Location: Yaroslavl Oblast

Yaroslavl is a large city on the Volga, the administrative center of the Yaroslavl region. The central city of the Golden Ring of Russia. One of the few cities in Russia, the ensemble of which represents all the main trends in Russian architecture from the 16th to the 20th centuries.

Yaroslavl is located on the Volga at the confluence of the Kotorosl River. This place was quite popular already in ancient times. It is assumed that the city was founded here by Yaroslav the Wise around 1010 during his Rostov reign. There is no reliable information about the founding of the city, but there are many legends: according to one of them, the prince personally killed a bear in this area, which is where the city coat of arms came from, and the name Yaroslavl is associated, of course, with Yaroslav the Wise, although there is an alternative version - “Glorious Yar”, along a picturesque cliff above the Volga. For the first century and a half of its existence, Yaroslavl remained the lowest downstream Russian city on the Volga, which is why it often suffered from Bulgar raids. From 1221, this role was taken over by Nizhny Novgorod, but the Bulgar raids had stopped by that time, and Batu’s army, which came to Rus' 17 years later, did not spare Yaroslavl. The city, however, was revived, became an independent principality and participated in the complex internal politics of the 13th-14th centuries, until in 1463 it voluntarily and forcibly came under the rule of Moscow.

In the XV-XVI centuries. Yaroslavl remained a relatively small city. Its position changed during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, when rich merchants moved to Yaroslavl from the disgraced Novgorod, and especially after the reign of the Romanovs, since during the Time of Troubles Yaroslavl hosted a people's militia, generously financed by local merchants. The merchants then received significant privileges from the tsar, and from the middle of the 17th century, Yaroslavl became a prosperous city, which is now difficult not to notice: the number of luxurious churches of this period here is simply off the charts, while there is practically nothing ancient in the city of the 17th century. The development of the Urals and Siberia, as well as the rapid growth of other Volga cities, slowed down the development of Yaroslavl somewhat, but in both the 18th and 19th centuries it remained the main commercial and industrial city in the Upper Volga, the center of the province. Soviet times brought new production to Yaroslavl, including a huge oil refinery. Now it is the closest city to Moscow, which can be called large without any stretch, even if it is far from reaching the status of a million-plus population.

There are a lot of attractions in Yaroslavl, and they are scattered over a rather large territory. Plan to explore the city at least two days. However, staying here for 3-4 days also makes sense.

History of Yaroslavl



The oldest part of Yaroslavl is located at the confluence of the Kotorosl River and the Volga. On the Kotorosl Spit, until the 18th century, there was the Yaroslavl Kremlin, or Rubleny Gorod, in the center of which stood the Assumption Cathedral, and the settlement around the Kremlin was surrounded by the walls of Zemlyanoy Gorod. In the era of Catherine II, the chaotically built-up medieval quarters underwent restructuring according to the master plan: Ilyinskaya Square (now Sovetskaya) was chosen as the new center of the city, from which four avenues ran: Parade Square (now Chelyuskintsev Ave.), Nakhimson Street, Kirova street and Sovetskaya street. Each of these streets in the future ends with a high-rise dominant - a church or a tower. During the same reconstruction, the fortifications of the Rubleny town and partly of the Zemlyanoy town were completely demolished (only two towers were preserved - Vlasyevskaya and Volzhskaya), and in place of the city walls connecting Kotorosl and the Volga, a boulevard was laid out, now Pervomaiskaya street. To the west of the boulevard, suburbs with regular buildings begin, the main street of which - Svobody - will lead you to the Main Station.

Craft settlements were traditionally located on the right bank of the Kotorosl, which gradually became part of the city starting from the 16th century. There are fewer attractions on the right bank and they are located at a distance from each other - however, this is where the most outstanding Yaroslavl churches are located.


Travel Destinations in Yaroslavl

Chopped City
In the most ancient part of Yaroslavl, several temples and civil buildings have been preserved. From the Kotorosl and Volga spit there is a beautiful view of the Volga and Zakotoroslye.

1  Assumption Cathedral, emb. Kotorosli, 2/1. The first stone temple of Yaroslavl was erected on this site at the beginning of the 13th century. Over the following centuries, the temple burned and was rebuilt, in the middle of the 17th century it was dismantled, and in its place the five-domed Assumption Cathedral with a high bell tower was erected, which stood until destroyed in 1937. In the 2000s, a new, larger cathedral was built according to a modern design with pseudo-Russian elements. The new cathedral turned out to be heavy and very different in style from the elegant churches of the 17th century, but still it does not suppress, but decorates the panorama of the city. It is also curious that the cathedral has a roof covering - the oldest type of curvilinear church roof, which fell out of widespread use by the end of the 17th century.
2  Church of St. Nicholas the Rubeny, Kotoroslnaya embankment, 8. The small elegant church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker was built in 1695 by local shipbuilders. The only preserved temple on the territory of the former Yaroslavl Kremlin (cut city), which gave the temple its popular name.
3  Church of the Savior on the City, st. Pochtovaya, 3. The four-pillar church was built in 1672 on Kotoroslnaya embankment based on the Church of St. John Chrysostom in Korovniki.
4  Gazebo on the Volzhskaya embankment, near Myakushkinsky descent. The classic rotunda was built in the 1840s on the Volga embankment and quickly became one of the symbols of the city.
5  Metropolitan Chambers (1680) , Volzhskaya embankment, 1. One of the oldest civil buildings in the city, built at the end of the 17th century as the residence of Metropolitan Ion Sysoevich. Now the chambers house the exhibition of the art museum “Ancient Russian Art of the 13th–17th Centuries.”


Zemlyanoy city

The territory of Yaroslavl Posad, surrounding the unpreserved Kremlin.

6  Ensemble of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery, Bogoyavlenskaya Square, 25. Entrance to the territory – 40 rubles, Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral – 80 rubles, ascent to the belfry – 200 rubles. (2017). Founded in the 12th century, the monastery is often incorrectly called the Yaroslavl Kremlin - in fact, it defended the approaches to the already existing Kremlin at the crossing of the Kotorosl. The monastery has long been the center of spiritual life in Yaroslavl; during the Time of Troubles it successfully withstood the Polish siege, and at the end of the 18th century the manuscript “The Tale of Igor’s Campaign” was found in the monastery. Now the monastery is part of the Yaroslavl museum-reserve.
The Cathedral of the Transfiguration was built in 1506-16 in the likeness of the Annunciation Cathedral in Moscow. The design shows details of the Italian Renaissance. This is the oldest building in the city, which has reached our time without any special alterations, and not only its appearance has been preserved, but also the frescoes from the mid-16th century - one of two surviving murals from the era of Ivan the Terrible in Russia.
The belfry with the Church of Our Lady of Pechersk was built several decades after the cathedral and was once connected to it by a gallery. The lower tier of the belfry housed the Church of Our Lady of Pechersk, the apse of which is visible from the eastern side. In the 17th century, the belfry was built with another tier; now there is an observation deck at the top.
Walls and towers. After a fire at the beginning of the 16th century, stone towers began to be built in the monastery. The first of them is the Holy Gate - a low passage tower overlooking Kotorosl. Other towers of the 16th century have not survived: the square Uglich and Bogoroditskaya towers on Epiphany Square were built at the end of the Time of Troubles, and the Epiphany and Mikhailovskaya towers serve a decorative function and were erected during the renovation of the monastery at the beginning of the 19th century. The walls were rebuilt many times as the monastery lost its defensive function. The oldest section of the wall of the 16th century is adjacent to the Bogoroditskaya Tower.

7  Church of St. Nicholas Nadein, Narodny Lane, 2A. The first stone church in Yaroslavl Posad, and one of the first to appear in Russia after the Time of Troubles. With the construction of this temple in 1621-22, a characteristic Yaroslavl direction in Russian architecture began to take shape. Before this, only a ruler or a rich monastery could build a stone temple - and the rich merchant, “sovereign guest” Nadya Sveteshnikov for the first time dared to build a temple in his own estate, thereby standing on a par with the first people of the country. Soon, the name of the customer, Nadeina, began to be added to the name of the Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker. Initially, the temple had five domes on a quadrangle - a characteristic feature of most Yaroslavl churches of the 17th century - but it has reached our time much rebuilt. Some of the 17th century frescoes have been preserved in the interior - pay attention to St. Nicholas distributing gold to the poor, and the luxurious baroque iconostasis of 1751, created by the founder of the Russian theater Fyodor Volkov.
8  Church of the Nativity, st. Kedrova, 1. The second surviving parish church, built in 1635-1644 by the Guryev merchants on the model of the Church of St. Nicholas Nadein using innovative techniques. The drums are decorated with belts and cornices; For the first time in Yaroslavl architecture, tiles appeared on the facades of the porch and galleries. The most unusual detail of the decor is the tiled inscription around the quadrangle under the base of the zakomari. This in itself is an infrequently encountered technique in Russian architecture, and usually in such cases the names of the rulers who blessed the construction of the temple are mentioned, but the Guryevs dared to write their worldly names here. In the 1650s, a bell tower was erected above the fence gate, but not an ordinary one, but a multifunctional building that combined a bell tower, a gate, a gate church and a clock tower. Here it is interesting to look at the rich western facade with an openwork gallery on the second floor, and at the elegant tent, but the most unusual thing here is the slender columns at the corners of the quadrangle with carved tops. They are similar to Central Asian guldast towers, and this technique is no longer found in Russian architecture. Perhaps the Nazaryevs saw similar turrets during their trading trips.
9  Church of Elijah the Prophet, Sovetskaya sq., 7. 10:00–18:00, except Wednesdays. 100 rubles (2017). Built in 1647-1650 at the expense of Yaroslavl merchants, the church attracts with its asymmetry: the main volume is surrounded on all sides by galleries and chapels, the largest of which - with a hipped roof - once had a piece of the Robe of the Lord in storage. In the 18th century, the church became the center of the radial-ring layout of the settlement; now the church belongs to the Yaroslavl Museum-Reserve.
10  Church of the Epiphany, Epiphany Square, 25. The five-domed brick church with bright tiled decoration was built in 1684-1693 and became a kind of architectural innovation in Yaroslavl, introducing elements of the Moscow style. Unlike other Yaroslavl churches of the late 17th century, here the galleries are turned into extended chapels, there is no traditional porch, and the bell tower does not stand separately and is not adjacent to the gallery, but is part of it.
11  Church of the Archangel Michael (Kotorosli embankment). The temple in the name of Archangel Michael was founded in 1657, and completed only in 1682. Such a long construction period made the appearance of the church varied: the monumental forms of the lower tier with a porch correspond to the beginning and middle of the 17th century, and the high windows and large drums are similar to later churches of the 1680s. Despite this, the elegant red facade with white elements makes the church a key element of the panorama of Kotoroslaya embankment.
12  Chapel of Alexander Nevsky, st. Andropova, 8. The chapel was built in 1892 in memory of the rescue of Emperor Alexander III during a train crash. This is a good example of pseudo-Russian architecture, successfully combined with real “non-pseudo” Russian churches.
13  Chapel of Our Lady of Kazan (Kotorosl embankment, next to the monastery). A strange structure in the shape of a rocket was built in 1997 in memory of the exit of the militia of Minin and Pozharsky from the gates of the Spassky Monastery. It’s even more strange that this chapel-monument appeared on the 1000-ruble bill next to the monument to Yaroslav the Wise.
Towers of Zemlyanoy City. From the fortifications of the 17th century, only ramparts and two towers remained - the Vlasyevskaya Tower 14 (Volkova Square) and the Volzhskaya Tower 15, which was rebuilt into an arsenal.
16  Bolkonsky House (late 18th century), Volzhskaya embankment, 7 (immediately behind the viaduct after the Arsenal Tower). In 1812, it housed a military hospital, and in the novel War and Peace, it is here that Natasha Rostova meets with the wounded Bolkonsky.
17  Red Square Ensemble:.
Fire station with watchtower (1911)
House with an arch (1934-1936, architect M. P. Parusnikov)



18  Church of St. Nicholas the Mokroy and Tikhvin Church, st. Tchaikovsky, 1. The Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker was built in 1665-1672 on the banks of the Kotorosl, in a swampy lowland, and quickly received the nickname of St. Nicholas the Wet. Fifteen years later, a small warm church in the name of the Tikhvin Icon of the Mother of God was erected nearby, and tented vestibules, unusually luxuriously decorated with colored ceramics, were added to the western facades of both churches. The multi-colored belts of tiles and window frames have no analogues in Yaroslavl, and the walls of the vestibule of the Tikhvin Church are completely covered with tiles, like a Persian carpet.
19  Voznesensko-Sretensky complex, st. Svobody, 44a. The five-domed Church of the Ascension of the Lord was erected in 1677-82. The ensemble also includes the small Sretenskaya Church, rebuilt in the second half of the 18th century in the Catherine Baroque style, which is uncharacteristic for Yaroslavl.
20  Vladimir Church on Bozhedomka. A pillarless temple built in 1670-78, atypical for Yaroslavl, with three small tents. The temple's hipped roof contradicted Patriarch Nikon's ban on the construction of such "non-canonical" churches: the Vladimir Church became the only tented church in Yaroslavl and one of the last tented churches in Russia in general.
21  Dontsov-Lopatin House, st. Bolshaya Oktyabrskaya street, 44/60. The mansion was built at the very beginning of the 19th century by the merchant Lopatin in accordance with the canons of classicism, and the Rococo style decor was added by the next owners, the Dontsov family, in the last decades of the 19th century. The result was one of the most magnificent civil buildings in Yaroslavl.
22  Sorokina Estate (House with Lions), st. Bolshaya Oktyabrskaya street, 48A. One of the most beautiful estates in the city was built in the second half of the 18th century by the Zatrapeznov merchants. It was the best mansion in the city for noble guests visiting Yaroslavl. In the 1830s, the merchant Sorokin acquired the mansion and began gradually rebuilding it in accordance with fashion trends: classicist columns were added to the baroque building, and at the beginning of the 20th century, modernist stucco molding was added.



23  Complex in Korovniki. On the right bank of the Kotorosl, near the mouth, there was a settlement engaged in the procurement of cow hides. In 1649-1690, the people of Sloboda built one of the most harmonious Yaroslavl ensembles: the summer church of St. John Chrysostom, the winter church of Our Lady of Vladimir, a bell tower and a fence with the Holy Gate, and the thirty-year construction period did not at all affect the unity of style of the entire complex.
The Church of St. John Chrysostom is one of the most complete monuments of all Yaroslavl architecture. It is distinguished by a symmetrical composition reminiscent of a pyramid: on a low gallery-pedestal stands the main volume of the temple, crowned with huge domes - the height of the central dome is greater than the height of the temple itself. To some extent, this was a consequence of the recently adopted reform of Patriarch Nikon, which, among other things, established new canons for temple construction. Don't miss the main decoration of the temple - the tiled casing on the altar apse: the eight-meter green casing contrasts with the brick wall and is the best example of the tiled art of Yaroslavl.
The Church of the Vladimir Mother of God was built 20 years after the summer church. The forms of this church were copied from the Church of St. John Chrysostom, but the main volume was divided into two floors: services were held on the first heated floor, and the second was used as an attic.
The tented bell tower is the main vertical of the ensemble, built in the early 1680s at the same distance from both churches. This is one of the few bell towers in Russia that received its own name: for its harmony and elegance it was nicknamed the Yaroslavl Candle.
The Holy Gates completed the ensemble. They already have elements of a later style - Naryshkin Baroque - but do not violate the harmony of the ensemble, but emphasize the grandeur of both temples and the bell tower, which stands directly opposite the gate.

24  Church of John the Baptist in Tolchkovo (1687) , Kotoroslnaya embankment, 69 (at the Tolbukhin street alignment: cross Kotorosl on the bridge and go down to the shore along the first staircase on the right or look for transport to the stop “Karabulin street”). May-September 10:00-17:00, except Mon and Tue. A masterpiece of Yaroslavl architecture of the 17th century, it was built in 1671-1687 in Tolchkovskaya Sloboda, whose artisans decided to build a temple superior to the temples of the city center. The result truly became the tallest church in Yaroslavl and one of the last examples of the “high” Yaroslavl style in architecture. The composition is borrowed from the earlier Church of St. John Chrysostom in Korovniki, but the Church of St. John the Baptist is larger and taller, and most importantly, it has as many as 15 large and small chapters. All the walls are decorated with tiles and brick patterns, leaving no plain space. Fifteen years after the construction of the temple, a separate six-tier 45-meter bell tower was erected next to it. This is already pure Baroque, a new style for Yaroslavl at the end of the 17th century, but since the division into tiers at the bell tower and the temple coincides, it combines surprisingly organically with it. The interior of the church features a carved six-tiered iconostasis and some of the best frescoes of the Yaroslavl school at the turn of the 17th-18th centuries. The church is depicted on the 1000-ruble banknote.
25  Temple of Peter and Paul (1744), Peter and Paul Park, 25. In the 1720s, the Zatrapeznov merchants founded the first linen manufactory in Russia in Zakotoroslye, and in 1741-44, an unusual temple for Yaroslavl was built at the manufactory in the capital style of Peter the Great’s Baroque. The impressive two-story temple forms a single volume with a bell tower, topped with a high spire and almost completely repeating the bell tower of the Peter and Paul Cathedral in St. Petersburg.
26  Church of St. Andrew of Crete. Built in 1908 according to the design of A.V. Ivanov for the workers of the Bolshoi Manufactory. It curiously combines neo-Byzantine and Art Nouveau styles, in particular, the outer wall of the apse on the Kotorosl side is decorated with a mascaron - the face of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker.
27  Complex of Fedorovsky parish, st. Bolshaya Fedorovskaya, 72/Malaya Proletarskaya, 59. In 1687-1691, a complex of the summer Fedorovsky Church, the winter Church of St. Nicholas Pensky and a tented bell tower was built in Tolchkovskaya Sloboda. The five-domed Fedorovsky Church is famous for the fact that the height of the central chapter (22 meters) is one and a half times higher than the height of the quadrangle on which it stands. The decor also places emphasis on the heads: the drums are decorated with several rows of belts and friezes. The Fedorovsky Church was the only one that was not closed under Soviet rule, which made it possible to preserve the iconostasis of the early 18th century and the unique frescoes: they depict battles in which the Fedorovskaya Icon of the Mother of God helped to win.
28  Development of the first half of the twentieth century. Located in the vicinity of the Big Linen Manufactory (Komsomolskaya square, Stachek, Budkina, Noskova streets) edit


Holy Transfiguration Monastery (Спасо- Преображенский Монастырь)

Volga Embankment

Yaroslavl Arrow

Church of the Annunciation and Saint Apostle Jacob (Благовещенско- Яковлевская церковь)

Karabikha (Карабиха)

Volkov Theater (Театр Волкова)

Tolga Monastery (Толгский Монастырь)


What to do

1  Yaroslavl State Historical, Architectural and Art Museum-Reserve (in the Church of the Epiphany), pl. Bogoyavlenskaya, 25. Located in the complex of the former Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery.
2  Yaroslavl Art Museum  (Volzhskaya embankment 23). ☎ (4852) 30-35-04. The museum is open from 10.00 to 18.00. On Fridays - from 12.00 to 20.00. The main building of the museum - the Governor's House, built by order of Emperor Alexander I, served as the residence of the Yaroslavl governors and the traveling palace of the imperial persons. Permanent exhibitions: “Russian art of the 18th – early 20th centuries.” and "Art of the 20th Century"
3  Metropolitan Chambers  Wikidata element (Volzhskaya embankment 1). The museum is open from 10.00 to 18.00. The Metropolitan Chamber is one of the oldest buildings in the city, an excellent example of ancient Russian stone civil architecture. Permanent exhibition: “Ancient Russian art of the 13th–18th centuries.”
4  Museum of Foreign Art. (Sovetskaya pl., 2). ☎ (4852) 59-45-30. The museum is open from 10.00 to 18.00. On Fridays - from 12.00 to 20.00. The museum is the only one in the region presenting a collection of European and Oriental art. Permanent exhibition "Western European art of the 16th - early 20th centuries."
5  Museum “Music and Time” , Volzhskaya embankment, 33a. One of the first private museums in Russia.
6  Museum of the History of Yaroslavl, Volzhskaya Embankment, 17.
7  Russian State Academic Drama Theater named after Fyodor Volkov , Volkov Square, building 1. The first Russian professional theater. Founded in 1750.
8  Yaroslavl Zoo , Shevelyukha village, 137. from 10.00 to 21.00. Cash desk opening hours: from 10.00 to 20.00. An area of more than 100 hectares makes it possible to build large enclosures and keep animals in conditions as close to natural as possible. Children's playground, petting zoo, cafe.
9  Yaroslavl Dolphinarium, Yaroslavl district, Dubki village, st. Shkolnaya, 1. Provides the opportunity to attend a magnificent show program with the participation of dolphins and fur seals, chat with dolphins, pet them and even swim with them.
10  Yaroslavl Planetarium of the Center named after. V. Tereshkova, st. Tchaikovsky, 3. ✉ Cultural and Educational Center named after. V.V. Tereshkova includes: a modern planetarium with three-dimensional computer visualization; observatory; exhibition hall “History of Cosmonautics”; cafe.
11  Theatre for Young Spectators, st. Svobody, 33. The theater building was built in 1974-1983 in the style of the “Brezhnev avant-garde”.



The oldest settlement on the territory of the city was found on the left bank of the Volga opposite the Strelka (a cape at the confluence of the Volga and Kotorosl) and belongs to the V-III millennium BC. e. (Neolithic). The Medveditskoye settlement of the Dyakovo culture in the former mouth of the Medveditsa dates back to the 1st millennium BC. In the 9th century (the time of the so-called Russian Kaganate), a large Scandinavian-Slavic settlement was formed near Yaroslavl, known for the complex of burial mounds in Timeryov. During the excavations, Scandinavian weapons, runic inscriptions, chess figures and the largest treasures of Arab coins in northern Europe were found (the oldest were minted by the first of the Idrisids). A fourth of the Scandinavian brooches found in Russia comes from Timeryov. Apparently, this "proto-Yaroslavl" served as a major center on the Volga trade route. His attitude to the later Yaroslavl (at that time the Meryan settlement of Medvezhy Ugol) can be compared with the ratio of Gnezdov and Smolensk, Ryurikov settlement and Novgorod, Sarskoe settlement and Rostov. Soon after the founding of Yaroslavl, this settlement fell into decay, probably due to the termination of the functioning of the Volga trade route. Upstream of the Volga, just outside the borders of the modern city, archaeologists have studied the large Mikhailovsky necropolis with a predominance of ordinary burials of the Finno-Ugric type.


Foundation of the city

Judging by the date of the first mention in the chronicle, Yaroslavl is the oldest existing city on the Volga. It was founded by Prince Yaroslav the Wise during his reign of Rostov (988-1010) on a promontory above the Strelka at or near the pagan settlement of Medvezhy Ugol. The Yaroslavl Kremlin was built on a naturally protected area on three sides (the steep high banks of the Volga and Kotorosl and the Medveditsky ravine, along which the stream flowed). The first mention of Yaroslavl - the "uprising of the Magi" caused by famine in the Rostov land - dates back to 1071. The name of the city is traditionally associated with the name of its founder: “Yaroslavl” is a possessive form meaning “Yaroslavov [city]”.

At the "Chopped City" excavation site, bounded by Kotorosl, Chelyuskintsev square and Medveditsky ravine, the remains of fortifications, represented by three rows of gorodny, date back to the beginning of the 11th century. In the XII century, the Yaroslavl Peter and Paul and Spassky monasteries already existed - then they were located outside the city. During the first two centuries of its existence, Yaroslavl remained a small border town of the Rostov-Suzdal land.


Middle Ages

The first stone buildings in Yaroslavl appeared shortly before the Mongol invasion, in the 1210s, at the behest of the eldest son of Vsevolod the Big Nest - Constantine. He founded within the walls of the Spassky Monastery the first educational institution in the territory of North-Eastern Russia - the Grigorievsky Gate, erected two churches in this monastery - the cathedral and the Entry into Jerusalem, rebuilt the Assumption Cathedral in stone. Judging by the several meters of pre-Mongol masonry preserved under the modern building of the Church of the Entry into Jerusalem, Constantine, unlike his father and grandfather, ordered not white stone buildings, but brick ones, decorating them with white stone details.

Yaroslavl can be considered the capital of Konstantin Vsevolodovich to a greater extent than the more ancient Rostov: the Volga city already surpassed its older brother in the number of stone churches. It is not excluded that it was under Constantine that the book collection of the Spassky Monastery began to take shape, which included 14 parchment manuscripts and a single copy of "The Lay of Igor's Host." The literature here was not only copied, but also illustrated; evidence of this is the facial Spassky and Fedorov gospels. The name of Konstantin is also associated with the appearance in Yaroslavl of large-format works of fine art, such as the large icon of the Tolgskaya Mother of God and the Yaroslavl Oranta.

After the death of Constantine (1218), Yaroslavl became the capital city of his second son Vsevolod, who died in the Sita battle with the Mongol-Tatars. On the territory of the Rubled City, a gloomy evidence of the Mongol ruin (1238) was discovered - a basement filled to the brim with human bones with traces of violent death. Local legend has preserved the memory of the legendary battle on Tugovaya Gora that took place in 1257; a memorial cross stands at the site of the battle.


In the first period of the Tatar-Mongol yoke, right up to the reign of Prince Vasily the Terrible Ochi, the specific Yaroslavl principality grew stronger, claiming a dominant role in the Upper Volga region. The pinnacle of his power is associated with the reign of Fyodor Cherny, the first representative of the Rostislavich dynasty of Smolensk on the Yaroslavl throne. As the son-in-law of the Golden Horde Khan, the Grand Duke of Yaroslavsky played one of the main roles in Russian politics of his time. Under him, Yaroslavl acquired a trade and craft posad and unfortified settlements. Upstream from the city, on the opposite bank of the Volga, the Tolgsky Monastery arose, which for a long time became the spiritual center of the Yaroslavl land. Until the 20th century, Tolgin Day (August 21) remained the unofficial day of the city and was celebrated with mass festivities. Yaroslavl, together with Uglich, is mentioned in the Novgorod birch bark letter No. 69, which V.L. Yanin dates back to the 80s of the XIII century.

From the second half of the XIV century, the Yaroslavl principality was split into smaller estates. Local princes cease to play any significant role in all-Russian politics; part of the city itself becomes the property of the Moscow rulers. In 1380, the Yaroslavl squads took part in the Battle of Kulikovo. Shortly before the final annexation of the city to Moscow (1463), in a last attempt to maintain independence, the Yaroslavl princes officially approved the cult of their ancestors: miraculous healings from the relics of the first county princes were announced and they were canonized as Yaroslavl miracle workers. After the annexation, the descendants of the appanage princes - the Shastunovs, Kurbskiy, Prozorovskiy, Troyekurov, Shakhovskiy - went to the service of the Grand Dukes of Moscow, without losing ties with the city of their forefathers.

Under Ivan III, dilapidated cathedral buildings from the time of Konstantin Vsevolodovich once again burned down and were demolished. In their place, Moscow (and probably Italian) craftsmen built new churches. After another fire in 1536, Yaroslavl was fortified: several towers were built and an earthen rampart was poured. The city then consisted of the Kremlin (Rublenaya goroda) enclosed by log walls, the Zemlyanoy city within the rampart and unfortified settlements behind it. After the Moscow company organized Russian-English trade through Arkhangelsk, Yaroslavl began to turn into the largest transit trade center along the Volga.

In 1565, after Tsar Ivan the Terrible divided the Russian state into oprichnina and zemstvo, the city of Yaroslavl became part of the latter and belonged to it until the beginning of 1569, when it was assigned to the oprichina. The great massacre perpetrated in 1570 by the guardsmen in Novgorod forced many Novgorod families, including merchants, to leave the ruined city and move to Yaroslavl. Novgorod plots and traditions took root on the banks of the Volga: on the walls of local churches you can see images of the battle between Novgorod and Suzdal, the Novgorod icon of the Mother of God "Sign" and Varlaam Khutynsky began to be venerated here.

Yaroslavl played a prominent role in the events of the Time of Troubles. In 1608, the city was occupied by the troops of False Dmitry II. On April 7, 1609, they were defeated near the city by a volunteer corps who had approached from Vologda and left Yaroslavl. However, three weeks later, new detachments approached and captured the settlements, and then Zemlyanoy Gorod. But the Spassky Monastery and the Kremlin withstood the siege and on May 23 it was lifted. In 1611, the Yaroslavl people joined the first militia to liberate Moscow, but it did not achieve its goal. From April to June 1612, the second militia was located in the city, Yaroslavl at that time performed the functions of the capital, a coin was minted here. When the militia was replenished with new forces, it moved to Moscow and liberated it. The young Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich, being summoned from Kostroma to Moscow, made a long stop at the Yaroslavl Spassky Monastery, where he signed a letter of consent to ascend the throne. In memory of the events of the Time of Troubles, the Kazan monastery was founded in the city, and the captured interventionists (including the family of Marina Mnishek) were settled on the Volga bank in Yaroslavl.



Yaroslavl quickly recovered from the consequences of the Troubles. It developed into a large trade and handicraft center, the second largest and third largest city in Russia in terms of trade turnover; one sixth of the most influential merchants of Rus' - the "guests" of the sovereign's hundred, lived in Yaroslavl. Their operations covered the territory from Arkhangelsk to Bukhara; the Yaroslavl merchants Guryevs founded the city of Guryev on the territory of modern Kazakhstan; they also built in Yaroslavl the Church of the Nativity of Christ with elements of the Islamic tradition. The starting point of the "Moscow pattern" of the 17th century - the Trinity Church in Nikitniki - was built in Kitai-Gorod at the expense of the Yaroslavl guest Nikitnikov. The merchant Nadia Sveteshnikov paid thousands of duties to the treasury for the income from the salt-making industries in Usolye; he, among 8 other Yaroslavl residents, was awarded the title of "sovereign guest" with the right to be subject to one tsar. In the courtyard of the Skripins merchants for a number of years the tsarist iconographer Fyodor Zubov worked; Yaroslavl mural painters decorated the main churches of the country with frescoes - from the Assumption Cathedral of the Trinity Monastery to the cathedrals of the Moscow Kremlin.

Yaroslavl continued to be built up: outside the Zemlyanoy Val, in the interfluve of the Volga and Kotorosl rivers, development proceeded mainly along the main roads; along with this, in the XVI-XVII centuries the lands beyond Kotorosl were developed. The 17th century became for the city, which by this time had reached its highest prosperity (Yaroslavl was considered the second city in Russia in terms of the number of inhabitants, especially artisans), a century of temple construction. During this century, 3 monasteries and at least 60 stone churches were built. At the same time, the Yaroslavl art school was formed - one of the brightest manifestations of Russian art of that time. After the fire of 1658, which destroyed almost entirely the Zemlyanoy and Rubleny Gorod, the wooden walls of the posad were not rebuilt, instead the ramparts were raised and the ditches deepened, but instead of wooden towers, stone ones were built in the same places; the Kremlin lost its defensive significance, remaining the administrative center.

With the beginning of Peter's reforms, Yaroslavl loses its significance as the second city in the state. Peter the Great's reluctance to trade through Arkhangelsk negatively affected the commercial well-being of the city. The dynasties of Yaroslavl merchants went bankrupt, but the development of industry came to replace trade. In 1722, the Zatrapeznov merchants began to build a linen manufactory on the right bank of the Kotorosl River - one of the first and largest in the country. For some time, the economic life of the city moved to the vicinity of the manufactory. Handicraft production continued to develop. As of 1771, there were already 11 large industrial enterprises in Yaroslavl. After the formation of the Yaroslavl province (1719), the city became an ordinary provincial center, although still very significant. It served as a place of "close exile" for high-ranking officials (for example, Duke Biron lived here on the Volga bank for 19 years).

In 1718, a digital school was opened - the first educational institution in the city, and 30 years later the Yaroslavl Theological Seminary started working in the Spassky Monastery. In 1750 FG Volkov founded in Yaroslavl the first public theater in Russia, which in January 1752 moved to St. Petersburg. In general, spontaneous medieval buildings remained in the city. The overcrowding of wooden houses created a constant fire hazard, and destructive fires occurred from time to time. Entrances to the city from the main roads were still through the towers, while the rest of the fortifications of the Middle Ages fell into ruins.


Provincial town

In 1777 Yaroslavl became the center of the governorship and the corresponding province, becoming a large administrative center. Alexey Petrovich Melgunov was appointed the first governor-general. In 1786, the chair of the Rostov diocese was transferred to Yaroslavl from Rostov (since then it has been the Yaroslavl and Rostov diocese). In 1788, in the library of the last abbot of the Spassky Monastery, a unique work of Old Russian literature, The Lay of Igor's Host, was found. In 1778, the first regular development plan for Yaroslavl was approved. In 1784, the first printing house in the Russian province appeared in Yaroslavl. In 1786-1788, the monthly magazine Uedinenny Poshekonets, the first provincial magazine in the country, was published in the city.


During the Napoleonic invasion, the wounded were taken to Yaroslavl from the battlefields; here General N.A.Tuchkov was interred. The flight of the nobility from the capital taken by Napoleon to Yaroslavl is reflected in the pages of the novel "War and Peace". At this time, some members of the royal family also ended up in Yaroslavl: it was here that Pyotr Georgievich Oldenburgsky was born, who later allocated funds for the construction of a church in the city for his fellow Lutherans.

In the same 1812, the first bridge over Kotorosl was built - on the site of an ancient river crossing at the Spassky Monastery: high, wooden and on wooden piles; subsequently, an earthen, stone-lined dam was built in its place, and in 1853 a bridge of the American system was built. In 1860 a telegraph line with Moscow appeared. Since 1870, the city had a direct rail link with Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kostroma. In 1913, a railway bridge across the Volga was opened. The Volga Shipping Company played an important role. In Yaroslavl, a water supply system appeared (1883), the first power station, telephone communications, electric lighting and a tram (1900).

In 1820, the ramparts were completely ripped off and the ditches of the city fortifications that were no longer needed were filled up, a boulevard with linden alleys on the banks of the Volga and along a part of the former rampart was built, a city theater was built. In 1902, the public city Pushkin library was opened. At the beginning of the 19th century, the city received its first university - the Yaroslavl Higher Science School. By the beginning of the 20th century, the city already had 66 educational institutions with 10 thousand students (for 117 thousand inhabitants). In 1908, the Yaroslavl Teachers' Institute appeared. Since 1831, under the provincial government, "Yaroslavskie provincial vedomosti" came out, since 1860, under the spiritual consistory, "Yaroslavl diocesan vedomosti" - both publications were the first of their kind in Russia; then a number of other periodicals appeared. In 1911, the city's first stationary cinema appeared.

In 1871, the Yaroslavl City Duma appeared. In the second half of the 19th - beginning of the 20th century, societies were created in the city: agriculture, doctors, for the study of the Yaroslavl province in a natural-historical relation, art, a department of theatrical society. In 1865, the first Yaroslavl Museum (Natural History) appeared. In 1889, the first meeting of the Yaroslavl Provincial Scientific Archive Commission (YAGUAK) took place, in 1895, a museum appeared under the commission - the Ancient Storage. In 1901, the first Marxist organization in the north of the country, the Northern Workers' Union, was created.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Yaroslavl was one of the largest cities in Central Russia (12th place in terms of the number of inhabitants within the modern territory of the country in 1897). Industry was significantly developed - there were more than 50 enterprises with 15 thousand workers, in terms of the number of which the city took the 8th place among the centers of factory industry in European Russia. Textile, food and chemical industries prevailed. Main factories: two manufactories of paper and linen yarn and fabrics, a tobacco manufactory; chemical factories, match factories, sawmills, carpentry, carpentry, cooperage, soap-making, vodka, bell, felt and felt, leather, furrier and wax factories.

Industrial development did not prevent Yaroslavl from being considered one of the most beautiful and flourishing cities of the upper Volga region.“Yaroslavl is a city of which there are very few in Russia. The embankment on the Volga is very good, ”wrote A. N. Ostrovsky, passing through Yaroslavl. In local history literature it was called "Russian Florence". Capital residents acquired summer cottages and romantic "castles" along the Volga - in places baptized "Russian Switzerland". Dumas the father found in Yaroslavl "one of the best hotels in Russia, perhaps the only one, with the exception of two capitals, where there are real beds." The Marquis de Custine dedicated two chapters of the well-known book "Russia in 1839" to his stay in Yaroslavl; at the governor's house, Poltoratsky, he heard "echoes of the French spirit of the 18th century, that spirit that had long disappeared in his homeland." During the celebration of the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty in 1913, Yaroslavl was honored with a visit to the royal family (F. Kafka writes about this in his diary).


Soviet time

The most destructive event in the recent history of Yaroslavl was the events of the Yaroslavl uprising against Soviet power (July 1918). Artillery shelling led to the death of residents, fires, significant destruction of residential buildings, industrial enterprises and historical monuments.


In 1929, the Yaroslavl province was abolished, and Yaroslavl became part of the Ivanovo Industrial Region, but in 1936 it again became an administrative center - the Yaroslavl Region was formed. In 1920, construction of the city began according to the "Plan of the Greater Yaroslavl" - the city line was expanded more than 5 times, new streets were formed, houses and utility facilities were built. In 1921, tram traffic was restored, in 1922 a sewerage was built in the center, in 1924 - a new telephone exchange to replace the destroyed one, in 1925 the first pay phone was installed. By the mid-1920s, the city already had over 100,000 residents. In 1923, on the basis of the Pushkin Library, the Yaroslavl Provincial Central Library was created (since 1936 - the Yaroslavl Regional Library). In 1924, all the city's museums were merged into the Yaroslavl State Regional Museum. By 1929, the largest enterprises in Yaroslavl were: Krasny Perekop (formerly Big Manufactory); "Red Mayak", "Victory of the workers" and "Free Labor", felting-shoemakers, tanneries, sawmills, factory of the former. Westinghouse - brake manufacture.

In 1936, a new town planning plan was adopted - the formation of the city center, new streets, the development of Tveritskaya embankment, the removal of industrial zones to the northern and southern borders of the city. In November 1926, the first stage of the Lyapin power plant was launched, which created the basis for the development of industry in the city. In the first five-year plan (1928-1933), the construction of a rubber plant, synthetic rubber plants (SK-1), carbon black, and a shipyard began. SK-1, built in 1932, was the world's first synthetic rubber plant, as a result, the Yaroslavl Tire Plant was the first in the world to master mass production on the basis of artificial rubber and by the beginning of the 1940s supplied about 80% of tires for USSR cars. In March 1933, the first stage of the Yaroslavl rubber and asbestos plant was launched. A sand-lime brick plant, an oxygen plant and others began work.

In 1919, the Demidov Juridical Lyceum was transformed into the Yaroslavl State University, but already in 1924 it was closed; his pedagogical faculty again became an independent university - the only one on the territory of the region for over ten years. Factory schools, technical schools (rubber, chemical, textile) were opened in the city. In the 1930s, there were three universities in the city - a pedagogical institute, an evening engineering institute and a higher agricultural school.

During the Great Patriotic War, more than half a million residents of the Yaroslavl Region went to the front, more than 200 thousand people died or went missing. At the end of autumn 1941, the enemy was 50 km from the borders of the region, the city was subjected to raids by German aircraft. From the first months of the war, the industry of Yaroslavl switched to the production of military products, playing an important role in supplying the main defense industries.

Yaroslavl took an active part in the restoration of the economy. The production of a number of old factories increased. In 1958, the Yaroslavl Automobile Plant was transformed into the Yaroslavl Motor Plant, which became the main supplier of diesel engines for the country's cars. In 1961, the Novoyaroslavl oil refinery was opened. Road bridges are being built: in 1962 - a new reinforced concrete Moscow bridge across Kotorosl, in 1965 - October bridge across the Volga, in the 1980s - Tolbukhinsky bridge across Kotorosl, in the 2000s - Jubilee bridge across the Volga. Since 1961, individual housing construction has been prohibited in the city. In the 1960s, the Northern residential area of ​​the city (Bragino) was actively being built.

In 1944, a military infantry school and the Yaroslavl Medical Institute (now the Yaroslavl State Medical University) were opened in Yaroslavl. In 1951, the Yaroslavl Military Technical School of the Air Defense Forces (now the Yaroslavl Higher Anti-Aircraft Missile School of Air Defense) was created. In 1944, a technological institute of the rubber industry (now the Yaroslavl State Technical University) was opened in the city. In 1962, the Yaroslavl Theater School was created (now it is the Yaroslavl State Theater Institute). In 1969, the Yaroslavl State University was reopened in Yaroslavl. In 1977, a branch of the Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K.A. Timiryazev (now the Yaroslavl State Agricultural Academy) was opened. In 1957, the Military Financial School (later the Military Financial and Economic Institute) was transferred to Yaroslavl. In 1985, the Museum of the History of the City of Yaroslavl was opened.


Post-Soviet period

In the late 1980s, the maximum number of inhabitants lived in the city - about 650 thousand people, then the population began to decrease. But, despite the difficulties of the transitional economy, Yaroslavl managed to preserve the economic and cultural potential. In 2007, population growth was observed for the first time in more than 20 years. In 2006, a new master plan for the development of the city was approved.

In 1992, the International Academy of Business and New Technologies was opened in the city - the first non-state university in the Yaroslavl region. During the 1990-2000s, the Yaroslavl Museum-Reserve (more than half a million exhibits) and the Yaroslavl Art Museum continued their active educational activities. Since the late 1980s, many churches have been returned to the Russian Orthodox Church. The first of the women's monasteries in Russia was returned to the church and the Tolgsky monastery was recreated.

In 2007-2010, the city was actively building new and reconstruction of existing facilities related to preparations for the celebration of the millennium of Yaroslavl in 2010. In particular, a zoo was opened, a road bypass of the city was built, including the Yubileiny bridge across the Volga and approaches to it, Moskovsky Prospekt and the Volga embankment were reconstructed (including the Strelka at the confluence of Kotorosl). A number of objects for the anniversary did not have time to be put into operation (among them perinatal and concert and entertainment centers, a planetarium and a circus), they were put into operation later.

In 2009-2011, Yaroslavl hosted international political forums (in 2009 - in the format of a conference on the topic "Modern state and global security", in 2010 - the forum "Modern state: standards of democracy and criteria of efficiency", in 2011 - the forum "Modern state in the era of social diversity "). The first forum was attended by Romano Prodi, François Fillon, Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero, Farid Zacaria, Alvin Toffler.



Get in

By train
Train timetables and fares can be found on the RZD website.

Yaroslavl Glavny (Ярославль-Главный). The main railway station, located at the western end of ulitsa Svobody.

From Moscow
Yaroslavl is 266 km from Moscow and 13 trains per day make the 3-4 hour journey (RUB500-900) from Yaroslavsky Railway station in Moscow. These trains include the Trans Siberian Railway trains, departing from Moscow.

From Saint Petersburg
An overnight train makes the 12-hour journey from Saint Petersburg daily. Tickets cost from RUB750.

From other points
Journey by elektrichka needs connection in Alexandrov.

Daily trains include other destinations of Arkhangelsk, Ivanovo, Vorkuta, Cherepovets, and Tolyatti.

By bus
There are buses from Moscow Central bus station near Schyolkovskaya metro station at 08:30, 12:15, 14:15, 17:30, 23:15 daily. The journey takes 5 hours.

By car
Taking the opportunity of no traffic jams from Moscow, if any, drive on Yaroslavskoye shosse aka M-8 'Kholmogory' and visit beautiful destinations en-route: Sergiev Posad, Pereslavl Zalessky, Rostov Veliky. The road takes 4 hours or more, depending on traffic near Moscow.

By plane
Tunoshna Airport (Аэропорт Туношна)), (IAR IATA), ++7 4852 43-18-00, is 18 km southeast of the city centre. There are regular flights to Saint Petersburg and Arkhangelsk and there are seasonal flights to Sochi.


Get around

Rides on public transport, which operate during the day and late at night and include buses, marshrutkas, and trolleybuses, costs RUB16-25.

The most useful trolleybus is trolleybus #1, which starts at the train station, and goes all the way down Svobody, through Volkovo to Yaroslavl Red Square.


Hotels, motels and where to sleep

Tourist (Турист), 2 Lenina st (from railway station by trolleybus #3 to the stop Hotel Tourist), ☎ +7 4852 72-86-16. Close to the Volga promenade. from 900RUB for single, 1400RUB for double.
Parus (Парус), 4 Volzhskaya naberezhnaya (Volga Promenade), ☎ +7 4852 30-41-92. For those who can rough it. double from 800RUB, single 1100RUB.
Good Luck Hostel, 11 prospekt Oktyabrya, ☎ +7 920 65-11-999, e-mail: info@goodluck-hostel.com.  Check-in: 13:00, check-out: 12:00. The first hostel in Yaroslavl. It is very hard to find, since it has no signs outside. Choose the door, where there is also a tourist agency, and press number 2. 10/8/4 bed dorm - 450/500/550 RUB per bed.

Hotel Kotorosl (Которосль), 87 B. Oktyabrskaya st (City center), ☎ +7 4852 212415, fax: +7 4852 216468, e-mail: adm@kotorosl.biz
Hotel Yubileynaya (Юбилейная), 26 Kotoroslnaya Naberezhnaya (City center), ☎ +7 4852 30 92 59, e-mail: info@yubilyar.com.  5 min from a monastery at the entrance to old town, it has 210 rooms with the Internet access, ATM and souvenir shop in the lobby.
Volga Pearl (Волжская жемчужина), Central Volga Promenade, ☎ +7 4852 73-12-73, +7 4852 72-77-17, fax: +7 (4852) 72-65-30, e-mail: info@riverhotel-vp.ru.  Hotel on water 700 m from the city center with 38 rooms, Wi-Fi. 2500RUB for a single room, 4200RUB for a double up to 7600 for penthouse.
Zvezdniy mini-hotel (Звездный мини-отель), 37 Pobedy st, ☎ +74852 58-58-84, fax: +7(4852) 58-58-84, e-mail: mail@yarstars.ru.  The hotel in the city center with 18 rooms ranging from economy to splurge. Romantic room. from 2800RUB for single room to 5000 for double.

Ring Premier Hotel, 55 Svodody st (City center), ☎ +7 4852 58-08-58, +7 4852 58-09-58, fax: +7(4852) 58-09-62, e-mail: info@ringpremier-hotel.ru.  A Western-style four-star six-floor hotel in the city center with a restaurant, a pub Dublin and fitness facilities. Additional rooms for disabled persons. Free wi-fi.


Restaurant, taverns and where to eat

The best place to eat out is the Volga promenade but there is a bunch of curious restaurants:

Ioann Vasilyevich (Иоанн Васильевич), 34 Revolutsionnaya st, ☎ +7 4852 91-47-07. Ancient Russian cuisine.
DudkiBar, 33 Sobinova St, ☎ +7 4852 33-09-33, e-mail: dudkibar@dudkibar.ru.  European, Japanese and grill menus.



Le Petit Cafe, Volzhskaya embankment. 4. 9–1 (Fri and Sat, until 5; Sun, until 24). In the morning and during the day there is an ordinary city cafe with an average price level, but in the evenings there are regularly concerts and discos. Free Wi-Fi.
Your bar (Yo-bar), st. Freedom, 1/2. Around the clock. The kitchen is also open 24 hours a day.
Dublin pub, st. Svobody, 55. 16–5. Irish pub - as far as possible in Yaroslavl. Good selection of hot food, live music in the evenings.
Dudki-bar, st. Sobinova, 33. 12–2 (Fri and Sat, until 6). Hot dishes: 200–300 rubles; draft beer: from 80 rubles (2011). In the daytime and in the evening it is a regular restaurant with a mixture of Italian and Japanese cuisines, and at night it operates as a bar.
Cocktail bar Mojo, st. Trefoleva, 24a (shopping center "Kazansky"). 10–2 (Fri and Sat, until 4). Large selection of alcoholic drinks and cocktails that you can enjoy with sushi. Strict face control and a cunning entry system by calling through a video intercom. Free Wi-Fi.
Coffee house “Che Guevara”, Lenin Ave., 26. 11–23 (Fri and Sat, until 1). Hot dishes: about 200 rubles; draft beer: 100 rubles (2011). A cozy establishment that is positioned as a coffee shop, but in fact is more like a bar: pies and desserts are standard, but the selection of alcoholic drinks is impressive. Chinese and sushi dishes are offered as snacks, which were probably popular among supporters of Che Guevara. The atmosphere is cozy and does not require an immediate transition to the liberation struggle.
Beer house "Afonya", st. Nakhimsona, 21A. 12–22. A colorful stylization of a Soviet beer hall, although the beer here is homemade, and you can snack on it not only with dried fish.

Night clubs
Club "Honey", st. Podzelenie, 7/1.


Festivals and events

Jazz over Volga (Джаз над Волгой), the international festival of jazz taking place every odd year since 1979 in March.



Yaroslavl stores offer varieties of the local beer brand “Yarpivo”. There are many large stores in the city, including Karusel, Axon, Eldorado, and the Metro Cash and Carry and Pharaoh shopping centers.

Aura (shopping and entertainment center)  , Pobedy, 41. ☎ +7 (4852) 67‒55‒55. 10:00 - 22:00. The shopping center is located at the intersection of the main retail street - st. Svobody and st. Victory in the historical and social center of the city. About 217 retail stores.
Old Town (city cultural and exhibition complex), Svobody, 46a. ☎ +7 (4852) 314‒330. 08:30–17:30. The complex offers mobile exhibition modules, holding exhibitions and fairs.
YarSkazka is a souvenir and gift shop. (Souvenirs with the symbols of Yaroslavl at retail at wholesale prices.). ☎ +79301200553. 10:00-17:00. "YarSkazka" - an online gift and souvenir store offers a wide selection of souvenirs: figurines, boxes, souvenir magnets, decorative painted plates, photo frames, gift games, piggy banks, souvenirs with the symbols of Yaroslavl, porcelain dolls, etc.



Free Wi-Fi locations abound:

McDonald's at 119, Leningradsky prospekt and 115, Moskovsky prospekt.
Kinomaks at 123, Leningradsky prospekt.
Mojo Coctail Club at 9, Svobody st.
Yubileynaya hotel.
Le Petit Cafe at 4 Volzhskaya naberezhnaya (riverside).
Shaiba (sport-bar) at 135, Moskovsky prospekt.
Rodina at 7a, Respublikanskaya st.
and many more but they may be pay wi-fi points.


Physiographic characteristics

Geographical position

Yaroslavl is located in the central part of the East European Plain (more precisely, on the Yaroslavl-Kostroma lowland) on both banks of the Volga at the confluence of the Kotorosl River; 282 kilometers northeast of Moscow. The city covers an area of 205.37 km². The average altitude of the city center is 100 m above sea level.



Yaroslavl is located in the MSC time zone (Moscow time). The applied time offset relative to UTC is +3:00. In accordance with the applied time and geographic longitude, average solar noon in Yaroslavl occurs at 12:21.



The main rivers of Yaroslavl are the Volga (Gorky Reservoir) and its right tributary Kotorosl, the level of which is raised by the backwater of the Nizhny Novgorod hydroelectric station. Several rivers and streams flow into them, the most significant of which is the Nora River. In the channel of the Kotorosl, closer to the mouth, there are several islands; on one of them, Damansky, there is a park of culture and recreation. The right bank of the Volga is high and steep, the left bank is low. The average annual water flow of the Volga near Yaroslavl is 1110 m³/s, the average long-term value of the level of the Gorky Reservoir near Yaroslavl is 84.28 m.



The city is located in a temperate continental climate zone, with a strong moderating influence of the Atlantic. The sum of temperatures during the growing season (above +10°C) is 1892°C. The number of days with temperatures below zero is 150 days. Annual precipitation is 544 mm. The total precipitation of the cold period is 146 mm. The total precipitation of the warm period is 398 mm.

Winter in Yaroslavl is moderately cold, moderately snowy, and lasts more than five months. The average January temperature is −10…−11°C, in some winters frosts can reach −40…−46°C; but thaws also occur; for example, in January 1932, the longest thaw for the entire observation period was observed (17 days). The height of the snow cover is 35-50 cm, in some winters it reaches 70 cm, but sometimes barely exceeds 20 cm. Snow cover is established in the second half of November and persists for 140 days. Winds from southern and western directions predominate. The average wind speed is 4.2 m/s, strong winds, more than 8 m/s, and snowstorms are observed mainly in December - January, up to 8-10 days.

Spring is characterized by low precipitation. The average April temperature in Yaroslavl is about +4°C. The melting of snow cover occurs in the first half of April. Precipitation in April is low - 30-40 mm; its increase begins in May, when more than 50 mm of precipitation falls. May has the lowest relative humidity of the year - about 70%.

Summer is moderately warm, humid, with the highest amount of precipitation in the year - up to 70-80 mm per month. The average monthly temperature in July is +18°C, on some hot days the temperature exceeds +30°C; the absolute maximum reaches +37.5°C. July sees the most precipitation of the year - more than 70 mm per month. The rains are predominantly torrential, often with thunderstorms (in June - July up to 6-8 days with thunderstorms). Winds from western and northern directions predominate. Average speed is 2.5-3.5 m/s.

Autumn is characterized by a sharp increase in cloudy skies - up to 18 days per month and an increase in relative humidity to 85%. The average October temperature in Yaroslavl is about +4°C. The amount of precipitation decreases, but its character changes - there are heavy rains and fogs occur.


Flora and fauna

The annual census of nightingales, held in mid-summer 2010, showed that more than 900 pairs of these birds had built nests in the city.


Ecology and nature conservation

Yaroslavl, being a large industrial and transport center, is characterized by a high technogenic load on the environment. The most important anthropogenic factors causing this load are, first of all, pollution of atmospheric air, as well as surface water bodies and territory (soils). As of 2010, more than 1.5 thousand organizations with sources of environmental pollution, and more than 14 thousand legal entities and individual entrepreneurs, whose activities generate various wastes, are registered with the Committee for Natural Resources Management and Environmental Protection of the city mayor’s office.

Observations of the level of pollution in the city's atmosphere are carried out at five stationary points. The maximum permissible concentration of benzopyrene is often exceeded, and the concentration of nitrogen dioxide is high. Among the main air pollutants are motor transport, as well as the Yaroslavnefteorgsintez oil refinery, a carbon black plant, and a tire plant. Ecologists call Red Square and Tolbukhin Avenue the areas with the most polluted air in Yaroslavl. The quality of water in the Volga is low. According to the Yaroslavl Regional Center for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the actual content of phenols and petroleum products in water in 2008 exceeded the average annual concentration standards.

On the territory of the city there are a number of specially protected natural areas: natural monuments - pine forests beyond the Volga (Yakovlevsky forest, Lyapinsky forest, Vozdvizhensky forest, Tveritsky park, Smolensky forest), the ancient cedar forest of the Tolga monastery, Krestovsky quarry, a park in the Kotoroslo floodplain, a park in the village of Neftestroy, Demidovsky Garden, Butusovsky Park, Skobykinsky Park, Pavlovsky Park, a linden grove in the village of Norskoye, protected natural and historical landscapes of Peter and Paul Park and Upper Island on the Volga River.