Crimea, Russia

Crimea is a peninsula in the Black Sea, connected to the mainland by the narrow Perekop Isthmus. Crimea has been inhabited since ancient times and throughout its turbulent history has become a place of clash of many peoples, so here you can see a variety of objects: from the ruins of ancient cities and medieval Christian churches to unique monuments of Tatar architecture and luxurious seaside villas from the times of the Russian Empire. No less interesting is the Crimean nature. On the territory of the peninsula you will meet rocky mountains and desert steppes, as well as the northernmost subtropical climate zone in the world - the southern coast of Crimea. Crimea is a wonderful resort region, where a rich history and magnificent nature are combined with extensive opportunities for a beach holiday.

Unfortunately, in 2014, Crimea became a stumbling block in relations between Ukraine and Russia, arbitrarily withdrawing from the former and joining the latter, which was not recognized by most foreign states. Now Crimea is a territory with a disputed status and is completely controlled by Russia.

Crimea is a place where many completely different and unique natural attractions are located in a relatively small area. Also in the Crimea, the cultures of various peoples who lived here at different times mixed up. And each of these peoples left a bright mark on the traditions and life of the inhabitants of the peninsula, in the architecture of buildings, etc.



The south coast of Crimea. The unique climate of the South Coast is due to its protection from the movement of cold air masses from the north. This region has a densely branched transport network, comfortable beaches, the most expensive hotels, restaurants and entertainment. The South Coast is rich in sights - only on the territory of Greater Yalta there are more than 500 historical, cultural, architectural objects.

Big Sevastopol - includes the city of Sevastopol itself, as well as nearby satellite cities of Balaklava, Inkerman and the village of Kacha. In Sevastopol, rest by the sea can be successfully combined with tourism. Numerous historical sites and natural attractions, the largest naval base of the Russian Black Sea Fleet.

The Crimean Mountains are a region rich in unique historical and architectural structures: "cave cities", monuments of Muslim architecture. There are all conditions for active mountain tourism, hunting and fishing. The administrative center of Crimea, Simferopol, is also located here.

Cimmeria. The coast from Sudak to Feodosia is a popular inexpensive recreation area compared to Yalta and Alushta, which is famous for its pebble beaches and interesting natural and historical sites. The Kerch Peninsula - many kilometers of sandy beaches on the coasts of the Black and Azov Seas, the Kazantip and Opuk nature reserves, the Kerch and Yenikale fortresses, the Adzhimushkay quarries, Lake Chokrak and General's beaches, the ancient cities of Panticapaeum, Tiritaka, Nymphaeum, Acre and others.

Steppe Crimea is a flat part of the Crimean peninsula, once occupied by steppe vegetation. The western coast of Crimea is the most famous climate-balneo-mud resort with extensive sandy beaches.



Alushta is a resort town on the South Coast.

Bakhchysarai is one of the ancient capitals of the Crimean Khanate. In addition to the most elegant Khan's palace and the fountain praised by Pushkin, there are several little-known but very unusual monuments of Tatar architecture in Bakhchisarai. The city itself in some places resembles a huge village and contains more oriental flavor than the rest of Crimea put together: just look into the Tatar cafe, where coffee is brewed on the sand and treated with oriental sweets. To the south of Bakhchisarai mountains begin with numerous gorges, caves and rocky (cave) cities. The most famous of them - Chufut-Kale - is located just a half-hour walk from Bakhchisarai.

Yevpatoria is a historical, port and resort city on the western coast of Crimea. Yevpatoria has been known since ancient times, which is not uncommon in Crimea, but only here different historical periods are so well localized by district: in the Old City - Turkish fortifications, mosques and even a Karaite kenassa, in the center - low-rise provincial buildings of the early 20th century, and on the outskirts - resort buildings. Yevpatoria has the only tram that has survived in Crimea (and another line in the suburbs is purely a resort one!), and in general it looks more like an integral historical city somewhere on the border of Europe and Asia.

Kerch is the easternmost city of Crimea. It seems to have all possible incarnations: ancient, Byzantine, Turkish, industrial, and even military in addition. Like Sevastopol, Kerch is a hero city. Here you will see archaeological sites, a medieval church, the ruins of industrial enterprises, a provincial and Soviet city, as well as the Adzhimushkay quarries - a kind of Brest fortress, which in 1942 the Soviet troops heroically defended behind enemy lines. To the east of Kerch there is a well-preserved Turkish fortress and a crossing to the Krasnodar Territory. To the north, the steppe begins with mud volcanoes.

Sevastopol is a major naval port and base of the Russian Black Sea Fleet.

Simferopol is the capital of Crimea, which is a provincial city in the center and endless blocks of prefabricated residential buildings on the outskirts. Upon closer examination, quite non-trivial monuments are found here - Tatar mosques, a Karaite kenassa and even a Scythian settlement - however, any of them loses both in terms of entertainment and preservation of similar sights in other parts of Crimea. For most travelers, Simferopol is nothing more than a transit point on the way to the coast. However, it will be interesting to walk here for several hours, and numerous cafes are conducive to this. Simferopol is the only major Crimean city located far from the sea.

Sudak is located where the subtropical southern coast of Crimea smoothly passes into the colder eastern coast. It would be a completely unremarkable resort village, if not standing on a rock near the sea, a huge Genoese fortress, which offers stunning views of both the sea itself and the mountains approaching it. A few kilometers to the west, behind a mountain overhanging the road and the sea, there is the village of Novy Svet with the famous champagne factory, a walking path carved into the rocks and cozy bays. To the east is Cape Meganom and the Karadag Reserve.

Feodosiya is a kind of twin of Evpatoria in the eastern part of the Crimea, although, unlike the Karaites, Armenians lived here. In different, sometimes neglected and fairly reminiscent of the Russian province areas, you will find several medieval Armenian churches at once, as well as the ruins of a Genoese fortress overlooking the sea and, of course, a Turkish mosque, without which not a single old Crimean city can do. Russian writers loved to live in Feodosia, and the artist Ivan Aivazovsky was also born and raised here. In addition to several memorial museums and an art gallery with works by Aivazovsky, Feodosiya will please the traveler with magnificent mansions of the early 20th century and a huge beach stretching along the entire city.

Yalta is the main Crimean resort, if only in the sense that all the attractions here are resorts: from luxurious summer palaces in Alupka, Livadia and Massandra to entertainment facilities like a zoo and even a crocodile aquarium. As a city, Yalta is not very interesting, although it has a very special flavor due to the cypresses and palm trees growing on the streets, and in addition, it contains beautiful temples of different faiths and several literary museums, including a very cozy Chekhov House Museum. All objects on the southern coast of Crimea are easily accessible from Yalta within one day. In Yalta, the famous Tsar's path begins, surrounded by wonderful Crimean vegetation.


Other destinations

The Arabat Arrow is a long spit separating the Sivash Bay from the Sea of Azov.
Ai Petri Mountain is a peak and a mountain range in the Crimean mountains. Together with the Three-Eyed Cave, the Uchan-Su waterfall and the Devil's Staircase Pass (Shaitan-Merdven), it is included in the Yalta Reserve
The Baidarsky reserve is the largest reserve in the southwestern part of the Crimean Mountains. It includes the Baydarskaya Valley, the Black River basin and 45 km of hiking trails.
Demerdzhi is a remarkable yayla of the Crimean mountains, known for its stone natural idols up to 25 m high. The most famous place of their accumulation is the "Valley of Ghosts". A well-known filming location for the films "Prisoner of the Caucasus", "Sportloto-82" and many others. Between it and two other large mountain ranges (Karabi-Yayla and Tirke), the Khapkhal Gorge was formed, on the territory of which the Khapkhalsky reserve was discovered.
The Kazantip Nature Reserve is a hollow with a diameter of several thousand meters.
The Karadag reserve is the ruins of an extinct volcano, half of which fell into the sea during the last eruption many tens of millions of years ago.
The Crimean Reserve is the largest and oldest reserve on the peninsula, which includes the highest mountain ranges of Crimea, including Chatyr-Dag.
The Opuk Nature Reserve is a unique landscape, rare for the Kerch Peninsula.
The Tarkhankutsky National Natural Park is lost in the westernmost part of the peninsula. It is interesting for its rugged rocky coastline with several picturesque bays. The rest of the park is occupied by ascetic steppe with minimal vegetation cover. Among other things, the Tarkhankut peninsula is famous for its strong winds, which attracts fans of windsurfing and kitesurfing.


Crimean monuments are numerous and varied. Although tourists usually come here just for the sake of the sea or, in extreme cases, for mountain hiking, you can’t neglect historical monuments in Crimea - many of them are unique, you won’t see anything like it anywhere else.

The ancient Greeks actively settled on the Crimean coast, so the ruins of ancient cities number dozens here. The largest and most interesting monument of archeology is Tauric Chersonese in Sevastopol. The scale of the ancient city, combined with the magnificent sea coast, will not leave indifferent even those who are skeptical of any ruins. After the ancient Greeks, some Crimean cities became Byzantine, and later Genoese colonies. Powerful fortresses were erected here, of which the fortress in Sudak is best preserved: defensive fortifications of the XIV-XV centuries. not uncommon for Europe, but there were few fortresses of this size and few where they are so wonderfully inscribed in the mountain landscape. There are also old Byzantine churches in Crimea - one in Kerch, two in Feodosia.

After Byzantium and the Genoese in the Crimea, the Tatar period continued for several centuries. The Khan's palace and several other buildings in Bakhchisaray, the cave cities of Chufut-Kale and Mangup-Kale, a mosque in Stary Krym, mosques in Evpatoria, Feodosia and Simferopol remained from him. Each of these monuments is one of a kind. Everything that has been preserved in Tatarstan, Bashkiria and the Urals was built much later and bears the inevitable traces of Russian influence. The Tatar architecture of Crimea is completely different, it is completely authentic and, on the contrary, has a Turkish tinge.

Another layer of national architecture is the heritage of the Karaites: a movement that professes its own version of Judaism. The Karaites broke away from the Jews a very long time ago, around the 9th century. From the very beginning there were few of them, and there are even fewer left. They live in Lithuanian Trakai and Crimean Evpatoria, where you can see Karaite temples - kenas. And the oldest surviving kenas are also in the Crimea, in Chufut-Kale near Bakhchisaray.

Armenians also lived in the Crimea, whose architecture is found in the monastery of Surb-Khach in the vicinity of Old Crimea, as well as in several Armenian churches in Feodosia. Of course, this is not at all the same level as in the historical territory of Armenia, but it is pleasant and interesting to look at. Probably, the Crimean Surb-Khach is the northernmost of the Armenian monasteries.

Since the end of the 18th century, Crimea has been under the rule of Russia, which developed this region in two directions. On the one hand, palaces and luxurious dachas were built on the southern coast. On the other hand, numerous military fortifications appeared. The latter are now destroyed after they played their historical role in two wars (the Crimean and the Great Patriotic Wars), making Kerch and Sevastopol cities of military glory, where, with all your desire, you can’t avoid immersing yourself in military history, the apotheosis of which is the submarine base turned into a museum in Balaklava - a completely unique place, carved right into the rock. The palace and park aspect of the Russian heritage is abundantly represented in the villages of Greater Yalta - the Vorontsov Palace in Alupka, the Livadia Palace in Livadia of the same name: all these are wonderful places for walking. Fans of urban architecture will also find something to do. Buildings from the times of the Russian Empire have been preserved in Simferopol, Evpatoria and Kerch, and the center of Sevastopol - although built from scratch after the war - is a magnificent and unlike anything architectural ensemble.

Already in the 19th century, Crimea became a popular holiday destination, where poets and writers liked to come. Chekhov, Paustovsky, Alexander Grin, Maximilian Voloshin lived in the Crimea. If you are interested in literary history, don't miss the Chekhov House Museum in Yalta, the Voloshin Museum in Koktebel, and the numerous literary museums of Stary Krym and Feodosiya.

There are several different natural zones on the territory of Crimea, so the whole Crimea is one big natural attraction. The climate of the southern coast is almost subtropical. For residents of the northern latitudes, palm trees and cypresses growing on the streets are a curiosity in themselves, so simple walks through forests and parks are already of considerable interest. The best place to get acquainted with southern nature is the Nikitsky Botanical Garden near Yalta. Mountains come close to the coast, of which the easiest to conquer is Ai-Petri - a large plateau at an altitude of 1200 meters above sea level. In the Crimean mountains there are numerous waterfalls (of which the most popular is Uchan-Su in the vicinity of Yalta) and picturesquely located cave cities, carved right into the rocks. Some of them can be reached in half an hour, others are ideal for small mountain hikes. The nature of the Crimean mountains is by no means homogeneous. The wooded mountains between Bakhchisarai and Yalta are replaced in the west, in the vicinity of Balaklava, by almost bare slopes and high cliffs that break right into the sea. You will see similar landscapes in the Eastern Crimea, between Sudak and Feodosia, where, in particular, the extinct volcano Kara-Dag is located - a reserve with a unique nature.

Steppes begin to the north of the Crimean Mountains. At first glance, they are dull and monotonous, but nature lovers and connoisseurs of discreet landscapes will love this area no less than the Crimean Mountains. Especially picturesque are the bare hills in the vicinity of Kerch, where there are even mud volcanoes and oil fields at Cape Kazantip. The Arabat Spit is also interesting - a narrow spit stretching for more than 100 km along the entire Azov coast of Crimea. There are beautiful beaches and quite wild countryside.

Vorontsov Palace - the most visited by tourists palace built for the Governor-General of the Novorossiysk Territory, Count M. S. Vorontsov in the middle of the 19th century, is located in the city of Alupka. The palace organically fits into the surrounding mountain landscape. It was built in the spirit of English architecture, and the building contains elements of various eras, from early forms to the 16th century.
Livadiya Palace - the summer residence of the royal family (Romanovs).
Bird home -
The Khan's Palace is located in the city of Bakhchisarai, halfway between Simferopol and Sevastopol. From the 16th to the end of the 18th century it was the residence of the Crimean khans and served as the center of the political, spiritual and cultural life of the Crimean khanate. The Khan's Palace is a whole city in miniature. To this day, two mosques (Big and Small), a mufti's house, a khan's cemetery, official buildings, living quarters for khans, servants, a harem, six courtyards, 14 fountains of different times have survived here. You can book a tour of the palace.
Marble Cave - the cave was discovered in 1987 on the slope of the Chatyr-Dag mountain range. According to speleologists, the Marble Cave is one of the five most beautiful equipped caves on the planet. The length of the cave passages is more than 2 kilometers, of which one and a half kilometers are equipped for visiting. You can get to the Marble Cave from Simferopol, having reached the village of Krasnolesye, or Marble.
Emine-Bair-Khosar Cave is a vertical type karst cave, located near the Marble Cave. Opened in 1927.
The Valley of Ghosts is an area located on the top of Mount Demirdzhi, which is often called a miracle of nature, and about which there are many legends. Here is a group of randomly scattered rocks, which, over the years, under the influence of the wind, have acquired unusual shapes. The most famous rock is called "Catherine's head". Psychics consider this zone to be anomalous. By car, you can easily get here along the road leading to the village of Radiant (from Alushta or Simferopol).
The ancient city of Chufut-Kale - the city arose around the 5th-6th centuries. It is located in Bakhchisarai next to the Khan's Palace and the Assumption Monastery. The most preserved and visited of the "cave cities". The Sarmatian tribe of the Alans and their descendants who converted to Christianity lived here until the 15th century. The city has multi-tiered caves, the mausoleum of the daughter of Khan Tokhtamysh Janike-khanum, ancient defensive walls with gates, prison casemates where the Tatars kept noble captives, large and small Karaite kenasas.
The Grand Canyon of Crimea is a unique natural formation that arose as a result of a tectonic fault and a long “work” of the water of the Auzun-Uzen River, which for many years formed the bottom and walls of the canyon. Its depth exceeds 320 m, length 3.5 km, width in some places does not exceed 3 m. It is located 5 km southeast of the village. Falcon Bakhchisarai region.
Rock "Golden Gate" - a rock of an unusual, arched shape, got its name due to the fact that at a certain angle of incidence of sunlight, it really seems to be golden. She is often depicted on souvenirs about the Crimea. Passage through the arch of the Golden Gate on a small boat promises the fulfillment of the most secret desire. The height of the arch is 15 meters. Located near Koktebel.
Sudak Fortress - The first fortifications were built here by the Byzantines in the VI-VII centuries. Then the Khazars owned the fortress, in the X-XII centuries. the Byzantines again. In the XIII century. Sudak (Sugdeya) becomes the center of the Venetian colony. Most of the structures that have survived to this day belong to the Genoese period, which is why it is often called "Genoese". The Sudak fortress was a rather powerful structure. From the south and west it is practically impregnable. It is surrounded by two independent defensive lines from the northeast. The lower defensive belt, about a kilometer long, consists of massive walls 6-8 m high and up to 2 m thick, fortified with 14 combat towers.
Tauric Chersonesus is located to the west of the center of Sevastopol. In the first half of the VI century. BC e. natives of the ancient Greek city of Heraclea (the territory of present-day Turkey) founded the city of Chersonesos. By the beginning of the III century. BC e. it becomes one of the largest policies of the Northern Black Sea region. Chersonese in its heyday was a large port city surrounded by powerful walls; trade, craft and cultural center of the entire western coast of Crimea. On the territory of the reserve you can see the settlement with the ruins of walls and buildings, a museum with two departments, an exhibition of holograms, the majestic Vladimir Cathedral.
Nikitsky Botanical Garden -
Massandra -
Fort Kerch (Fort Totleben) -
Yalta Zoo "Fairy Tale" —
Adjimuschkay quarries - (Kerch).
Aivazovsky Art Gallery - (Feodosia).
Panticapaeum - excavations of the capital of the Bosporan kingdom on the city of Mithridates (Kerch).
The Red Cave is one of the largest karst caves in Crimea. The first half a kilometer is equipped for excursions, which is convenient for tourists descending underground for the first time.
Kerch Historical and Archaeological Museum (founded in 1826). Includes a golden pantry with treasures of the Bosporus kingdom.
Surb Khach (Holy Cross) is an Armenian monastery (XIV century) in a forest near the Old Crimea.
The Kerch Lapidarium is one of the largest collections in the world.
Taigan is an open-air lion park in Belogorsk. 58 lions and over a hundred other animals.
Swan Islands is a branch of the Crimean Reserve. Migratory birds stop here during their travels.



Eski Kermen




Swallow's Nest



What to do

Things to do
Active recreation - Almost all areas of active recreation are developed in Crimea, except, perhaps, rafting on the rivers - these are mountain hikes, mountaineering, horseback riding tours, bicycle tours, jeeping, hang gliding, diving and all other types of marine entertainment.
Event tourism (festivals) - many festivals take place in Crimea every year. KAZANTIP, Krym Music Fest, Genoese Helmet, Jazz Koktebel, Neighbor World, Bosporan Agons, Live in Blue Bay, International Bike Show, Yalta Prime Rally and many others.
Therapeutic (medical) tourism - medical conditions in the Crimea are created by the climate, the sea and a large number of healing springs, mud resorts.
Wine tourism - in Crimea, in almost all regions, there are wineries (there are more than 10 in total) with their own specialization.
beach holiday
Educational tourism - Crimea is often called "the world in miniature" or "an open-air museum". Here the historical paths of many peoples and civilizations crossed, many natural, historical, architectural monuments have been preserved.
Gastronomic tourism - local cuisine has been accumulating the culture and cooking traditions of many peoples living in Crimea for centuries. As a result of a long national neighborhood, the cuisine of the peninsula intertwines the culinary characteristics of the North and South, East and West.


Getting in

Before the trip, given the tense relations between Russia and Ukraine, as well as the fact that the vast majority of countries in the world consider Crimea to be Ukrainian territory, a responsible traveler can be recommended to get acquainted with the law of Ukraine “On Ensuring the Rights and Freedoms of Citizens and the Legal Regime in the Temporarily Occupied Territory of Ukraine” and Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 367 dated June 4, 2015, in order to assess personal risks.

According to these documents, entry into Crimea from the territory of the Russian Federation is prohibited. The Ukrainian side officially allows visiting Crimea only through the checkpoints "Kalanchak", "Chaplinka" and "Chongar", if you are traveling by car, or through the checkpoints "Kherson", "Melitopol", "Vadim" and "Novoalekseika", if you have chosen train.

Everyone, except for citizens of Ukraine, according to these regulations, should have not only identity documents, but also a special permit issued by the migration service of Ukraine. However, only those who have close relatives living in Crimea, or who have their own real estate on the peninsula, can obtain such permission. You can also get permission for official reasons (implementation of diplomatic functions or other work activities). You will not be issued a permit if you indicate a desire to take a vacation as the reason for visiting Crimea.

Ukraine can fine violators of this order, or even initiate a criminal case. In addition, a foreigner who enters Crimea in circumvention of these rules in order to damage the national interests of Ukraine may become persona non grata. The Ukrainian side can also apply to the EU with a request to ban such a foreigner from visiting the Schengen area.

By plane
The only operating passenger airport is located in Simferopol, has a regular connection with Moscow and St. Petersburg. In summer there are flights to many other Russian cities. Flights to Simferopol are subsidized, so during the season tickets sell out pretty quickly. There are practically no international flights.

The Sevastopol airport "Belbek" does not have the infrastructure to receive passenger flights; as of 2018, it is used only by the military and business aviation.

By train
Railway communication with Ukraine has been terminated, so trains can enter Crimea only through the Crimean bridge. Currently (July 2020) the following routes operate:
007/008 St. Petersburg - Moscow - Voronezh - Rostov - Simferopol - Sevastopol
028Ч/028С Moscow - Voronezh - Rostov - Simferopol
075/076 Yekaterinburg - Kazan - Penza - Rostov - Simferopol
142Е/142С Yekaterinburg - Chelyabinsk - Ufa - Samara - Volgograd - Rostov - Simferopol
525E/525S Kislovodsk - Pyatigorsk - Krasnodar - Simferopol
551/552 Vologda - Yaroslavl - Ivanovo - Penza - Rostov - Simferopol
Suburban train Anapa - Kerch (6 times a day, two hours on the way)
A trip by train Moscow-Simferopol will take 33 hours, St. Petersburg-Sevastopol - 43. Tickets for these trains can be bought not on the Russian Railways website, but on the website of the Grand Express carrier company.

From Kyiv, the Kyiv-Novoalekseevka train remains a popular way to get to Crimea. A ticket will cost about 150 UAH in a reserved seat and up to 450 UAH in a compartment. Then you need to overcome another 30 km by bus to the Chongar checkpoint, from where you will have to walk several kilometers to the Russian border guards, or for 10 UAH you can take a bus that travels through the so-called neutral zone. Also, as an option, you can take a taxi from the Novoalekseevka station to Dzhankoy, Simferopol, Sevastopol or Yalta, this is convenient because you will be taken by car through passport control, but it is also more expensive.

The second option is by train to Kherson, then by bus about 150 km more to the Kalanchak checkpoint. The cost of a ticket for the Kyiv-Kherson train will be about 120 UAH in a reserved seat car and up to 300 UAH in a compartment car. The cost of the bus is about 80 UAH.

By car
From Russia: Traveling across the 19 km Crimean Bridge from mainland Russia to Crimea takes about 15 minutes. The Kerch ferry crossing between Crimea and the Caucasus continues to operate for all types of transport, although it has practically lost its meaning. In connection with the construction of the Tavrida highway and the low capacity of the existing highway, traffic jams are not uncommon, which are especially pronounced on the Primorsky-Beregovoe-Feodosiya section (at the end of 2018, a section of the Tavrida highway was opened to bypass this direction).

From the territory of Ukraine:
From Kherson along the highway E97 through the Kalanchak border crossing.
From Novaya Kakhovka along the regional road through the Chaplinka border crossing.
From Melitopol on the highway E105 through the Chongar (Salkovo) border crossing.
All border crossings are round-the-clock, designed for both passenger and freight transport. Please note that everyone, except for citizens of Ukraine, needs permission from the State Migration Service to cross the border!

The R-47 road from Genichesk through the Arabat Spit is closed to traffic.

By bus
From the territory of Russia: bus service connects Crimea with many cities of the Krasnodar Territory and the Rostov Region, and sometimes with more remote regions of the Russian Federation. Buses follow the Crimean bridge.

From the territory of Ukraine: despite the fact that you won’t be able to buy a ticket for direct flights to Crimea at Ukrainian bus stations, there are many companies that organize bus transportation from many cities of Ukraine (including from Kiev, Chernivtsi, Kharkov, Donetsk, Zaporozhye, Kherson) to the Crimea. The principle of operation: the bus goes to the border, passengers pass it on their own, and on the other side of the border another bus is waiting for them. It is worth noting that in Crimea, tickets for these directions can be bought directly at the box office of bus stations.

Since you have to walk, you should pay attention to the Kalanchak checkpoint, where you have to walk only about 800 meters. Buses from Kherson cost about 40 hryvnias to Kalanchak. Travel time will take more than 2 hours.

On the ship
The only non-Russian port that can be reached from Crimea is Zonguldak (Turkey), departing from Evpatoria (2015).

There is also a port in Sevastopol, but there is no regular sea passenger communication with it.


Getting around

Suburban electric trains
Trains operate on the following routes:
Simferopol - Bakhchisaray (travel time 45 min) - Sevastopol (travel time about 2 hours)
Simferopol - Saki (1 h 30 min) - Evpatoria (2 h 15 min)
Simferopol - Dzhankoy (2 h 30 min) - Salt Lake (2 h 50 min)
Feodosia - Dzhankoy (3 h 20 min) - Armyansk (6 h)
Kerch - Dzhankoy (5 hours)

The most developed type of transport (there is a direct connection between almost all the cities of the peninsula), so it is also the main way to travel.

The bus schedule can be viewed on the GosAvtobus website, where you can also buy online tickets, payment is made by Visa and Mastercard cards issued by Russian banks. The ticket can not be printed, but simply presented electronically upon boarding.

Intercity trolleybuses
In Crimea, there is the longest and most picturesque mountain trolleybus route in Europe Simferopol - Alushta - Yalta. Travel time to Alushta - 1 hour 30 minutes, to Yalta - 2 hours 30 minutes.



The official currency is the Russian ruble.

Several Russian banks operate, including RNKB, Genbank, Kraibank, Rossiya Bank, Rublev, and others. As a rule, bank branches work on weekdays from 9:00 to 17:00, on weekends Almost all branches are closed. The largest Russian banks (Sberbank, VTB, Alfa-Bank, etc.) are not represented in Crimea. There are no ATMs either, so it will not work to withdraw money from, for example, social cards and Maestro cards of Sberbank, which work only at Sber ATMs. Most branches have currency exchange offices.

ATMs are installed in most bank branches, retail outlets and some other institutions. Only Russian rubles are issued. Commission for withdrawing money from third-party ATMs may be charged by the bank that issued the card, and rarely exceeds 1% or 100 rubles per transaction.

In 2014, MasterCard and Visa suspended operations with bank cards in Crimea. However, after the creation of the "National Payment System" they can be used again. However, this is only true for cards issued by Russian banks. Cards of foreign banks, most likely, will not work.

The PRO100 cards of the UEK payment system (among other system participants: Sberbank, Uralsib, Bank of Russia and the local RNKB) and Mir are working. In addition, you can cash out money using Zolotaya Korona cards (at ATMs of BaikalBank, Krayinvestbank and FIA Bank) and UnionPay (at ATMs of BaikalBank and Krayinvestbank).

Most large commercial establishments have terminals for paying with bank cards. But their level of penetration is still low.



Eating in Crimea is pleasant and relatively inexpensive. You can have lunch for 120-150 rubles (2014), and in good cafes and restaurants, prices for hot dishes start at 140-160 rubles. Alcoholic drinks are also inexpensive: a glass of local wine costs 40-50 rubles. Typical Crimean fast food is chebureks. They are made with meat, cheese, vegetables, and sometimes with everything at once and are sold for 30-50 rubles apiece.


National cuisine

Dozens of different peoples live in Crimea, many of them with their own unique culinary traditions. The most common cuisine is still the usual Russian-Ukrainian, there are also many establishments with Crimean Tatar cuisine, which has an abundance of dishes with exotic names. Very rarely, but still you can find - Karaite and Jewish cuisine, the cuisine of the Crimean Germans.

The modern Crimean Tatar cuisine was influenced by the Central Asian one, when in the second half of the 20th century the Crimean Tatars began to return from Uzbekistan. Lagman, shurpa and samsa are typical products of such influence. With the development of mass tourism, culinary traditions gradually merged into a single whole, so what is offered in some establishments under the guise of national dishes is often a variation on the theme of “oriental” cuisine. Although truly authentic national dishes are not so common, the usual selection of "oriental" dishes is also quite unusual for most travelers.

The well-known shurpa and lagman are usually served for the first, as well as ufak-ash (or yufak-ash - broth with tiny dumplings) and berdzhimek shorbasy (lentil cream soup).

The main dishes are pilaf (characteristically, boiled veal can be used), dolma (sarma) from grape leaves (yaprak sarmasy), cabbage (pahana sarmasy) or pepper (beaver dopmasy), shish kebabs (shish kebabs) and kebabs stewed with beef or chicken vegetables. Dough products stuffed with meat are popular: chebureks (chibireki), yantyk (a type of cheburek fried in a dry frying pan and smeared with butter), chir-chirs (Karaim pasties with both meat and vegetables), kubete (meat pie with potatoes and onions), Turkish flatbread pite (pide), kobete, burma, lochum. Dried meat kakach and bastyrma, kavurma (finely chopped lamb fried in internal fat with onions).

For sweets - kurabye (biscuits cooked in butter and sour cream) and baklava (made from puff pastry, rather than the more familiar Azerbaijani version), as well as sheker kyiyk (sugar handkerchiefs - "brushwood" type cookies) and cevizli boynuzchykhlar (bagels with nuts) .

Unlike Tatarstan, the concept of halal food is not used in Crimea, however, there is no pork in real establishments of national cuisine, and the attitude towards alcohol is strict - it simply does not exist there.

Fish is not so typical for Tatar cuisine, but, of course, it is very common. Black Sea fish are mullet, pelengas and small red mullet, which is usually fried and eaten whole, like smelt. Rapans are numerous in the Black Sea - large mollusks added to salads, pilaf or served as a separate dish. Mussels are also very common.



In the Crimean drinks, the segregation of different national cultures was clearly manifested. Soft drinks have undergone a strong Tatar influence. Throughout the Crimea, green and herbal teas are prepared and sold; this is one of the most typical Crimean souvenirs. Coffee culture is reminiscent of Turkey at all. Unlike Russia and Ukraine, where coffee from the machine is becoming more common, in Crimea it is customary to brew coffee on the sand. However, you will find authentic oriental coffee houses and oriental sweets attached to them only in Bakhchisarai: in other cities, the matter is limited to good oriental coffee brewed in a cezve, but you will not find a special oriental aesthetics.

From cold drinks, in addition to ordinary juices and soda, in the Crimea you can find something more interesting: sherbet (oriental lemonade), khoshaf (dried fruit compote), fermented milk drinks: katyk, also known as yogurt and ayran (or yazma - katyk, diluted salted water with garlic).

Among the national drinks, buz (or bose) is also known - a non-alcoholic or low-alcohol thick sweet and sour drink made from millet, wheat or corn flour, served for dessert. Buza is a very distant analogue of kvass or even beer: depending on the exposure, the strength of the booze can reach two or three or even five degrees (hence the “buzz”). A special version of buza is maksym (or makhsym), which is made from fried ingredients, often with the addition of fat, sugar and spices.

The culture of winemaking was founded in the Crimea by the ancient Greeks. There are four types of local alcoholic drinks: ordinary wines, fortified wines, champagne and cognacs. They are sold in Crimean Wine stores, which are found everywhere, as well as tasting opportunities. You can buy wine and brandy in bottles or on tap. The draft version is slightly cheaper and is great for those who drink alcohol for the sake of it (it won't take long). The rest should pay attention to bottled drinks, since they are also inexpensive: wine from 100 rubles per bottle, cognac - from 150 rubles per 0.5 liter. You can buy wine from your hands, but in this case, the effect will come even faster, and the result is likely to be disappointing.

Crimean wines can be dry, more often semi-dry, and even more often dessert and semi-sweet; sometimes red, but more often white. Although good red grapes ripen in Crimea, the choice of dry red wines is relatively small. The selection of white wines is somewhat more interesting. In the Crimea, the French variety Aligote has taken root, which you will not find anywhere. There are also Chardonnay and Pinot Blanc, all good white wines, but drinking them is a kind of lottery. Some Crimean producers manage to give ordinary white wine a sherry flavor, so be prepared for surprises and treat what is happening with humor.

Fortified wines are a kind of signature Crimean product. In Crimea, the production of a wide variety of fortified wines is developed: from the banal Cahors to port, Madeira and sherry borrowed in Europe. All of them are more often white than red, unlike, for example, from Portugal, where everything is exactly the opposite. In principle, fortified wines are the best for Crimean producers: Massandra wines are generally a brand and, in a sense, the best Crimean wine. The most famous brand is Red Stone White Muscat, a very fragrant liqueur wine. You can also buy aged 40-50-year-old wines at prices ranging from a thousand rubles and more per bottle. Equally fine vintage wines are produced by Magarach and Solnechnaya Dolina. Other Crimean producers (Inkerman, Koktebel, etc.), on the contrary, specialize in ordinary wines, but they also have vintage varieties.

Of the sparkling wines, the most famous and popular brand is Novy Svet, founded by Prince Golitsin in the Russian Empire and produced in the village of the same name near Sudak. Champagne wines "New World" are produced using natural fermentation technology.

Finally, the Crimean cognac is produced with a different number of stars, but, most likely, will leave you indifferent. Koktebel, Ai-Petri, Crimea... All of them differ mainly in the shape of the bottles, and the taste is quite commensurate with the low price. In any Crimean store, along with the local one, they sell Georgian or Armenian cognac, and you will not regret choosing it.



Mobile operators
In connection with the sanctions regime, several local operators were created, operating exclusively on the territory of the peninsula. Of these, Win Mobile and Volna Mobile will be the best choice, as operators with the largest coverage areas and an extensive sales network. As an additional option, you can buy an MTS SIM card in a local store, the native region for which will be Crimea and the Krasnodar Territory.

✦  "Win Mobile". ✉ The operator with the largest coverage area, operating at frequencies previously owned by MTS Ukraine. 3G networks (and in large cities and resort areas on the coast - and LTE) are available in most of the peninsula. Accordingly, in the presence of 3G / LTE, the mobile Internet works very quickly, and in their absence, you have to be content with slow EDGE / GPRS. Call rates are below the national average.
✦  "Wave mobile". The coverage covers most of the Crimean peninsula. Mobile networks of the second, third and fourth generations are available. Starter packs can be purchased at sales centers and distributors.
✦  Krymtelecom. Mobile networks of the second and third generations are available. You can buy SIM-cards only in sales centers.
12 STS. Mobile operator of the Sevastopol City Council. Mobile networks of the second and third generations are available. SIM cards are only available at sales offices.

Telephone codes:
+7-978-9ХХХХХХ – “Win mobile”
+7-978-0ХХХХХХ, +7-978-1ХХХХХХ, +7-978-7ХХХХХХ, +7-978-8ХХХХХХ – MTS Krasnodar
+7-978-16X-ХХХХ – Intertelecom
+7-978-254-ХХХХ, +7-978-333-3ХХХ – SevMobile
+7-978-40X-ХХХХ – Krymtelecom
+7-978-555-ХХХХ, +7-978-556-ХХХХ— Volna Mobile

If the network matches, then the call is considered at intranet tariffs, if not, then it is charged as a call to another operator.

You can top up your account in self-service terminals (with a rather large commission of 7-10%), in mobile communication stores or online.

Russian operators (+7)
Subscribers of Russian mobile operators MTS, Beeline, Megafon, Tele2 are served at national roaming rates. The same as when visiting other regions of Russia.

Despite the fact that there are no specialized service centers of the MTS company on the peninsula, you can buy MTS SIM cards of the Krasnodar Territory with the code 978 and the only tariff plan Super MTS Krasnodar Territory and Crimea from distributors with cheap calls within the Crimea and Krasnodar edge.

Ukrainian operators (+380)
Operators "Vodafone Ukraine", "Kyivstar" and "lifecell" do not have their own networks on the peninsula, roaming is also not provided. Subscribers can only be offered to buy local SIM cards.

Fixed line
New Russian phone numbers have been introduced: +7 365 (Crimea), +7 8692 (Sevastopol).

At the same time, it is impossible to get through from Ukraine, the USA and some other countries to these new numbers, since calls to them are blocked by operators of these countries.


Precautionary measures

If you are traveling around the Crimea by your car, then take into account the rather aggressive driving style of local drivers. The continuous dividing strip on the Crimean roads is drawn simply “for beauty”.

In the rain, the Crimean roads become decently slippery, as the installed signs warn.



Since ancient times, the name Taurica (Greek: Ταυρικῆ) has been assigned to the peninsula, which comes from the name of the most ancient tribes of the Taurus, who inhabited the southern part of the Crimea. The modern name "Crimea" began to be widely used only after the 13th century, presumably by the name of the city "Kyrym", which, after the capture of the Northern Black Sea region by the Mongols, was the residence of the governor of the Khan of the Golden Horde. It is also possible that the name "Crimea" came from the Perekop isthmus (the Russian word "perekop" is a translation of the Turkic word "qirim", which means "ditch"). During the existence of the Genoese colonies of Taurida (1266-1475), the peninsula was called the Office of Romania, as well as the Genoese Gazaria, by the middle of the 15th century due to the large number of Armenians, who by 1400 accounted for 2/3 of the number of all inhabitants of the possessions of the Genoese Republic in the Crimea, the peninsula in the sources of that time they began to call Maritime Armenia (Armenia Maritime) or Greater Armenia (Armenia Magna).

The etymology of the word "Kyrym" is unclear, and there are several versions of its origin:

Distortion of the ancient name of the Cimmeria Peninsula (lat. Cimmerium)
From the ancient Turkic word *qurum ("protection, defense")
From Ancient Greek κρημνοί (flint, "rock")
From the 15th century, the Crimean peninsula began to be called Tavria, and after its annexation to Russia in 1783, Tavrida. The entire Northern Black Sea region was also called - the northern coast of the Black and Azov Seas with adjacent steppe territories.


Basic information


The peninsula protrudes deeply into the Black Sea, which is washed from the south and west; The Crimean peninsula is separated from the Black Sea of Azov, which washes it from the east. The coastline of the Crimean peninsula exceeds 2500 km; of which almost 50% are in the Sivash region, 750 km in the Black Sea, and about 500 km in the Sea of Azov.

The peninsula is connected to the mainland by a narrow (up to 8 km) Perekop Isthmus, along which highways and railways are laid, as well as the channel of the North Crimean Canal and high-voltage power lines. To the east of the Perekop Isthmus, the Lithuanian Peninsula of Crimea and the mainland peninsula Vostochny Rog are connected by a dirt dam, along which an improved dirt road has been laid. To the east, through the Sivash water area, along the dam connecting the Crimean Cape Dzhangara and the continental Cape Kutara, an asphalt road and a high-voltage power line were laid; to the east, a dirt road passes through the Chongar Strait along a dam and a dam, further to the east a railway passes through the strait along a dam and a bridge, and in the eastern, narrowest part of the strait, an automobile bridge is thrown over it, along which a highway passes; in the east of the Sivash, an automobile bridge is thrown over the channel of the Big arm of the Genichsky Strait, connecting the northern tip of the Crimean spit Arabatskaya spit with the continent. The Crimean Bridge passes through the Kerch Strait, providing a land connection between Crimea and the Taman Peninsula.

The area is about 26’860 km², of which 72% are plains, 20% are mountains and 8% are lakes and other water bodies.

From a geological point of view, the Crimean Peninsula is the southern part of the Ukrainian crystalline shield of the East European Platform, within which the Scythian plate and the Crimean folded region stand out.



According to the nature of the relief, the peninsula is divided into three unequal parts: the North Crimean Plain with the Tarkhankut Upland (about 70% of the territory), the ridge-hilly plains of the Kerch Peninsula with the manifestation of mud volcanism and the mountainous Crimea, stretching in three ridges - the Main (southern), Inner and Outer (northern), separated by longitudinal plains.



Mountain structures of the Crimea are part of the Alpine folded geosynclinal region. The folded region of the Crimean Mountains is a large blocky uplift, the southern part of which is lowered below the level of the Black Sea. It is composed of intensely deformed Triassic-Jurassic flysch deposits and more quietly occurring Upper Jurassic carbonate and sandy-argillaceous Cretaceous, Paleogene and Neogene strata. Deposits of iron ores, various salts, flux limestones, etc. are associated with them.

The main ridge of the Crimean Mountains is the highest (1545 m, Mount Roman-Kosh), it is a chain of individual flat-topped limestone massifs (yayl), separated by deep canyons (see Grand Canyon (Crimea)). The southern slope of the Main Ridge stands out as the Crimean sub-Mediterranean. The Inner and Outer ridges form the Crimean foothills.


High mountain peaks:

Roman-Kosh - 1545 m;
Demir-Kapu - 1540 m;
Zeytin-Kosh - 1534 m;
Kemal-Egerek - 1529 m;
Eklizi-Burun - 1527 m;
Angara-Burun - 1453 m.


Еxtreme points

The northernmost point of Crimea is located on the Perekop Isthmus, the southernmost point is Cape Nikolai, the westernmost point is Cape Priboyny (Kara-Mrun) on Tarkhankut, and the easternmost point is Cape Lantern on the Kerch Peninsula. The distance from west to east (between the capes Kara-Mrun and Lantern) is 326 km, from north to south (from the Isthmus of Perekop to Cape Nikolai) is 205 km. The length from west to east is 360 km, from north to south - 180 km. The center of the Crimean peninsula is located near the village of Azov.


Coasts and bays

The banks are accumulatively aligned. The length of the coastline is 980 km, of which 76% are abrasion shores (that is, where rocks were destroyed under the action of waves).

The largest bays on the coast:
Black Sea:

Sea of Azov:
Kazantip and



In the east of Crimea is the Kerch Peninsula,
in the west - the Tarkhankut Peninsula,
in the south - the Herakleian Peninsula,
in the north - Tyup-Tarkhan.
The total length of land and sea borders is more than 2500 km.



Constant observations in the naval bases of the Black Sea Fleet have been carried out since the end of the 18th century, a network of weather stations was deployed in the second half of the 19th century.

Crimea, despite its relatively small territory, has a diverse climate. The climate of Crimea is divided into three subzones:
Steppe Crimea (most of Crimea, north, west and center of Crimea).
Crimean mountains
the south coast of Crimea

The climate of the northern part is temperate continental, on the southern coast - with features similar to subtropical. The average temperature in January is from -1 ... -3 ° C in the north of the steppe zone to +1 ... -1 ° C in the south of the steppe zone, on the southern coast of Crimea from +2 ... +6 ° C. The average temperature in July and August of the South Coast and the eastern part of Crimea: Kerch and Feodosiya is +23…+27 °C. Precipitation varies from 300-400 mm per year in the north to 1000-2000 mm in the mountains.

In summer (in the second half of July) in the steppe part of Crimea, the daytime air temperature reaches +35…+37 °C in the shade, at night up to +23…+25 °C. The climate is predominantly dry, seasonal dry winds prevail. The Black Sea warms up to +27 °С in summer. The Sea of Azov warms up to +28 °С.

The steppe part of the Crimea lies in the steppe zone of the temperate climate. This part of the Crimea is characterized by long dry and very hot summers and mild, little snowy winters with frequent thaws and very changeable weather. The Crimean mountains are characterized by a mountain type of climate with a pronounced zonality in height. Summers are also very hot and dry, while winters are wet and mild. The southern coast of Crimea is characterized by a sub-Mediterranean climate. Snow cover is only temporary, it is established on average once every 7 years, frosts only during the passage of the Arctic anticyclone.



257 rivers flow through the territory of Crimea (the largest are Salgir, Kacha, Alma, Belbek, Indol, Biyuk-Karasu, Chernaya, Burulcha). The longest river in Crimea is Salgir (220 km), the most full-flowing is Belbek (water flow rate is 1500 liters per second). There are more than 50 salt lakes in Crimea, the largest of them is Lake Sasyk-Sivash - 205 km². The Black Sea artesian basin is located. The steppe part is indented with canals for irrigation. The largest of them, the North Crimean Canal, was blocked by Ukraine in 2014; in 2022 it was unblocked by Russia during the fighting in the Kherson region.


Canals of Crimea

The basis of the irrigation systems of the Crimea, as well as the water supply of the cities of Kerch, Feodosia, Stary Krym, Sudak, Simferopol, Shchelkino and rural settlements of the Leninsky and Kirovsky districts, is the main North Crimean Canal (NCC) and large branches extending from it.

Main channels:
North Crimean Canal (SKK)
Razdolnensky Rice Canal (RRC)
Azov Rice Canal (ARC)
Krasnogvardeiskaya branch (KGV)
Black Sea Canal Branch (PMC)
Connecting channel
Saki Canal
Western Black Sea Line (ZCHV)
channel RF-2
Natural resources

The natural reserve fund includes 158 objects and territories (including 46 of national importance, the area of which is 5.8% of the area of the Crimean peninsula). The basis of the reserve fund is made up of 6 protected areas with a total area of 63.9 thousand hectares - the Crimean National Park (natural reserve), "Swan Islands", Yalta Mountain and Forest Nature Reserve, Cape Martyan, Karadagsky, Kazantip, Opuk nature reserves.

According to the Minister of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation Sergey Donskoy, oil reserves in the territory of Crimea amount to only 47 million tons, gas - 165.3 billion m³, which is a fairly significant indicator, and besides. there are 18.2 million tons of gas condensate. According to him, there are 44 deposits of hydrocarbon raw materials on the territory of the peninsula, including 10 oil, 27 gas and 7 gas condensate. In addition, there are 5 gas fields and 3 gas condensate fields on the Black Sea shelf, and 6 gas fields on the Azov shelf.

Deposits of minerals: mineral salts, building materials, combustible gas, thermal waters, iron ore. Natural recreational resources are of the greatest importance: mild climate, warm sea, therapeutic mud, mineral waters, picturesque landscapes.

Indolo-Kuban oil and gas region
Black Sea-Crimean oil and gas region
Kerch iron ore basin.


Flora and fauna

The fauna of the Crimea is a unique complex of species with a high level of isolation from other geographically adjacent faunas of the Caucasus, the Balkans and the mainland of Ukraine. It is characterized by a high level of endemism, a combination of mountain-forest (the largest connections with the Western Caucasus) and plain-steppe (connections with the mainland Azov) faunal complexes. In the fauna of the Crimea, a number of species have been identified, the distribution of which in Eastern Europe is limited only by the Crimea.

About 2400 species of plants grow in Crimea, of which 77 species are trees. There are a few more shrubs - 113 species. 118 species of Crimean plants are included in the Red Book or recognized as reserved by the decision of local authorities.



The formation of the ethno-cultural diversity of Crimea was determined by three historical and geographical territories. Numerous nomadic peoples came to the peninsula from the Eurasian steppes for many centuries. Ancient culture came to Crimea from the Mediterranean and the southern Black Sea shores and ethno-cultural influence was exerted by Byzantium, Turkey, and Armenia. From the territory of Eastern Europe, Germanic tribes and East Slavic peoples came to Crimea.



The oldest known population of the mountainous and southern coastal parts of the Crimea are the Taurians.
From the XII century BC. e. the steppe Crimea was inhabited by peoples conventionally referred to as Cimmerians.
VIII-IV centuries BC. e. - Greek colonists penetrated into the Crimea, who founded Panticapaeum (VII century BC), Feodosia, Chersonese (V century BC), created the Bosporus kingdom; the steppe part of the peninsula was inhabited by the Scythians.
III-II centuries BC. e. - the center of the Scythian state (Scythian Naples, located in the place of present-day Simferopol) moved to the Crimea from the Dnieper region under pressure from the Sarmatians who migrated from the east.
108 BC e. - under Mithridates VI (c. 132-63 BC), the Bosporan kingdom became part of the Pontic kingdom.
63 BC e. - The Pontic kingdom was conquered by Rome, the Crimean cities came under the control of the Romans. The independence of the Bosporus state was returned. The beginning of the domination of the Roman power in the Crimea.
257 - Crimea was subjugated by the Goths, the Scythian state was destroyed.
370s - 380s - the invasion of the Huns, who passed by the Bosporan state and fell upon the "Gothic state" of Germanaric.
IV-V centuries - the gradual restoration of the power of the Roman (Byzantine) Empire over the mountainous part of Crimea. The Goths who survived the invasion of the Huns accepted the power of Byzantium. The Bosporus state existed until the beginning of the 6th century. During the second half of the 5th and the beginning of the 6th century, the "protectorate" of the Hunnic tribe of the Utigurs, who returned from Europe after the collapse of the Hunnic Union, spread to the Bosporus. In the 520s-530s, Byzantium established direct power over the Bosporus.
The end of the 7th century - almost all of Crimea was captured by the Khazars, except for Chersonesus, which remained under the rule of Byzantium.
The turn of the 8th-9th centuries is the raid on Surozh (Sugdeya) by the legendary Varangian prince Bravlin.
X—XI centuries The southeast of the peninsula with the center in Kerch is part of the ancient Russian Tmutarakan principality.
XIII century - the power of Byzantium weakened; part of its possessions passed to the Genoese, part became an independent principality of Gothia (Theodoro).
XII-XV centuries - there was a settlement by Armenians of several regions of Crimea; formed an Armenian colony. At the same time, church sources mention the Alans in the Crimea. As the historian M. V. Tamamshev testifies, “with the approach of Mongol rule to decline, Armenians moved in masses to the Crimea, where there were so many of them that some geographers began to call the Crimean peninsula - Armenia maritima.”
1239 - Crimea was conquered by the Mongol army of Batu Khan. Steppe Crimea became an ulus of the Golden Horde.
1299 - the invasion of the Crimean troops of the Golden Horde Beklyarbek Nogay, who ruined several large urban centers.
XIV - the middle of the XV century - the wars of the Genoese with the Principality of Theodoro for the lands of the southern coast of Crimea.
XIV - the middle of the XV century - many Circassians settled in the eastern regions of Crimea in the Genoese period.
1441 - an independent Crimean Khanate was formed.
1475 - The Ottoman army under the command of Gedik Ahmed Pasha conquered the Genoese possessions and the Principality of Theodoro. The Crimean Khanate fell into vassal dependence on the Ottoman Empire.
1774 - according to the Kyuchuk-Kaynardzhy peace treaty, the fortresses of Kerch and Yenikale went to Russia, the Crimean Khanate was declared an independent state and the former Ottoman possessions on the peninsula (Southern and South-Eastern Crimea) passed to it.
1778 - Suvorov resettled the Armenians and Greeks from the Crimea to the Azov province.
April 8 (19), 1783 - the Russian Empress Catherine II signed the Manifesto on the annexation of Crimea to the Russian Empire.
1783 - Sevastopol was founded, the Black Sea Fleet of the Russian Empire was created.
1853-1856 - Crimean War (Eastern War).
November 1905 - Sevastopol uprising led by Lieutenant Schmidt.
Mass terror in the Crimea (1917-1918).
1917-1920 - Civil War. On the territory of Crimea, “white” and “red” governments replaced each other several times, including the Soviet Socialist Republic of Taurida, the Crimean Soviet Socialist Republic, the Crimean People's Republic and others.
1920-1921 - the so-called Red Terror in the Crimea.
October 18, 1921 - The Autonomous Crimean Soviet Socialist Republic was formed as part of the RSFSR.
1921-1923 - famine in the Crimea, which claimed more than 100 thousand lives (of which more than 75 thousand Crimean Tatars).
On June 16, 1925, the Artek pioneer camp was established.
1941 In May-July, the 9th separate corps of the Odessa Military District was stationed in the Crimea. Since September, in the Crimea, the troops of the 51st Separate Army took part in the hostilities against the German invaders. Among the troops of the army were the 9th Rifle Corps, the 3rd Crimean Motorized Rifle Division.
September 12, 1941 - July 10, 1942 the defense of Sevastopol.
1941-1944 - the occupation of the Crimea by Nazi Germany and Romania.
December 26, 1941 - May 15, 1942 Kerch-Feodosia landing operation, which ended in the defeat of the Soviet troops.
January 5 - 8, 1942 Evpatoria landing operation, which ended in the defeat of the Soviet troops.
May 16 - October 30, 1942 the defense of the Adzhimushkay quarries by the remnants of the Crimean Front of the Red Army.
October 31 - December 11, 1943 Kerch-Eltigen landing operation to liberate the Kerch Peninsula.
April 8 - May 12, 1944 Crimean offensive operation, which ended with the defeat of the troops of Nazi Germany and the liberation of Crimea.
1944 - the deportation of the Crimean Tatars (May 18), Armenians, Bulgarians and Greeks (June 26).
On February 4–11, 1945, the Yalta Conference of the leaders of the three great powers of the anti-Hitler coalition took place.
June 30, 1945 - By decree of the Presidium of the USSR Armed Forces, the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was abolished and the Crimean Region was created. On June 25, 1946, the abolition of autonomy was approved by the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, and settlements on the peninsula and in adjacent areas were also renamed.
1948 - by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, the city of Sevastopol was separated into a separate administrative and economic center (a city of republican subordination).
On February 19, 1954, by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Crimean region was transferred from the RSFSR to the Ukrainian SSR.
1978 - the constitution of the Ukrainian SSR was adopted, in which the city of Sevastopol was listed as a city of republican subordination of the Ukrainian SSR.
1987 - the mass return of the Crimean Tatar people to Crimea from places of deportation began.
February 12, 1991 - according to the results of the all-Crimean referendum, which was boycotted by the Crimean Tatars returning to the peninsula from places of deportation (held on January 20, 1991), the Crimean region was transformed into the Crimean ASSR as part of the Ukrainian SSR; in 1992, the autonomy was renamed the Republic of Crimea, and in 1994 - the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.
2014 - the annexation of the peninsula (within the borders of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol that had developed by that time) by Russia.



The main sectors are industry (more than 530 large and medium-sized enterprises), construction, energy, agriculture, including grain growing, vegetable growing and melon growing, horticulture and viticulture and animal husbandry, trade, healthcare.

The tourism and resort sphere is developed.



Each city in Crimea is connected to other settlements by bus routes. There are intercity trolleybus routes (on the route Simferopol airport - Simferopol - Alushta - Yalta, see Crimean trolleybus). There is a tram in Evpatoria.

Yalta, Feodosia, Kerch, Sevastopol, Chernomorskoe and Evpatoria are connected by sea routes. In Sevastopol, boats run between the North and South sides, which are public transport. The railway lines Salt Lake - Sevastopol (with a branch to Evpatoria) and Armyansk - Kerch (with a branch to Feodosia) connect Crimea with the continent.

The peninsula is washed by two seas. The ports of the Black Sea are Evpatoria, Sevastopol, Yalta, Feodosiya and Kerch. The Azov coast has no transport significance.

The peninsula is connected with the Krasnodar Territory of Russia by the Crimean Bridge - a transport crossing consisting of parallel road and railway bridges; the highway Taurida A291, Kerch - Sevastopol (250.75 km) originates from it.



Crimea is one of the few regions of Eastern Europe that joined the culture of ancient Greece and Rome during their heyday. The Crimean culture of the Middle Ages is closely connected with Byzantium and the Mediterranean. The ruins of Chersonese, founded in ancient times, which have survived to this day, are a legacy of ancient Greek and early medieval Byzantine architecture. The medieval culture of the peninsula is imbued with the influence of Muslim culture, in particular Tatar and Ottoman architecture.

The peninsula has always been a place where representatives of various peoples settled, such as Scythians and Greeks, Romans and Byzantines, Bulgars, Khazars, Cumans, Pechenegs, Armenians and Goths. In Crimea, on the basis of local and alien elements, Crimean Tatars, Urums, Krymchaks and Karaites were formed. After the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Empire, Russians, Ukrainians, Bulgarians, Germans and other peoples began to appear on the peninsula.

The names of the artist Ivan Aivazovsky, writers and poets Alexander Pushkin, Adam Mickiewicz, Alexei Apukhtin, Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov, Maximilian Voloshin, Alexander Grin, Arkady Averchenko, Sergei Sergeev-Tsensky, Ivan Bunin, poetesses Lesya Ukrainka, Marina Tsvetaeva and Yulia Drunina, Crimean Tatar educator Ismail Gasprinsky.



The traditional confessions of Crimea include Orthodoxy, Sunni Islam, Judaism, Karaism, as well as Catholicism and Armenian Apostolic Christianity. As of 2009, 1,362 religious organizations (37 in 1988) of fifty denominations and religious denominations were registered in Crimea; there were more than 1330 religious communities, 9 spiritual educational institutions. 690 religious buildings were used or owned by religious organizations. From 1991 to 2009, 166 religious buildings were built, including 80 mosques.


Crimea in astronomy

Minor planets (814) Tauris (lat. Tauris) and (1140) Krymia (lat. Crimea) (the first in honor of the ancient name, the second - the current one), discovered by astronomer Grigory Neuimin at the Simeiz observatory on January 2, 1916 and December 30, 1929, respectively.


Science and education

Large scientific centers are located in Crimea - oceanographic (in Sevastopol and Kerch), ecological and biological (Karadag biological station), historical and archaeological, balneological, general medical, agricultural and wine-making, military-space, aviation and naval profiles. Universities - Crimean Federal University named after V. I. Vernadsky, Sevastopol State University, Crimean Engineering and Pedagogical University, which conduct research on a wide range of issues. The Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and its branch, the Simeiz Observatory, are located in the south of Crimea.

Projects for the creation of a university in Crimea date back to the 19th century, but only in 1918, thanks to the efforts of the Crimean scientific community, the Taurida University was opened. In 1922, the agrarian faculty of the university separated into the Crimean Agricultural Institute of Special Industries. In 1931, the Crimean Medical Institute was opened, leading its history from the medical faculty of the Tauride University that existed in 1918-1922. After the war, there was a shortage of qualified technical personnel, in order to fill it and contribute to the growth of the Crimean industry, the Sevastopol Instrument-Making Institute (later the Sevastopol National Technical University) was created on the basis of the Odessa Polytechnic Institute. In 1993, the Crimean Engineering and Pedagogical University was established in Simferopol in order to train specialists from the peoples who returned from the places of deportation, in 2001, with the support of the Moscow government, the Black Sea branch of Moscow State University was opened in Sevastopol.



The history of Crimean healthcare goes back to antiquity. After a long break associated with the barbarian invasions, Crimean medicine was revived at the end of the 13th century in the form of the St. John's Hospital in Feodosia. The true heyday of Crimean medicine came in the second half of the 19th century, when the healing properties of the mud of Saki Lake, the climate of the foothill forests and the South Coast, curing tuberculosis, were discovered. With the growth of living standards, the frequency of epidemics decreased, the plague left the Crimean coast. In recent times, it has been possible to drastically limit the spread of malaria, the Crimea has become a comfortable and safe place to live, well-provided with medical and preventive and sanatorium-resort institutions.


Tourism and rest

The beginning of the development of Crimea as a resort dates back to the second half of the 19th century. With the improvement of transport links, it became easier for residents of the Central provinces of the Russian Empire to get to seaside resorts. At the turn of the century, there was a boom in the construction of summer residences: cottages, villas and palaces. Preserved to this day, they are one of the characteristic features of the Crimean cities.

A new, massive stage in the history of Crimean tourism is associated with Lenin's decrees; Crimea becomes the "All-Union health resort", receiving hundreds of thousands of tourists. After 1991, the resort specialization has changed dramatically, now beach and active holidays are preferred to sanatorium treatment. Unorganized tourists significantly outnumber vacationers in sanatoriums.

Famous resort areas:
Southern coast of Crimea - Yalta and Alushta regions.
West coast - Evpatoria-Saki region.
Southeast coast - Feodosia and Sudak regions.

The Crimean mountains and forest lands are under state protection. The following reserves and sanctuaries are organized on a part of the territory of the peninsula: the Crimean nature reserve, the Yalta mountain-forest nature reserve, the Martyan cape nature reserve, the Karadag nature reserve, the Kazantip nature reserve, etc.



In the 19th century, mountain tourism began to develop in the Crimea. Earlier than in other parts of the Russian Empire, football became popular. In the 1920s, southeastern Crimea became the birthplace of Soviet gliding. The traditions of Greco-Roman wrestling associated with the name of Ivan Poddubny and chess are strong in Crimea. At the beginning of the 19th century, sailing and diving were developed. Cycling on the highway is popular, the climate and relief of the peninsula are favorable for training and gatherings of cycling teams.