Alushta is one of the pretties resort town in
Crimean Peninsula in Russia. It is spread on the shores of the
Black Sea and surrounded by picturesque mountains and ancient ruins.
The climate is subtropical Mediterranean type (see. South Coast of
Crimea). It is very similar in temperature to the climate of Yalta
from April to September, but a little colder (on average by 0.5 ° C)
from October to March. Alushta resort has 2 passes (Kebit Bogaz and
Angarsk Pass), due to which air masses constantly move from the
plains of the peninsula to the sea and back. In this regard, the
climate is characterized by hot summers and mild winters, as well as
comparative dryness, most of the precipitation falls from November
to March. The average humidity is 72%.
temperature of the coldest month - January is +4.1 ° C, and the
warmest month - August is +26.2 ° C. The total duration of sunshine
is 2321 hours per year. The water temperature does not drop below +8
° C even in the coldest period. The swimming season is from May to
October. During these months, the water temperature is not lower
than +17 ° C. The warmest sea is from July to September - when the
water temperature reaches + 22 ... + 27 ° C. In summer, storms are
rare and short-lived.
Marble Cave was opened to the public in 1987. It is a
natural maze of underground tunnels in the limestone rocks of marble
type, hence the name of it. Entrance to the Marble Cave is located
at an elevation of 918 meters above sea level near a town of
Marble Cave stands out among other Crimean caves. It
is the largest cave by area, length and volume of the interior
space. Currently 2 km of tunnels have been adequatly explored.
Although the total length of this Alushta cave was never properly
explored. Don't try to do exploring on your own. You can easily
loose yourself. Stay on the well marked trails. You can see plenty
of spectacular galleries and natural geological formations. Every
year about one hundred thousand tourists come here on a tour.
Alushta, according to one version, comes from the
Greek αλυσίδα [alusida], that is, a chain. Aluston Fortress was
built by order of Emperor Justinian I in the VI century. Throughout
the Middle Ages, Alusta was a significant coastal stronghold for all
the states that owned the Southern coast of Crimea: the Roman
(Byzantine) Empire, the Khazar Khaganate, and the Principality of
During the reign of the Genoese, Alushta is one of
the fortified points of the captain of Gothia (the so-called part of
the Genoese possessions in the Crimea, stretching west to Fori). The
fortress became an apple of discord between the Genoese and the
Principality of Theodoro, since along with Yalta and Gurzuf, it had
a marina equipped with Byzantines. The Italians called the city of
Lust. Only two towers of a medieval fortress have survived to this
After the Ottomans conquered the Southern coast of
Crimea, Alushta was part of the Sudak Kadylyk. She lost her naval
importance, becoming, like Yalta and Gurzuf, an ordinary seaside
village. Nevertheless, at the climax of the heated struggle for
Crimea between Russia and Turkey, it was Alushta that became the
landing site of the Turkish army, which aimed to oust Russian troops
from the peninsula. The Yanicharsky backbone of this landing was
defeated by the operational corps of V.P. Musin-Pushkin near the
village of Shuma north of Alushta. At the same time, Lieutenant
Colonel M.I. Kutuzov distinguished himself, but was seriously
wounded, who commanded the grenadier battalion of the Moscow Legion,
who delivered the main blow.
After the annexation of Crimea
to the Russian Empire and the formation of the Tauride province,
Alushta became the center of the Volost of Simferopol and then Yalta
counties. The southern coast of Crimea is developing the cares of
the Novorossiysk and Bessarabian Governor-General Count M. S.
Vorontsov. In 1833, Nicholas I the highest approves the design of a
large church, the author of which was Odessa architect G.I.
Toricelli. The temple in the name of all Crimean saints and Theodore
Stratilates was built and consecrated in 1842.
In the late
XIX - early XX centuries, Alushta began to gain popularity as a
resort and in 1902 received the status of a city.
At the same
time, the resort suburb of Alushta, which is now part of the city
and called the Professor’s Corner, began to develop. Initially, the
area was called Tyrnak or Ternak (Crimean-Tat. Tırnaq - nail), then
it was called the Professor’s corner, then the Work corner (since
1920), and finally again the Professor’s corner. In 1886, after
resigning, a famous Russian geologist and teacher N. A. Golovkinsky
settled in his mansion in Kasteli-Primorsky. After many prominent
scientists began to build their dachas nearby, the Professor’s
Corner became a place where they rested, worked and lived:
professors D. I. Tikhomirov, E. A. Golubev, A. I. Kirpichnikov,
academician of architecture A. I. Beketov. For many years, the first
Russian female doctor N.P. Suslova lived here. On her initiative, a
free school for village children was opened in the Professors'
Corner. Monuments were erected to N. A. Golovkinsky and N. P.
Suslova in the village of Lazurnoe, at the foot of Mount Kastel. The
life of the Russian writer S. N. Sergeev-Tsensky was connected with
the Work Corner. Here the writer I. S. Shmelev also acquired a
After the loss of Perekop and Ishun positions, part of
the Soviet troops retreated directly to Sevastopol, part, being cut
off, retreated through Alushta and Yalta along the South Coast
highway. By November 4, advanced German and Romanian units
suppressed the resistance of the barriers and occupied the city.
During the withdrawal from Sudak along the southern coast of the
48th OKD, together with the remnants of the 294th and 297th
regiments of the 184th SD, they fought on November 4 and 5, 1941
with the enemy in the region of Alushta, they even occupied the
city, but did not break through could and went to the mountains.
The German occupation caused severe damage to the city, which
lasted from November 4, 1941 to April 15, 1944. More than 500
residents of Alushta died at the hands of the invaders, 231 people
were hijacked to work in Germany. The city became depopulated even
more after the deportation of the Crimean Tatars on May 18, 1944. In
Alushta there are monuments dedicated to military events.
the postwar years, Alushta developed as a seaside resort, many new
pensions and rest houses were built. The Soviet films Captive of the
Caucasus, Hearts of Three, Ships Storming the Bastions and others
were shot in the vicinity.
In 1966, the title of Honorary
Citizen of the City was preempted to honor citizens for special
services to the city community, for outstanding achievements and
high professional skills in the development of science, health,
education, culture, art, sports, political, economic, charitable and
other fields of activity. Alushta. Currently, 29 people have been
awarded the title.