Yalta, Russia

Location: Crimean Peninsula


Yalta (Ялта) is located on the southern coast of Crimea, is part of the Big Yalta - an inextricable chain of resort towns: Yalta, Miskhor, Alupka, Simeiz and Foros.

Yalta has been used as a resort since the 19th century and was extremely popular during the Soviet era as a place for mass tourism. Located in beautiful surroundings and in close proximity to many attractions of the Crimea.

In summer the city is flooded mainly with Russian and Ukrainian tourists. However, you can go there at any time of the year: the average temperature is always above zero (although very rarely, but there are sub-zero temperatures). In spring and autumn, the weather is pleasant, with air temperatures reaching 20 °C. In winter, the temperature usually stays around +10 during the day, sometimes drops to zero; in abnormally cold winters, there are several frosty days in a row. Snow falls 2-3 times during the winter, but melts either in the evening or after a few days. A typical picture in winter is snow-capped mountains and 8-10 degrees Celsius in the city itself. The city is protected on all sides by mountains and warmed by the Black Sea, but beware of the winds, as they can be extremely cold. The climate is sub-Mediterranean, so it is usually clear and dry in summer, although short-term thunderstorms and rains occur, and most of the precipitation falls in winter - it often drizzles in December-February.


Getting here

By plane
The nearest airport is in Simferopol.

By train
The nearest railway stations are in Simferopol and Sevastopol.

By bus
There are flights from almost all major cities of Crimea: Alushta (40 minutes on the way), Evpatoria (3 hours, 3 flights a day), Kerch (7 hours, 2 direct flights a day + passing to the mainland of Russia), Sevastopol (1.5 hours , every 20-30 minutes), Simferopol (1.5-2 hours, every 10-20 minutes), Sudak (2 hours, 3 flights a day), Feodosia (4 hours 30 minutes, 1 flight a day).

There are routes from Russia and Ukraine, mainly one flight per day is performed: Anapa (10 hours), Dnepropetrovsk (9 hours), Donetsk (13 hours), Krasnodar (14 hours), Kiev (19 hours), Krivoy Rog (12 h), Mariupol (12 h), Odessa (14 h), Kharkov (16 h). Closer to the main tourist season, the intensity of flights increases.

Bus station, st. Moscow, 8. ☎ +7 (3654) 34-20-92. summer 05:15 - 23:00, off-season 05:45 - 22:35. There is a small waiting room, a left-luggage office on the ground floor, long-term rest rooms, a couple of food stalls, and several cafes of dubious quality 50 meters away. There is also a Genbank ATM, Wi-Fi, a payment terminal, a newsstand, a souvenir shop, a hairdresser and a toilet. E-tickets can be purchased on the carrier's website gosbus.ru.

By trolleybus
Yalta is one of the few cities with intercity trolleybus transport. The Yalta-Simferopol trolleybus route has twice entered the Guinness Book of Records as the oldest operating trolleybus and as the longest trolleybus route in Europe.

Routes: No. 52 Yalta-Alushta-Simferopol, No. 53 Yalta-Alushta. On the way, approximately 1 hour to Alushta and 2.5 hours to Simferopol.

Intercity trolleybus station, st. Moscow, 61 (Opposite the bus station). ☎ 79 94 +7 (3654) 32 79 94.

On the ship
In summer, boats regularly go to Gaspra (Swallow's Nest), Miskhor, Alupka, Nikita and Gurzuf. The frequency of flights depends on the number of tourists, and if there are a lot of them, then a flight to Partenit, Professor's Corner and Alushta opens. Departure from the pier, near the Chapel of the New Martyrs and Confessors of Russia on the main embankment.

From May to September, you can sail to Yalta in 2 hours from Sevastopol on the Kometa hydrofoil. There are two flights a day, the fare is 500 rubles one way in economy class and 800 rubles in comfort class (2018).

An even more exotic way to get to the city may be a trip on a cruise ship along the route Sochi - Novorossiysk - Yalta - Sevastopol - Sochi. Flights are operated by Infoflot, prices from 25,300 rubles per person for 7 days (2018).

Seaport, st. Roosevelt, 3. ☎ + 7 (3654) 32-77-11

By car
Highway E105 Yalta - Dzhankoy.



An extensive network of minibuses connects the city center and remote areas. You either get paid on boarding or on exit, and this can be confusing at times.

Clothing market. The paths of many minibuses start from this stop or pass through it. edit
Useful Public Transport Routes
m/t11 bus station - Livadia Palace
m / t32: clothing market - Livadia Palace, Gaspra sanatorium (next to the Swallow's Nest), Miskhor (near the lower station of the Miskhor-Ai-Petri cable car), Vorontsov Palace in Alupka
m/t27, 102 similar to m/t32, but depart from the bus station
m/t5, 100: Livadia Palace - Yalta City Center - Massandra Palace
tb. 2, m/t29: stop on the street. Moscow - Upper Massandra Park, from which you have to go uphill for a long time to climb to the Massandra Palace
m / t34: stop on the street. Moskovskaya - Upper Massandrovsky Park and then continues to the Nikitsky Botanical Garden


Yalta Travel Destinations

1  Yalta Embankment Central Promenade. The central walking street of Yalta, one of the oldest streets in the city. The embankment is lined with palm trees and filled with a continuous series of attractions, bars, cafes and restaurants. The architecture is intertwined with diverse styles and is clad in polychrome red granite and light gray porphyry. The embankment is about one and a half kilometers long: from McDonald's in the east to the Oreanda Hotel in the west. Lots of shops, cafes and attractions.
2 Palace of the Emir of Bukhara (Дворец Эмира Бухарского). Palace ensemble in the city of Yalta on the territory of the sanatorium "Yalta"
3 Armenian Church (Армянская Церковь) of St. Hripsime, st. Zagorodnaya, 3. built in 1909-1914 by the architect G. Ter-Mikelov according to the sketches of the famous artist Vardges Surenyants, stands on a steep mountainside. It remotely resembles the ancient temple of Hripsime (VII-XII centuries) in Etchmiadzin (Vagharshapat, Armenia). The church is in the center of the city, with beautiful details, and definitely worth a visit.
4 Saint Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, st. Sadovaya, 2. Built in 1902 in the traditional style. The main Orthodox Cathedral of Yalta.
5 Roman Catholic Church of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, st. Pushkinskaya, 25.
6 Roffe Baths, emb. them. Lenina, 31.
7  Reconstructed hotel "Tavrida", emb. named after Lenin, 13.
8  Belfry of John Chrysostom, st. Tolstoy, 10.
9 Palace of Count Mordvinov, st. Sverdlova, 32. Access is free.
10 House of the architect Wegener. Access is free.
11 Moorish-style building, st. Ekaterininskaya, 8. ☎ +7 (3654) 32-55-25. Tue–Sun 10:00–18:00. Museum of Lesya Ukrainka.
12 House of the composer A. A. Spendiarov, st. Ekaterininskaya, 3. ☎ +7 (3654) 326-973, +7 (3654) 326-993. so-called house with caryatids.
13  Dacha of Countess Vadarskaya, st. Shchorsa, 14. In the Moorish style.
14 Evangelical Lutheran Church of St. Mary, st. Chekhov, 10. ☎ +7 (3654) 326400. The church was built in 1885 with money from German Protestants and Lutherans who lived in Yalta. (At that time, 6% of the Crimean population were Germans). The temple was built in the Neo-Gothic style according to the project of the Yalta architect Gustav Schreiber. He also donated the land for construction. During the Soviet years, the building was used as a chess club, the spirit and atmosphere of which still hovers in the room. Initially, the church was decorated with a pointed bell tower, but later destroyed and has not yet been restored. Now the church is open to the public, it hosts church services, during which they play the organ. All inscriptions in the church are duplicated in German, and sometimes they are made only in it.

Lower Massandra
If from the embankment to them. Lenin to go along the coast towards Alushta, then after a few hundred meters the Massandra beach will begin. After passing through it and climbing the road (Drazhinsky Street), you can get to Massandra Park.

15 Massandrovsky Park (from Drazhinsky St., entrance near the Massandra Hotel 1). A very large park, founded in the first half of the 19th century, slightly larger than the Nikitsky Botanical Park. Both local plant species (Crimean pine, strawberry tree, pistachio, juniper) and more exotic ones (sequoiadendron, cedar, laurel, magnolia, bamboo, cryptomeria, Bunge pine, wonderful pine, lovely fir) grow here. They are trying to put the park in order, but, nevertheless, some desolation is noticeable, there are no signs. In general, if you are nearby, then you can go for a pleasant walk, but you should not go specially.
16  Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker and Martyr Empress Alexandra.

Chapel of New Martyrs and Russian Confessors

Chapel of Saint Nicholas (Часовня Святого Николая Чудотворца)


What to do


Yalta Zoo "Fairy Tale" (Route taxi No. 24, 26, 27). summer: 9:00–20:00, ticket office until 19:00; winter: 9:00–18:00, ticket office until 17:00. 400 rubles, children: 200 rubles. The largest zoo in Crimea. More than 100 species of animals and birds live in it, in total more than 600 individuals. Very diverse animals: lions, bears, monkeys... The zoo is in good condition and you can see that the animals are looked after here. There is an aquarium next to the zoo, open from 9:00 to 17:00.
Glade of Fairy Tales. 9:00 - 19:00. 200 rubles; children - 80 rubles. Museum of a fairy tale under the open sky. In total, the museum "Glade of Fairy Tales" has about two hundred sculptures. Pinocchio and Tortila the turtle, Mowgli and Panther Bagheera, the three little pigs, the Swan Princess and many other characters from favorite fairy tales, well-known to children, are waiting for meetings with young visitors. It is advisable to get to the daily performance with the participation of Baba Yaga and other characters.
Crocodilearium, st. Ignatenko, 1. ☎ +7 (978) 7290161. May - September 10:00–22:00 (ticket office until 21:30); October - April 10:00–20:00 (ticket office until 19:00). 600 rubles, children from 3 to 13 years old - 400 rubles, the price includes an excursion. On an area of 300 sq. m there are seven species of crocodiles (more than 70 individuals) ranging in size from 30 cm to 4 m, including the world's largest Nile crocodiles. For an additional fee, you can feed the reptiles. Turtles, pythons, iguanas and monitor lizards also live here.
Theater of marine animals "Water area", pos. Vinogradnoye, Bakhchisaray highway, 17-a (The road to the Uchan-Su waterfall, above the Uzbekistan sanatorium. And an hour before the start of the performance, a fixed-route taxi departs from the Yubileiny summer theater, the fare in both directions is 60 rubles). ☎ +7 (978) 739-56-15, +7 (3654) 26-10-08. Performances from the beginning of May to the end of September Tue-Sun at 11:00, Saturday and Sunday also at 17:00. The Dolphin Therapy Center is open all year round. Submission 400-600 rubles. Swimming with dolphins 5 minutes - 2000 rub. "Communication with a dolphin" 5 minutes 1000 rub. Photoshoot 800 rub. 1 session of dolphin therapy - 4000 rubles. The theater show combines a stage performance, performances by human actors and various marine animals (dolphins, beluga whales, sea lions, walruses, fur seals). All performances are united by the director's concept and based on communication with the audience, accompanied by music and special effects in the evening.
Cableway "Yalta-Gorka", Embankment im. Lenin (the lower station can be found on one of the side streets leaving the embankment, it is marked with a large sign "Cable Car"). ☎ 593 +7 (3654) 323 593. 10:00–22:00, but sometimes closes a little earlier. 300 rubles in both directions, children 200 rubles. One way - half the price. The length of the cable car is 600 m, the height difference is 120 m, which are overcome by air in 12 minutes. The cabins are designed for two passengers, you need to jump into the cabin on the go, the movement is closed in a circle, without stops. Having climbed to the upper station, you can walk along several forest paths, including reaching the neighboring Hill of Glory - a memorial complex with an Eternal Flame dedicated to the fallen during the Civil and Great Patriotic Wars .. Among other things, at the upper station of the cable car you can have lunch in a cafe or visit a miniature tropical butterfly garden.
Tasting room of the Institute "Magarach", st. Kirova, 31 (in the building of the National Institute of Grapes and Wine "Magarach"). ☎ +7 (3654) 32-55-91. Presumably, only organized groups are accepted, so before visiting it is worth calling by phone to clarify. The duration of the tour is 1.5 hours. 8 samples of wines are served for tasting (mainly dessert and fortified).
Contact zoo, in the hotel "Yalta-Intourist". The zoo is home to alpacas, mini horses and Cameroonian goats that you can pet and feed.
Planetarium (Spherical cinema), in the hotel "Yalta-Intourist". ☎ +7 (3654) 270-270. 12:00 - 22:00. It has a dome-shaped screen with a 360° view. There are at least 10 educational films available.
Dolphinarium in the hotel "Yalta-Intourist" (Most likely not working since the end of 2014), st. Drazinsky, 50.
Family theme park "Dreamwood", Russia, Republic of Crimea, Yalta, the territory of the MRIYA RESORT & SPA complex (there is a paid transfer from Yalta). ☎ 8(800)5505694. Wednesday - Sunday: 11:00 - 18:00. 1200r. online, 1300 rub. at the checkout. The Dreamwood Family Theme Park has a unique atmosphere of hospitable nature that helps to explore the wonderful world around and enjoy it together with loved ones. In Dreamwood, attractions and quests not only entertain, but also educate, reward for courage and curiosity. The park is open all year round, the rides are open in any season, also in Dreamwood 2500 square meters



House-Museum of A.P. Chekhov ("Belaya Dacha"), st. Kirov, 112. ✉ ☎ +7 (3654) 39-49-47. 10:00–18:00, Wednesdays two hours longer. Tours start at 10:30; 11:30; 12:30; 13:30; 14:45; 15:45; 16:50. Entrance ticket adults 200 rubles, children under 16 free. In the garden 50 rubles. Chekhov wrote "Lady with a Dog", "The Cherry Orchard", "Three Sisters" and many other works here. The house is small, and next to it is a museum dedicated to the writer. Unfortunately, Chekhov's house fell into disrepair due to lack of funds. The good news is that a fund has been organized to raise a large amount of money for the complete restoration of the house in the near future.
Museum "Chekhov and Crimea" (Dacha "Omyur"), st. Kirova, 32a. ☎ +7 (3654) 23-53-67. Wed–Sun 10:00–18:00. Entrance ticket: adults 100 rubles, children under 16 free of charge. Temporarily closed.
Historical and Literary Museum, st. Pushkinskaya, 5. ☎ 070 +7 (3654) 323 070. Wed–Sun 10:00–18:00, Fri 12:00–20:00, ticket office closes half an hour earlier. 150 rubles, children - 75 rubles, excursion - 500 rubles.
Museum of pre-revolutionary culture of Yalta (House Museum of Lesya Ukrainka), st. Yekaterininskaya, 8 (in a Moorish-style building). ☎ +7 (3654) 32-55-25. Wed–Sun 10:00–18:00, Fri 12:00–20:00, ticket office closes half an hour earlier. 100 rubles, children - 50 rubles, excursion - 500 rubles. Located in a house built in the 19th century by architect P. Terebenev for the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Empire A. Jomini. Items typical for Yalta of the late 19th - early 20th centuries are presented: a piano, a gramophone, and furniture. It tells about the famous cultural figures who were in Yalta at that time: M. Mussorgsky, N. Rimsky-Korsakov, S. Rachmaninov, A. Spendiarov, L. Tolstoy, A. Chekhov, I. Bunin, F. Vasiliev. On the second floor of the building there is an exposition of the museum of Lesya Ukrainka.
House-Museum of N. Biryukov, st. Krasnoarmeiskaya, 5. ☎ 676 +7 (3654) 323 676. Wed–Sun 10:00–18:00, ticket office closes half an hour earlier. 100 rubles, children - 50 rubles, excursion - 500 rubles.
Literary and Memorial Museum of K. Trenev and P. Pavlenko, st. Pavlenko, 10.

Theatre. Chekhov, st. Ekaterininskaya, 13. ☎ +7 (3654) 23-42-47, +7 (978) 916 51 11. The only classical theater in the city. On the same stage, performances of dance groups and concerts of the Crimean Philharmonic Society are held, literary evenings are held.
Concert Hall "Jubilee", per. Chernomorsky, 2. ☎ +7 (978) 917 7007. A large concert hall for 3,000 spectators, where all the most significant musical events and concerts take place.

Planet of cinema IMAX, st. Kyiv, 4. The only cinema in Crimea that can show films in IMAX format. Operates several cinemas.
Cinema "Oreanda" embankment. Lenina, 35/2 (in the building of the hotel "Oreanda"). ☎ cash desk +7 (3654) 23-69-22, +7 (978) 039 09 29, autoinformer +7 (3654) 32-20-20. There is only one room, but it is new and spacious, capable of showing films in 3D.
Cinema "Spartak", st. Marshak, 9. ☎ cash desk +7 (3654) 27-34-84, autoinformer 27-20-20 +7 (3654) 27-25-25, 27-20-20. For some reason, not a very popular cinema among the audience, there are always a lot of empty seats. There is a 3D cinema. There are movie nights.

Narrow pebble beaches stretch along the entire edge of the sea in the city and its environs. Most of the aging beach infrastructure was built back in Soviet times, with all the consequences. Only a few beaches can boast something new.

Massandra beach. One of the few beaches brought back to normal. New tiles have been laid, new sheds, changing rooms, many atmospheric restaurants are open.
The beach of the hotel "Yalta-Intourist", st. Drazhinsky, 50. A cosmetic reconstruction of the embankment was carried out, several decent restaurants were opened, incl. cafe "Apelsin", restaurant "Krym", "Tony's burgers", "Guchkov". Some of the beaches are in poor condition, some are better. The paid beach "Nebo Beach" is different for the better, equipped above the main beach, as if on the second floor, the owners promise that this is the only sandy beach in Yalta.
Oceanarium "Yalta", st. Drazhinsky, 50 (the beach of the Yalta-Intourist hotel). ☎ + 7 (978) 120 15 16. 350 rub. Despite the loud name, this is just a small aquarium that fits in several not very large rooms. Many stingrays, piranhas, 2 crocodiles, a dozen or two more exotic fish. Well designed, but small in size.
Seaside beach (City beach). The closest beach to the embankment named after Lenin, suitable for swimming. All the rest, located directly opposite the embankment, belong to the sanitary zone of the port, swimming is prohibited, although there are a lot of swimmers, despite the dirty water.
Sunny beach. The beach is closed, reconstruction is underway, and this is most likely for a long time.
Further towards Livadia there is a whole series of beaches that are in an almost abandoned state. There are fewer vacationers than in the center of Yalta. There are many fences, some of the beaches are closed to the public, vacationers of boarding houses swim there.



Large selection of souvenirs in the waterfront area.
Supermarket "Furshet", st. Kyiv, 6. ☎ +7 (3654) 27-02-81. 8:00–23:00.
SEC "Confetti", st. Bolshevistskaya, 10 (3 km from the city center, stop "Glade of Fairy Tales"). ☎ +7 (3654) 205-888. 10:00–21:00, Silpo supermarket 8:00–23:00. There is an ice skating rink and a children's entertainment center "Jolly Roger".
There are several dozens of bank branches, the largest of them are Rossiya Bank, RNKB, and Genbank. There are many ATMs throughout the city.



Food is plentiful along the promenade and main beaches. These are good expensive restaurants, and democratic canteens and fast foods.

There are especially many cheap establishments (burgers, sandwiches, shawarmas) in the clothing market area and along the street. Pushkinskaya.

1 Restaurant "Silk Way", st. Roosevelt, 1 (at the beginning of the embankment named after Lenin). Main dishes 100-300 rubles. Restaurant of Uzbek cuisine. In terms of the quality of the dishes, this is still closer to the dining room, although this has an advantage - they quickly bring the order. It makes sense to order dough dishes (yantyki, chebureks, samsa, tortillas). they will definitely be made to order, and not just reheated already ready. There is no alcohol on the menu.

Average cost
2  Vegetarian cafe "Prasad"  , st. Roosevelt, 12a. ☎ +7 (978) 1148646. 200-400 rub. Great relaxed atmosphere, Indian music playing, food well prepared.
3  Pizzeria "Capri", st. Morskaya, 2. 11:00 - 23:00, Fri, Sat, Sun 1 hour longer. Good pizza and burgers, good reviews.

4 Gangster cafe "La Cosa Nostra", st. Rudanskogo, 1. ☎ 9391 +7 (978) 816 9391, +7 (3654) 262372. Main dishes 300-600 rubles. Very tasty food, the quality is much higher than the average in Yalta. This is mainly Italian cuisine, but there are many dishes - the fruits of the imagination of the chefs of this cafe. It is located in two small halls of the basement - which is the main drawback of the institution - it is crowded and not very comfortable. To sum it up, it's worth a visit for the food, but you have to be prepared for expensive prices and small portions.
5   Cafe "EatMe"  ☎ +7 (978) 802-84-64. Salads 200-500 rubles. Second courses 250-900 rubles, but most are around 500 rubles. Excellent cuisine, there are interesting names, although the menu itself is small, but with pictures. Pleasant relaxed atmosphere, stylish design, the presence of a summer veranda. In general, this is the brother of the Sevastopol institution, but with more expensive prices.
6 Restaurant "Bristol", st. Roosevelt, 10 (at the Bristol Hotel). ☎ 28 84 8 (800) 775 28 84, +7 (3654) 271606. Located in a glazed annex to the hotel, you can sit and watch what is happening on the street. The interior is unobtrusive, maybe even a bit plain. Delicious food (mostly Ukrainian cuisine), well trained waiters, expensive but cozy.
7  Beach-cafe "Van Gogh", Drazhinsky, 31g (Massandrovsky beach). ☎ +7 (978) 911 07 88. Main dishes 300-500 rubles, wine 200-400 rubles/glass.
8 Restaurant-brewery Fabrikant, st. Marshak, 9 (at the SPA hotel "Primorsky Park"). ☎ 7470 +7 (978) 018 7470, 55 30 +7 (3654) 23 55 30. Main dishes 250-1000 rubles. Pretty good premium restaurant with high ratings in the reviews and the interior of the late XIX century. Everyone praises the beer that is brewed here. Food is more often liked than not, but not always perfect.
9 "Khutorok La Mer" restaurant, st. Sverdlov, 9 (Massandrovsky beach). ☎ 888 4 +7 (978) 814 888 4, 18 15 +7 (3654) 27 18 15. 11:00 to 24:00 - autumn-winter, from 10:00 to the last guest - summer. Main dishes 400-800 rubles. The kitchen is at a good level, but the deafening "live music" is not for everyone.

Coffee houses
10  Coffee house Bookman Cafe Facebook icon.svg , st. Pushkinskaya, 17. ☎ +7 (978) 8416849. Coffee 120-250 rubles, desserts from 120 rubles, there are also salads and hot dishes. Very nice restaurant with a friendly atmosphere and nice waiters. There is an open terrace with seating. Tasty coffee. But there is no way to preview the cakes before they are brought to order, and besides, not everything is in stock.
11 Coffee house "KOFEiN", st. Pushkinskaya, 31-a. ☎ 57 01 +7 (3654) 20 57 01. Coffee 120-250 rub. Ukrainian chain of coffee houses, where you can choose coffee varieties from a whole list of different countries, as well as different ways of brewing it. Delicious desserts, interesting interior. Service and waiters - as lucky.
Coffee house "Koffishka". Ukrainian network of small street coffee houses (free-standing buildings in the form of a manual coffee grinder). Very popular among young people. There is no calm and relaxed atmosphere, due to the small size of the institution and the very large number of visitors. But there is a pretty good coffee for a very reasonable price. There are also very large portions.
embankment (near the fountain).
embankment them. Lenina, 31.


Night life

Night clubs
The city has many discos, nightclubs and variety shows. In particular, discos are held on Massandra Beach in the Van Gogh cafe in summer, dance programs and shows are organized, and DJs are invited. On the same open-air beach in the summer, the Malibu beach club opens, a good half of which is located right on the beach, DJs in the style of electro, house and lounge, latino-party play, fire shows are arranged.

Nightclub "Riviera" embankment. Lenina, 35/2 (on the third floor of the Oreanda Hotel). ☎ +7 (3654) 27-42-58. Variety show where the dancers of the cabaret "Paradise" perform. In addition, on the 4th floor of the hotel there is a concert hall "Ikon" (Concert hall "Ikon"), where many famous performers perform. On the same floor you can find the Matrix nightclub, referred to by the locals as nothing more than a "glamorous" disco.
Night club "Orange", st. Drazhinskogo, 50/b (the beach of the hotel "Yalta-Intourist"). ☎ +7 (3654) 35-05-00. During the day it works as a cafe, in the evening it turns into a nightclub with a 15-meter bar



Housing in the private sector is rented all year round, the largest choice is with grandmothers at the bus station. You can also look for signs "Housing for rent", they are found everywhere throughout the city. Prices and quality vary greatly, prices start from just a few hundred rubles per room in the off season.

Long rest rooms in the building of the bus station (3rd floor of the bus station). Check out until 12:00. 300 rubles per place in a double or triple room.

Average cost
Hotel "Yalta-Intourist" (4 *) , st. Drazhinskogo, 50. ☎ +7 (495) 139-1051. Double from 3500 rubles.

Boarding house "Green park Yalta-Intourist" (former boarding house "Donbass"), Massandra-18. ☎ +7 (495) 139-1051. Double from 4800 rubles. Recently joined the hotel "Yalta Intourist". 2 new buildings have just been completed and, apparently, they are not settled in them yet or they are settled, but not all of them. Therefore, there are non-zero chances to end up in the old Soviet buildings with all the ensuing consequences. Surrounded by a garden, you can walk to the sea, or you can take the funicular. There is a cable car 22 on the territory, but it is most likely only accessible to boarding house guests.



Local mobile operators "Win Mobile", "Krymtelecom", "Volna Mobile" and "MTS" of the Krasnodar Territory work, other Russian operators - in national roaming. Ukrainian - do not work at all, even in roaming.

The Internet is quite developed in the city of Yalta: Wi-Fi can be found in almost all hotels and catering establishments, free Wi-Fi zones operate on the city's embankment and bus station. Moreover, it is not uncommon to come across the Internet when placed in the private sector.


Precautionary measures

Yalta residents are generally friendly and crime is very low in this city of over 80,000 inhabitants. Tourists are safe as long as they follow the rules of prudence: don't show your money, avoid dark places at night, avoid drunks.

Do not buy wine "on tap", even in stationary establishments. Almost certainly this product has nothing to do with wine.
Do not buy pancakes on the street, there is a possibility of poisoning.
Don't talk to gypsies.

Telephone numbers in case of emergency:
fire, emergency service: 101, 112 or 911
police: 102
ambulance: 103
gas network emergency service: 104 (does not work for MTS)



According to the most common version, the name of the city comes from the Greek. γιαλος (yalos) - "shore", however, there are hypotheses that the name of the city is of Turkic origin, which is based on a distorted original Greek name. The first mention of Yalta, dating back to 1154, is found by the Arab historian Al-Idrisia. He calls Galita (also Kaulita or Dzhalita) a Cuman (Polovtsian) city on the Black Sea coast. From the Crimean Tatar language it is translated as "on the shore".



On the outskirts of the city and on Polikurovsky Hill, as well as on Mount Koshka, near Simeiz, Cape Ai-Todor, Ayu-Dage and in other places, archaeologists have found the remains of the settlements of the Tauris - the indigenous inhabitants of Crimea. The finds date back to approximately the 6th-5th centuries BC. e. The Taurians were engaged in piracy, fishing, hoe farming, hunting and transhumance, leading a semi-sedentary lifestyle.

According to legend, Yalta itself was founded by Greek sailors, who, after seeing the coast (Yalos) after long wanderings, called the settlement Yalita (coastal). It is possible that this settlement is mentioned by the ancient grammarian of the III century Elius Herodian under the name Ιαλυσος (Ialyssos) in the same list with Chersonesus. Later, Venetian merchants settled on this coast, then Genoese. In documents and maps of the XIV century, Yalta is called Yalita, Kallita, Gialita and Etalita. In the summer of 1475, the territory of Crimea, including Yalta, was captured by the Ottoman Turks. The southern coast (as well as a number of other lands of Crimea) became directly part of the Ottoman Empire, the foothills and the steppe part were assigned to the vassal of the Brilliant Port - the Crimean Khanate. In the second half of the 15th century, Yalta was destroyed by an earthquake. Only 70 years later, this area was re-populated by Greeks and Armenians. Most likely, since that time, the modern name has been assigned to the settlement.

According to another version, the etymology of the word takes its name from the ancient Turkic "yal" - rest, and "tau" (dag) - mountain. Which literally can be translated as "resting mountain", "sleeping mountain".

The third version of the etymology of the word "Yalta" from the Turkic "Yal" - rest. "It" - do it. It was called at the beginning Yalita.

By the time of the annexation of Crimea to the Russian Empire in April 1783, as a result of the resettlement of the Christian population of Crimea in the Sea of \u200b\u200bAzov in 1778 and the mass emigration of Crimean Tatars to Turkey, Yalta was practically depopulated and was a small fishing village.

19th century
In 1823, Count M. S. Vorontsov, being the governor-general of the Novorossiysk Territory, which then included Crimea, distributed 200 acres of land in Yalta with the condition of building on this land and planting orchards and vineyards. On the South Coast, the new owners of the lands, with the help of serfs, built luxurious palaces, villas, mansions, planted industrial gardens and vineyards, magnificent parks that adorn the South Coast even today: Massandrovsky, Alupkinsky, Gurzufsky, Livadia and others. The area needed some kind of center, and the choice fell on Yalta, despite the fact that at that time it was a very tiny village. This choice was dictated by the nature of the area, a sufficient amount of fresh water for those times and a convenient bay. In 1838, the Yalta district was formed, by the Decree of April 15 (27), 1838, Yalta received the status of a city, but then there were only 30 households and 130 inhabitants. In 1837, a gravel road built by order of Count Vorontsov connected Yalta with Alushta and Simferopol, and in 1848 a road was built through the Baidar Gates to Sevastopol. Yalta at that time did not yet have a seaport. The pier, built in the late 1830s, was destroyed by a storm. The steamboats stopped in the roadstead and communicated with the shore with the help of longboats that approached the wooden pier - it was anchored. A few years later, a full-fledged seaport and a pier were built in Yalta, sea communication was gradually established.

After the end of the Crimean War, the city turned into a popular resort and grew rapidly. Professor S.P. Botkin, and especially Dr. V.N. Dmitriev, who lived in Yalta for many years, gave clear medical recommendations and justifications in connection with the healing properties of the local climate. It was for these reasons that the Livadia and Massandra palaces were built on the orders of Emperor Alexander III. The emperor was ill a lot, so in the 1890s he lived for months in the Small Livadia Palace, where he died in October 1894.

Private construction also sprang up. The palace of Prince Yusupov, one of the richest people in Russia, appeared in Koreiz, Count D. A. Milyutin appeared in Simeiz, Privy Councilor P. I. Gubonin began to own Gurzuf, Naryshkin’s dacha “Sofiyivka” was erected in Miskhor, and “Romantic Alexandria” in Gaspra Prince Golitsyn, the Lower Oreanda liked the Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich. In 1886, at the direction of Emperor Alexander III, a new project was developed for the construction of a powerful stone pier and a coastal embankment. The first stage of construction was completed in 1890, the second - in 1903. The second important project of the 1880s was the Yalta Embankment. In 1888-1898 a new water supply system was built. Sewerage construction began in 1886.

In September 1890, Prince Vladimir Trubetskoy submitted an application to the city government for the construction of a Greek-style garden pavilion with access to Pushkinsky Boulevard at his household. The author of the gazebo project was the famous architect Nikolai Krasnov. In 2008, a complete restoration of the gazebo was carried out in Yalta, under the guidance of the Yalta architect A. A. Tkachenko.

By the end of the 19th century, Yalta had become a well-known resort. “Prestige” in the eyes of the landlord and bureaucratic public was also facilitated by the fact that, starting from the 1860s, the nearest suburb of Yalta, Livadia, became the southern residence of the royal family.

City government
In 1870, a city reform was carried out in the Russian Empire, as a result of which all-class city institutions of local self-government began to form - city dumas and councils. In the autumn of 1871, the first elections to the city duma were held in Yalta. Vowel dumas elected the first mayor of the city chamberlain, real state councilor Sergei Pavlovich Galakhov. For health reasons, he often left the city for treatment, and already in April 1872 he applied for the addition of the title of Yalta mayor. However, the majority of the 15 councilors of the city duma voted for the continuation of his service, but soon Christopher Lebeshi began to perform his duties temporarily. In October 1872, twenty-nine-year-old titular councilor Vladimir Antonovich Rybitsky was elected mayor. In 1879, Baron Andrei Ludwigovich von Wrangel (1824-1897), brother of General V. L. Wrangel, replaced him as the Yalta mayor. V. A. Rybitsky, who for 43 years was a member of the Yalta City Duma and at the end of the 19th century, together with his second wife Elena Ivanovna (nee Aivazovskaya), was ranked among the nobility for services to society, served as the mayor of Yalta for two more terms - already in the XX century: from December 20, 1907 to 1914. After him, Ivan Antonovich Dumbadze was the mayor.

20th century
Since 1900, the city life began to be covered by the first newspaper "Yalta leaf", 25 years after the publication of the first issue of the newspaper "Crimean leaf". In 1904, 55 workers worked at 4 small factory enterprises, 620 at 59 handicraft enterprises. In the same year, a power plant was built (its engine power in 1910 was 700 horsepower). Back in 1870, an enochemical laboratory began to work at the Magarachsky wine cellar. Under the guidance of well-known winemakers A. P. Serbulenko, A. E. Salomon, S. F. Okhremenko and M. A. Khovrenko, standards of high-quality Russian dessert wines were created. On the eve of World War I, a tobacco factory, two lime factories, and three artificial mineral water and ice factories were put into operation. Transport services were provided by the agency of the Russian Society of Shipping and Trade. The local fleet consisted of two small steam launches. There was a post and telegraph office. Every year, many farm laborers and "seasonal workers" arrived in the large agricultural farms of Yalta and its environs. So, in 1900, 3610 alien workers were registered in the city.

By 1915, paid resort institutions were operating in the city: 5 charitable sanatoriums with 169 beds, a clinical children's colony, a shelter for 24 places for tuberculosis patients, 3 private sanatoriums, 14 hotels with 800 rooms, over 5 boarding houses. In 1916, the Yalta Clinical Tuberculosis Institute was opened. Doctors F. T. Shtangeev worked in Yalta, the author of the capital work “Treatment of Pulmonary Consumption in Yalta”, for which he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Medicine.

By the beginning of the 20th century, many representatives of the Russian nobility, including members of the imperial family and the monarchs themselves, had dachas and palaces in Yalta and the Yalta region. In May 1893, Yalta was withdrawn from the Jewish Pale of Settlement. By 1913, the territory of the city stretched from Livadia to Massandra, and the population exceeded 30 thousand people. The city was divided into three parts: the middle part - between the Derekoika and Uchan-Su rivers - constituted the so-called "new" city, on the right was the "old" city, on the left - Zarechye Zarechye with its adjacent outskirts. The most lively, comfortable and attractive was the "new" city.

In 1910, there were 1842 residential buildings in Yalta (including 1430 stone ones). The length of the streets was 32 versts, of which 0.4 versts were paved. The city center was illuminated by lanterns. Trees were planted on three streets.

In 1911, in order to obtain additional funds for the development of Yalta, the city authorities entered into an agreement with the Azov Bank and distributed among the population loan bonds in the amount of 2.5 million rubles. With this money, it was planned to build additional facilities for the city water supply, the building of the city kursaal, a bathing and bathing establishment, and a mountain climatic station. But the plans were not destined to come true. A sharply changed political situation intervened in the life of the city - war, revolution, again war and a change in the political structure.

In 1914, two gymnasiums (founded in 1876), a commercial school (accompanied by accounting courses) and nine lower educational institutions, including the Aut Craft School (opened in 1880), worked in the city. There were two-year higher courses of horticulture and viticulture. For the whole of Yalta there were two reading rooms and four paid libraries, two clubs and a people's house, four cinematographs. The theater with a hall for 450 spectators opened in July 1896.

In 1920 - during the Civil War - after the retreat of the Russian army of General Wrangel and the occupation of the Crimea by the Reds in Yalta, the Bolsheviks carried out mass executions of white officers and soldiers who had surrendered, as well as all opponents of the revolution who did not have time to evacuate. According to some sources, several tens of thousands of people were killed in Yalta and its environs during 1920. In 1921, the city was even renamed Krasnoarmeysk, but in 1922 the former name was returned.

The situation in Yalta fundamentally changed after the February and October revolutions and the end of the Civil War. In November 1920, the remnants of the White Guard troops were eliminated in the Crimea, and a month later, V.I. Lenin signed a decree in Moscow "On the use of the Crimea for the treatment of workers." Beautiful palaces and mansions were to pass into the hands of the people, the tsar's estate in Livadia became formally a peasant sanatorium, which received a particularly great response. Soon the construction of new health resorts began. The first-born of the Yalta resort, the Dolossy sanatorium, built in 1928, was built in a picturesque pine forest near the Uch-Kosh gorge (gorge of three mountains). A master plan for the reconstruction of the South Coast was developed. However, the devastation after the civil war, poverty and the poor state of the budget of the USSR did not allow many plans to come true. Palaces for many years were in disrepair (especially Massandra and Yusupov, which were deleted from the list of attractions). Foreign tourism disappeared for a long time, no one was engaged in the improvement of cities. On February 20, 1921, the first official Soviet holiday season for arriving patients was announced. In 1925, the first peasant sanatorium was opened in the former royal estate of Livadia, and the pioneer camp Artek was founded at the foot of the Bear Mountain.

The All-Union Health Resort newspaper, now Krymskaya Gazeta, was founded on July 6, 1934 as an organ of the Yalta City Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks and the Yalta City Council of People's Deputies.

By the beginning of the 1940s, there were 108 sanatoriums and rest houses in Yalta and the region for almost 14 thousand places, where about 120 thousand people were treated and rested annually. From 1921 to 1941, 3.5 million people improved their health and rested on the South Coast.

From the port of Yalta on November 7, 1941, with the evacuated residents of Yalta, the wounded, the Party activists left the motor ship "Armenia" for the last voyage. Its sinking by German aircraft led to the death of, according to various estimates, from 5 to 7 thousand people. In memory of the victims of "Armenia", a plaque was opened on the Chapel of the Cathedral of New Martyrs and Confessors on the waterfront of Yalta.

During the occupation of Crimea by German troops (the Germans entered Yalta on November 7, 1941), during the Great Patriotic War, an anti-Nazi underground operated in the city. In Yalta, the invaders created a Jewish ghetto, into which the entire Jewish population of the city was driven - 4,500 people. By December 18, 1941, they were all shot in the Massandra area. In total, in Yalta during the German-Romanian occupation, 11,707 citizens were exterminated and forcibly taken out for forced labor in Germany.

Since May 1942, a unit of Italian torpedo boats of the 4th MAS flotilla under the command of Lieutenant Commander Francesco Membelli was based in the Yalta port. Boat D-3 under the command of the future Hero of the Soviet Union Kochiev K. G. sank during the raid on June 13, 1942, on the roadstead of the Yalta port, the ultra-small Italian submarine SV-5.

From 1941 to 1944, Yalta was shelled by the Soviet Black Sea Fleet and bombed by aircraft. On November 7, 1943, the fighters of the Anton Mitsko group raised a red flag over Yalta. In addition to the urban underground, the Yalta (10th) detachment of the Southern Connection of the Crimean partisans operated, which, together with units of the Red Army, liberated Yalta itself in April 1944.

On April 16, 1944, he was liberated from the German troops by the Soviet troops of the Separate Primorsky Army and detachments of the 7th brigade of the Southern Partisans of Crimea during the Crimean operation. The first to break into the city was the 323rd Guards Rifle Regiment of the 128th Mountain Rifle Division under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Jalil Najabov. The commander of the 7th brigade L. A. Vikhman and the commander of the 323rd rifle regiment J. B. Nadzhabov are honorary citizens of Yalta. The 323rd Infantry Regiment was given the name "Yalta" for the liberation of Yalta.

From February 4 to February 11, 1945, the Yalta Conference was held in Yalta, in the Livadia Palace.

On February 19, 1954, Yalta, together with the Crimean region, was transferred by the allied authorities of the USSR to the Ukrainian SSR.

In the post-war years, the city grew rapidly and developed as a resort. Since the second half of the 1950s, elite recreation has been actively developing at the Yalta resort, and a system of state dachas has been formed. On the seashore in Nizhnyaya Oreanda, state dachas No. 1 and No. 2 were being built, where the leaders of the country N. S. Khrushchev, then L. I. Brezhnev and others liked to relax.

In the 1960s, the nearby villages of Ai-Vasil, Autka and Derekoi were included in Yalta. In the 1960s, a new South Coast Highway was built, which greatly shortened the road from Yalta to Alushta, Simferopol and Sevastopol, since 1961 a trolleybus connection with Simferopol was opened. The 1970s - early 1980s brought into the development of the resort high-rise construction that had not been used before, new multi-storey buildings of health resorts were being built, some of them stood unfinished until the beginning of the 21st century. At the end of the 1980s, the resort of all-Union significance had 180 sanatorium-and-spa facilities, about two million people came to Yalta annually for rest and treatment.

The reconstructed seaport began to receive large-capacity passenger ships, and in the summer of 1986 the cargo port, along with its powerful harbor cranes, moved outside the city to the berths of Massandrovskaya Balka. Over the years, large anti-landslide and bank protection works have been carried out along the 35 km coast of Big Yalta, as a result, the process of destruction of the coast and beaches has slowed down, new beaches have appeared.

However, of all the sanatorium-and-spa institutions in Yalta, only 31 out of 13,000 beds belonged to trade unions, the rest belonged to various allied departments. These sanatoriums were located in the coastal zone behind high fences, their territories and beaches were inaccessible to other vacationers. In the late 1980s, the last Soviet state dacha, Zarya, was built on the South Coast in Foros, associated with the name of the first and last President of the USSR M. S. Gorbachev. April 13, 1988 the city was awarded the Order of Friendship of Peoples. In March 1988, a cable car was opened leading to the top of Mount Ai-Petri.

By the end of the 1990s, in Yalta, on the outskirts of the city, as well as in undeveloped areas, many privately built houses and cottages appeared. In 1992, the Massandra Palace was restored as a museum.

XXI Century
Since the beginning of the 2000s, the reconstruction of almost the entire coast of Yalta began. Many beaches have been created and reconstructed, hosting thousands of people today. The so-called "wild" beaches have been ennobled and brought into line with many international standards. Massandra Beach even received the prestigious Blue Flag award. In 2003, the restoration of the Yalta embankment was completed, which turned it into a shopping street, as well as a place for mass celebrations.

In 2009, a memorial chapel was erected on the Yalta embankment, consecrated in the name of the Cathedral of the New Martyrs and Confessors of Russia in memory of all those innocently killed during the hard times, the Civil and Patriotic Wars. It was built not far from the place where the wooden chapel of St. Alexander Nevsky, demolished in 1932, was erected in memory of Emperor Alexander II, who was killed by terrorists.

On March 18, 2014, Yalta, as an integral part of the established Republic of Crimea, was annexed to the Russian Federation.

Yalta very quickly gained popularity among the inhabitants of the former USSR. For a long time, holidays in Yalta were easier (due to visa-free travel) and, ultimately, cheaper for CIS citizens, and since the early to mid-2000s, it has also become cheaper than holidays in Russian resorts. The healing nature of Yalta also attracts residents of the former USSR.



Geographic location and borders
Yalta is located in the south of the Crimean peninsula on the shores of the Yalta Bay of the Black Sea.

The Crimean Mountains rise in the southern part of the Crimean peninsula. They are a complex combination of small mountain ranges, rocky ridges and basins. Yalta is spread over three hills on the seashore in the valleys of two mountain rivers of karst origin - Uchan-Su (Waterfall) and Derekoika (Fast). Yalta is located in a spacious natural "amphitheater" - from the land, the city is surrounded by a semicircle of mountains: to the north and northwest is the Yalta Yaila with the mountains Kemal-Egerek (1530 m), Jady-Burun (1423 m), Lapata (1406 m), Endek (1358 m) and others; to the north-east of it, a spur of the Nikitskaya Yaila with the peak of Avinda (1473 m) departs, gradually descending to the sea, it ends with Cape Nikitsky (Maryan); to the west and south-west of Yalta rises the cone-shaped mountain Mogabi (804 m), its southern slope ends at the sea with Cape Ai-Todor, as well as Ai-Petrinsky yayla with mountains Roka (1349 m) and Ai-Petri (1234 m). In the city itself, Darsan Hill rises, and next to it is the Hill of Glory. Further, behind the hills, the Iograf spur begins.

Many parks have been created in Big Yalta, the most famous of them are Livadia and Vorontsovsky. The well-known walking Tsar's path also begins in Livadia Park. The attention of tourists is attracted by the Botkin trail leading from Yalta to the Stavri-Kaya rock, and the Shtangeevskaya trail rising from the Uchan-Su waterfall to the Ai-Petri Yayla. The parks of Kharaksky, Gurzufsky, Cypress, Miskhorsky, Massandrovsky, Forossky and Primorsky (in Yalta itself), Lower Oreanda, Melas and Chair, which were created on the basis of the nature of the southern coastal forest with extensive use of foreign ornamental plants, are also noteworthy for city guests.

On the territory of Greater Yalta is the Yalta mountain-forest nature reserve.



Yalta is conditionally divided by the Darsan hill into 2 areas - into eastern and western Yalta, that is, in the region of the Bystraya and Vodopadnaya rivers, respectively, while the Darsan hill itself belongs to eastern Yalta, and the embankment to western Yalta.

Western Yalta
The most elite and warmest microdistrict of Yalta is Primorsky Park.

Main streets: Kommunarov, Parkovy proezd.

To the west of Primorsky Park is the Tea Hill microdistrict.

Main streets: Sechenov, Pine, Dostoevsky, Krasnoarmeyskaya, Blucher, Griboedov, Suvorovskaya, Livadiyskaya, Builders, Shcherbak, Gorky, Tavricheskaya, Volodarsky, Balaklavskaya.

To the north of the "Tea Hill" are the residential districts "Avangard" (to the south of the Vodopadnaya river), "Spartak" (to the north of the Vodopadnaya river) and "Chekhovo" (to the north of the Vodopadnaya river and to the west of "Spartak").

Main streets: Biryukova, Pionerskaya, Kuchera, Pirogovskaya, Yana Bulevsky;

Marshak, Lomonosov, Kotelnikov, Sokhan;

Kirov, Bogdanovich, Museum, River, Voroshilov, Jan Tarvatsky, Bolshevik.

To the north of the microdistrict "Avangard" is the 10th microdistrict.

Main streets: Timiryazev, Krupskaya, Red Partizans, Shchors, Khalturin, Chernov, Furman, Grigoriev.

South-east of the 10th microdistrict is "Embankment".

Main streets: Sevastopolskaya, Gogol, Botkinskaya, Pushkinskaya, Tolyatti, Chekhov, Roosevelt, Ignatenko, Ekaterininskaya, Morskaya, Karl Marx.

Eastern Yalta
To the north of the embankment is the Darsan microdistrict and even to the north of it the Yeni-Derekoi microdistrict.

Main streets: Miskhorskaya, Orekhovaya, Leningradskaya, Naydenova, Rabochaya, Voykova, Darsanovskaya, Verkhnedarsanovskaya, Sredne-Darsanovskaya, Nizhnedarsanovskaya, Veteranovskaya.

To the east of Darsan is the microdistrict "Vegetable Market" or "Central Market".

Main streets: Kyiv, Moscowskaya, Dzerzhinsky, Krivoshty, Sadovaya, Spendiarov, Rudansky.

To the north of the "Vegetable Market" is the microdistrict "Vasilyevka".

Main streets: Izobilnaya, Dmitry Ulyanov, Adamanov, Kazantsev, Gornaya, Subkhi, Repina, Yalyboyskaya, Jafer Seydamet, Prosmushkins, Donskaya.

To the east of the Vegetable Market is the Druzhba microdistrict.

Main streets: Mukhina, Sverdlova, Basseynaya, Polikurovskaya, Nagornaya.

To the south of Druzhba is the Drazhinsky microdistrict.

Main streets: Drazhinskogo, Massandrovskaya, Tolstoy, Danchenko, Verkhne-Slobodskaya, Sredne-Slobodskaya, Nizhne-Slobodskaya, Tourists Highway.

Natural resources
Among all the resources of Yalta, recreational ones play the most important role. An important therapeutic and climatic resource of Greater Yalta are the reserves: Yalta mountain-forest (area 14.5 thousand hectares), Cape Martyan (area 240 hectares), Crimean natural. The importance of landscape art monuments of state and local importance (415 hectares), local parks and squares (1472 hectares). The largest parks in Yalta are Massandrovsky, Livadia, Miskhorsky, Alupkinsky.



Yalta is located approximately at the same geographical latitude as the famous Italian cities of Genoa and Ravenna. The city is located in the center of the southern coast of Crimea and is one of the warmest places on the peninsula. The sun shines here on average 2250 hours a year, which is about the same as in Sochi. The climate of Yalta is Mediterranean up to a height of 300 meters above sea level; above this level, average January temperatures fall below 2°C and the vegetation gradually loses its subtropical character. It is characterized by mild and rainy winters, cool springs, hot and long summers, and long warm autumns. The combination of a warm, non-freezing sea and the Crimean Mountains, which rise like a wall in the path of cold winds, plays the most important role. Air humidity in Yalta is low (average 70%), which determines the nature of the vegetation and is reflected in the medical profile of the resort. The average annual rainfall is 609 mm. Average wind speed = 1.9 m/s. According to the USDA hardiness zone, Yalta confidently stays in zone 9a. Average annual temperature = +14.3 °C. The average temperature in July is +25.2°C, in August +25.7°C, the average temperature in January is +4.8°C, in frosty winters, with the invasion of a cold Arctic cyclone or Siberian anticyclone, the temperature can drop to -10°C and below . At the same time, there are often really warm, sunny days even in January, when the thermometer shows +20 °C. January 2006 was abnormally cold for Yalta: the temperature dropped to -10.2 °C.



The beaches of Yalta, created by nature, were gradually destroyed due to strong landslides. Only closer to the middle of the 20th century did people undertake to stop landslides and create beautiful, comfortable beaches. Retaining walls were erected to balance the load of the slopes; trenches were dug in the seabed, which were covered with stone. Floating cranes installed hundred-ton groins, between which lay millions of cubic meters of rubble. Having polished it, the sea completed the work of the builders. Artificial beaches are now being created even in places that until recently were considered completely unsuitable for swimming. Now, on both sides of Yalta, from the west and from the east, the place of uncomfortable landslide cliffs has been occupied by neat beaches.

As of autumn 2014, almost all the beaches are deep, pebbly, not very suitable for bathing small children, but with very clear water. As a rule, they are supported by a concrete embankment, into which concrete breakwaters are poured.

There are also beaches of sanatoriums and boarding houses, which today are also open to everyone. "Therapeutic Beach", "Sunny Beach", the beach "named after Maurice Thorez", the beach of the hotel "Yalta", the beach of the sanatorium "Gorny", the beach of the sanatorium "Ai-Petri". The beach of the hotel "Levant" in the Seaside Park, which is located next to the mineral spring "Buvet". The beaches of Yalta are separated by buns.

A separate place is also occupied by tiny beaches formed from ledges on the embankment. In small areas it is not possible to provide a high level of service, however, wherever possible, pebbles are poured, and in the “high” season they are all, as a rule, crowded with vacationers.

Almost all the beaches of Yalta have a high level of service, equipped with toilets, showers, many retail outlets, cafes and even massage rooms. Almost everywhere there are water attractions, rental of sun loungers, umbrellas and even water transport. At the same time, the beaches of Crimea also have a lot of disadvantages - frequent inconvenience, the presence of garbage, too high occupancy by vacationers (that is, the lack of the beaches themselves). In all these parameters, the beaches of Yalta are inferior to European and many others. The length of the beaches of Big Yalta is 59 km, their area is 600 thousand m².

The prestigious Blue Flag world award in Yalta in different years was received by: Massandrovsky Beach - the most comfortable and clean beach, the first owner of this award in the CIS, the beach of the Yalta-Intourist hotel, as well as the beach of the Livadia sanatorium. "Massandra Beach" in 2012 received the "Blue Flag" award for the third time.


Flora and fauna

In total, about 2,000 plant species grow on the territory of the Yalta Reserve. The slopes of Yalta are covered with juniper-oak forests and moderately subtropical shrubs. The abundance of both local and foreign species of evergreens makes the forests attractive in all seasons. They are based on Scotch pine (grows on yaila) and Crimean pine (grows lower), but along with them there are: juniper, oak, Steven's maple, downy oak, sessile oak, aspen, beech, cedar, hornbeam, birch bark, dogwood, yew , rowan, pear and many other trees and shrubs. Exotic plants also include those so familiar to the South Coast: cypress, magnolia, wisteria, fan palm, needle, Lankaran acacia, noble laurel, ash, skumpia, fir, sycamore, fig, pomegranate, agave, prickly pear. The flora of the mountainous Crimea has 672 species and 472 genera, common with the flora of the island of Corsica. Mediterranean species include high juniper, Crimean pine, downy oak, wild pistachio, small-fruited strawberry and many others. Many of the Mediterranean plants have gone wild and are self-propagating. In Yalta there are beautiful forests, tracts, gorges in the upper reaches of the rivers (Uch-Kosh, Kizil-Kaya, etc.).

The peculiarity of the Crimean flora is also in its saturation with alien plant species and in the continuous vegetation of many plants, when the last flowers of autumn are immediately followed by spring ones. In winter, needles bloom in juniper forests, in January galanthus blooms, in February snowdrops, then almonds, crimson, apricot and peach trees bloom.

The southern coastal forests play an extremely important soil and water protection role, and therefore are declared protected areas. A natural remnant (relic) of more ancient Mediterranean vegetation is located at Cape Martyan. This is a juniper grove, which since 1973 has been a nature reserve called "Cape Martyan". The city of Yalta itself is distinguished by an abundance of greenery, especially its old part, which from a bird's eye view seems to be a continuous green park interspersed with houses.

164 species of plants of the Crimea and, in particular, Yalta are listed in the Red Book of Russia. Among them are such species of the South Coast as: high juniper, sublingual needle, small-fruited strawberry, yew berry, two-flowered tulip, narrow-leaved crocus, Kuznetsov's cyclamen, fine-leaved peony and others. Like the Red Book, lists of rare and endangered ecosystems that require special protection are compiled today.

The fauna of the southern coast of Crimea is insular in nature and is close to the Mediterranean type. There are no large animals on the southern coast of Crimea. Typical (for Crimea) representatives of the animal world prevail: Crimean red deer, roe deer, mountain sheep-mouflon, stone marten, badger, teleutka squirrel (introduced in 1947), wild boar, marten, weasel, fox, hare, hedgehog, shrew , bat. Reptiles are not numerous - no one is larger than the legless yellowbell. Only two species of snakes live - water and ordinary. Occasionally there are also other reptiles - yellow-bellied snake, leopard snake, Crimean copperhead gecko, but they are not poisonous. The southern coast is characterized by a small weak night lizard from the family of geckos - the “danilevsky bare-toed gecko” (Gymnodactylus Danilewskii Str.). It lives in small numbers in the cracks of walls, cellars and cellars. Amphibians stand out - green toad, tree and edible frogs, newt.

Invertebrates are mainly represented by Mediterranean forms. There are many cicadas, praying mantises, mosquitoes, centipedes, Crimean scorpions, endemic Crimean ground beetles. Sometimes you can meet a large oleander hawk moth. Many pests also live in the conditions of the Yalta climate, such as: apple codling moth, silkworms, various weevils. The pests of vineyards include: grape flat nose, bunch leafworm, Crimean wingless grasshopper and others. There are relatively few birds, mountain buntings are common, swifts, city swallows, blue tit tits, crossbills, kinglets, mountain buntings and also a hobby falcon nest on the slopes; on the seaside cliffs there are colonies of great cormorants, less often clovers and gulls-gulls. There are vultures.

Due to the relatively high concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the deep waters of the Black Sea, all the life of the sea is mainly concentrated in the upper layers of the water. In summer, jellyfish accumulate near the coast, such as Aurelia aurita, rhizostoma pulmo and others. In the Black Sea, 180 species of fish are known, of which about

40 - commercial. Off the coast of Yalta they catch: anchovy, mullet, gobies, horse mackerel, flounder, bonito, red mullet and others. Occasionally there are gurnards. The katran shark is found in the Black Sea, but it does not attack people. Of the mammals off the coast, you can see dolphins, which are toothed whales. They live in the open sea, go in schools, avoid shallow water, do not like muddy water. Of the aquatic inhabitants, one can also note the freshwater crab, found under stones in some rivers of the Crimea (for example, Uchan-su). They also live under rocks on the seashore. Since 1966, dolphin fishing in the Black Sea has been prohibited.

More than 200 species of various algae also grow in the Black Sea - brown, red, green, blue-green.



The ecological situation of Yalta is characterized by a number of problems.

The traffic load on the main highways of Yalta in the summer in the daytime is 900-1600 units per hour. In winter, large sources of emissions into the atmosphere are boilers, as the process of their concentration and modernization of treatment systems is slow. Only in Yalta there are more than 200 of them: along the coast and in low places the city of Alupka, Simeiz, Foros, Koreiz, Gaspra is 3-7 times higher than the MAC.
The maximum concentrations of carbon monoxide on the Simferopol highways reach 6 MPC, on the Yalta highways - 3.5 MPC, which may be due to the use of low-quality fuel. In connection with the unsatisfactory solution of issues of atmospheric air protection, water supply and sewerage, the Crimean Sanitary and Epidemiological Service rejected in 1998 from approval 36 out of 308 considered projects for the allocation of land plots for the construction of facilities (11.7%), 64 construction projects out of 395 submitted (16.2 %).
The share of emissions from vehicles, which in Yalta (as well as in Simferopol) is up to 90% of the total.
According to experts dated December 23, 2011, in Yalta, the average concentration of benzpyrene is almost twice the norm, which allows Yalta to be classified as a city with a poor environmental condition.
In mid-March 2012, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development allocated UAH 10 million to modernize the Yalta sewerage system and prevent the discharge of untreated sewage into the Black Sea. Despite this, the treatment facilities of Yalta, as of July 2013, are in very poor condition. In this regard, sewage periodically gets into the water near the beaches adjacent to the port area, including Massandra Beach.
In April 2012, the problem of poor garbage collection from the streets of Yalta was raised. Since the authorities do not provide the proper level of street cleaning, Yalta residents had to clean up the garbage on their own for several subbotniks.
In September 2012, they returned to the issue of holding subbotniks. Yalta residents will start cleaning the city on Saturdays starting from October 2012 until the city is put in order.