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Description of Voronezh
Voronezh is a city in Russia, the administrative
center of the Voronezh region. It is located on the banks of the
Voronezh River, 12 kilometers from its confluence with the Don;
distance from Moscow - 463 km. The population of the city of
Voronezh as of January 1, 2018 is 1,058,547 people. An agglomeration
with a population of over 1.3 million people was formed around
Voronezh. It forms the administrative-territorial unit and
municipality urban district of the city of Voronezh with the only
settlement in its composition.
Voronezh is considered the
“cradle” of the Russian regular (state) navy and the homeland of the
On April 27 (May 8), 1700, the Voronezh shipyard of
the Voronezh Admiralty solemnly launched the 58-gun sailing ship of
the line designed by Russian Tsar Peter I. classification of 1706,
created in Russia without the participation of foreign experts.
During his service, the battleship was part of the Azov fleet,
through which the fortress of Azov was conquered. Subsequently,
thanks to the newly created fleet in the city, a peace treaty was
signed with the Ottoman Empire to start and wage war with the
Travel Destinations in Voronezh
1 Revolution Avenue. Prospekt Revolyutsii, or simply Prospekt (a
Russian word for avenue) is the center of Voronezh's life. It has
many beautiful and/or historical buildings, including the former
Admiralteyskaya Square. The Admiralteyskaya
square with the old church where Peter the Great baptized his ships.
2 Goto Predestinatsia, Admiralteyskaya Square. Ship-museum, ship
replica of first Russian ship of the line and the first ship of this
rate built in Russia without any help from foreign experts.
Annunciation Cathedral. The Annunciation Cathedral (finished in
2009, 4th tallest Orthodox church in the world, being topped by
probably the largest cross in Europe; surrounded by a fence with
4 Lenin Square.
5 Akatov women’s monastery.
The monument Kitten from Lizyukova street.
The office of
South-Eastern Railways (SERW), in Russian: YU-VE-ZHE-DE.
Monuments to such writers and poets as
Koltsov, Nikitin, Mandelshtam, Esenin, Pushkin, Platonov, Bunin; to
Lenin and tsar Peter the Great.
Foundation and name
The first chronicle references to the word "Voronezh" are dated
1177, when the Ryazan prince Yaropolk, having lost the battle, fled
"to Voronozh" and there was moving "from hail into hail." Modern
data of archeology and history interpret Voronezh as a geographical
region, which included the Voronezh river (tributary of the Don) and
a number of settlements. In the lower reaches of the river, an
unique Slavic town-planning complex of the 8th – early 11th century
was discovered, which covered the territory of the present city of
Voronezh and its environs (about 42 km long, about 13 forts and many
unfortified villages). By the 12th – 13th centuries, most of the old
“hails” were desolate, but new settlements appeared upstream, closer
For many years, the hypothesis of the Soviet
historian Vladimir Zagorovsky dominated: he produced the toponym
"Voronezh" from the hypothetical Slavic personal name Voroneg. This
man allegedly gave the name of a small town in the Chernigov
Principality (now the village of Voronezh in Ukraine). Later, in the
XI or XII centuries, the settlers were able to "transfer" this name
to the Don region, where they named the second city Voronezh, and
the river got its name from the city. However, now many researchers
criticize the hypothesis, since in reality neither the name of
Voroneg nor the second city was revealed, and usually the names of
Russian cities repeated the names of the rivers, but not vice versa.
The linguistic comparative analysis of the name "Voronezh" was
carried out by the Khovansky Foundation in 2009. There is an
indication of the place names of many countries in Eurasia, which
may partly be not only similar in sound, but also united by common
Indo-European languages: Varanasi, Varna, Verona, Brno, etc.
A comprehensive scientific analysis was conducted in 2015–2016 by
the historian Pavel Popov. His conclusion: "Voronezh" is a probable
Slavic macrotoponym associated with outstanding signs of nature, has
a root voron- (from the proto-Slavic vorn) in the meaning of "black,
dark" and the suffix -ezh (-azh, -ozh). It was not “transferred” and
in the 8th - 9th centuries it marked a vast territory covered with
black forests (oak forests) - from the mouth of the Voronezh river
to the Voronozhsky annalistic forests in the middle and upper
reaches of the river, and in the west to the Don (many forests were
cut down). The historian believes that the main "city" of the early
town-planning complex could repeat the name of the region –
Voronezh. Now the hillfort is located in the administrative part of
the modern city, in the Voronezh upland oak forest. This is one of
Europe's largest ancient Slavic hillforts, the area of which – more
than 9 hectares – 13 times the area of the main settlement in Kiev
before the baptism of Rus.
Folk etymology claims the name
comes from combining the Russian words for raven (ворон) and
hedgehog (еж) into Воронеж. According to this explanation two Slavic
tribes named after the animals used this combination to name the
river which later in turn provided the name for a settlement. There
is not believed to be any scientific support for this explanation.
In the 16th century, the Middle Don basin, including the
Voronezh river, was gradually conquered by Muscovy from the Nogai
Horde (a successor state of the Golden Horde), and the current city
of Voronezh was established in 1585 by Feodor I as a fort protecting
the Muravsky Trail trade route against the raids of the Nogai and
Crimean Tatars.The city was named after the river.
In the 17th century, Voronezh gradually evolved
into a sizable town. Weronecz is shown on the Worona river in
Resania in Joan Blaeu's map of 1645. Peter the Great built a
dockyard in Voronezh where the Azov Flotilla was constructed for the
Azov campaigns in 1695 and 1696. This fleet, the first ever built in
Russia, included the first Russian ship of the line, Goto
Predestinatsia. The Orthodox diocese of Voronezh was instituted in
1682 and its first bishop, Mitrofan of Voronezh, was later
proclaimed the town's patron saint.
Owing to the Voronezh
Admiralty Wharf, for a short time, Voronezh became the largest city
of South Russia and the economic center of a large and fertile
region. In 1711, it was made the seat of the Azov Governorate, which
eventually morphed into the Voronezh Governorate.
In the 19th century, Voronezh was a center of the Central Black
Earth Region. Manufacturing industry (mills, tallow-melting,
butter-making, soap, leather, and other works) as well as bread,
cattle, suet, and the hair trade developed in the town. A railway
connected Voronezh with Moscow in 1868 and Rostov-on-Don in 1871.
During World War II, Voronezh was the scene of fierce fighting
between Russian and combined Axis troops. The Germans used it as a
staging area for their attack on Stalingrad, and made it a key
crossing point on the Don River. In June 1941, two BM-13 (Fighting
machine #13 Katyusha) artillery installations were built at the
Voronezh excavator factory. In July, the construction of Katyushas
was rationalized so that their manufacture became easier and the
time of volley repetition was shortened from five minutes to fifteen
seconds. More than 300 BM-13 units manufactured in Voronezh were
used in a counterattack near Moscow in December 1941. In October 22,
1941, the advance of the German troops prompted the establishment of
a defense committee in the city. On November 7, 1941, there was a
troop parade, devoted to the anniversary of the October Revolution.
Only three such parades were organized that year: in Moscow,
Kuybyshev, and Voronezh. In late June 1942, the city was attacked by
German and Hungarian forces. In response, Soviet forces formed the
Voronezh Front. By July 6, the German army occupied the western
river-bank suburbs before being subjected to a fierce Soviet
counter-attack. By July 24 the frontline had stabilised along the
Voronezh River as the German forces continued southeast into the
Great Bend of the Don. The attack on Voronezh represented the first
phase of the German Army's 1942 campaign in the Soviet Union,
codenamed Case Blue.
Until January 25, 1943, parts of the
Second German Army and the Second Hungarian Army occupied west part
of Voronezh. During Operation Little Saturn, the Ostrogozhsk–Rossosh
Offensive, and the Voronezhsko-Kastornenskoy Offensive, the Voronezh
Front exacted heavy casualties on Axis forces. On January 25, 1943,
Voronezh was liberated after ten days of combat. During the war the
city was almost completely ruined, with 92% of all buildings
By 1950, Voronezh had been rebuilt.
Most buildings and historical monuments were repaired. It was also
the location of a prestigious Suvorov Military School, a boarding
school for young boys who were considered to be prospective military
officers, many of whom had been orphaned by war.
1950–1960, new factories were established: a tire factory, a
machine-tool factory, a factory of heavy mechanical pressing, and
others. In 1968, Serial production of the Tupolev Tu-144 supersonic
plane was established at the Voronezh Aviation factory. In October
1977, the first Soviet domestic wide-body plane, Ilyushin Il-86, was
In 1989, TASS published details of an alleged
UFO landing in the city's park and purported encounters with
extraterrestrial beings reported by a number of children. A Russian
scientist that was cited in initial TASS reports later told the
Associated Press that he was misquoted, cautioning, "Don't believe
all you hear from TASS," and "We never gave them part of what they
published", and a TASS correspondent admitted the possibility that
some "make-believe" had been added to the TASS story, saying, "I
think there is a certain portion of truth, but it is not excluded
that there is also fantasizing".
From 10 to 17
September 2011, Voronezh celebrated its 425th anniversary. The
anniversary of the city was given the status of a federal scale
celebration that helped attract large investments from the federal
and regional budgets for development.
On December 17, 2012,
Voronezh became the fifteenth city in Russia with a population of
over one million people.
Today Voronezh is the economic,
industrial, cultural, and scientific center of the Central Black
To Voronezh by plane
Relatively small Voronezh-Chertovitskoye
International Airport (VOZ IATA) with several connections to Moscow
and flights to Munich, Prague, Yerevan etc.
To Voronezh by train
trains to and from Moscow every day. The most suitable options are
the day train no. 45 (less than 8 hours) and the night trains nos.
25 and 81/83. You can also travel to and from other Russian and
Ukrainian cities. The main station is Voronezh 1, but most of the
trains going to the south via Voronezh stop only at Pridacha
station, which has marshrutka connection with the city centre.
To Voronezh by bus
The cost of the bus from Moscow is approximately the
same as the cheapest train ticket (and the latter provides more
comfortable travel conditions). You can catch a bus to Voronezh near
Moscow Paveletskaya train station. In Voronezh the bus stops near
Pyramide (Pamyatnik) and terminates near Voronezh 1 train station.
To Voronezh by car
Voronezh is about 500km south of Moscow on the
Get around Voronezh
The public transport
in Voronezh includes buses, marshrutkas and a small quantity of trolley-buses
and trams. A funny option is the yellow buses Народный маршрут
(Folk´s route). It costs nothing, and the network covers most of the
city, but they are very rare.