Tomsk Oblast, Russia

The Tomsk region is a subject of the Russian Federation, part of the Siberian Federal District. The administrative center is the city of Tomsk.

It borders in the west with the Omsk and Tyumen regions, in the west and north - with the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Ugra, in the east - with the Krasnoyarsk Territory, in the south - with the Kemerovo and Novosibirsk regions.

Formed on August 13, 1944 by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.







Russian (neutral "Siberian" dialect).
Tatar. Most Tatars live in Tomsk, Seversk and their suburbs, such as Takhtamyshevo. There are schools that teach the Tatar language, but not all Tatars speak it, but everyone is fluent in Russian.


How to get there

By plane
Tomsk Airport "Bogashevo" (IATA:TOF). The northernmost part of the region (the city of Strezhevoy and the Aleksandrovsky district) is accessible through Nizhnevartovsk airport.

By train
The Tomsk railway line runs through the territory of the region, which connects the settlements of the region with the Trans-Siberian Railway at the Taiga station in the Kemerovo region.

You can get from Moscow to Tomsk without transfers from the capital's Yaroslavsky station on the branded train No. 038H "Tomich" or by train No. 030M (trailer cars) according to a special schedule. The distance is more than 3600 km, travel time is less than 2.5 days.

The northernmost part of the region (the city of Strezhevoy and the Aleksandrovsky district) is within the reach of road transport from the Nizhnevartovsk railway station.

By car
A section of the federal highway M53 “Baikal” passes through the region with a branch to Tomsk, connecting Novosibirsk in the west and Kemerovo, Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk in the east. You can also enter the region along the regional highway P400 Tomsk-Mariinsk from the Kemerovo region. The city of Strezhevoy and the Aleksandrovsky district can be reached through the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug along the constructed section of the Northern Latitudinal Road "Perm-Tomsk" (the section between Strezhevoy and the village of Kargasok is still under construction, and therefore there is no year-round communication between Tomsk and Strezhevoy).


Things to do

As part of the Bologna process, study for several months (semester) at Tomsk universities and better explore Siberia
Take part in endless scientific, innovative forums, conferences, feel the Tomsk scientific potential. At the same time, it should be noted that every fifth resident in Tomsk is a student, every tenth is a scientist, researcher, worker in science and education. All this, together with significant cultural potential, forms the Tomsk tourist brand - Siberian Athens
Visit the world's largest Vasyugan swamp
Swim in an ice hole and take a steam bath in Russian baths (wood-burning)
Go hiking with 25 hiking and mountaineering clubs in Tomsk and nearby Seversk. They cultivate sports tourism (hiking, skiing, water, mountain, cycling, automoto, speleo and sailing tourism), mountaineering and rock climbing. Between hikes, they climb on constructed artificial climbing walls. Traveling around the world on a club basis is also carried out in different elements: in the water - scuba diving clubs, in the air - paragliding and air sports clubs.



The most visited route of Tomsk residents and city guests is to the Talovskie Bowls, 5-7 thousand people per year
The route along the ancient Tanaevskaya road from the headquarters of Prince Toyan can now be taken on an ATV from Golovino, while climbing the “Everest of the Ob-Tom interfluve” (in the village of 86th Kvartal)
Tomsk Encyclopedia of Life (wiki project) contains a collection of active tourist routes: more than 50 weekend hiking routes and about 20 multi-day tourist routes with active modes of transportation (on foot, on skis, by bicycle and by car).


Precautionary measures

The activity of infected ixodid ticks in the spring-summer-autumn warm period forces tourists to frequently look around, insure their health in case of illness and vaccinate before the start of the epidemiological period (six months in advance).
Repellents for wild animals dangerous to humans (bears, wolves) - repellents that extract three deterrent factors: a flash of light (false fan), the acrid smell of burning (any pyrotechnics) and a sharp sound (dynamo, siren, gas whistle). A means that includes all three deterrent factors - the "Hunter's Signal" rocket launcher. And only hunters take rifled weapons with them on the road. Tourists limit themselves to deterrents.


Physiographic characteristics


The Tomsk region is located in the southeast of the West Siberian Plain. The length of the region from north to south is about 600 km, from west to east – 780 km. In terms of area, the Tomsk region is approximately 1.5% larger than Poland (and almost 35 times smaller than Poland in population).

Most of the region's territory is inaccessible, as it consists of taiga (forests occupy 63% of the area) and swamps (28.9%, in particular the Vasyugan swamps, one of the largest in the world).

The forest fund is 28.68 million hectares (286.8 thousand km²), the forest area is 19.3 million hectares (193 thousand km²).

The highest point of the region is 274 m above sea level, the lowest is 34 m above sea level.

The climate is humid continental.



The flora and fauna on the territory of the Tomsk region are represented by about 1000 species of higher plants and about 2000 species of animals, most of which are insects. A number of species - the original inhabitants of the region - require protection measures and are included in the Red Book of the Tomsk Region.

Natural resources
The Tomsk region is rich in natural resources, such as oil (100 fields, 1449 million tons), natural gas (632 billion m³), ferrous and non-ferrous metals, brown coal - 74.7 billion tons (first place in reserves in Russia), peat ( second place in terms of reserves in Russia) and groundwater. In the region there is the Bakcharskoye iron ore deposit, which is one of the largest in the world (57% of all iron ore in Russia), the total reserves are 90 billion tons. In the Tomsk region there are many deposits of raw materials for building materials: clay, sand, limestone, shale, gravel

The Middle Ob region has mineralized groundwater at a depth of 1100-2250 m. In the area of the city of Tomsk there are outlets of radon water. Total groundwater reserves are estimated at 14.2 billion m³. In addition, there are proven reserves of kaolin, refractory clays, glass and ilmenite-zircon sands (ilmenite - 3.4 million tons, zircon - 1380 thousand tons), leucoxene and rutile (600 thousand tons), bauxite (11.5 million tons) tons), brown coal (3 billion 625.6 million tons), zinc (559 thousand tons), gold, platinum and titanium.

Forests are one of the most significant assets of the region: about 20% (more than 26.7 million hectares) of forest resources in Western Siberia are located in the Tomsk region. Wood reserves amount to 2.8 billion m³. The region is home to 28 species of mammals, more than 40 species of birds and 15 species of fish of commercial importance; pine nuts are harvested (total reserves - 27 thousand tons), mushrooms (86 thousand tons), berries (25 thousand tons) , medicinal herbs (12 thousand tons). Degradation of cedar forests, facts of cutting down cedars and collecting nuts using prohibited methods by illegal immigrants from Tajikistan and Uzbekistan are noted.

In the Tomsk region there are 15 zoological reserves (Tomsky, Verkhne-Sorovsky, Ilovsky, Kaltaisky, Karegodsky, Ket-Kassky, Malo-Yuksinsky, Oktyabrsky, Osetrovo-nelmovy, Paninsky, Pershinsky, Poskoevsky, Tongulsky, Oglatsky, Chichka-Yulsky), 3 landscape (Larinsky and Pol-To, Vasyugansky) and 1 botanical (South Taiga).

145 natural monuments have been identified in the region, of which 69 are located in the Tomsk region, in particular, the Talovskie Bowls, Blue Cliff, Dyzvezdny Klyuch, Peschanoe Lake, etc.



In the Tomsk region there are 18.1 thousand rivers, streams and other watercourses, with a total length of about 95 thousand km, including 1620 rivers with a length of more than 10 km (the total length of these rivers is 57.2 thousand km). The main water artery is the Ob River, which crosses the region diagonally from southeast to northwest, dividing it into two almost equal parts. The length of the Ob within the region is 1065 km. The main tributaries of the Ob that flow into it in the Tomsk region: Tom, Chulym, Chaya, Ket, Parabel, Vasyugan, Tym. The duration of the navigation period is 170-180 days.



According to N.F. Surunov and A.A. Zemtsov, in the Tomsk region there are 112.9 thousand lakes with a total surface area of 4451 km². Small lakes predominate, with an area of less than 0.1 square kilometers. There are more than 106 thousand, or 94% of the total. There are 417 lakes with an area of more than 1 square kilometer. In the Tomsk region there are 11 lakes whose area exceeds 10 km²: Mirnoe, Vargato, Illipekh, Polto-3, Imemtor, Bolshoye, Dikoe, Elan, Kogozes, Perelto, Yakynr. The largest lake is Mirnoe (Parabelsky district), the surface area is 18.3 km².



Tomsk region is located in the MSC+4 time zone. The applied time offset relative to UTC is +7:00.

On May 1, 2002, the Tomsk region switched from Krasnoyarsk time MSK+4 to Omsk time MSK+3.

In February 2016, the Legislative Duma of the Tomsk Region introduced a bill to the State Duma of the Russian Federation on returning the Tomsk Region to the standard time corresponding to the neighboring territories - the Krasnoyarsk Territory, Kuzbass and the Novosibirsk Region.

On April 15, 2016, the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation adopted a law on the transfer of time in the Tomsk region (TSK zone) to the time zone MSK+4 (UTC+7) (NSK/KRASK) on May 29, 2016. At the same time, the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Yugra, which borders the Tomsk region from the west and north, did not change its time zone, as a result of which in neighboring regions the local time differs by 2 hours; This circumstance causes some inconvenience for residents during mutual trips to their neighbors (especially residents of Strezhevoy and the Aleksandrovsky district).



On the territory of the Tomsk region, the Paleolithic sites Tomskaya, Mogochino I, Parusinka are known. The territory of the modern Tomsk region was inhabited by people belonging to the Kulai archaeological culture, known for its bronze artifacts.

The development of the region's territory by Russians began at the end of the 16th and beginning of the 17th centuries. The oldest Russian settlement in the region is the village (formerly city) Narym, founded in 1596.

The administrative center of the region, the city of Tomsk, was founded in 1604. Later it becomes the administrative center of Tomsk district. From 1708 to 1782 the district was part of the Siberian province. In 1782, for the first time (by decision of Empress Catherine the Great), the Tomsk region was formed as part of the Tobolsk governorship of the Siberian kingdom. The Tomsk region consisted of Achinsky, Yenisei, Kansky, Narymsky, Tomsk and Turukhansky districts.

From 1796 to 1804, the Tomsk region was part of the Tobolsk province. In 1804, the Tomsk province was formed, which existed until 1925, when it became part of the Siberian Territory (since 1930 - the West Siberian Territory). The Tomsk province, occupying a huge territory from the Severnaya Zemlya islands in the north to Semipalatinsk in the south, initially included eight counties (later - districts): Biysk, Yenisei, Kainsky, Krasnoyarsk, Kuznetsk, Narymsky, Tomsk and Turukhansky.

After the abolition of the division into volosts, districts and provinces in Soviet Russia, the territory of the modern Tomsk region was successively included in the Tomsk and Narym districts, first of the Siberian Territory, then of the West Siberian Territory and the Novosibirsk Region.

The Tomsk region was again formed on August 13, 1944 by separating from the Novosibirsk region part of the districts of the former Tomsk and Narym districts (after the loss of part of the southern regions, which became part of the newly formed Kemerovo region).

On June 26, 1967, the region was awarded the Order of Lenin.

On July 26, 1995, the Charter of the Tomsk Region was adopted.



The volume of GRP of the Tomsk region for the first time exceeded 600 billion rubles; in 2019, the region earned 607 billion rubles, which is 27.7 billion more than a year earlier. With these parameters, the region ranks third in Siberia and 23rd position among the constituent entities of the Russian Federation.

The largest share in the structure of GRP is occupied by mining - 32%. Manufacturing industries produced 11.1% of the total annual GRP; in this industry, the efficiency of enterprises in 2019 increased by 17.8%. Real estate transactions showed good growth - 14.3%, agriculture, forestry, and fisheries - 16.8%. The construction market fell over the year, as did mining: 13% and 3.2%, respectively. Transport companies contributed 7.9% to the regional product, trade - 7.8%.



According to the Russian Ministry of Economic Development, in 2004 the Tomsk region was classified as a region with an above-average level of development (18th place in the country). At the same time, the region ranked 14th in terms of the average monthly salary (9,640 rubles), the volume of paid services per capita (18.8 thousand rubles), and tax revenues to the budget per capita (60.4 thousand rubles). ). The main priorities of economic development are fuel and energy, scientific and educational complexes and small business.

In 2004, industry contributed 45.5% of regional GDP, agriculture - 19% and construction - 13%. Among the industries, the most developed in the region are fuel (52.8%), including oil production (48.5%) and mechanical engineering (12.6%), chemical and petrochemical industries.

The large share of non-ferrous metallurgy (8.9% in 2004, 20.3% in 2001) is explained by the fact that the products of the Siberian Chemical Plant (nuclear industry) traditionally belong to this industry.

Main exported products: oil (62.1%), methanol (30.2%), machinery and equipment (4.8%). Joint ventures in the region are primarily involved in oil production and logging.



The rural population of the Tomsk region is 300 thousand people, about 28% of the population. The main branches of agriculture are meat and dairy farming, animal husbandry and crop farming.

Livestock production provides about 60% of all production (by value). They grow grains and leguminous crops (wheat, rye, oats, etc.), fodder crops, potatoes and vegetables. Livestock farming for dairy and meat (pigs, poultry). Fur trade and fur farming (silver-black fox) are developed.

In 2020, approximately 400 thousand tons of grain were collected on 154 thousand hectares 1.54 thousand km², 25.3 thousand tons of potatoes were harvested with the highest yield in Siberia under 200 t/ha 2 t/km² from an area of 1500 hectares. In total, 325.6 thousand hectares of 3.256 thousand km² were sown.



At the end of 2020, in farms of all categories of the Tomsk region, there were 77.6 thousand (-0.6%) heads of cattle, of which 33 thousand (+2.5%) were dairy cows, 256.2 thousand ( +7.9%) pigs and 4628.4 thousand (+5.1%) poultry.

In 2020, farms of all categories in the region produced 157.8 thousand tons (+2.3%) for slaughter of livestock and poultry (in live weight), milk production amounted to 147.1 thousand tons (+3.4%), egg production amounted to 123.8 million units (-4.5%).

Milk yield per cow in agricultural organizations (without small forms of farming) in 2020 amounted to 7549 kg, which is 9.5% more than in 2019. The productivity of the dairy herd in the Tomsk region is growing every year. The average milk yield per forage cow is now 18.4 kilograms per day, and for a number of farms implementing investment projects - 23.5 kilograms.

The majority of livestock products are produced by agricultural organizations, their share in milk production is 68%, eggs - more than 80%, and in meat production - 91%. Household farms account for 37.2% of the cattle population and 9.2% of the pig population.

In the Tomsk and Pervomaisky districts, a project is underway to create a large livestock breeding complex for meat production. Main tasks: production of beef over 550 tons in slaughter weight; achieving the total number of specialized meat breeds up to 15 thousand heads (of which 5.5 thousand heads of cows) by 2026, as well as the construction of a feedlot for five thousand heads.


Crop production

In 2021, the grain and legume harvest amounted to 445.3 thousand tons in bunker weight (in 2020 - 427.8 thousand tons). Grain yields in the Tomsk region hit a record high and amounted to 27.0 centners per hectare. The region is in second place in the Siberian Federal District in terms of grain yield after the Krasnoyarsk Territory (31.3 c/ha). Rapeseed also showed high yields - 20.3 centners per hectare. 47.3 thousand tons of rapeseed were threshed, or 117.7% compared to last year (in 2020 - 40.2 thousand tons), with an average yield of 20.3 c/ha, or 109.1% compared to last year ( in 2020 - 18.6 c/ha). In addition, farms have completed harvesting peas, barley, buckwheat, soybeans and corn for grain. The harvesting of potatoes (29.8 thousand tons) has been completed and the harvesting of cabbage (6.6 thousand tons), carrots (5 thousand tons) and beets (3.2 thousand tons) has been almost completed. During the harvesting campaign, 1,093 tractors and 429 grain harvesters worked in the fields of the region.

The gross grain harvest in barn weight after processing will be 411.7 thousand tons. This is the highest result in the last two decades. The yield of spring wheat in bunker weight was 28.5 c/ha, winter wheat - 35.8 c/ha, barley - 28.7 c/ha, peas - 30.5 c/ha. Experimental corn crops for grain also produced a good harvest this year: from 176 hectares, farmers threshed 689 tons of grain for livestock feed with an average yield of 39.1 c/ha in bunker weight.

According to Tomskstat, in 2020, agricultural producers in the Tomsk region increased grain production by 21.5%. 414.6 thousand tons of grain and leguminous crops were threshed (in weight after processing), the yield was 25.2 c/ha. There was an increase in the gross harvest of corn for grain - 4.3 times, winter triticale - by 91.4%, winter wheat - by 86.3%, buckwheat - by 68.7%. Potatoes collected 99.2 thousand tons (137 c/ha) (-9.1%), open and protected ground vegetables - 51.5 thousand tons (310.1 c/ha).

According to the results of the 2020 harvesting campaign, the spring wheat variety “Extra” showed a yield of 56 centners per hectare. According to the results of the 2020 harvesting campaign, the red lentil variety “Lira” showed a yield of 59.2 centners per hectare.



As of the end of 2018, 9 thermal power plants (with a unit capacity of more than 5 MW) were in operation in the Tomsk region, with a total capacity of 1036.4 MW, connected to the unified energy system of Russia. In 2018, they produced 3,456 million kWh of electricity. There are also three power plants of smaller capacity connected to the Unified Power System (including one small hydroelectric power station), and 25 diesel and gas piston power plants with a total capacity of 58.6 MW, not connected to the Unified Power System and operating in the zone of decentralized energy supply.



A branch of the M53 federal highway. Regional highways P398 (Tomsk - Kolpashevo), P399 (Kargala - Bakchar), P400 (Tomsk - Mariinsk). The Northern Latitudinal Railway is under construction.

Tomsk railway branch Taiga - Tomsk - Bely Yar.

Bogashevo hub airport in Tomsk. Small airports in Kolpashevo and Kargask (not in operation), Strezhevoy.

The main water arteries are the Ob, Tom, and Chulym, which carry regular river traffic as well as northern deliveries. Freight and passenger transportation is also carried out along the Ket and Vasyugan rivers.



One of the most important and dynamically developing industries is higher education. There are 6 state universities in Tomsk with high all-Russian ratings, including Tomsk State University - the first Siberian Imperial University, founded in the Asian part of Russia (1878) and Tomsk Polytechnic University, created as the first Siberian Imperial Institute of Technology. In the 20th century, there were hundreds of universities in Tomsk, which were consolidated into large regional universities, or moved from Tomsk to other regions of Siberia as the base of new regional universities. Since 2012, the Tomsk agglomeration is the only one east of the Moscow region, where there are three national research universities (that is, from among the 15 leading universities in Russia): National Research University TSU, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University and National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, while in other regions from the Volga to In the Far East, there are no more than 1 universities of this status per region. In terms of the number of students per capita, Tomsk ranks one of the first places in the country.

The region has a widely developed system of secondary educational institutions - technical schools and colleges.

The school education system in Tomsk and Seversk is traditionally (since the 19th century) significantly higher in quality than the Russian average (including the requirements of the Unified State Examination standard) and school graduates successfully enter both Russian and foreign universities.