Oryol Oblast, Russia

The Oryol region is located in the Central Chernozem region. The Oryol region borders on the south with the Kursk region, in the east with the Lipetsk region, in the north with the Tula and Kaluga regions, and in the west with the Bryansk region. It is located in the center of the European part of Russia and is part of the Central Economic Region. The region was formed on September 27, 1937 by a decree of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR, a number of districts of the Kursk and Voronezh regions became part of the region. The area is 24.7 thousand km². The region is located on the Central Russian Upland. The climate is temperate continental, with a summer maximum of precipitation. The administrative center is the city of Orel.

As early as the 17th century, the southern border of the Moscow state passed along the Oryol land, which was guarded by a system of wooden fortresses that formed the Zasechnaya line. After the borders were significantly pushed back as a result of new conquests, new cities actively developed around the former fortresses, for example, Oryol and Livny. Wooden fortresses have not survived to our time, and most of the surviving architectural sights of the region belong to the stone construction of the 18th and 19th centuries.

The Oryol province that existed in 1778-1928 was twice the size of the modern territory of the region. As a result of the administrative reforms of the Soviet era, half of the districts went to the newly formed Bryansk and Lipetsk regions, including the pre-revolutionary cultural heritage of the original Oryol Yelets. The Oryol region suffered significantly during the Great Patriotic War, becoming one of the centers of the Battle of Kursk in 1943. The Bolsheviks also made a significant contribution to the destruction of the pre-revolutionary heritage, finally destroying most of the churches after the war.

As a result, after the major losses of the 20th century, there are not many historical sights left in the Oryol region, which are currently concentrated mainly in the north of the region and in the regional center.



1 Oryol is the administrative and cultural center of the region, with which the life of such famous Russian writers as I.S. Turgenev, N.S. Leskov, I.A. Bunin, L.N. Andreev - a separate literary museum is dedicated to each of them. Also here you can see the pre-revolutionary architecture of the center of the former Oryol province, which partially survived after the Great Patriotic War, including many temples built in various styles. After the war, majestic buildings of the Stalin era were erected in Orel, and now new original sculptures and topiary objects are appearing. This is the only major city in the region, where there is a good selection of hotels, cafes and entertainment.
2 Bolkhov
3 Dmitrovsk is the last regional center of the Oryol region that received the status of a city, which grew out of a village on the site of the former estate of Peter I's comrade-in-arms, the Moldavian prince Dmitry Cantemir. Although very little remains of the estate of the 18th century, the only church in the region in the style of Peter the Great Baroque, erected in 1721-1725 in honor of Demetrius of Thessalonica, has been preserved here. Another more ancient temple dedicated to the same saint can be found in the vicinity of Dmitrovsk.
4 Livny
5 Maloarkhangelsk is a small town on the southern outskirts of the region, claiming to be the very “county town N”, in which the action of N.V. Gogol's "Inspector". In the vicinity of Maloarkhangelsk is the source of the Oka, one of the main rivers in the European part of Russia. To the northeast of the city is the holy spring "Kamenets", surrounded on all sides by massive bizarre boulders, for which mystical properties are attributed to it.
6 Mtsensk is the ancient center of the Vyatichi in the north of the region, leading its official history since 1146. This is the only city in the region that continued to exist during the period of the Mongol-Tatar invasion. Now Mtsensk is an industrial center with ancient Russian landscapes in the historical center, where part of the churches of the 17th-19th centuries has been preserved. and a few merchant buildings in the style of classicism. The city has become widely known in Russian literature: the action of N.S. Leskov "Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District". 12 km from the city is the estate of I.S. Turgenev “Spasskoye-Lutovinovo”, and A.A. Fet.
7 Novosil is a historical city that can be easily found on the medieval maps of Russian lands, which in the 14th century was even the center of its own principality. At present, Novosil is the smallest city in the region in terms of population, and very few pre-revolutionary buildings have survived here, but its natural resources made it possible to create a kayak port on the Zusha River and a paragliding center in the picturesque village of Vyazhi. In the vicinity of Novosil there is a museum-estate Shatilovo, where even before the revolution an advanced farm was created, and then one of the first experimental agricultural stations in the country.


Other destinations

1 Spasskoye-Lutovinovo is the former family estate of Ivan Sergeevich Turgenev, where now there is a museum-reserve of the same name with the writer's house-museum and a magnificent manor park. Perhaps the most famous landmark of the Oryol region.
2 Orlovskoye Polesye National Park is a national park on the border of the forest and forest-steppe zones, which made it possible to form here a diverse flora and fauna. Bison feel especially comfortable here - there are more than 400 of them here - more in the world of wild bulls only in Belovezhskaya Pushcha. Local forests have a rich history and even got into the famous "Notes of a Hunter" by I.S. Turgenev. A comfortable infrastructure has been created for the guests of Polesye, including the only zoo in the Oryol region.

Museum-Reserve of I. S. Turgenev "Spasskoe-Lutovinovo"
Saburovskaya fortress
The source of the river Oka



The Turquoise Ring of Russia is a new tourist route that unites all seven cities in the region and passes through most of the region's attractions.


Physical and geographical characteristics


The Oryol region is located in the southwest of the European part of Russia. It is located in the central part of the Central Russian Upland in the forest-steppe zone. The length of the territory from north to south is more than 150 km, from west to east - more than 200 km.



The Oryol region is located in the time zone, designated by the international standard as the Moscow Time Zone (MSK). The difference with UTC is +3:00h.



According to the Köppen classification, the area has a Dfb climate type - a humid continental climate with warm summers.

The Oryol region belongs to the temperate continental climate zone, characterized by warm summers and moderately cold winters. The change of seasons is clearly expressed. From the northwest to the southeast, the continentality of the climate intensifies. The formation of the climate of the region in all seasons of the year occurs mainly under the influence of the transfer of Atlantic air masses, which have significantly transformed over the territory of Europe. Arctic air, which invades here in winter, brings frosts, and cool weather in summer. In summer, warm tropical air comes from the south.

The coldest month is January (on average from -9 to -11), the warmest is July (+19…+21). The period with a positive average daily air temperature is 215-225 days, the average duration of a frost-free period is 135-150 days.

Humidification on the border of zones of sufficient and insufficient. The average annual rainfall is 520 - 630 mm, which varies from year to year. The maximum snow cover reaches in the second half of February - the first half of March.

The duration of sunshine is 1600-1800 hours per year. The intensity of solar radiation is 3-4 kWh/m² per day.



The surface is a hilly plain, dissected by steep river banks and ravines. The highest height above sea level is 285.9 meters near the village of Dementievka, Novoderevenkovsky District, the lowest is 120 meters on the banks of the Sosna River on the border with the Lipetsk Region.



On the territory of the region there are more than 2 thousand rivers and streams with a total length of 9100 km, but there are no navigable rivers (only in the city of Orel, sightseeing boat rides along the Oka are carried out). They belong to the basins of three rivers: Volga, Don and Dnieper.

The main river of the region: Oka is one of the largest rivers in Europe, originating in the south of the Oryol region. The length within the region is 190 km, the catchment area (basin) is 14.5 thousand km², the average annual flow at the border with the Tula region is 2058 million m³.
Its tributaries are: Zusha (average annual flow - 988.6 million m³) with a tributary of the Neruch, Vytebet, Nugr, Tson, Orlik, Optukha, Rybnitsa, Kroma.

In the eastern part of the region, Sosna flows (annual runoff on the border with the Lipetsk region is 687.0 million m³) with its tributaries: Trudy, Tim, Lyubovsha, Kshen and Olym.

In the west of the region, the Nerussa, Navlya and Svapa rivers originate with a total annual flow of 210 million m³, related to the Dnieper basin.

More than 60 small rivers flow through the territory of the region with an average annual flow of 3 billion m³. Zusha, Sosna, a number of other smaller rivers, due to a significant difference in elevation, have a fairly fast flow. Until the 1960s, river waters were actively used by small hydroelectric power plants and water mills to generate energy. At present, there are hydroelectric power stations only on the Oka (Shakhovskaya) and on Zush (Novosilskaya and Lykovskaya).

There are many water management and fish ponds and reservoirs in the region. The largest of them are: Neruchanskoye in the Sverdlovsk region (6.8 million m³), feeding pond of the Lubna fish farm (4.5 million m³) in the Khotynets region in the western part and a reservoir on the Svapa River in the southern part of the region. 1100 lakes and artificial reservoirs of the region cover a total area of about 55 km² (0.22% lake content). Mostly floodplain lakes, there are also karst lakes. There are much more artificial reservoirs than natural ones.

Bogs and wetlands occupy 0.15% of the region's territory (about 38 km²).

Withdrawal of water resources from all types of natural sources in the Oryol region - 91.48 million m³ (2014), of which 69.85% from underground water sources.

In 2014, the discharge of wastewater into the water bodies of the region amounted to 64.17 million m³, of which 84.49% is the volume of polluted and insufficiently treated wastewater.

Water is used mainly (48.22%) for drinking and household needs, as well as for industrial needs (37.4%). Household water consumption per capita for 2014 in the Oryol region is 52.8 m³/year per person, which is lower than the national average of 58.09 m³/year per person.



The region is located in the zone of transitional soils from soddy-podzolic to leached and podzolized chernozems.
Various types of soils are found in the region - from light gray forest soils in the west to leached and typical chernozems in the east and southeast. In terms of qualitative composition, arable and natural lands are quite diverse: leached chernozem makes up 12.8%; dark gray forest soils - 23.8%; podzolized chernozem - 29.7%; soddy-podzolic and light gray forest soils - 8.1%. And only on arable land in the region there are more than 240 soil varieties.


Flora and fauna

Forests (occupy 9% of the territory of the region, 2008) are represented mainly by oak forests, ash forests, linden forests. Forests are predominantly deciduous, less often mixed (oak, ash, linden, maple, elm, birch, pine, aspen, alder, mountain ash, spruce (the latter is very rare, only in the northernmost regions of the region) - local species; larch is cultivated), concentrated mostly in the northwest region. The natural steppe vegetation has been preserved in fragments in areas unsuitable for plowing and grazing; plants are dominated by feather grass, thyme, low sedge, Don cinquefoil, and chamomile aster. In the Oryol region there are 64 species of mammals, about 200 species of nesting birds, 11 species of amphibians. There are both forest species - capercaillie, squirrel, pine marten, elk, otter, roe deer, wild boar, bison, and steppe species - speckled ground squirrel, field lark, jerboa, steppe polecat.



Most of the mineral resources of the area are not being developed.
There are iron ore reserves confined to the Kursk anomaly (a large Novoyalta deposit in the Dmitrov region).
There are also reserves of brown coal, phosphorites, significant reserves of limestone, clay, sand, peat, and chalk.
Zeolite is mined near Khotynets. Deposit of uranium ores in the south-west of the region.



In tsarist times, the territory of the Orel region was part of the Oryol province, first the Kyiv province, then the Belgorod province. In 1778, an independent Oryol province was established.

The Oryol region as part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic was formed by a decree of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR of September 27, 1937 by separating 25 districts from the Kursk region, 29 districts from the Western region and 5 districts from the Voronezh region. On January 15, 1938, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR approved the creation of the region. Six months later, the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR confirmed this decision. On January 6, 1954, the city of Yelets and 9 districts were transferred to the newly formed Lipetsk Region.



According to Rosstat, the population of the region is 699,998 people. (2023). Population density - 28.40 people / km2 (2023). Urban population - 67.62% (2022).

As of January 1, 2020, in terms of natural growth of −7.32‰, the region was in 77th place among all 85 regions of Russia. This indicator is worse than in the Central Federal District (-3.26‰) and in Russia as a whole (-2.15‰), and even worse than the indicator three years earlier - 2017 -6.28‰.

The total fertility rate continues to decline and in 2020 amounted to 1.27, which is less than the indicator for both the Central Federal District (1.41) and Russia as a whole (1.50).

The longevity index in the Oryol region was 0.756 in 2015 (43rd place), which is lower than the Russian average of 0.773.

The HDI was 0.871 in 2018 (0.902 in Russia).

Population change
General and urban population (its share) according to the All-Union and All-Russian censuses.



In 2020, the gross regional product, according to Rosstat, amounted to 284.5 billion rubles, or 106.7% of the 2019 level in actual prices. The index of the physical volume of GRP amounted to 100.0% by 2019 (for the regions of the Russian Federation as a whole - 97.8%, for the regions of the Central Federal District - 99.2%).

According to this indicator, the Oryol region ranks 8th among the regions of the Central Federal District and 29th among all regions of the Russian Federation.

In 2020, high growth rates compared to the previous year were noted in agriculture and in financial and insurance activities - 117.9% and 113.0%, respectively. The index of the physical volume of GRP in manufacturing was 103.9%, in real estate operations - 103.8%, in mining activities - 102.1%.

Taking into account the dynamics of the main types of economic activity, according to the estimated data, in 2021 the gross regional product amounted to 309.5 billion rubles, or 101.9% of the 2020 level in actual prices.

In 2021, positive growth rates in comparable prices by the end of 2020 were achieved in industrial production (111.6%) and in the trade sector (104.8%).

The industrial complex is one of the basic components of the economy of the Oryol region.

The index of industrial production of manufacturing industries in 2021 amounted to 110.6% compared to the previous year. Among the regions that are part of the Central Federal District, the Oryol region is in 4th place in this indicator.

The agro-industrial complex of the Oryol region is a diversified entity that combines the production, processing and sale of agricultural products.

The Oryol region has favorable agro-climatic conditions for agricultural production. Crop production dominates in the structure of agricultural production. Its share is almost 63%. At the same time, large-scale investment projects in the field of pig breeding and beef cattle breeding are being actively implemented in the region.

As of January 1, 2022, there were 159 agricultural enterprises operating in the region.

At the end of 2021, in all categories of farms, agricultural production in current prices amounted to 135.5 billion rubles, or 128.2% by 2020, including crop production - 102.0 billion rubles (an increase of 28.6% compared to the previous year ), animal husbandry - 33.5 billion rubles (an increase of 26.8%).

In terms of the volume of agricultural production in current prices in all categories of farms, the Oryol region in 2021 was in 7th place in the Central Federal District, in the Russian Federation - in 20th place.

Among the 18 subjects of the Central Federal District, ranked by the growth rate of agricultural production in current prices, the Oryol region in all categories of farms in 2021 ranked 2nd (128.2%). This is higher than in the Russian Federation (117.1%) and the Central Federal District (118.9%).

The foreign trade turnover of the Oryol region in 2020 amounted to 562.3 million US dollars, having decreased by 4.8% compared to 2019. At the same time, exports account for $289 million (increased by 17.0%), imports - $273.3 million (decreased by 20.5%). The main trading partners of the Orel region in 2020 were: Belarus - 16.5% (in 2019 - 14.3%), Latvia - 12.5% (9.5%), Germany - 11.6% (13.9 %), Ukraine - 9.9% (9.9%), China - 6.2% (6.5%), Italy - 5.7% (10.0%), Kazakhstan - 5.4% (3 .2%) and others.



At the end of 2021, the index of industrial production in the Oryol region amounted to 111.6% compared to the corresponding period of 2020, the volume of shipped goods of own production, work performed and services amounted to 183.6 billion rubles, or 123.4% compared to the same period in 2020. The volume of tax revenues to the consolidated budget of the Oryol region in industry for 2021 amounted to 14.6 billion rubles (148.3% compared to 2020). Exports of industrial products for 2021 increased by 32.8% compared to the same period in 2020 and amounted to $237.9 million. The share of economic activities in the total volume of industrial production is about 50%. Among them are 5 major industry areas: – production of machinery and equipment (including the production of vehicles); – metallurgical production (including the production of metal products); – production of building materials (production of other non-metallic mineral products); – production of electrical equipment and electronic products; – production of medicines and materials used for medical purposes.

More than 60% of the industrial potential of the Oryol region falls on the city of Orel, followed by Livny and Mtsensk.



As of the end of 2020, nine power plants with a total capacity of 416.3 MW were in operation in the Oryol Region, including one small hydro power plant and eight thermal power plants. In 2019, they produced 1,225 million kWh of electricity. Two solar power plants will be built in the Oryol region. Based on the results of the competitive selection of investment projects in the field of renewable energy. The project for the construction of two solar power plants with a total installed capacity of 10 MW, proposed by Novotroitsk Solar, was recognized as the best. It is planned to implement the plans in 2022. Verkhovsky district will become a platform for the production of "green" energy.



In 2020, in all categories of farms, agricultural production amounted to 91.6 billion rubles, or 111.1% compared to 2019, including crop production - 64.8 billion rubles (an increase of 10.3% compared to the previous year), livestock - 26.8 billion rubles (growth by 13.1%). The share of crop production is 71%.

The average monthly salary of agricultural workers for 2020 amounted to 34,571 rubles, or 108.3% of the average regional level, and increased by 10.7% compared to 2019. Including the average monthly salary of crop workers amounted to 34,881 rubles, livestock workers 34,504 rubles.

crop production
The Oryol region, along with the Bryansk and Belgorod regions, has been a leader in terms of sunflower yield over the past few years. In 2018, the sunflower yield was 28.92 c/ha, in 2019 - 30.33 c/ha, in 2020 - 29.46 c/ha, with an average yield in Russia of only 17.4 c/ha.

The region occupies a leading position in terms of buckwheat and corn yields. The potato harvest is 55.3 thousand tons, with an average yield of 294.2 q/ha.

The Oryol region is one of the main producers of buckwheat in the Russian Federation. In the Oryol region, buckwheat is produced by the enterprises Elita-Marketing LLC, Central Cereal Company LLC (part of the Agro-alliance LLC holding), Sudarushka LLC. For the period 2017-2020, buckwheat production in the Oryol region ranged from 84.5 to 93 thousand tons. In 2020, buckwheat was harvested on an area of 51.7 thousand hectares, the gross harvest amounted to 84.5 thousand tons, the average yield was 16.4 q/ha. According to operational data, the expected sown area in 2021 will be 50.7 thousand hectares.

In the Oryol region, they started threshing a late cereal crop - buckwheat, as of September 15, 2021, 18.3 thousand hectares were harvested, 21.6 thousand tons were harvested with an average yield of 11.8 c / ha. In the north of the region, the yield of buckwheat is 6 q/ha.

The Department of Agriculture of the Oryol Region decided to increase the production of soybeans and rapeseed in the region in 2021 and approved the subsidy rate. One of the main conditions for obtaining state support is the use of soybean and rapeseed seeds, varieties or hybrids of which are included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements.

The Oryol region is among the top ten regions of the country in terms of growing sugar beets. In 2020, 45 thousand hectares of beets were sown in the region. As of November 9, 43 thousand hectares have been harvested. 1 million 665 thousand tons of root crops have been dug up with a yield of 388 centners per hectare. There are 4 sugar factories in the Oryol region: in Livny, Kolpna, Zalegoshcha and Mtsensk region.

As of October 26, 2020, 4 million 21 thousand tons of grain were harvested (+ 12% compared to 2019), with an average yield of 44.7 q/ha. There are still 50,000 hectares of corn to harvest. It is planned to obtain a gross production of leguminous crops of approximately 4 million 350 thousand tons of grain, as well as 500 thousand tons of oilseeds.

In the 1990s, the regional authorities tried to preserve agricultural enterprises and processing by merging them into the Orlovskaya Niva agricultural holding. However, the holding did not solve the problem of modernizing the agro-industrial complex: by supporting the lagging behind, it bled potential leaders. As a result, Orlovskaya Niva broke up into a number of holdings grouped around viable processing enterprises. Thus, in the sugar industry, processing enterprises took control of beet-growing farms within their raw material gravity zone. In addition, in recent years, the expansion of large companies in the agro-industrial complex has sharply increased, investments have increased in pig and poultry farming, the sugar, canning industry and other agricultural processing industries.


Animal husbandry

As of May 1, 2021, the number of cattle in farms of all categories is 145.2 thousand heads (-9.4% compared to May 1, 2020), of which 42.5 thousand heads of cows (+0.7%), 705 pigs .9 thousand heads (+46.7%), sheep and goats 56.7 thousand heads (-5%), poultry 2684.3 thousand heads (-5.8%).

Milk production for 2020 amounted to 161.8 thousand tons (-2.0%). Milk yield per cow in 2019 in farms of all categories is 5277 kg (+504 kg by 2018).



The main roads of the region:
M2E 105 "Crimea" (length within the region - 152 kilometers, through Mtsensk and Oryol, Kromy and Trosna)
P119 Orel - Tambov (151 km, via Livny)
P120 Orel - Vitebsk (57 km, through Naryshkino)
P92 Kaluga - Oryol (67 km, via Bolkhov)
A142E 391 Trosna - Kalinovka (12 km)
54A-1, Orel - Efremov (158 km through Zalegoshch and Novosil. Unfinished. In the area from the village of Kuleshi to the village of Sudbishchi there is no asphalt pavement. On the territory of the Tula region it is called 70K-124)
As of 2016, motorization of the population of the region was 314 cars/1000 people, which is the 15th indicator among all regions of Russia and above the national average (285).

The main line is a double-track electrified highway Moscow - Kharkov - Simferopol (136 km, through Mtsensk, Oryol, Zmiyovka and Glazunovka).

In addition to it, diesel single-track non-electrified lines operate:
Orel - Yelets (130 km, through Zalegoshch, Verkhovye, Khomutovo and Krasnaya Zarya)
with a branch to Livny and Dolgoe;
historical Riga - Orel (64 km, through Naryshkino and Hotynets);
Orel - Dmitriev (83 km, through Kromy);
Okhochevka - Kolpna (20 km).
Major railway stations and stations: Orel, Luzhki-Orlovsky, Verkhovye, Mtsensk, Livny-1.

The largest airport is Orel-Yuzhny, which is currently not in operation. There was an airfield in Livny and other settlements.

The largest main oil pipeline Druzhba (202 km across the territory of the region) was laid through the region. Oryol is a major junction of oil product pipelines, including export pipelines to Belarus, Western Ukraine and the Baltic states, with branches passing through Bryansk and Kursk.

In the southwestern part of the region there is a small section of the Urengoy-Pomary-Uzhgorod gas pipeline.



In 2014, according to the education index, the Oryol region was in 7th place with an indicator of 0.955. The share of students in full-time, part-time and part-time departments in 2015 was 4.1% of the population of the region (31943 students), which was the 9th indicator among the regions of Russia and higher than the national average (3.3).

The Oryol region is one of 15 regions in which, on September 1, 2006, the subject of the Fundamentals of Orthodox Culture was introduced as a regional component of education.

In 2017, higher education in the region is represented by six universities (all state) and six branches (five state, one non-state). The largest in terms of the number of students is the Oryol State University.


Culture and attractions

On the territory of the region there are: Literary and Local Lore Museum "Turgenev Polesye" in the village. Ilyinskoye, the Spasskoye-Lutovinovo Museum-Reserve, the Orlovskoye Polesye National Park, the zoo-enclosure complex in the village of Zhudersky, with. Lgov with a stone church in the name of the Holy Life-Giving Trinity of the 18th century, an ancient settlement and a barrow burial ground near the village of Radovishche, the settlement of Khotiml-Kuzmyonkovo (XI-XII centuries) with, located on its territory, the remains of the largest fortress in the region Khotimlya (ancient Russian city) , Saburovskaya fortress.

A monument of history and architecture in Livny is the St. Sergius Cathedral of the Archbishop of Orel and Livensky, built in the 17th century.

The Lipovchik Memorial is one of the places of extermination of convicts during the years of Stalinist repressions.

Every year in early July, in the former estate of Afanasy Fet near the village of Novoselki, Mtsensk District, a holiday "Beyond the outskirts" is held.

In the village of Mezhdurechye, the Joy of Life ethnofestival is held annually in mid-July.



In 1993, Yegor Stroev became the head of the administration of the Oryol region. He headed the Oryol region for more than twenty years.

On February 16, 2009, by Decree No. 167, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev dismissed Yegor Stroev, governor of the Oryol region, ahead of schedule and appointed Alexander Kozlov as acting governor of the region.

On the same day, President Medvedev submitted Kozlov's candidacy for consideration by the Oryol Regional Council of People's Deputies to empower him with the powers of the governor. On February 27, at a meeting of the Oryol Regional Council of People's Deputies, the issue of empowering Alexander Kozlov with the powers of the governor was considered. According to the results of the vote, Kozlov was unanimously approved as governor of the Oryol region.

After the end of his term, Vadim Potomsky was appointed acting governor for a period until the election. On September 4, Vadim Potomsky won a landslide victory in the election of the Governor of the Oryol region.

On October 4, 2017, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a decree terminating the powers of Vadim Potomsky, Governor of the Oryol Region. He appointed Andrey Klychkov, deputy of the Moscow City Duma, as interim head of the region. On September 14, 2018, Andrei Klychkov confidently won the election of the head of the region. He won 83.55 percent of the vote.