Voronezh Oblast, Russia

The Voronezh Region is located in the Central Black Earth Region. The region has the oldest site of modern man in Europe - in the area of ​​the village of Kostenki in the Khokholsky district, Paleolithic sites dating back to 30-45 thousand years ago were discovered.

In the west, it borders on the Belgorod region, in the northwest - on Kursk, in the north - on Lipetsk, in the northeast - on Tambov, in the east - on Volgograd and Saratov, in the south - on Rostov, and in the southwest - with Ukraine. Most of the region is a forest-steppe, but in the southeast there is a steppe zone. The main river is the Don, 530 of its 1870 km flows through the territory of the region.

The Voronezh Region is located in the temperate climate zone between 52° and 49° north latitude.



Administratively, the region is divided into 31 municipal districts and 3 urban districts (Voronezh, Novovoronezh, Borisoglebsky).

From a tourist point of view, it is more interesting to present the region in terms of geographical and recreational division:
Voronezh, Novovoronezh, New Usman, Semiluki, Ramon
The north-western part of the region, the vicinity of the city of Voronezh. The historical core of the region. It includes a large Usmansky forest, in which the Voronezh nature reserve is located.

Don region
Rossosh, Liski, Ostrogozhsk, Pavlovsk, Buturlinovka, Bobrov, Kalach, Boguchar
The southern part of the region along the great Russian river Don. For the most part, the steppe zone, with the Shipov forest and Khrenovsky forest, the chalk mountains of Divnogorye and Belogorye.

Borisoglebsk, Ertil, Anna, Novokhopyorsk, Povorino
The eastern part of the region along the Khoper River and its tributaries. Forest-steppe zone with a large Tellerman forest, in which the Khopersky Reserve is located.







Small towns

Divnogorye is a natural and architectural reserve 30 km from Liski.
Ramon - a village with a luxurious neo-Gothic manor-castle
Khopersky Nature Reserve is one of the oldest reserves in the system of Specially Protected Natural Territories of Russia. Geographically located in the eastern part of the Voronezh region within three administrative districts: Novokhopersky, Povorinsky and Gribanovsky.


Other destinations

Voronezh Biosphere Reserve

Kostenki Museum-Reserve (Kostenkovo-Borshchevsky Historical and Cultural Archaeological Complex)  , Voronezh Region, Kostenki village, st. Kirova, 6a (by regular bus Voronezh-Aleksandrovka (Kostenki stop) daily at 9:20.). ☎ +7 (473) 262-80-25. Open from May to November from Wednesday to Sunday from 10:00 to 18:00, Saturday until 20:30. Days off: Monday, Tuesday. from 100 to 300 rubles, preferential 50 rubles. The Upper Paleolithic site has been studied since the 19th century to this day. The museum exhibits archaeological and paleontological finds, collected information from the life of mammoth hunters. The structure of the reserve includes 7 Upper Paleolithic sites - "parking" with a total area of 26105 sq.m. In the main building of the museum, you can see tools and weapons of ancient hunters, a taxidermic sculpture of a mammoth, and the remains of a real dwelling made of mammoth bones aged 20,000 years.
There is a children's archaeological club "Cave Lion" (pre-registration by phone).

Beaver nursery and museum of nature in the Voronezh Reserve, pos. Tolshi of the Verkhnekhavsky district (by train from Voronezh in the direction of Usman, Gryazi or Ramon to Grafskaya station or by bus No. 310 from the station square of the Voronezh-1 station to the Zapovednik stop). 09:18, break from 13 to 14 without days off.
Museum of peasant life "Village of the XVII-XIX centuries", Ertil. ✉ ☎ +7(906)583-30-61.

Getting here

By car
On the territory of the Voronezh region are:
federal highway E115 - M4 "Moscow-Novorossiysk";
federal highway E119 - P22 "Moscow-Astrakhan";
motorway E38 - A144 "Kursk-Saratov";
highway R193 "Voronezh-Tambov";
highway R194 "Voronezh-Lugansk";
highway P185 "Belgorod-Rossosh".

By train
In the Voronezh region there are railways belonging to the South-Eastern Railway. The largest stations are Liski, Rossosh, Povorino, Otrozhka, Voronezh-Kursky, Pridacha, Voronezh-1, Talovaya. The main railway junctions are Liskinsky, Povorinsky and Voronezhsky.

By plane
Arrival to Voronezh is possible through the international airport "Voronezh". You can get to the airport by direct flights from many cities in Russia, Armenia, Georgia, Turkey, Israel, Germany, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Croatia, Belarus, Italy, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan.


Getting around

By bus
The website of the Voronezh Regiontras contains a schedule of all officially registered intra-regional bus routes. Interregional routes not listed on this site may also be useful.



In the Voronezh Territory, the first Cro-Magnon camps were during the Upper (Late) Paleolithic period on the Don, near the village of Kostenki (Kostenkovskiye camps), as well as near Voronezh (Markina Gora), near the villages of Aleksandrovka and Borshchevo.
Near the Mostishche farm in the Ostrogozhsky district there is a monument of the Bronze Age - a stone labyrinth. The Mostishchensky labyrinth is the first known megalithic structure in central Russia.
In the 7th-3rd centuries BC, Scythian tribes lived in the steppes of the Lower Don. They also occupied the southern part of the modern Voronezh region.
Bronze Age sites have been found in the city of Voronezh (Levoberezhny District), near the Somovo station, in Liski, Kostenki, Maslovka and other places.
In the 4th century, the Huns passed through the Don steppes from east to west.
In the 7th century, the steppe part of the territory of the Voronezh Territory became part of the Khazar Khaganate.
In the 8th century, a Slavic population appeared in Voronezh and the middle Don (Romny-Borshchiv culture).
In the 8th century, the Pechenegs appeared here, and in the middle of the 11th century, the Polovtsy arrived.
IX-X centuries. Mayak settlement (Saltovo-Mayak culture)
During the period of feudal fragmentation, the territory of the region was part of the Ryazan and Chernigov principalities.
In 1237, “in Voronezh”, the first battle took place between the squads of the Russian princes Igor Ryazansky and Oleg of Murom and the warriors of Batu.

The formation of the borders of the Voronezh Territory is closely connected with the founding of Voronezh (1585-1586) and the construction of the Voronezh guards, covering the interfluve of the Don with the lower reaches of the rivers Voronezh, Bityug, Tikhaya Sosna.
In the 17th century, Voronezh became the center of the Voronezh district, which, according to the 1678 census, included four camps: Karachunsky, Borshchevsky, Usmansky and Chertovitsky.
1711 - Voronezh became a provincial city.
From 1711 to 1725, Voronezh became the administrative center of the vast Azov province, the territory of which stretched from Nizhny Novgorod in the north to Azov in the south, and from Stary Oskol in the west to Saratov in the east.
From 1725 to 1928 the Voronezh province was called.

Under the influence of the Peasants' War (1773-1775), a new administrative reform began in Russia in 1775, during which the post of governor appeared. He was endowed with emergency powers and obeyed only the empress. The Voronezh governorate was created in 1779. In 1782-1783, Vasily Alekseevich Chertkov was appointed governor of Voronezh and Kharkov.

In 1779, the size of the province was sharply reduced. 15 counties remained in its composition: Belovodsky, Biryuchensky, Bobrovsky, Bogucharsky, Valuysky, Voronezhsky, Zadonsky, Zemlyansky, Kalitvyansky, Korotoyaksky, Kupyansky, Livensky, Nizhnedevitsky, Ostrogozhsky, Pavlovsky.
1802 - Kupyansky uyezd leaves the province, and Novokhopyorsky uyezd enters.
1824 - Two counties leave the Voronezh province: Belovodsky and Kalitvyansky.
May 14, 1928 - By the Decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, the Central Black Earth Region was formed, which included four provinces: Voronezh, Kursk, Oryol and Tambov, with the administrative center in Voronezh.
June 13, 1934 - By the Decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, the Central Black Earth Region was divided into the Voronezh and Kursk regions.
September 27, 1937 - The Tambov region was separated from the Voronezh region. 5 districts were transferred to the created Oryol region.

During the years of the Yezhovshchina in the Voronezh region, the troika operated from August 1937 to November 1938. It included (at different times): the secretaries of the regional party committee - Mikhailov, Yarygin, Nikitin; chiefs of the UNKVD - Korkin, Denisov; regional prosecutors - Kaminsky, Kushnarev, Nikitochkin, Tereshchenko, Andreev.

January 6, 1954 - Significant western and northern territories were transferred to the created Belgorod and Lipetsk regions. Significant changes also affected the eastern and southern outskirts of the Voronezh region: the territories of the Bogucharsky and Kantemirovskiy districts went to the Kamensk region, and the territories of the Borisoglebsky, Gribanovsky, Ternovsky and Novokhopyorsky districts - to the Balashov region.
November 19, 1957 - The districts that were part of the liquidated Kamensk and Balashov regions were returned to the Voronezh region, after which the territory of the Voronezh region remains unchanged.

On October 9, 2008, near Dubovka, on the site of mass executions in 1937-1938, the Monument to the Victims of Repressions was opened.

The Voronezh region was badly damaged during wildfires in the summer of 2010 caused by abnormal heat.


Physical and geographical characteristics


The Voronezh Region is located in the central strip of the European part of Russia, in an extremely advantageous strategic location, in a hub of transport communications going to the industrial regions of the Russian Federation and the CIS countries. More than 50% of the country's population lives within a radius (12 hours drive 80 km/h) of 960 kilometers around Voronezh (this is considered a cost-effective transport "shoulder").
Neighboring regions: Rostov-on-Don, Volgograd, Belgorod, Lipetsk, Saratov, Tambov, Kursk, Lugansk.

The area of the region is 52.2 thousand km², which is about a third of the area of the entire Chernozem region. The length of the region from north to south is 277.5 km and from west to east is 352 km.

The territory of the Voronezh region is larger than the territory of such European countries as Denmark (43,098 km²), the Netherlands (41,526 km²), Switzerland (41,284 km²), Belgium (32,545 km²), Slovakia (49,034 km²).



The Voronezh Region is located in the time zone designated by the international standard as the Moscow Time Zone (MSK). The difference with UTC is +3:00h.



The climate in the region is temperate continental with an average January temperature of −9 °C, July +20.5 °C and an average annual temperature of +4.5 °C in the northeast of the region to +7.5 °C in the extreme south. Precipitation falls from 600 mm in the northwest to 450 mm in the southeast. The climate of the region is also affected by the climate-separating axis (Voyeikov axis) running from the Baikal region, Altai and Mongolia through Kazakhstan, passing the Voronezh region from the east from the Saratov region and crossing the eastern and central regions north of Borisoglebsk, going beyond the region in the Ostrogozhsky district. In spring, it rises on average to the south of the Tambov, Lipetsk, Kursk regions. At the end of May, the polar front comes out to the southeast of the region, which rises to the northwest of the Voronezh region in early August, or sometimes goes beyond it completely.



Most of the region is a forest-steppe, but in the southeast there is a vast steppe zone. A feature of the region is the presence of a number of large tracts of predominantly coniferous forests (pine forests), as well as oak forests, despite the fact that this type of vegetation is not typical for the southern regions of Russia.

Chernozems predominate among the soils.

There are 738 lakes and 2408 ponds on the territory of the region, 1343 rivers with a length of more than 10 km flow. The main river is the Don, 530 of its 1870 km flows through the territory of the region, forming a basin with an area of 422,000 km².



The mineral resource base of the Voronezh region is represented by deposits of non-metallic raw materials, mainly building materials (sands, clays, chalk, granites, cement raw materials, ocher, limestone, sandstone), especially in the western and southern regions of the region. On the territory of Semiluksky, Khokholsky and Nizhnedevitsky districts of the region there are reserves of phosphorites. The region has large reserves of chalk. The Voronezh region has significant reserves of nickel, copper and platinum, the deposits of which were developed by UMMC in 2012.



According to the structure of the economy, the Voronezh region is industrial-agrarian. The sector of specialization of the region is the food industry (27%; the industry specializes in the production of granulated sugar, oil-fat and meat products), the second place is occupied by mechanical engineering and metalworking (23%), the third place is the power industry (18%). The industry is dominated by mechanical engineering, electric power, the chemical industry, and industries for the processing of agricultural raw materials; they account for 4/5 of the total industrial output.

In terms of GRP growth, for the first time in more than 20 years, the Voronezh Region entered the top five most dynamically developing regions of Russia.

In 2017, the Agency for Strategic Initiatives compiled a national rating of the state of the investment climate, in which the Voronezh Region rose to seventh place in the Russian Federation. For the first time in recent history, the Voronezh Region ranked first among all regions of the Russian Federation in terms of the industrial production index, which amounted to ↗129.4% in 2012.

The structure of the Voronezh urban agglomeration includes the cities of Novovoronezh, Semiluki, the village of Ramon (tourism), with. New Usman.

Rossosh (60,879 people) is the second largest city in the region. Known for the production of chemical fertilizers, lime, polymer films, processing of agricultural products.

Borisoglebsk (60,687 people) - specializes in the production of chemical equipment and the processing of agricultural products. There is a large-scale production of hosiery and knitwear.

Liski (54,147 people) - is known as one of the largest railway junctions in Russia and the processing of agricultural products.



As of January 1, 2021, the rural population is 738,562 people, 32% of the population of the Voronezh region.

In general, the profile of agriculture is with sunflower and grain crops, dairy and meat cattle breeding, pig breeding and sheep breeding. The region's very fertile black soil is close to the Black Sea export terminals, making it convenient to supply grain to major wheat importers in North Africa and the Middle East, such as Turkey and Egypt.

The volume of agricultural production in 2020 amounted to 214.0 billion rubles. Index 99.3%.


Animal husbandry

As of January 1, 2020, there were 489.8 thousand heads of cattle in farms of all categories, including 186.2 thousand heads of cows, 1418.4 thousand pigs, 211.9 thousand sheep and goats, 4.3 thousand horses, 11865 thousand birds.

In 2020, farms of all categories produced 552.3 thousand tons (+2.7%) for slaughter of livestock and poultry (+2.7%), the Voronezh region took 1st place in the Central Federal District in terms of milk production 1,023.1 thousand tons (+4.3%), egg production amounted to 760 million eggs (+0.3%).

In 2020, the average milk yield per cow is 7,837 kg (+345 kg).

In 2013, 372.2 thousand tons of meat were produced. In 2014, 925.6 million eggs were produced. Milk production in 2013 755.7 thousand tons. In 2014, it increased by 4.2% to ↗788 thousand tons, according to this indicator, the Voronezh Region ranks first in the Central Federal District. Milk yield in 2014 increased by 10.9% and amounted to 5545 kg. The leaders in terms of keeping livestock per 100 hectares of agricultural land are Liskinsky district, Ramonsky district, Bobrovsky district and Verkhnekhavsky district.


Crop production

The main resource of the region is ordinary, as well as powerful and fat chernozems, which occupy the main part of the region's territory. The Voronezh Region is a major supplier of agricultural products: it produces grain, mainly wheat, sugar beet, sunflower and other industrial crops, potatoes and vegetables.

The sown area in 2019 is 2638.5 hectares, of which 1508.1 hectares are cereals.

The harvest of grain and leguminous crops in 2020 was a record for the entire history of field crops in the region, amounting to 6 million tons. The average yield in 2015-2020 exceeded the average values of 2000-2010 by 15 centners and amounted to 40 q/ha. 70% of the examined grain is food grade (of which 41% is the fourth grade, 27% is the third, 2% is the 1st and 2nd grades), 30% is forage.

The Voronezh region is the leader in Russia in terms of buckwheat yield, yielding only to the Kursk region and the Kemerovo region with an indicator of 10.7 centners per hectare.

In 2014, the Voronezh region took first place in Russia in terms of the gross potato harvest in farms of all categories, 1.757 million tons of potatoes were harvested. The beet sugar complex of the Voronezh region for the production of beet sugar is the largest in the Chernozem region. For the first time in the history of agriculture in the region in 2011, record-breaking harvests of sugar beet (factory) were obtained - 6 million 992 thousand tons (3.9 times more than in 2010).


Fruit growing

In the southern quarter of the region, a special agricultural region with southern-type chernozems stands out: the frost-free period here increases to 240 or more days, the HTC with an isotherm of +10 ° C rises to 3000 or more ° C, and snow cover does not form at all in some winters. In this region, it is possible to grow cultivars of grapes, walnuts, peaches, persimmons, winter-hardy forms of figs, the shrub forms of which tolerate frosts down to -16 ° C.



The industry is dominated by mechanical engineering, the chemical industry and the processing of agricultural raw materials; they account for 4/5 of the total industrial output. The industry of the region specializes in the production of machine tools, metal bridge structures, forging and pressing and mining and processing equipment, electronic equipment, passenger airbus aircraft (see the Russian aviation industry), synthetic rubber and tires, and refractory products. Missile technology: KBKhA, Gribanovsky Machine-Building Plant (p.g.t. Gribanovsky)

A number of enterprises operate on the basis of explored mineral raw materials in the Voronezh region, the largest of which are Pavlovsk Nerud OJSC, Voronezh Mining Administration OJSC, Semiluk and Voronezh building materials plants, the Eurocement group holding, Kopanishchensky Building Materials Plant CJSC, Zhuravsky ocher factory” and many others. Mineral underground waters are being developed in the region.

Power industry
As of December 2020, three power plants with a total capacity of 4,262.9 MW were operating in the Voronezh Region, including one nuclear power plant and two thermal power plants. In 2019, they produced 22,807 million kWh of electricity. A feature of the region's energy sector is the sharp dominance of one power plant, the Novovoronezh NPP, which accounts for more than 90% of all electricity generation.



On the territory of the Voronezh region are:
federal highway E 115-M4 "Moscow-Novorossiysk";
federal highway E 119-R22 "Moscow-Astrakhan";
motorway E 38-R298 "Kursk-Saratov";
highway R193 "Voronezh-Tambov";
Highway P194 "Voronezh-Lugansk".
highway P185 "Belgorod-Rossosh".
highway P196 "P194 - Podgornoye - M4".

In the Voronezh region there are railways owned by Russian Railways and related to the South-Eastern Railway.

The main highways run in the meridional direction from the Grafskaya station to the Gartmashevka station (center - south) and in the latitudinal direction from the Zasimovka station to the Kardail station (Kharkov - Penza) and intersect at the Liski station. These are double-track electrified on alternating current with a voltage of 25 kV, to which single-track dead-end branches Grafskaya - Anna, Kolodeznaya - Novovoronezhskaya, Rossosh - Olkhovatka adjoin; Talovaya - Buturlinovka - Kalach / Pavlovsk-Voronezhsky and electrified Grafskaya-Ramon.

Also, main single-track diesel-powered lines pass through the territory of the region: these are the Voronezh-Kursk directions from the Otrozhka station to the Nizhnedevitsk station (with the Veduga-Khokholskaya branch) and Gryazi-Volgograd from the Ternovka station to the Duplyatka station, as well as a small part of the Oborona-Ertil branch.

The total length of railway lines in the region is more than 1100 km.

The largest stations are Liski, Rossosh, Povorino, Otrozhka, Voronezh-Kursky, Pridacha, Voronezh-1, Talovaya, Podkletnoye. The main railway junctions are Liskinsky, Povorinsky and Voronezhsky. Locomotive depots - Otrozhka (electric trains ED9M, ED9T and diesel trains RA2, motorcars ACh2), Liski (freight electric locomotives VL80 of various indexes), Rossosh (passenger electric locomotives ChS4T and EP1M).

The main transport water arteries of the region are the rivers Don (navigable below Lisok) and Khoper (navigable below Novokhopyorsk). The length of navigable inland waterways for 2019 is 580 km. The only river port in the region is located on the Don River in Liski; the port in Voronezh on the river of the same name (navigable in the lower reaches) does not function due to the shallowing of the Don River.

Region budget
Budget revenues for 2023 will amount to 156.7 billion rubles; expenses of 170.6 billion rubles.

Tax payments to the federal budget of the region in 2013 amounted to 102 billion rubles.

Gross regional product of the Voronezh region, billion rubles.



The region has significant recreational and tourism potential, which has not been fully realized. In addition to the pine forests and oak forests in the valley of the Voronezh River, known for their beneficial effects on humans, the most famous historical and cultural monument in the region, popular so far mainly among local tourists, is Divnogorye, which is an Orthodox church hollowed out by Russian monks in the thickness of a huge chalk mountain on banks of the Tikhaya Pine River in the Liskinsky district. There are many summer and winter tourist bases, sanatoriums, reserves and reserves in the region. In the area of the village of Kostenki, Khokholsky district, there is a Paleolithic monument Markina Gora (37 thousand years old), which is part of the Kostenkovsky complex of sites.


Regional income, salary level

The average monthly salary in 2017 is 28 thousand rubles, the average pension is 12.4 thousand rubles.

In 2019, regional budget expenditures are planned at the level of 117 billion rubles, revenues - 108.6 billion rubles. According to the results of 2018, the revenue part of the budget was executed in the amount of 113.1 billion rubles, of which 30.9 billion rubles were gratuitous receipts.



On the territory of the Voronezh region, sports and recreational fishing is actively developing, large fishing grounds contribute to this - the four largest rivers of the region: Don, Voronezh, Khoper and Bityug, and a large number of artificial ponds are rich in a wide variety of fish: pike, pike perch, carp (carp), catfish , crucian carp, perch, tench, rudd, roach, bleak, biryuk, bream, silver bream, asp, blue bream, ide, chub, dace, ruff, podust, shemaya, grass carp, burbot (currently quite rare and included in the regional Red Book ), trout and sturgeon, which are rare for these places, are sometimes found in the ponds.


Voronezh region in philately

Once every five years, postage stamps with symbols of several Russian regions are issued in the Russian Federation.

In 2009, the Voronezh region also became one. To choose what will be depicted on the stamps, a competition was held, to which employees of the Voronezh main post office sent about 50 sketches. Among them were images of the monument to Peter I, the Assumption Church, Admiralteyskaya Square, etc. As a result, the Oldenburgsky Palace, the chalk mountains near the village of Storozhevoye and the flying Il-96 aircraft, symbolizing the Voronezh Aviation Plant, were chosen[62].

A postage stamp of the USSR was also issued, dedicated to the 400th anniversary of the capital of the region - the city of Voronezh.



Order of Lenin (March 15, 1935) - for outstanding success over a number of years in the field of agriculture, as well as in the field of industry.
Order of Lenin (December 17, 1956) - for the initiative taken to implement ahead of schedule the decisions of the XX Congress of the CPSU on increasing the production and delivery of livestock products to the state, and the successful fulfillment of the obligations assumed.
Voronezh region in numismatics
In 2008, the Central Bank of the Russian Federation issued a coin (3 rubles, 925 silver, proof) from the Architectural Monuments of Russia series with the image on the reverse of the Assumption Admiralty Church (XVII century) in Voronezh.
In 2009, the Central Bank of the Russian Federation issued a coin (3 rubles, 925 silver - 999 gold, proof) from the Russian Architectural Monuments series with the image of the Pokrovsky Cathedral in Voronezh on the reverse.
In 2011, the Central Bank of the Russian Federation issued a coin (10 rubles, brass / cupronickel, uncirculated) from the Russian Federation series with the emblem of the Voronezh region on the reverse.
In 2011, the National Bank of the Republic of Belarus issued a coin (20 rubles, silver Ag 925, proof) from the series "The World of Sculpture" ("Paleolithic Venus. Kostenki") with the image on the reverse of the oldest figurine of the Paleolithic Venus (found in the village of Kostenki, Voronezh region) , which symbolizes the goddess of fertility.
In 2012, the Central Bank of the Russian Federation issued a coin (10 rubles, steel with brass plating, uncirculated) from the City of Military Glory series with the image of the coat of arms of Voronezh on the reverse