Ermak Travel Guide

 

Oryol

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Transportation

Hotels, motels and where to sleep

Restaurant, taverns and where to eat

Cultural (and not so cultural) events

Interesting information and useful tips

 

Description of Oryol

Oryol is a city (since 1566) in Russia, the administrative center of the Oryol Region and the Oryol Region, which is not included in itself. As a city of regional importance, forms the municipality of the urban district of the city of Oryol. Located 368 km south-west of Moscow, on the Central Russian Upland in the European part of Russia, on both banks of the Oka River and its tributary Orlik. Oryol and Oryol region are part of the Central Federal District, as well as the Central Economic Region. It is a city of military glory (honorary title awarded April 27, 2007). The population of the city - 315 308 people. (2018).

 

 

 

Travel Destinations in Oryol

Museums
Museum of Regional Studies
Museum of Military History
Museum of Fine Arts
House of Ivan Turgenev
House of Ivan Bunin
House of Nikolai Leskov

Other destinations
Bogoyavlensky Cathedral, among the churches it is the oldest building in the city, founded in 1640.
Victory Park
The Central Park (ЦПКиО)

 

 

History of Oryol

While there are no historical records, archaeological evidence shows that a fortress settlement existed between the Oka and Orlik Rivers as early as the 12th century, when the land was a part of the Principality of Chernigov. The name of the fortress is unknown; it may not have been called Oryol at the time. In the 13th century the fortress became a part of the Zvenigorod district of the Karachev Principality. In the early 15th century, the territory was conquered by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The city was soon abandoned by its population, after being sacked either by Lithuanians or the Golden Horde. The territory became a part of the Tsardom of Russia in the 16th century.

Ivan the Terrible decreed that a new fortress be built on the spot in 1566, for the purpose of defending the southern borders of the country. The fortress was built very speedily, work starting in the summer of 1566 and ending in the spring of 1567. The location chosen was less than ideal strategically, as the fortress was located on a seasonally flooded low ground easily targeted from the neighboring high ground. False Dmitry I and his army passed through Oryol in 1605; Ivan Bolotnikov in 1606; False Dmitry II camped in Oryol for the winter of 1607–1608. Polish intervention sacked it in 1611 and 1615; the population fled after the second sacking and moved to Mtsensk. Orlovsky Uyezd nonetheless continued to exist on paper.

Oryol was rebuilt in 1636. The question of moving the fortress to the more advantageous high ground was in the air up until the 1670s, but the move was never made. The fortress was deemed unnecessary and taken apart in the early 18th century.

In the mid-18th century Oryol became one of the major centers of grain production, with the Oka River being the major trade route until the 1860s when it was replaced by a railroad.

Oryol was granted town status in 1702. In 1708, Oryol was included as a part of Kiev Governorate; in 1719, Oryol Province was created within Kiev Governorate. The Province was transferred to the newly created Belgorod Governorate in 1727. On March 11 (February 28 old style), 1778 Oryol Vice-Royalty was created from parts of Voronezh and Belgorod Governorates. In 1779, the city was almost entirely rebuilt based on a new plan; and the Oryol River was renamed Orlik (lit: "little eagle").

After the October Revolution of 1917, the city was in Bolshevik hands, except for a brief period between October 13 and October 20, 1919, when it was controlled by Anton Denikin's White Army.

Oryol was once again moved between different oblasts in the 1920s and 1930s (at first as Oryol Governorate until 1928, then Central Black Earth Region between 1928 and 1934, finally in Kursk Oblast), finally becoming the administrative center of its own Oryol Oblast on September 27, 1937.

The Oryol Prison was a notable place of incarceration for political prisoners and war prisoners of the Second World War. Christian Rakovsky, Maria Spiridonova, Olga Kameneva and 160 other prominent political prisoners were shot on September 11, 1941 on Joseph Stalin's orders in the Medvedev Forest massacre outside Oryol.

During World War II, Oryol was occupied by the Wehrmacht on October 3, 1941, and liberated on August 5, 1943, after the Battle of Kursk. The city was almost completely destroyed.

 

 

 


 

Transportation

Get in
Oryol is located 368 km to the South from Moscow, on the way to Ukraine and Crimea. It is just a 5-hour drive from Moscow, the road is a 4-lane highway until Tula, often bumpy though, and then 2-3 lanes of a moderate quality. Alternatively, you can take an express commuter train from Kursky railway station in Moscow. It starts at 6PM and arrives at Oryol at 10:40PM There is also an overnight 'sleeping' train starting at 11PM and arriving before 6AM Generally, there are a LOT of trains passing Oryol from Moscow on their way to Ukraine. The fare is US$10-20-40 depending on the carriage class.

Firmenny sleeper train Turgenev № 603/604 rides between Oryol and Moscow daily.

Get around
The central part of the city is pleasant and walkable. To travel around, locals choose between public buses, trolley-buses, trams and numerous minibus-taxies. Fares vary from a fixed US$0.33 (buses, trolley-buses and trams) to US$0.50 (minibus-taxies); however, you may prefer to move around by a private taxi (US$3-7 for trips within the city). The interesting means of transportation is a river tram, a boat shuttling on the river for tourist purposes but may be used for other ones. It goes from the Central Park to Luzhki aka Luzhkovsky Bridge at 10-00, 12-00, 14-00, 16-00, 18-00, 20-00 if there is no less than 10 passengers abroad.

 

Hotels, motels and where to sleep

Mid-range
Salut (Салют), 36 Lenina St (from the railway station by trolleybus #3 to the stop Glav pochtamt), ☎ +7 4862 43-50-40, fax: +7(4862) 43-57-26, e-mail: orelturist@gmail.com. The hotel is located in the city center and has a range of various rooms. There is a restaurant, a cafe, fitness-center, solarium and billiard. Tou can also take an excurion at the tour bureau. Wi-Fi. single room from at 2000RUB.
Rus (Русь), 37 Maksima Gorkogo St, ☎ +7 4862 47-55-50, fax: +7(4862) 55-05-24. On the corner of the central square. Restaurant.Wi-Fi. 4 categories of single rooms: 700RUB-3500RUB.

Splurge
Hotel Grinn (Гринн), 4 Kromskoe shosse. Restaurant, bar, night club, bowling, fitness center, currency exchange, pool, internet-cafe. 2800RUB-16000RUB for single rooms.

 

Restaurant, taverns and where to eat

 

 

Cultural (and not so cultural) events

 

 

Interesting information and useful tips