Ermak Travel Guide

 

Voronezh

Voronezh

 

 

 

 

 

 

Transportation

Hotels, motels and where to sleep

Restaurant, taverns and where to eat

Cultural (and not so cultural) events

Interesting information and useful tips

 

Description of Voronezh

Voronezh is a city in Russia, the administrative center of the Voronezh region. It is located on the banks of the Voronezh River, 12 kilometers from its confluence with the Don; distance from Moscow - 463 km. The population of the city of Voronezh as of January 1, 2018 is 1,058,547 people. An agglomeration with a population of over 1.3 million people was formed around Voronezh. It forms the administrative-territorial unit and municipality urban district of the city of Voronezh with the only settlement in its composition.

Voronezh is considered the “cradle” of the Russian regular (state) navy and the homeland of the airborne troops.

On April 27 (May 8), 1700, the Voronezh shipyard of the Voronezh Admiralty solemnly launched the 58-gun sailing ship of the line designed by Russian Tsar Peter I. classification of 1706, created in Russia without the participation of foreign experts. During his service, the battleship was part of the Azov fleet, through which the fortress of Azov was conquered. Subsequently, thanks to the newly created fleet in the city, a peace treaty was signed with the Ottoman Empire to start and wage war with the Swedish Empire.

 

 

 

Travel Destinations in Voronezh

1 Revolution Avenue. Prospekt Revolyutsii, or simply Prospekt (a Russian word for avenue) is the center of Voronezh's life. It has many beautiful and/or historical buildings, including the former Hotel Bristol.
Admiralteyskaya Square. The Admiralteyskaya square with the old church where Peter the Great baptized his ships.
2 Goto Predestinatsia, Admiralteyskaya Square. Ship-museum, ship replica of first Russian ship of the line and the first ship of this rate built in Russia without any help from foreign experts.
3 Annunciation Cathedral. The Annunciation Cathedral (finished in 2009, 4th tallest Orthodox church in the world, being topped by probably the largest cross in Europe; surrounded by a fence with Soviet symbols).
4 Lenin Square.
5 Akatov women’s monastery.

The monument Kitten from Lizyukova street.
The office of South-Eastern Railways (SERW), in Russian: YU-VE-ZHE-DE.
The park Koltsovskiy skver.

Monuments to such writers and poets as Koltsov, Nikitin, Mandelshtam, Esenin, Pushkin, Platonov, Bunin; to Lenin and tsar Peter the Great.

 

 

History Voronezh

Foundation and name

The first chronicle references to the word "Voronezh" are dated 1177, when the Ryazan prince Yaropolk, having lost the battle, fled "to Voronozh" and there was moving "from hail into hail." Modern data of archeology and history interpret Voronezh as a geographical region, which included the Voronezh river (tributary of the Don) and a number of settlements. In the lower reaches of the river, an unique Slavic town-planning complex of the 8th – early 11th century was discovered, which covered the territory of the present city of Voronezh and its environs (about 42 km long, about 13 forts and many unfortified villages). By the 12th – 13th centuries, most of the old “hails” were desolate, but new settlements appeared upstream, closer to Ryazan.

For many years, the hypothesis of the Soviet historian Vladimir Zagorovsky dominated: he produced the toponym "Voronezh" from the hypothetical Slavic personal name Voroneg. This man allegedly gave the name of a small town in the Chernigov Principality (now the village of Voronezh in Ukraine). Later, in the XI or XII centuries, the settlers were able to "transfer" this name to the Don region, where they named the second city Voronezh, and the river got its name from the city. However, now many researchers criticize the hypothesis, since in reality neither the name of Voroneg nor the second city was revealed, and usually the names of Russian cities repeated the names of the rivers, but not vice versa.

The linguistic comparative analysis of the name "Voronezh" was carried out by the Khovansky Foundation in 2009. There is an indication of the place names of many countries in Eurasia, which may partly be not only similar in sound, but also united by common Indo-European languages: Varanasi, Varna, Verona, Brno, etc.

A comprehensive scientific analysis was conducted in 2015–2016 by the historian Pavel Popov. His conclusion: "Voronezh" is a probable Slavic macrotoponym associated with outstanding signs of nature, has a root voron- (from the proto-Slavic vorn) in the meaning of "black, dark" and the suffix -ezh (-azh, -ozh). It was not “transferred” and in the 8th - 9th centuries it marked a vast territory covered with black forests (oak forests) - from the mouth of the Voronezh river to the Voronozhsky annalistic forests in the middle and upper reaches of the river, and in the west to the Don (many forests were cut down). The historian believes that the main "city" of the early town-planning complex could repeat the name of the region – Voronezh. Now the hillfort is located in the administrative part of the modern city, in the Voronezh upland oak forest. This is one of Europe's largest ancient Slavic hillforts, the area of which – more than 9 hectares – 13 times the area of the main settlement in Kiev before the baptism of Rus.

Folk etymology claims the name comes from combining the Russian words for raven (ворон) and hedgehog (еж) into Воронеж. According to this explanation two Slavic tribes named after the animals used this combination to name the river which later in turn provided the name for a settlement. There is not believed to be any scientific support for this explanation.

In the 16th century, the Middle Don basin, including the Voronezh river, was gradually conquered by Muscovy from the Nogai Horde (a successor state of the Golden Horde), and the current city of Voronezh was established in 1585 by Feodor I as a fort protecting the Muravsky Trail trade route against the raids of the Nogai and Crimean Tatars.The city was named after the river.

17th to 20th centuries
In the 17th century, Voronezh gradually evolved into a sizable town. Weronecz is shown on the Worona river in Resania in Joan Blaeu's map of 1645. Peter the Great built a dockyard in Voronezh where the Azov Flotilla was constructed for the Azov campaigns in 1695 and 1696. This fleet, the first ever built in Russia, included the first Russian ship of the line, Goto Predestinatsia. The Orthodox diocese of Voronezh was instituted in 1682 and its first bishop, Mitrofan of Voronezh, was later proclaimed the town's patron saint.

Owing to the Voronezh Admiralty Wharf, for a short time, Voronezh became the largest city of South Russia and the economic center of a large and fertile region. In 1711, it was made the seat of the Azov Governorate, which eventually morphed into the Voronezh Governorate.

 

In the 19th century, Voronezh was a center of the Central Black Earth Region. Manufacturing industry (mills, tallow-melting, butter-making, soap, leather, and other works) as well as bread, cattle, suet, and the hair trade developed in the town. A railway connected Voronezh with Moscow in 1868 and Rostov-on-Don in 1871.

During World War II, Voronezh was the scene of fierce fighting between Russian and combined Axis troops. The Germans used it as a staging area for their attack on Stalingrad, and made it a key crossing point on the Don River. In June 1941, two BM-13 (Fighting machine #13 Katyusha) artillery installations were built at the Voronezh excavator factory. In July, the construction of Katyushas was rationalized so that their manufacture became easier and the time of volley repetition was shortened from five minutes to fifteen seconds. More than 300 BM-13 units manufactured in Voronezh were used in a counterattack near Moscow in December 1941. In October 22, 1941, the advance of the German troops prompted the establishment of a defense committee in the city. On November 7, 1941, there was a troop parade, devoted to the anniversary of the October Revolution. Only three such parades were organized that year: in Moscow, Kuybyshev, and Voronezh. In late June 1942, the city was attacked by German and Hungarian forces. In response, Soviet forces formed the Voronezh Front. By July 6, the German army occupied the western river-bank suburbs before being subjected to a fierce Soviet counter-attack. By July 24 the frontline had stabilised along the Voronezh River as the German forces continued southeast into the Great Bend of the Don. The attack on Voronezh represented the first phase of the German Army's 1942 campaign in the Soviet Union, codenamed Case Blue.

Until January 25, 1943, parts of the Second German Army and the Second Hungarian Army occupied west part of Voronezh. During Operation Little Saturn, the Ostrogozhsk–Rossosh Offensive, and the Voronezhsko-Kastornenskoy Offensive, the Voronezh Front exacted heavy casualties on Axis forces. On January 25, 1943, Voronezh was liberated after ten days of combat. During the war the city was almost completely ruined, with 92% of all buildings destroyed.

1950s–2000s
By 1950, Voronezh had been rebuilt. Most buildings and historical monuments were repaired. It was also the location of a prestigious Suvorov Military School, a boarding school for young boys who were considered to be prospective military officers, many of whom had been orphaned by war.

In 1950–1960, new factories were established: a tire factory, a machine-tool factory, a factory of heavy mechanical pressing, and others. In 1968, Serial production of the Tupolev Tu-144 supersonic plane was established at the Voronezh Aviation factory. In October 1977, the first Soviet domestic wide-body plane, Ilyushin Il-86, was built there.

In 1989, TASS published details of an alleged UFO landing in the city's park and purported encounters with extraterrestrial beings reported by a number of children. A Russian scientist that was cited in initial TASS reports later told the Associated Press that he was misquoted, cautioning, "Don't believe all you hear from TASS," and "We never gave them part of what they published", and a TASS correspondent admitted the possibility that some "make-believe" had been added to the TASS story, saying, "I think there is a certain portion of truth, but it is not excluded that there is also fantasizing".

2010s
From 10 to 17 September 2011, Voronezh celebrated its 425th anniversary. The anniversary of the city was given the status of a federal scale celebration that helped attract large investments from the federal and regional budgets for development.

On December 17, 2012, Voronezh became the fifteenth city in Russia with a population of over one million people.

Today Voronezh is the economic, industrial, cultural, and scientific center of the Central Black Earth Region.

 

 

 

 


 

Transportation

Get in
To Voronezh by plane
Relatively small Voronezh-Chertovitskoye International Airport (VOZ IATA) with several connections to Moscow and flights to Munich, Prague, Yerevan etc.

To Voronezh by train
Many trains to and from Moscow every day. The most suitable options are the day train no. 45 (less than 8 hours) and the night trains nos. 25 and 81/83. You can also travel to and from other Russian and Ukrainian cities. The main station is Voronezh 1, but most of the trains going to the south via Voronezh stop only at Pridacha station, which has marshrutka connection with the city centre.

To Voronezh by bus
The cost of the bus from Moscow is approximately the same as the cheapest train ticket (and the latter provides more comfortable travel conditions). You can catch a bus to Voronezh near Moscow Paveletskaya train station. In Voronezh the bus stops near Pyramide (Pamyatnik) and terminates near Voronezh 1 train station.

To Voronezh by car
Voronezh is about 500km south of Moscow on the M4-RUS.svg motorway.

Get around Voronezh
The public transport in Voronezh includes buses, marshrutkas and a small quantity of trolley-buses and trams. A funny option is the yellow buses Народный маршрут (Folk´s route). It costs nothing, and the network covers most of the city, but they are very rare.

 

Hotels, motels and where to sleep

 

 

Restaurant, taverns and where to eat

 

 

Cultural (and not so cultural) events

 

 

Interesting information and useful tips