Republic of Khakassia, Russia

The Republic of Khakassia is located in Central Siberia. It borders on the Altai Republic in the southwest, the Kemerovo region in the west, the Krasnoyarsk Territory in the north and east, and the Tuva Republic in the southeast.



Khakassky Nature Reserve




In Khakassia, the official languages are Russian and Khakass. The Khakass language belongs to the Khakass-Altaic group of Eastern Turkic languages. Writing based on the Cyrillic alphabet was created in 1924; before the Mongol invasion, the ancient Turkic runic script (Orkhon-Yenisei script) was used.


How to get there

By plane
Daily flights Moscow-Abakan are operated by two airlines: Sibir (S7) and Aeroflot. Departure from Moscow closer to night, arrival in Abakan at 6-7 am.

By train
From Moscow from the Yaroslavl station on the Trans-Siberian Railway, then in Achinsk there is a branch to Abakan. On the branded train No. 066Y Sayany or No. 068Y Moscow-Abakan. The travel time is just over three days, the distance is less than 4,400 kilometers.

By car
Along the M53 “Baikal” highway from the Kemerovo region, then from Krasnoyarsk along the M54 “Yenisei” highway.



Khakass national cuisine is typical of Siberian semi-nomadic peoples. Basic food products of animal origin, such as lamb and horse meat dishes, dairy products (white food), plant foods are represented mainly by cereals (rye, millet) from which the famous Khakass dish Talgan is made. Popular drinks include herbal teas using thyme and oregano and the fermented milk drink ayran.

For a traveler, there will be no problems with food; in the cities and regions of Khakassia there is a developed network of cafes and eateries with European and Caucasian cuisine; Khakassian dishes can only be found in specialized restaurants or in tourist centers in the warm season, for example, in open-air museums. For guests of the capital of Khakassia, a list of Abakan catering establishments has been compiled, which makes it easier to find a place for dinner



The historical development of the peoples of Khakassia took place in relatively favorable climatic conditions; in its course, a unique cultural heritage was created, which represents an invaluable resource for the development of the region. The basis of the cultural heritage of Khakassia is natural archaeological landscapes made up of tens of thousands of archaeological objects.

The settlement of the territory of Khakassia began in the Paleolithic era. The Mousterian layers of the multilayer site Dvuglazka (Glyadeny) date back to the beginning of the Kargin interglacial 40 - 50 thousand years ago. The earliest settlement of Homo sapiens on the territory of Khakassia is the Paleolithic site “Malaya Syya” (30 - 35 thousand years ago), where drilled decorations processed with chisels were found, is located in the Shirinsky district in the vicinity of the village of Malaya Syya, on the banks of the Bely Iyus River.


The first state on the territory of Southern Siberia

The first state on the territory of Southern Siberia arose in the 4th - 3rd centuries BC. Ancient Chinese chronicles called its creators the people of Dingling (Chinese: 丁零), and the state of Dingling-Guo (丁零国).

Around 201 BC the state of Dinglin-Guo was defeated by Xiongnu troops.

After this event, the Turkic-speaking Kyrgyz tribe moved to the Khakass-Minusinsk basin.

In the 6th - 7th centuries, the Kyrgyz and their subordinate taiga peoples formed a peripheral inheritance of the Central Asian states, headed by a governor, Elteber.

In the 8th century it was a separatist region led by its own beks and inals, claiming the dignity of khan (see Barsbek Kagan).

In the 9th century it became a rapidly expanding aggressive steppe empire with the deified Kagan family.

In 840, this state destroyed the Uyghur Khaganate and extended its power to Tuva. Pursuing the remnants of the Uyghurs, the Kyrgyz fought their way to the Irtysh and Amur, and invaded the oases of Eastern Turkestan.

The Kyrgyz provided the state with senior military and administrative leaders. They were considered connected dynastically and through marriage with the ruling houses of China and other neighboring countries.

In a harsh struggle with aggressive neighbors (Turkic and Uyghur Khaganates), the Kyrgyz state defended its independence until the 13th century, which became a turning point in the independent development of Southern Siberia.

The Kyrgyz retain two main areas of their settlement: 1) Upper and Middle Yenisei; 2) Altai and Irtysh. Subsequently, the ethnic paths of the Yenisei Kyrgyz and the future Kyrgyz of the Tien Shan diverged.

The territory of Khakassia was captured during the conquests of the Great Mongol Ulus led by Genghis Khan and his descendants, but gradually the power of the Mongols weakened and the complete subordination of the territory of Khakassia to the Yuan Empire ended in 1399 with the formation of the state of Hongorai.

The Khongorai state waged constant wars with the Mongolian Khotogoyts under the control of the Altyn Khans and Russians. The main ally of the state was the Dzungar Khanate, which later diplomatically achieved the vassalization of Khongorai.


Khakassia within the Russian Empire

In the 17th century, the Russians found Khongorai in the form of a confederation consisting of four uluses: Altyrsky, Altysarsky, Isarsky (Ezersky) and Tubinsky, inhabited by the ancestors of modern Khakassians, Shors, Teleuts, Altaians and Tuvinians. Another part of the Kyrgyz migrated to the Tien Shan in several waves starting from the middle of the 9th century, from the era of the Kyrgyz Great Power, until the middle of the 13th century.

The first contacts between the Kyrgyz and Russians began with the construction of the Tomsk fort in 1604 on the land of the Eushta Tatars, tributaries of the Kyrgyz beks.

For more than a hundred years, the complex and painful process of Khakassia’s entry into the jurisdiction of the Russian Empire and then the Russian Empire took place.

The date of official assignment of Khakassia to the Russian Empire can be considered August 20, 1727, when a border treaty was concluded between Russia and China. All the lands located on the northern side of the Sayan Mountains went to Russia, and on the southern side - to the Chinese Empire.

The actual entry of the territory of the current republic occurred later. In 1758, Chinese troops invaded Altai and defeated Dzungaria. There was a threat of violation of the officially recognized borders of the Russian Empire.

The tsarist government hastily placed Cossack garrisons in this area. From the moment when the Cossacks began to carry out border service, Khakassia actually entered the Russian Empire.

The administration of the territory was carried out first by officials of the Siberian and Tomsk provinces. In 1822, the Kyrgyz land became part of the Yenisei province.

Khakass Autonomous Region of the Krasnoyarsk Territory of the RSFSR and the Republic of Khakassia of the Russian Federation

Khakasssky district was formed on November 14, 1923. It became a national district, then on October 20, 1930, the Khakass Autonomous Region appeared on the map. It was part of the West Siberian Territory, and after its disaggregation in 1934 it became part of the Krasnoyarsk Territory.

On July 3, 1991, the autonomous region was transformed into a republic and received the name Khakass Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic; on January 29, 1992, it became known as the Republic of Khakassia[16]. On June 6, 1992, the republic received its own flag, and on December 20, 2006, a coat of arms.

In 2007, the Central Bank of Russia issued a commemorative coin dedicated to the Republic of Khakassia.

In 2015, the Anthem of the Republic of Khakassia was approved.