Dalpress (the largest printing complex in the Far East), Business Case publishing house (issues the newspapers Vladivostok, Seven Days in Primorye, the English-language online newspaper Vladivostok News, the magazine Orchards and orchards of Primorye"), Golden Horn (weekly of the same name, Right Hand Drive, Far Eastern Capital), Primorskoe Advertising and Information Agency (newspapers Far Eastern Vedomosti, Moskovsky Komsomolets in Vladivostok, radio station Vladivostok FM), Pronto-Vladivostok (regional issues From Hand to Hand), PrimaMedia media holding, Vladivostok State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company.


A television

Television broadcasting in Vladivostok:
the state television and radio company "Vladivostok" (a branch of the All-Russian State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company) - TV channels "Russia-1" and "Russia-24" with news releases "Vesti-Primorye", as well as "Vostok 24";
"Public Television of Primorye" - a public round-the-clock regional TV channel (Also in inserts from the OTR TV channel);
Channel VIII of Vladivostok is a 24-hour city television channel, the network of which is formed from programs of its own production.

The city also broadcasts 20 channels of digital terrestrial television: the first multiplex on channel 37 (frequency 602 MHz) and the second multiplex on channel 56 (frequency 754 MHz). Broadcasting is carried out from the television tower on the Orlinaya hill, which makes it possible to reach about 700 thousand viewers with TV programs. In addition, the broadcasting of three analog TV channels continues: Saturday!, Yu and Solntse.

Pay TV services are provided by three large companies (AllianceTelecom, Contract and Rostelecom) and several small companies.


Radio stations

At the end of 2021, 19 radio stations are broadcasting in Vladivostok, of which three have completely their own programming: Radio VBC (101.7 MHz), Radio Lemma (102.7 MHz) and Vladivostok FM (106.4 MHz). Programs of GTRK Vladivostok are broadcast on the frequencies of Radio Russia, Radio Mayak and Vesti FM.


Naval base

Vladivostok served as Russia's main naval base in the Pacific for decades. At different times, various military facilities were located on its territory - the headquarters of the Siberian Flotilla, the naval forces of the Far East and the Pacific Fleet (Pacific Fleet), formations and units of the Pacific Fleet, the air force, air defense, ground forces were based in the city, military educational institutions were located, warehouses, hospitals, etc.

The defense of the city has always been a priority throughout its history, as it was considered as a stronghold of the navy. For example, the last structures of the Vladivostok defensive region were erected in 1991. Thus, military-defensive construction was carried out on the territory of Vladivostok continuously for almost 140 years.

Until the early 1990s, Vladivostok was a closed city, being the main base of the Pacific Fleet. The military almost always made up a significant part of the population of the city. In different periods, their number reached 15-20% of the total number of inhabitants, and in the first years of the city's existence, they made up the absolute majority.

The city has not lost its military significance to this day. The headquarters and many services of the Pacific Fleet of the Russian Navy are located in Vladivostok. Part of the ships of the Pacific Fleet is also based here.


In art

To the cinema

Vladivostok is represented in many works of art. In the 1960s of the XX century, due to its cinematic nature, it became attractive for filming feature films. In Soviet times, the following were filmed here: “Password is not needed” (1967), “Attention, tsunami!” (1969), Vladivostok, 1918 (1982), Moonsund (1988). In 1989, Vitaly Kanevsky's film Freeze - Die - Resurrect!, filmed in Vladivostok, received a special prize at the Cannes Film Festival. Against the backdrop of the city landscapes of Vladivostok, the action of the film Venus Hotel (Japan, 2004), which won the Moscow International Film Festival in 2004, unfolds. The film by Nikolai Khomeriki "The Tale of the Dark" in 2009, a participant in the "Un Certain Regard" program of the 62nd Cannes International Film Festival 2009, was noted by critics. Vladivostok is mentioned in the full-length plasticine animated film "Mary and Max" (Australia, 2009), which received an award at the International Annecy Animated Film Festival.


In music

A lot of musical compositions are dedicated to Vladivostok, the most popular in Russia among them are the song "Vladivostok" performed by Alla Pugacheva and "Vladivostok 2000" by the Mumiy Troll group. The city also inspires foreign musicians: the song "Vladivostok, Romantic and Shock", authored by the composer and singer Laurent Picot, was included in 2020 in the album of the rock band "Alter Ego" (France). Composer Marios Ioannou Elia (Cyprus), after traveling to the capital of Primorye, created the audiovisual work "Sounds of Vladivostok", which was presented in the format of a short film and became the best at the international festival SONIC SCENE Music Film Fest in Trani (Italy).


In literature

The mention of Vladivostok can be found in many literary works: the novel "Vanity" by William Gerhardi, the novel "Winter Road" by Leonid Yuzefovich, the novel "Toyota Cross" and the story "Hotel Ocean" by Mikhail Tarkovsky, the autobiographical novel "Troubled Times" by Joseph Kessel, in the poem "The Prose of the Trans-Siberian Railway and Little Jeanne from France" by Blaise Cendrars, the historical adventure novel "No Password Needed" by Julian Semyonov, the book of memoirs "On the Seas and Beyond the Seas" by Anna Shchetinina, the story in the stories "Chilim" by Igor Krotov, "The Suitcase Novel "Laura Beloivan, Jonas Jonasson's novel "A Hundred Years and a Suitcase of Money to boot", in Somerset Maugham's story "Dream", in the collection of travelogue stories "Vladivostok and Other Men" by Olga Shipilova-Tamayo, in the book of the same author "To the West, or Travel to…” (one of the essays is dedicated to the importance of Vladivostok in European everyday culture), in the book by Cedric Gras “Vladivostok. Snows and Monsoons”, which became a very successful debut for the French writer.


In computer games

Vladivostok also appears in video games - namely in Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2, Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3 and its add-on Uprising, Vladivostok also became the main setting of the Metro Exodus add-on Sam's Story. There is also a radio station "Vladivostok FM" in Grand Theft Auto IV.


In numismatics

On July 10, 2014, the St. Petersburg Mint issued a commemorative coin with a face value of 10 rubles.


In bonistics

Vladivostok is depicted on the Russian 1000-ruble bill of 1995. The front side depicts the seaport of Vladivostok in the Golden Horn Bay, the top of the rostral column with a sailboat is a monument to the Russian sailing ship Manjur; on the back - the Rudnaya Bay and the rocks-kekurs "Two Brothers" (the old name is "Two Fingers").

Also, the image of the city contains a banknote of 2000 rubles, sample of 2017. The main image of the front side of the banknote is the Russian Bridge, a cable-stayed bridge connecting Russky Island with the mainland of Vladivostok.


In philately

Vladivostok is depicted on postage stamps:
Vladivostok - 150 years (Russian Federation, 2010.15)
Coat of arms of Vladivostok (Russian Federation, 2010, 7.7 rubles)
The formation of Soviet power. Vladivostok, monument to the "Fighters for the power of the Soviets" (USSR, 1972, 3 k.)
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit. Vladivostok (Russian Federation, 2012, 13 rubles)
Entry of Red Army units into Vladivostok (USSR, 1968, 4 k.)
Navy of the USSR. passenger lines. Vladivostok - Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (USSR, 1959, 10 k.)