Tiksi, Russia

Tiksi (Yakut. Tiksii) is an urban-type settlement, the center of the Bulunsky ulus of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Large northern settlement of Yakutia.


The urban-type settlement is located beyond the Arctic Circle, to the east of the Lena estuary on the shore of the bay of the same name in the Laptev Sea. Refers to the regions of the Far North.



In 1959, the Polar Geocosmophysical Observatory (PGO) "Tiksi", organized on the basis of the station of the Arctic and Antarctic Institute, became part of IKFIA. The beginning of its birth and its name were associated with the International Geophysical Year - IGY. The first head of the station was Evgeny Alexandrovich Ponomarev, now a doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, professor. Here are his memories of that time.

The history of PGO "Tiksi" began in 1957 in Kyiv, when Professor S.K. Vsekhsvyatsky decided that his concept of the connection between solar phenomena and terrestrial phenomena should be supported by geophysical observations. Since at that time the Kiev Department of Astronomy was preparing a large graduate of specialists who had nowhere to attach in Ukraine, it was decided that some of them would go to Tiksi for the winter. They were Yu.A. Nadubovich, P.Ya. Sukhoivanenko, V.I. Dzyubenko, N .I. Dzyubenko, N.N. Bliznyuk and me.

A landing force was being prepared for Tiksi, but before going to work, all these people had to undergo an internship at an already operating geophysical station under the guidance of Professor A.I. Lebedinsky. Yu.A. Nadubovich specialized in optical observations, P.Ya. In addition, it was assumed that I, almost a Ph.D., would head the scientific work at the station. In addition to the people of Kiev, the research staff was provided by the AARI - these were T.I. Shchuk and E.P. Zubarev. Thus, the main scientific backbone was formed.

They hoped to get engineering and laboratory staff at the expense of local resources and at the expense of the Lena Arctic School. So VF Smirnov, Yu.P. Nikitin appeared in Tiksi. The bulk of the people arrived by plane, and Zubareva and Dzyubenko arrived along with the cargo on the Kooperatsia ship from Murmansk sometime in September. They were sent from there by Sukhoivanenko. Everything was unloaded and brought to the courtyard of the Tiksa laboratory, since the premises were not yet ready. The place for the station was not chosen very well - it was located south of Tiksi, the northern horizon was covered by mountains and illuminated by Tiksi, which caused displeasure of our opticians. But it was already impossible to change anything: there were already two log cabins and even a working small diesel power plant. Houses were being built throughout the winter. The main building, where there was then a dining room, was ready for the New Year, 1958. Mikhail Kozlov lived there, who commanded diesels and the entire economy.

By that time, observations had begun in the village of Tiksi itself. S-180 cameras were installed, E. Zubareva deployed equipment for registering the PDA, and even before our arrival, ionospheric observations were being made. On February 19, 1958, I defended my thesis and on March 6 I was already in Tiksi. In Leningrad, they managed to get a microphoto that Sukhoivanenko needed. Everything was packed and, together with the already accumulated cargo, was delivered to a special flight. Together with me, N.I. Fedyakina and Yu.N. Korneev. We flew safely on the LI-2 plane in 4 days - for that time it was considered good. They immediately brought the car, unloaded the plane and took it to the MGY. It was a clear frosty day. When unloading the car, they first dropped the rubber mat, which shattered to smithereens: it was -37 °.

By that time, all optical equipment, with the exception of spectrographs, had been brought to the station, installed and already in operation, a locator was installed, and on the day of arrival the first shooting session was carried out. But there was no normal connection with the world. And there was no transport. To make a trip somewhere, first it was necessary to run on foot to Tiksi, “knock out” the transport, and then bring coal or food. There were a lot of rushes. But it was more fun than hard. Any physical work was fun. The station was called MGY Object or simply MGY. By my arrival, the building for the installation of the ionospheric station was ready. Under the leadership of V. Dzyubenko, they began to mount fittings for heating themselves. Subsequently, this system was connected to a common system. There were two rooms in the house - one for the ionosphere, the other for the monitor. But they made a mistake during installation, and the monitor was set up in such a way that when it was necessary to change the counters, it was necessary to disassemble everything, because. there was no free space to take out counters. This was a great inconvenience. The equipment for measuring earth currents was located in the same house. The ionospheric station produced great interference during operation, but this was a layout defect that could no longer be corrected. The building for the aurora borealis was also completed on its own. This house was the best of all: it had an electric boiler heating system, the building was warm and comfortable. All services were deployed there: radar, S-180 camera consoles, and a photo lab. There were some economic inconveniences: there was nowhere to store diesel fuel. Then they themselves made a stand and installed a fuel tank. This greatly improved the supply of electricity.

From the middle of 1959 scientific seminars began to be held in our country. By this time, the station had 35 employees. Of these, researchers - E. Ponomarev, V. Dzyubenko, P. Sukhoivanenko, N. Bliznyuk, Yu. Nadubovich, E. Zubareva, T. Shchuka. In the second half of 1959, they were already working according to the full program: all kinds of observations were going on, there was a canteen and free food. In those. For years there was a very strict approach to obtaining data, a certain percentage was given for losses. If the losses were more than acceptable, then punishment in the form of deprivation, for example, a bonus, followed. The films from the S-180 camera were sent to Moscow at the Moscow State Center. There Olga Khorosheva organized film development. Radar data was sent to Murmansk. Earth current data - to the Institute of the Earth's Crust V.A. Trinity. Ionospheric data were sent to the AARI A.S. Bezprozvannaya, which was very strict about the quality of the material received. Photometer data remained with Yu.A. Nadubovich.

The MGY station was a subdivision of the Tiksa observatory and there was no provision for the position of the head. But when I arrived at the observatory, its head V.F. Merezhko immediately typed out the order and handed me a copy with the words: “You will be the head of the station. Go ahead and command." And there was a car humming downstairs. So I became the first official head of the MGY, while Yu.A. Nadubovich. When I was away, V.I. always remained the deputy. Dzyubenko, at that time the most active host at the IGY.

I will briefly dwell on the scientific tasks set before us. As already noted, the organizer was Professor S.K. Vsekhsvyatsky, who came to the IGY and lived there for some time. He was interested in the problem of estimating the density of particles in the solar wind. He had a "comet method" that gave large values for the density and flux of solar wind particles of the order of 1000 particles/cm3. He "forced" me to calculate a model of the solar corona, according to which a flux density of up to 100 particles/cm3 was obtained at a stretch. In general, I got values up to 10 particles/cm3 in the Earth's orbit. He insisted on 1000 and wanted to find confirmation of this in the observations of the auroras.

In those years, Sterner's theory was popular, according to which the auroral zones were very well explained and they tried to establish the energies of particles invading the earth's atmosphere from them. Although the concept of a substorm was formulated by Akasofu much later, Yu.A. Nadubovich already drew attention to the fact that activity has an explosive character. We called them flashes - this term reflected the explosive nature of the substorm. We were all struck by the very rapid course of phenomena, when literally 5-10 minutes after a quiet time, when the sky was dark, a background glow suddenly flared up, then arcs of auroras. This was also observed by other researchers, which prompted everyone to reconsider their ideas, and by the end of the IGY it was clear that Stormer was wrong. And already M. Bobrov divided the entire territory of the Earth into the polar cap and the auroral zone.

By the end of the IGY period, an idea of the concept of a substorm was formed, although it was not called that at that time. It became clear that Sterner's ideas were not suitable for explaining this phenomenon, and the idea of an aurora oval was formed. The decisive role here was played by O.B. Khorosheva, and then Ya.I. Feldstein, who generalized the idea of an oval, of its closedness, except, perhaps, the day side. We have learned something about the spectrum of the particles that cause the auroras. It became clear that these particles did not have an energy of MeV or even hundreds of keV, but they were particles with energies, as was assumed, of the solar wind, about which very little was known at that time. All this forced us to reconsider our plans for the future. The possibilities of satellite methods have already appeared, the possibilities of radiophysical methods have been revised, and riometers have become working tools.

Very high hopes were placed on radars. It was believed that they will allow you to see the arcs of the auroras during the day and in cloudy weather. But it turned out that this was not the case. However, a new class of phenomena was discovered - radio aurora, the existence of which no one assumed. It turned out that radio auroras are somehow connected with optical auroras, but in a very complex, indirect way. A new direction has opened up—spectroscopic observations. A shift to the violet region was found in the hydrogen emission, which indicates that protons are flying at us, the particle energies were estimated from this shift and it turned out that these are particles of keV energies. Gradually, with the help of ionospheric observations, the fluxes and energies of invading electrons were estimated, and it was concluded that electrons of fairly moderate energies are responsible for nighttime ionization at high latitudes.

After the IGY, photographic methods and methods of vertical sounding of the ionosphere came to the fore, while spectrometric and radar methods faded into the shadows. Of course, colossal hopes were pinned on satellites and rockets. But the main conclusions about the magnetic field and the substorm were made on the basis of ground-based observations. This suggests that the data obtained should be treated more biased, because. during the IGY period, we received no less data than the Americans, we had the world's best network of S-180 cameras. Nevertheless, Akasofu discovered the substorm.



Printing house.
Fine arts and culture of the Arctic,
Natural reserve "Ust-Lensky".
Wooden Church of the Savior Not Made by Hands in Tiksi-3 (built in 2006)



The city is located beyond the Arctic Circle. The climate is harsh, arctic. Frosts are slightly softened by the sea; the average temperature in January is -37.3 degrees, July and August (the warmest months) are only +7.6 and +7.7 degrees, respectively. Climatic winter comes in the first half of September, and it ends only in mid-June. Frosts and frosts are possible all year round. Thaws are excluded from November to February. Every summer there are short but hot periods with temperatures over 25 degrees.

February 2013 in Tiksi was the coldest month of the year ever observed in terms of average temperature, with an average temperature of -39.2 degrees. The lowest temperature in Tiksi in February 2013 (-49.5 degrees) was one degree higher than the absolute minimum temperature in Tiksi (-50.5 degrees). The difference between the average monthly temperature of the coldest and warmest month is 42.8 degrees. The largest possible depth of snow cover is 99 cm. The coldest month in terms of both average and minimum temperatures is February, and the maximum is January. April in Tiksi has the lowest average monthly temperature in Russia, its average temperature in 2006 was a record low for Russia - -27.6 degrees. The polar night in the village lasts 67 days, from November 19 to January 24, the polar day - 86 days, from May 10 to August 3.



Tiksi is one of the Arctic ports of Russia. Navigation takes less than three months. From June to September the river passenger motor ship “Mechanic Kulibin” runs (7 trips per navigation).

There is an airport of federal significance, jointly based. Aircraft of state and civil aviation are located on the territory of the airport.

The airfield was re-commissioned on April 10, 2013. It is capable of receiving aircraft An-24 (An-26), An-72 (An-74), An-12, An-140, DHC-8 Q-300, -400, Il-18, Il-76, as well as small aircraft and all types of helicopters.