Republic Sakha (Yakutia), Russia

Yakutia or the Republic of Sakha is located in the Russian Far East. Yakutia is the largest region of Russia. It is worth traveling for at least a week, due to the fact that fast transport is rare and even planes are often delayed.



Bennett Island

Death Valley

Lake Labyngkyr

Lena Pillars

New Siberian Islands



Although there are a lot of small nationalities in Yakutia, almost everyone understands and speaks Russian. Yakuts prefer to speak Yakut among themselves; in some remote areas a Yakut phrasebook may be needed.


How to get there

By plane
Yakutsk, Neryungri and Mirny can be reached by plane from the central regions of Russia.

By train
By train you can get to Neryungri, Aldan and Tommot along the Amur-Yakutsk Railway (AYAM). In 2012, the road to Nizhny Bestyakh was completed - this is a satellite city of Yakutsk on the other bank of the Lena. A design and construction contractor is already being selected, but construction is expected to be completed by 2017.

By car
The only year-round road connecting most of Yakutia with the outside world is the M56 “Lena” Never-Yakutsk federal highway. The road has a crushed stone surface, in some places improved cement, with a carriageway width of 7 m. The road passes through permafrost conditions almost along its entire length. There are numerous small rivers and lakes along the route. More than half of the bridges on the road are low-water, wooden, with a load capacity of less than 60 tons. In 2006, the highway was recognized as the worst road in the world due to its deplorable condition. In recent years, the situation has been corrected, reconstruction work is underway, but still, during rainy periods, in some places the road becomes impassable in some sections (especially on the Uluu-Kachikatsi section). On the last section of 12 km - Nizhny Bestyakh - Yakutsk - passing through the Lena, a ferry runs in the summer, and an ice crossing is established in the winter. There is no travel during the off-season (May and October).



Along with food that is common throughout Russia, food in Yakutia has its own characteristics due to the national cuisines of local peoples. So, you should definitely try stroganina (made from frozen fish), yogos (beef or horse ribs), and dairy dishes, such as kuorchekh (whipped cream, usually served with berries).


Precautionary measures

As of 2014, there are many bears along the Kolyma highway, and there are cases of attacks on people. It is not recommended to spend the night outside of populated areas, at least if you do not have a weapon, and even just to walk into the forest on your own.


Origin of name

The exonym “Yakut” comes from the Evenki word Yako (also yoqo, ñoqa or ñoka), which the Evenki used as a name for the Yakuts. This word was borrowed by the Russians.


Physiographic characteristics


The total area of Yakutia is 3103.2 thousand km², which is only slightly less than the area of the entire European part of Russia.

Yakutia is located in the northwestern part of the Far East. It borders in the east with the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, the Magadan Region, in the southeast - with the Khabarovsk Territory, in the south - with the Amur Region and Trans-Baikal Territory, in the southwest - with the Irkutsk Region, in the west - with the Krasnoyarsk Territory, in the north its natural the boundaries are formed by the Laptev and East Siberian seas. The total length of the sea coastline exceeds 4.5 thousand km.

More than 40% of the territory of Yakutia is located beyond the Arctic Circle. The territory of Yakutia includes the Novosibirsk, Big and Small Begichev, and Bear Islands.

The length of the republic from north to south is 2000 km, from west to east – 2500 km. The westernmost point is on the border with the Krasnoyarsk Territory (106° east), the easternmost point is on the border with the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (163° east) (or 57°, which makes Yakutia the longest from west to east in the world administrative-territorial unit), southern - on the Stanovoy Range, on the border with the Amur region (55°30' N), northern mainland - on Cape Nordvik (74° N) and northern island - on Henrietta Island ( 77°N). Forests occupy 4/5 of the territory.



Yakutia is characterized by a variety of natural conditions and resources, which is due to the physical and geographical position of its territory. Most of it is occupied by mountains and plateaus, which account for more than ⅔ of its surface, and only ⅓ is located in the lowlands. The highest point is Mount Pobeda (3147 m, according to other sources 3003 m, located on the Chersky ridge) or Mus-Khaya (2959 m, according to other sources 3011 m, located on the Suntar-Khayata ridge). The Verkhoyansk Range is also located in Yakutia.

The western part of Yakutia is occupied by one of the largest plateaus - the Central Siberian.

The largest lowlands: Central Yakut, Kolyma, eastern part of the North Siberian Lowland.



Yakutia is one of the most riverine (700 thousand rivers and streams) and lake (over 800 thousand) regions of Russia. The total length of all its rivers is about 2 million km, and their potential hydropower resources are estimated at almost 700 billion kWh per year. The largest navigable rivers: Lena (length - 4400 km), Vilyui (2650 km), Olenyok (2292 km), Aldan (2273 km), Kolyma (2129 km), Indigirka (1726 km), Olekma (1436 km), Anabar ( 939 km) and Yana (872 km).

On the territory of the republic there are large lakes - Bustakh, Labynkyr, etc.



Most of the territory of Sakha (Yakutia) is located in the middle taiga zone, which to the north gives way to forest-tundra and tundra zones. The soils are predominantly frozen-taiga, sod-forest, alluvial-meadow, mountain-forest and tundra-gley. Forests occupy about 4/5 of the territory. Meadows are common in river valleys and alas. On the coast and mountain tops there are shrubby herbaceous vegetation and lichens. The forest area is 255.631 million hectares, 2.55 million km², the forest area is 193.365 million hectares. The total area of forest funds in Yakutia and the Krasnoyarsk Territory is 423.73 million hectares or 4.237 million km².

Polar bear, arctic fox, sable, white hare, ermine, fox, muskrat, reindeer, weasel, American mink, etc. have been preserved. Red deer are found in the Olekma basin, and musk deer are found in the mountain taiga in the south and southeast; in the mountains of Eastern Yakutia - bighorn sheep. The musk ox was introduced into the tundra (on the Terpyai-Tumus peninsula, in the Lena delta, on the Pronchishchev and Chekanovsky ridges, on Bolshoi Begichev Island in the Khatanga Bay, and in the lower reaches of the Indigirka River near the village of Chokurdakh). In sea, river and lake reservoirs there are about 50 species of fish, the predominant of which are salmon and whitefish.

The territory of this region is also known as a mass nesting site for more than 250 species of birds. Among them are such rare ones as the pink gull, the white and black cranes, the little curlew and the gyrfalcon, listed in the International Red Book. On the territory of Yakutia there are the Lena Pillars and Kytalyk national parks, as well as the Olekminsky and Ust-Lensky nature reserves.



The climate is sharply continental, characterized by long winter and short summer periods. April and October in Yakutia are winter months. The temperature difference between the coldest month (January) and the warmest (July) is 70-75 degrees. In terms of the absolute value of the minimum temperature (in the eastern mountain systems - basins, depressions and other depressions - up to −70 ° C) and the total duration of the period with negative temperatures (from 6.5 to 9 months per year), the republic has no analogues in the Northern Hemisphere . The absolute minimum temperature almost everywhere in the republic is below −50 °C.

The summary table shows the average temperature for settlements in Yakutia.


Time Zones

On the territory of Yakutia, the time of three time zones is used. The western and central parts, large settlements of Yakutsk, Neryungri, Mirny, Khandyga are located in the time zone MSK+6 (UTC+9). Verkhoyansk district, Oymyakon and Ust-Yansky uluses (districts) - MSK+7 (UTC+10). The eastern part, the basins of the Indigirka and Kolyma rivers - Abyisky, Allaikhovsky and Srednekolymsky uluses (districts), Verkhnekolymsky, Momsky and Nizhnekolymsky districts - MSK + 8 (UTC + 11). This is due to the large length of the territory of Yakutia in longitude - about 57°, given that 15° longitude corresponds to a difference of local solar time of 1 hour.



Prehistoric and pre-Russian periods

Archaeologists have established that ancient man settled Yakutia already in the Early Paleolithic. The first archaeological monuments dating from 300 thousand to 10 thousand years ago date back to the same time. The most famous and well-studied of them are the Late Paleolithic ones: the Bunge-Tolya 1885 site, Buor-Khaya/Orto-Stan, the Yanskaya site and the Diring-Yuryakh site of the Diring culture, which is located in the middle reaches of the Lena River.

The Mesolithic era is represented by the Sumnagin archaeological culture (10.5-6.2 thousand years BC). The inhabitants of the Zhokhov site (Zhokhov Island in the East Siberian Sea, New Siberian Islands) lived 9 thousand years ago and were engaged in breeding sled dogs.

The Neolithic is divided into three stages:
Early - Syalakh culture (6.2-5.3 thousand years BC)
Middle - Belkachi culture (5.3-4.5 thousand years BC)
Late - Ymyyakhtakh culture (4.5-3.5 thousand years BC)

Since the middle of the 1st millennium AD. e. The ancestors of the Evens and Evenks appeared on the territory of Yakutia. By the 13th century. Tungus tribes settled in the Middle Lena, Vilyue, and Olekma. The arrival of the ancestors of the Yakuts in the Lena region forced them to move to the west and east of the Lena.

It is assumed that Turkic-speaking tribes moved to the territory of modern Yakutia in several waves, the last of which occurred in the 14th-15th centuries. The Yakuts as a people formed in the Middle Lena basin. Here the final formation of the people took place on the basis of the mixing of alien Turkic-speaking tribes with local Paleo-Asian clans, as well as with the alien Mongol-speaking Khorin and Tungus.

The spread of cattle breeding brought significant changes to the economic life of the region. The ancestors of the Yakuts brought craft production (blacksmithing, jewelry, pottery, etc.) and the construction of permanent dwellings to the region. Already by the beginning of the 17th century, Yakut clans lived in the Indigirka and Yana basins, promoting the culture of cattle breeding and herd horse breeding to the Arctic regions of Yakutia.


Yakutia as part of the Russian state

In the first quarter of the 17th century, Cossack explorers reached the banks of the Lena River. The winter huts and forts founded by the Russians: Yakutsk, Zhigansk, Verkhoyansk, Zashiversk, Srednekolymsk and others became outposts of the Russian advance to the northeast of Asia and further to the northwest of America.

In 1632, the Yakut fort was founded on the right bank of the Lena, marking the beginning of the future city of Yakutsk. The fort was founded by the Cossack centurion Pyotr Beketov. This date is considered the date of Yakutia’s entry into the Russian state. But this entry was not of a peaceful nature, and according to the Russian sources themselves, for example: the Yakut Chronicle and the Vilyui Chronicle, the Yakuts raised at least 7 anti-colonial uprisings in 1633-1634, 1636-1637, 1639-1640, 1642, 1675- 1676, 1681-1682 and 1683-1684. who were brutally suppressed.

In 1638, the Yakut district was formed, later transformed into the Yakut province (1775) and the Yakut region (1784) of the East Siberian General Government.

In the 18th century there was a mass Christianization of the indigenous inhabitants of the region. The activities of the Orthodox clergy are associated with the development of public education and enlightenment of the peoples of Yakutia, the appearance of literature in national languages, and the deepening of the processes of interethnic interactions.

A separate page in the history of Yakutia is the link. The link dates back to the 1640s. Starting from the 19th century, Yakut exile for the most part became political. The Decembrists, participants in the Polish uprising of 1863, populists, Socialist Revolutionaries, and Social Democrats went into exile in Yakutia.

Politically exiled Poles made a great contribution to the study of Yakutia, its geography, ethnography and linguistics. Among them are Vaclav Seroshevsky, Eduard Pekarsky, Ivan (Jan) Chersky and Alexander Chekanovsky.

By the beginning of the twentieth century, the Yakut region was one of the most backward regions in the Russian Empire.

In 1904, in Yakutsk, politically exiled Social Democrats (including Bolsheviks) staged an armed protest against the local administration.

In 1906, in the wake of the revolution, the first political party of the Yakut people was created - the Union of Yakuts, headed by Vasily Nikiforov-Kulumnyur. The party program was aimed at protecting political, economic rights, and developing the culture of the Yakuts as part of the Russian Empire. The “Union of Yakuts” put forward an ultimatum to the government about representation in the State Duma and the Constituent Assembly, and the suspension of the payment of all taxes, taxes and duties. The government regarded this movement as an open rebellion. On January 18, the governor of the Yakut region, Viktor Bulatov, ordered the arrest of 10 leaders of the Union of Yakuts.

As a result of the February Revolution, on February 27, 1917, power in Yakutia passed to the Yakut Committee of Public Security (YAKOB).

In June 1917, the Yakut Labor Union of Federalists (YATSF) was created under the chairmanship of Vasily Nikiforov-Kyulyumnyur. In the elections to the Constituent Assembly in November 1917, the YTSF received the largest percentage of votes in Yakutia.

In 1917, the Yakut written language acquired a unique Yakut alphabet, compiled by S. A. Novgorodov based on the international phonetic alphabet. In the summer of the same year, Yakut national and public organizations discussed the Novgorodov alphabet and spoke positively about it. Soon the first primer was published in this alphabet.


Yakutia during the years of Soviet power

Civil war in Yakutia

On July 1, 1918, Yakutsk was captured by the Reds, and Soviet power was established in part of the territory of Yakutia. On August 21, the Whites regained control of Yakutia.

On December 15, 1919, during the uprising in Yakutsk, Soviet power in Yakutia was restored.

On April 20, 1920, by decision of the Siberian Revolutionary Committee (Sibrevkom), the Yakut region was annexed to the Irkutsk province as a special region. On August 21, 1920, by resolution of the Sibrevkom, the Yakut province was created, restoring administrative independence. On March 19, 1921, the Okhotsk district of the Kamchatka region was transferred to the Yakut province.

As a result of the defeat of Kolchak in Siberia, whites began to flock to Yakutia. In August 1921, a rebellion broke out in Yakutia under the command of cornet Vasily Korobeinikov.

On March 2, 1922, the rebels formed the Provisional Yakut Regional People's Administration (YAONU) in the village of Churapcha.

On April 27, 1922, the Yakut Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic (YASSR) was formed as part of the RSFSR. This political decision provided the legal and constitutional basis for the formation of statehood within the framework of the creation of a new state entity - the autonomous republic of the USSR.

June 21, 1922 During the Nikolsky Battle, the Yakut People's Army was defeated by the Reds. During the further offensive of the Red Army, the rebels, together with the leadership of VYAONU, fled towards the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk.

In the fall of 1922, the Siberian Volunteer Squad of Anatoly Pepelyaev arrived in Nelkan to help the Yakut rebels. The combined troops under the command of Pepelyaev moved to Yakutsk.

On February 14, 1923, the advance of the Pepelivites was delayed by Ivan Strod’s detachment in the Sasyl-Sysy alas near the village of Amga. The siege of Sasyl-Sysy was the last major battle of the Russian Civil War. On March 2, as a result of battles near Amga, the Pepelyaevites were defeated and fled towards the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk. The Whites continued to hold power in northern Yakutia until early 1924.

In the 1920s, uprisings continued to occur across the vast territory of Yakutia. In 1924, the Tunguska uprising broke out. In 1927, the Young Yakut Confederalist Party rebelled, as a result of which Maxim Ammosov and Isidor Barakhov were removed from their posts. In 1930, the Bulun uprising broke out.


Yakutia during the USSR period ((Yakut ASSR))

The Soviet period in the history of Yakutia is associated with cultural and industrial development, as well as large-scale industrial development of its natural resources, which began with the development of Aldan gold deposits in the 1920s.

In the 1930s, the operation of the Northern Sea Route began, the Tiksi seaport was built at the mouth of the Lena River; Shipping and air routes brought previously inaccessible areas of the republic out of transport isolation.

Cultural and educational construction was also carried out - the development of national Yakut literature, culture, as well as the cultures of other peoples inhabiting the republic: Russians, Evenks, Evens, Yukaghirs, etc. In 1929, the Novgorodov alphabet was replaced by the common Turkic alphabet based on the Latin alphabet, in 1939 the Yakut writing switched to Cyrillic. In 1934, the Yakut State Pedagogical Institute was opened, and in 1956, the Yakut State University was opened on its basis.

The Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic became the only region of the USSR that escaped the mass repressions of 1937-1938. However, at the end of 1938, about 1,800 people were still arrested, most of whom were later acquitted. In total, in 1938-1939, 18 people died in Yakutsk during the investigation and trial, among them Platon Oyunsky and Nikolai Okoyomov.

The Great Patriotic War also had great consequences for the republic’s agriculture: in 1944, compared to 1940, the number of workers on collective farms decreased by 41%. The drought of 1941-1942 caused famine in Central Yakutia. Mortality from malnutrition and disease has increased sharply. In these difficult conditions, part of the collective farms of the Churapchinsky ulus, severely affected by drought, was resettled to the Kobyaisky, Zhigansky and Bulunsky uluses and transferred to fishing. This action was carried out without proper preparation and in a hurry, which led to significant casualties among the population.

In the 1950s, with the discovery of diamond deposits in the west of the republic, a powerful diamond mining industrial infrastructure began to be created. In 1957, it was decided to begin mining operations at the placer and ore deposits of Yakutia, and therefore the Yakutalmaz trust was founded. In the 1970s, the development of the South Yakut territorial production complex began (see South Yakut Coal Basin). Also in the post-war years, gold mining developed in the Ust-Maisky and Oymyakonsky regions, as well as tin mining in the Deputatsky, coal in the Tomponsky, Verkhnekolymsky and Kobyaisky regions. The Leno-Vilyui gas and oil province was being developed, natural gas production was growing, and gasification of the republic was underway. In 1967, the first hydraulic unit of the Vilyuiskaya HPP was commissioned, and the construction of the VHPP cascade was completed in 1978. By the early 1980s, the Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was considered an industrial-agrarian republic with high prospects for further industrial development.

In 1985, construction of the Amur-Yakutsk railway began.


The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

A new stage in the history of Yakutia began on September 27, 1990, when the Declaration of State Sovereignty was proclaimed. On this day, the Supreme Council of the Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic announced the transformation of autonomy into the Yakut-Sakha Soviet Socialist Republic within the RSFSR and the USSR.

In the 1990s, the economy of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) found itself in severe decline. Agriculture found itself in a difficult situation: from 1990 to 2010, the number of cultivated areas fell by more than half, and immigration from rural areas to Yakutsk increased. In some small towns and villages, with closed mining enterprises, the situation was extremely problematic, even to the point of lack of heat and light. The diamond industry, supported by both the regional and federal governments, was in the best position. The degradation of the industrial sector contributed to the reduction of the republic's population (mostly non-indigenous). For 1990-2002 the net loss amounted to about 20% of the population, at the same time, the birth rate in the republic remained one of the highest in the country. The population of the second largest city of the republic, Neryungri (coal industry), has decreased significantly; the population of Mirny (diamond mining industry) remains at the same level. The population growth rate of Yakutsk remains one of the highest in Siberia and the Far East; from 1990 to 2023, the population of the capital of the republic has almost doubled.

In October 1991, the post of President of the Republic was established. Mikhail Efimovich Nikolaev became the first president in December 1991. In the same year, the name of the republic was changed to the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

On February 19, 1992, by Decree of the President of the Russian Federation, the joint-stock company Almazy RossiiSakha was created. In 1998, the company was renamed AK Alrosa.

On April 27, 1992, the Constitution of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), adopted by the Supreme Council of the Republic on April 4, came into force. Nowadays, April 27 is celebrated as Republic Day.

In the spring of 2001, a severe flood destroyed the city of Lensk and a number of villages, and Yakutsk was under threat of flooding.

On October 4, 2008, the Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean (ESPO) oil pipeline was launched. In 2012, the ESPO-2 oil pipeline was launched.

In 2009, at the request of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, the provisions on the sovereignty of Yakutia were mostly suspended in the Constitution of the Republic of Sakha.

In 2011, the construction of the Amur-Yakutskaya railway to Nizhny Bestyakh was completed.

In 2019, the Power of Siberia gas pipeline was opened.



According to 2023 data, the GRP of the Republic exceeded 1.9 trillion rubles. ($23.4 billion) $23,400 per capita.

Characterizing the economic results of 2020, regional expert Rinat Rezvanov emphasizes: the past year turned out to be stressful for Yakutia. For the republic as a resource-producing territory, the mineral extraction tax is important. And if the draft budget for 2020 provided for revenues from the mineral extraction tax (MET) to the consolidated budget in the amount of 19.7 billion rubles, then later the figure was adjusted to a more modest 14.2 billion, which made it possible to obtain a formal increase in Mineral extraction tax for the year at 7.6%. The growth in income from corporate income tax was largely achieved due to the so-called devaluation revenues - due to changes in the dollar/ruble exchange rate difference.

One of the few truly secured areas is revenue from corporate property tax. Here, exceptional credit goes to the Power of Siberia gas pipeline, which went into commercial operation in 2020, transporting gas from the West Yakut Chayandinskoye field. Consequently, the property registration of the territorial objects of the project took place.

Yakutia is a northern subarctic region, moreover, it is a territory of the industrial frontier, and this is a factor in the significant rise in costs in investment policy practice. Accordingly, the republic has a request for federal appropriations. Last year, the volume of additional revenues from the federal budget to Yakutia alone amounted to 11.7 billion rubles.



Main industry sectors
mining (diamond, gold, oil, gas, coal, etc.)
processing (cutting, jewelry, oil and gas refining, woodworking, production of building materials, etc.)
fuel and energy complex (production of energy carriers)
light industry (leather and footwear, fur, etc.)
food industry

In the 1950s and subsequent years, in connection with the discovery of diamond deposits in the west of the republic, a very powerful diamond mining industrial infrastructure of the Republic of Sakha and the Russian Federation was created and still exists today.

The industry of Yakutia is focused on the extraction and enrichment of raw materials; the republic is rich in natural resources. On the territory of Yakutia there is the country's largest Elkon uranium deposit with proven reserves of about 344 thousand tons.

In 2011, coal shipments began from the Elga coal deposit, the largest in Russia.


Oil and gas

The Leno-Vilyui gas and oil province is located on the territory of Yakutia. The Chayandinskoye field is classified as unique - 1.2 trillion m³ of gas and about 62 million tons of oil and gas condensate. Other large fields are Srednebotuobinskoye (181 billion m³ of gas, 168 million tons of oil and gas condensate), Srednetyungskoye (156 billion m³ and 8.7 million tons) and Srednevylyuiskoye (149 billion m³ and 6.9 million tons, respectively).


Prospects for the development of the coal industry

Yakut coal mining is steadily moving towards the target development option. Instead of the 25 million tons envisaged by the “base” for 2021, the republican authorities plan to reach 39 million tons. The expected growth compared to 2020 is twofold. In general, South Yakut coal mining is included in the club of nationally significant exporters. In its forecasts, Yakutia expected to reach a slightly larger production volume of 40.9 million tons in 2021.

The main increase in 2021 comes from the Inaglinskaya coal mine, the largest in the country, reaching the target of 6 million tons. In February 2021, the Vostochnaya Denisovskaya mine should reach its design capacity. Thus, the volume of production at the Denisovsky Mining and Processing Plant will be increased to 6 million tons of coal. In total, Kolmar Group of Companies plans to reach 12.2 million tons of coal production this year and up to 7.6 million tons of concentrate shipments. For comparison, at the end of 2020, the total production volume of the Kolmar Group amounted to 6.7 million. It is necessary to add A-Property’s investment plans for the commissioning of the first stage of the mining and processing plant under construction in the summer-autumn of 2021. Simultaneously with the commissioning of the plant, the owner plans to double the carrying capacity of the 340-kilometer industrial railway from Elga to the Ulak station of the Far Eastern Railway to 24 million tons per year. It is known so far that in 2021 the owner of the Elginsky project expects to increase production and shipment volumes of coal within 18 million tons. The volume of overstocking, and therefore non-export of coal, according to the republican authorities, approached 2 million tons at the end of 2020, with an expected increase in 2024 to 6 million tons.




At the end of 2017, six large thermal power plants, two hydroelectric power plants, 21 solar and 2 wind power plants, as well as more than 200 diesel power plants with a total installed capacity of 3098.5 MW were operating in Yakutia. In 2018, they produced 9666 million kWh of electricity.



Despite the difficult natural and economic conditions, the share of the rural population of Yakutia remains one of the highest in the Far Eastern Federal District, second only to Buryatia. As of January 1, 2022, the rural population was 329,408 people, 33% of the population of Yakutia.

The most popular sectors of agriculture are:
meat and dairy farming
horse breeding
reindeer husbandry
vegetable growing
potato growing
picking berries and gifts of nature

Yakutia is the only region of Russia where horse breeding is most developed. Cattle breeding and horse breeding are equally traditional branches of livestock farming for the Yakuts. During the Soviet period, the number of cattle significantly exceeded the number of horses. Since the 1990s, cattle breeding has been degrading, while horse breeding has been steadily developing and has received significant government support in recent years. In 2021, the number of horses exceeded the number of cattle for the first time.

As of January 1, 2021, in farms of all categories there were 180.9 thousand (-2.4 thousand) heads of cattle, of which 72.1 thousand (+1.4 thousand) heads of cows, 21.6 thousand (100%) pigs, 182.8 thousand (-0.2 thousand) horses, 157.4 thousand (+5.3 thousand) deer.

In 2019, the volume of production of livestock and poultry for slaughter (in live weight) was 36.9 thousand tons (+1.5 thousand tons), chicken eggs - 133.6 million pieces, milk production in 2020 - 162.4 thousand tons (+0.4%).

The average milk yield per cow in 2019 in farms of all categories is 2290 kg (-7 kg).

About half of the sown area is occupied by forage crops, the rest by grains and leguminous crops; potatoes and vegetables.

In 2020 (in farms of all categories) the average yield of potatoes was 115.3 c/ha, vegetables 186.7 c/ha, grains 10.2 c/ha.

A year-round greenhouse complex for growing vegetables in protected soil is being built on the territory of the Kangalassy ASEZ together with the Japanese company Hokkaido Corporation.

The Syrdakh site of the Yakutia ASEZ is located 24 km north of the city of Yakutsk. Currently, construction of the third stage of the Sayuri year-round greenhouse complex with an area of 1.2 hectares continues at the site. The area of completed and commissioned facilities is 2.1 hectares - the first and second stages, as well as the first stage of the third stage of greenhouses.



The majority of cargo traffic is carried out by water transport. During the navigation period, rivers become the main transport arteries (Lena with its tributaries Vilyui and Aldan, Yana, Indigirka, Kolyma). Cargo is delivered to the northern regions of the republic via the Northern Sea Route.

The republic's automobile network is developing. On October 25, 2008, the Kolyma federal highway (Yakutsk - Magadan) was officially opened for year-round traffic along its entire length. In 2007, the Vilyuy highway (Yakutsk - Vilyuysk - Mirny - Lensk - Ust-Kut - Tulun) was included in the list of federal roads. However, in fact, such a road does not exist: the Lensk - Ust-Kut section is a winter road, along which road traffic is possible for about three months a year. In the future, it is planned to connect the Amga highway (Yakutsk - Amga - Ust-Maya) to the port of Ayan in the Khabarovsk Territory. It is also planned to build year-round operating routes "Yana" (Khandyga - Batagai - Ust-Kuiga) and "Anabar" (Mirny - Udachny - Olenyok - Yuryung-Khaya). At the same time, the federal highway "Lena", which connects Yakutsk with the all-Russian road network, requires very serious repairs.

Air transport is developed. There are 23 airports in the republic. In the 2010s, in addition to scheduled flights, general aviation charter flights began to operate.

The section of the Amur-Yakutsk railway line Berkakit - Aldan - Nizhny Bestyakh is in operation; the possibility of building a combined road-railway bridge across the Lena with a railway exit to Yakutsk is being considered, as well as continuing the construction of a railway to Momu - Magadan. In southeastern Yakutia, the construction of the Ulak-Elga dead-end railway line, connecting the BAM with the Elga coal deposit, is also close to completion. Simultaneously with the commissioning of the first stage of the mining and processing plant under construction in the summer-autumn of 2021, the A-Property company plans to double the carrying capacity of the 340-kilometer industrial railway from Elga to the Ulak station of the Far Eastern Railway - to 24 million tons per year.


Services sector

Tourism and recreation are developing in Yakutia. Small and medium businesses are developed. Numerous business incubators operate.



Almost 200 million tons of waste, 92 million tons of untreated or insufficiently treated wastewater, 182 thousand tons of emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere are “produced” annually in the republic, or more than 200 tons of waste, 92 tons of wastewater per resident of Yakutia.

30% of the territory of Yakutia is covered by an environmental monitoring network

During 2007, there were 25 cases of high environmental pollution (15 air and 10 water) and 5 cases of extremely high water pollution.

By 2011, the amount of pollution is expected to be reduced to 20 cases of high (10 air and 10 water) pollution and to 2 cases of extreme water pollution.

The largest companies plan to spend 1,302 million rubles on environmental protection in the period from 2007 to 2011.

There are no enterprises for complex waste processing in Yakutia.

The republic has accumulated more than 1.7 billion tons of industrial and consumer waste, which is located in 527 landfills and landfills, one third of which are unauthorized.

As of January 1, 2009, the area of disturbed land in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) amounted to 34.3 thousand hectares, including: during the development of mineral deposits - 23.4 thousand hectares (71.3%), during construction - 5 thousand ha (15.5%). The most significant areas of disturbed lands are concentrated in areas of development of the mining industry: Mirninsky ulus - 8.92 thousand hectares, Neryungrinsky - 11.2 thousand hectares, Aldansky - 4.8 thousand hectares.

On the territory of Yakutia, about 200 million tons of waste are generated annually. In general, waste sources include the production and distribution of electricity, gas and water - more than 54% - and mining. The largest “waste producers” in 2008 were Aldanzoloto GRK OJSC with 21 million tons, Yakutugol OJSC with 27 million tons.

In terms of industry, the greatest air pollution is produced by enterprises producing electrical energy and heat. The share of companies engaged in mining is 2 times less.

In 2008, emissions into the atmosphere by OJSC “Surgutneftegas” amounted to 20 thousand tons or almost 11% of the total emissions into the atmosphere in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). A similar figure for AK ALROSA is 8.66 thousand tons

With an increase in the number of enterprises and sources of pollution by more than 30%, the total volume of emissions decreased by 5.73%. However, at the same time, the volume of captured and neutralized substances decreased by 14%, and the amount of emissions without treatment increased by 18.63%.

Every year in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) about 165 million tons of water are used, more than 92 million tons per year are discharged without treatment or insufficiently treated wastewater.

Pool river Olenyok In the water of the river. Olenyok near the village Olenyok in 2008, there was a decrease in the degree of water pollution with a change from the 4th quality class of “dirty” waters to the 3rd “polluted” waters.

Reservoirs of the river basin Lena Taking into account the complex of chemical substances present in the water, the water of Neyolova Bay (Tiksi-3 settlement) moved within the 3rd class in terms of quality from category “b” (“very polluted”) to category “a” (“polluted”). The water of Lake Myuryu (village Borogontsy) was still assessed as “dirty”. The water quality of the Vilyui Reservoir has stabilized at the level of category “a”, class 4 (“dirty”). The water of Lake Melkoe (Tiksi village), as last year, was assessed as “slightly polluted” (2nd class).

JSC AK Transneft. LLC "TsUP ESPO" carries out environmental monitoring at the stage of construction of the pipeline system "Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean" in accordance with the requirements of the regulations "On the procedure for organizing environmental and analytical monitoring of the state of the environment at industrial facilities of the regulations of the environmental management system of JSC "AK" Transneft”, Environmental Monitoring Programs at the stage of construction of the “Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean” pipeline system for the relevant sections. The indicated monitoring programs as part of the feasibility study (project) have passed all the necessary approvals and examinations, including receiving positive conclusions from the state environmental assessment.

The presence of exceeding the maximum permissible concentration for a number of elements, both above and below the crossing point, allows us to conclude that there is no pollution associated with construction work. The general identified features of the hydrochemical composition (water and bottom sediments) of watercourses are due to variations in combinations of geological and soil conditions; spatial differentiation of ground cover; hydrometeorological conditions of the current and previous years. A route survey of water bodies along the oil pipeline route did not reveal a negative impact of construction on the chemical composition of watercourses in the territory of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Atmospheric air monitoring during the construction stage of the Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean pipeline system was carried out in accordance with the Environmental Monitoring Program. In the winter of 2008, monitoring was carried out in the area of the Talakanskoye field - the city of Aldan. Exceeding the maximum permissible concentration in atmospheric air was not detected. The results of the monitoring allow us to conclude that the construction of the first stage of the pipeline system does not have a significant impact on the quality of atmospheric air in the studied areas. The concentrations of pollutants at the monitoring sites at the time of the research did not exceed the maximum permissible concentration. The actual level of impact on atmospheric air corresponds to the permissible impact in accordance with the requirements of regulatory documents and design solutions. Thus, the increased content of some elements in soils is a regional landscape-geochemical feature and is determined by the chemical composition of soil-forming rocks. In general, we can conclude that when monitoring along the oil pipeline route after construction work, soil degradation was not detected. .Currently, the following main types of observations are carried out on the State Environmental Monitoring Network of the territory of the republic, the basic basis of which is the observation networks of the Federal State Institution “YAUGMS”: - air pollution in cities and industrial centers; — pollution of surface waters; — for radioactive pollution of the environment;

Monitoring of the state of atmospheric air pollution in cities and other settlements on the territory of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is carried out on regular state observation networks of the Federal State Institution “Yakutsk UGMS” *, which include 8 stationary posts in 5 settlements of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). In 2008, 43.6 thousand observations were made. From the analysis of the information received, it follows that in general the level of air pollution in populated areas of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) remains high. In the cities of Mirny and Neryungri, the degree of air pollution is assessed as very high, in Yakutsk - high, in the village of Ust-Nera - increased, and only in the village of Serebryany Bor - low. Air quality is determined by high concentrations of suspended solids, nitrogen dioxide, benzo(a)pyrene, as well as specific impurities: formaldehyde, phenol and hydrogen sulfide.