Republic of Adygea, Russia

Adygea, or the Republic of Adygea (adyg. Adyge Republics), is a subject of the Russian Federation, a republic within it. It is part of the Southern Federal District and is part of the North Caucasus Economic Region. The capital is the city of Maykop.

It is an enclave: the territory of the republic is surrounded on all sides by the territory of the Krasnodar Territory. Since 2008, this is the only region of Russia with such a feature.

It was established on July 27, 1922 as the Circassian (Adyghe) Autonomous Region on the territory of the Maykop and Yekaterinodar departments of the Kuban-Black Sea Region, on August 24, 1922, the Circassian (Adyghe) Autonomous Region was renamed the Adyghe (Circassian) Autonomous Region. In August 1928, it was renamed the Adygea Autonomous Region, and on July 3, 1991, it was transformed into the Soviet Socialist Republic of Adygea. On March 23, 1992, the modern name was adopted.

Official languages: Adyghe and Russian.



Maykop is the capital of Adygea, outwardly resembling another Kuban village, but "seasoned" with a light national flavor and monumental buildings of republican authorities. The city has an interesting national museum, several funny monuments and a cafe with Adyghe pastries. The road to the southern part of Adygea, to the natural beauties of the republic, begins from Maykop.

The village of Dakhovskaya is a fork in the roads to Bolshoy Thach Mountain and the Lago Naki plateau, the last island of civilization on the way to the mountains. On the way to Dakhovskaya there is an impressive rock "Maiden Stone", and, driving a little further towards Lago-Naki, you can see a beautiful Granite gorge and several other interesting natural objects.

Kamennomostsky (Khadzhokh) village is the gateway to the southern part of Adygea and a convenient place for those who want to see beautiful nature without climbing high into the mountains. In the vicinity of the village there are the Khadjokh Gorge — the impressive gorge of the Belaya River, the beautiful Rufabgo waterfalls and the mysterious ammonite valley, where unique shells of ancient mollusks are still found. There are many opportunities for outdoor activities around: unequipped caves, canyoning and trolling over the abyss.





Other destinations

The Caucasian Biosphere Reserve is partially located on the territory of Adygea. It includes the famous Fisht Mountain (2,867 m) and the mysterious Lago Naki plateau at an altitude of more than two thousand meters above sea level. The most convenient way to Lago Naki begins just from the side of Adygea, from the village of Dakhovskaya, and Fisht is accessed either from here or from the Black Sea coast.

Bolshoy Thach is a natural park in the southwestern part of the republic around the mountain of the same name (2,368 m), a harsh rocky massif resembling a fortress.


Physical and geographical characteristics


The Republic is located in the south-west of the Russian Federation, on the left bank of the Kuban, occupies the central part of the Prikuban inclined (Zakuban) plain and the northern slopes of the Northwestern Caucasus.

The main territory of the republic is located in the basin of two main tributaries of the Kuban: the Laba and Belaya rivers and is enclosed between the parallels 44° and 45° S. The 45th parallel crosses the Krasnodar reservoir and the northern part of the Prikubanskaya plain, the 44th passes through mountainous areas near the lake. Psenodes and villages Guzeripl, the 40th meridian, crosses the republic from north to south almost in the middle, passing through the central part of the Lagonak highlands, just west of Maykop and Giaginskaya station.

Adygea borders with the Krasnoarmeysky, Dinsky, Ust-Labinsky, Kurganinsky districts of the Krasnodar Territory and the city of Krasnodar in the north, with the Adler, Lazarevsky, Khostinsky districts of Sochi in the south, with the Absheron, Belorechensky, Seversky districts and the city of Goryachy Klyuch in the west and Mostovsky, Labinsky and Kurganinsky districts in the east.

The area of Adygea is 7790 km2. The length of the borders is 900 km. The length of the republic's territory from north to south is 208 km, from west to east 165 km.


Natural resources

Adygea is rich in forest resources, occupying more than a third of its territory, in the southern part. There are small reserves of natural gas from minerals, large reserves of building materials (gravel, sand, clay, limestone), small deposits of gold and ore materials are located in the mountainous part of the republic.


Time zone

Adygea is located in the Moscow time time zone. Time zone: UTC+3.



The climate is moderately warm and mild. The nature of atmospheric circulation has a great influence on the formation of the climate of the region. The duration of the sunshine is also an important climatic and recreational characteristic of the area. In general, there are from 200 to 250 clear days per year in the republic; the total solar radiation is 115-120 kcal/

To a large extent, the nature of the climate is determined by the peculiarities of the geographical location of the republic, first of all, the proximity of the non-freezing Black Sea, the latitude of the terrain, the height and distribution of the mountain ranges of the Northwestern Caucasus. The Black Sea is a good "accumulator" of heat, accumulating it in summer and gradually giving it to the surrounding areas in winter. At the same time, it is the focus of the formation of the so-called Black Sea cyclones, which carry moisture to coastal areas. In turn, the Caucasus Mountains delay the humid winds of the western components and contribute to sufficient humidification of the territory of the republic in the spring and summer period. Therefore, precipitation in Adygea is twice as much as, for example, in the northern steppe zone of the Krasnodar Territory. The number of days with precipitation in a whole year is 115-150. There are 200-210 warm days a year.

Precipitation on the territory of the republic is very uneven, especially in the foothill-mountain zone. In general, their number increases with height. However, the distribution of precipitation is greatly influenced by the orography of the area. Thus, the northern ledge of the Lagonak highlands is a kind of "orographic screen", in front of which the amount of precipitation increases sharply. The highest average annual precipitation (2,744 mm) was recorded at the Belorechensk pass.

The wind regime of the territory is also subject to the orography of the area. So, if the winds of the north and south-east directions prevail in Dakhovskaya, then in the village located in the valley of the Belaya River. Guzeriple — northern, north-eastern, southern and south-western directions. Wind speeds in the territory are relatively low. The greatest storm winds are observed mainly in winter and are associated exclusively with the passage of atmospheric fronts. A characteristic feature of the wind regime of the mountainous and foothill zones is the presence of mountain-valley winds.

Despite the small extent of the territory of Adygea from north to south (about 200 km), the climate of the republic is very diverse. In the northern lowland part of it, the climate is temperate continental, in the foothills it is warm, humid, and in the southern part the climate is cold in the highlands.

In general, climatic resources are favorable for agriculture, industrial development, transport and recreation. Climatic features are best traced by the seasons of the year.

Winter in the republic is sparsely snowy, moderately cold, and mild. In rare years, it starts right away. Usually there is a more or less long period of pre-winter. During this period of time, there is an incessant change of cold spells and thaws with a complete snowfall. On average, winter in Adygea begins in the first half of December, when the average daily air temperature drops below 0 ° C, however, the timing of winter may vary: in warm years, autumn may last until mid-January and smoothly turn into spring, and in cold years, winter may come as early as November and end only at the end of March. The coldest winter month is January. Its average long-term temperature ranges from -2.0 °C in the flat part to -4.4 ° C in the foothills. In winter, significant cold spells are not uncommon, when the minimum air temperature drops to -20 ... -25 °C. At the same time, the absolute minimum can reach -30 ... -35 °C. In the middle of winter, sharp thaws are possible with temperatures reaching +10...+15°With and causing snowmelt, cracking of the ice sheet and flooding on rivers. Often these thaws are associated with a warm dry wind — a hair dryer.

The height of the snow cover in the flat part is small: 6-10 cm, in the foothill and mountainous ranges from 50 cm to 2-5 m. The maximum snow height (6.1 m) was recorded in the Fishta mountain group. The freezing of the soil in the flat part of Adygea does not exceed 15-30 cm.

Spring is usually associated with a weakening of the Asian baric maximum and a retreat to the east of its western spur. As a result, the Mediterranean cyclones are able to move to the east and northeast. The associated outflows of warm air masses from the south and southwest contribute to a rapid increase in air temperature, thawing and warming of the soil. A distinctive feature of the spring circulation in Adygea is the high variability of atmospheric processes and the rapid change of air masses.

Spring comes early on the plain (according to long—term average data, at the end of February — the first decade of March, and in the mountains at an altitude of 2000 m - at the end of March and later. By the beginning of March, the snow completely disappears from the fields, and complete thawing of the soil is already observed in February. The heat build-up in spring is usually fast. Already 15 days after the beginning of spring: during March, the air temperature goes through +5 ° C, and on April 10-20 — through +10 ° C. By this time, the freezing stops.

In summer, the circulation of air masses is significantly weakened. The weather is mainly formed due to the transformation of air masses into slow-moving anticyclones in the Azores and Arctic, which is largely facilitated by a large influx of solar radiation. Summer in Adygea lasts on average 140-150 days. In the flat part of the republic, it occurs in the first half of May, in the foothills 10-15 days later, and in the mountains up to an altitude of 1700-1800 m above sea level in the first half of June. The average monthly air temperature in the warmest month of the year: July is +23.2°C on the plain, and +20...+22 °C in the foothills. Summers on the plain are hot and dry, and it is much cooler in the foothills. In higher mountains, a steady transition of air temperatures above +10°C is not observed.

Summer precipitation is mainly of a stormy nature. In total, during the warm period, from 300 to 400 mm falls on the flat territory. In the foothills, the amount of precipitation during this period increases to 500-550 mm, and in the mountains to 800-1000 mm.

Autumn in the flat Adygea comes in late September — early October, in the foothills 10-15 days earlier. The beginning of autumn is characterized by consistently warm, dry and sunny weather ("Indian summer"). In the second half of October, the air temperature goes through 10 ° C towards a further decrease, the active vegetation of crops ends, the first frosts are noted. The rains acquire a long-lasting surface character. In mid-November, there is a steady transition of air temperature through + 5 ° C, the vegetation of crops stops completely.


History of Adygea

Until 1991, it was the Adygea Autonomous Region of the Krasnodar Territory. Elections of deputies to the Supreme Council of the Republic of Adygea were held in December 1991 — January 1992. The first parliament in the history of Adygea was formed. In 1993, it was transformed into the Legislative Assembly (Hase), and in 1995 into the State Council — Hase.

In January 1992, the first president of the republic, Aslan Dzharimov, was elected, and in March 1992, the first chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Adygea, Adam Tleuzh, was elected. From 2002 to 2007, Adygea was headed by Hazret Sovmen, from 2007 to 2017 by Aslan Tkhakushinov. Since 2017, Murat Kumpilov has been the Head of the Republic of Adygea.

On December 25, 1993, the Constitution of the Russian Federation, which came into force, confirmed the republican status of Adygea.

The Constitution of the Republic of Adygea was approved by the Legislative Assembly (Hace) on March 10, 1995.


Population of Adygea

The population of the republic, according to Rosstat, is 500,591 people (2024). Population density: 64.24 people/km2 (2024). Urban population: 49.23% (2022).

The mortality rate at the end of 2017 was 12.6 ppm. Taking into account the total population, it turns out that 5,713 people die in the region per year.

The Adygs (Circassians) live mainly in 45 villages, as well as in Maykop, Adygeisk, Enema, Yablonovsky and Tlustenhable. They are most compactly settled in Takhtamukai, Teuchezhsky, Shovgenovsky, Koshekhablsky and Krasnogvardeysky districts.

In 1998, a group of Circassians (42 families (about 200 people) settled in Maikop and the new village of Mafehable) was repatriated from the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija (Yugoslavia) according to the Government decree "On urgent measures of state support for the resettlement of Adygs (Circassians) from the Autonomous Province of Kosovo (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) to the Republic of Adygea".Maikop district).

The rest of the rural population lives in villages, hamlets, villages and towns.

Russians are settled throughout the territory of the republic, they live compactly in the Giaginsky and Maikop districts, their numbers are large in the Krasnogvardeysky and Takhtamukay districts.

Ukrainians are dispersed throughout Adygea.

Tatars live compactly in Adygea: Kirov farms (Shovgenovsky district), the Political Department, Otradny (Koshekhablsky district), Afipsip village (Takhtamukai district), the city of Maykop.

Armenians are settled compactly in the Maykop district: the farms of Proletarsky, Flower, Northeastern Gardens, Shahumyan, Tulsky village, Kuzhorskaya village, Maykop city.

Kurds: the villages of Beloe, Preobrazhenskoye, Sadovoye, Elenovskoye, the village of Bzhedughabl (Krasnogvardeysky district).

Greeks: the village of Gaverdovsky (Maykop urban district).



The Supreme Court of the Republic of Adygea, the Arbitration Court of the Republic of Adygea, the Maykop Garrison Military Court, one city and seven district courts of general jurisdiction, 24 judicial precincts (magistrates) operate in Adygea.



Adygea is an industrial and agrarian republic, with industries such as food processing, woodworking and pulp and paper, mechanical engineering and metalworking.


Agricultural industry

The basis of agro-industrial production is crop production, pig farming, sheep farming, industrial poultry farming, breeding horse breeding.


Animal husbandry

As of May 1, 2020, the number of cattle in Adygea totaled 47.3 thousand heads (2.4% more than on the same date last year), including 24.4 thousand cows (0.4% less). In particular, agricultural organizations of the republic contained 11.9 thousand heads of cattle (8.2% more), including 5.2 thousand cows (18.2% more). In January — April 2020, 39.0 thousand tons of milk were produced in the republic (1.6% more than in the same period of 2019), including 6.1 thousand tons in agricultural organizations (22% more). The number of pigs in the republic on May 1 was 78.6 thousand heads (5.5% more than a year ago), sheep and goats — 59.1 thousand heads (3.6% less). In particular, in agricultural organizations, the number of pigs numbered 72.8 thousand heads (5.2% more), sheep and goats — 20.9 thousand heads (7.7% more). In Adygea, a significant increase in poultry numbers was noted: in general, in the republic — by 18.1% compared to the level of 2019 (up to 1.8 million heads), in agricultural organizations — by 25% (up to 1.0 million heads). This is due to the resumption of work of Khan Poultry Farm LLC, where 7 buildings and 5 cold storage rooms were reconstructed, a veterinary laboratory and a poultry slaughtering production workshop were created, and in the future they plan to increase the livestock from 1 to 2.5 million broilers and reconstruct 7 more buildings. The launch of production at the Khan poultry farm led to an increase in the production of livestock and poultry for slaughter (in live weight) in the region to 10.1 thousand tons in four months (+21.7% compared to last year), in particular in agricultural organizations — up to 7.7 thousand tons (+32.8%). Egg poultry farming showed less significant dynamics: egg production in Adygea in January — April amounted to 34.4 million units (+11%), including 17.2 million units in agricultural organizations (+16.2%).


Crop production

In 2020, the republic increased the gross harvest of grain and leguminous crops by 15% compared to last year. As of October 28, 729 thousand tons of grain and leguminous crops were harvested. The yield increased by 6 kg/ha. 115 thousand hectares were sown for the harvest, 5% more than in 2019. As of November 10, the gross harvest of rice amounted to more than 50.5 thousand tons. In 2019, the gross harvest of rice amounted to 44.3 thousand tons. Thus, in 2020, this indicator increased by 14%. The area of rice crops this year amounted to more than 9.6 thousand hectares, which is 18.5% more than a year earlier. The average yield was 52.5 kg/ha.


Mechanical engineering

scientific and production enterprise Rosneftegazinstument is a developer and manufacturer of oil and gas equipment for drilling and well repair.


Energy industry

As of October 2020, 8 power plants with a total capacity of 191.68 MW were in operation in Adygea, including two hydroelectric power plants, one wind farm, one solar power plant and four thermal power plants. In 2018, they produced 78 million kWh of electricity. A special feature of the Adygea energy sector is the highest share of wind energy in generating capacities in Russia, which is due to the location of Russia's largest wind farm in the region — the Adygea wind Farm.



Automobile and railway transport, navigation along the Kuban River are developed.



In Adygea, in 2013, the Office of the State Employment Service of the Republic of Adygea registered an unemployment rate of 1.2%-1.4 %



The territory of the republic belongs to the zone of mixed tourism. It has significant hunting resources.

Several nature protection zones have been created in Adygea: the Caucasian State Biosphere Reserve, located on the territories of the Republic of Adygea and the Krasnodar Territory, a number of unique natural monuments, and the Gornaya Adygea National Nature Park.

Hiking, mountain and horse riding routes are very popular. Recreation centers and camps can accommodate more than 1,500 vacationers at the same time.


Mass media

On April 10, 1992, the State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company of the Republic of Adygea was established.



The majority of the population professes Orthodoxy and Islam. The Slavic population is Orthodox Christians. The Adygs are Sunni Muslims.

During the Soviet period, the Muslim clergy disappeared completely in Adygea. On February 28, 1985, Konstantin Kharchev, Chairman of the Council for Religious Affairs, informed the Central Committee of the CPSU that there was not a single registered Muslim association in the Adygea Autonomous Region. After the collapse of the USSR, the Muslim clergy appeared again.

Local Islamic communities are subordinate to the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Adygea and Krasnodar Territory, which was established in 1991 at the first Congress of Muslims of the Republic of Adygea in Adamiy village. It is noteworthy that the previous last congress of Muslims of the region was held in 1927 in the same village. Since 2012, the Spiritual Administration has been headed by Mufti Askarbiy Kardanov. Currently, the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of the Republic of Adygea and Krasnodar Territory (DOOM RA and KK) includes 12 regional religious organizations of Muslims, as well as 3 urban organizations (Maykop, Krasnodar and Adygeysk). To date, 44 mosques operate on the territory of the Republic of Adygea. In early November 2000, a Cathedral mosque was opened in Maykop.

On March 28, 1991, after the creation of the Republic of Adygea, the Maikop Deanery of the Krasnodar and Kuban diocese was established.

On February 26, 1994, the Holy Synod established the Diocese of Maykop and Armavir with its center in Maykop, which included the Republic of Adygea and 13 districts of the Krasnodar Territory (a total of 72 parishes), which was transformed into the Maykop and Adygea on December 28, 2000.

Currently, the diocese includes parishes of the Republic of Adygea. It is headed by Archbishop Tikhon (Lobkovsky). It is divided into 7 deaneries. The number of its parishes: 54. The St. Michael's Transcuban male Athos dormitory desert and its two farmsteads in the village of Khamyshki and the village of Bezvodnaya, a convent in the name of the Iveron Icon of the Mother of God, operate. The Trinity Cathedral is functioning.

In Adygea, there are representatives of the Old Believer church of various denominations. One Maikop Old Believer Pomeranian community of the Ancient Orthodox Pomeranian Church and one community of the Russian Orthodox Old Believer Church are registered.

There are also other Christian organizations: 1 — Baptist, 6 — Evangelical Christians, 6 — Jehovah's Witnesses, 2 — Pentecostals, 1 — Seventh-day Adventists.

Armenians mostly belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church. There are two parishes of the diocese of the South of Russia in Maykop and in the village of Proletarsky (Maykop district). The rector of both parishes is Priest Ter Mushegh Khachatryan.

There are very few followers of the neo-Pagans who profess the kindred faith.


Science, education and culture

The oldest cultural monument of the Adyghe ethnic group is the Nart epic, which reflects the ideas of the Adygs about the world at an early stage of the development of human society, their occupations, ethical norms and philosophical ideas, legends, peculiarities of life and morals.

There are two universities in the republic:
Adyghe State University, former Adyghe Pedagogical Institute (ASU)
Maikop State Technological University (MGTU)

There are secondary specialized educational institutions:

Adygeya Pedagogical College named after H. Andrukhaev,
The Adyghe Republican College of Arts named after U. H. Thabisimov,
Maikop Medical College (MMK).
Maikop State College of Humanities and Technology at Adygea State University (MGGTC ASU),
Polytechnic College at MGTU,
Vocational Lyceum No. 6.

Divisions (branches, branches) of Russian universities have been opened and are operating in the republic:
Adygea branch of the North Caucasian Academy of Public Administration in Maykop,
Maikop branch of the Modern Humanitarian Academy,
The Adyghe branch of the Moscow Open Social Academy (MOSA),
Adygea Branch of the South Russian State Technical University (Novocherkassk Polytechnic Institute),
Adygea Branch of Kuban State Medical University,
The Adygea branch of the Russian State Social University.

They act
Adygea Republican Institute of Advanced Training,
Adygeya Research Institute of Agriculture,
The Adyghe Republican Institute of Humanitarian Studies named after T. M. Kerashev.

There are 1 federal, 2 regional and 6 municipal museums in Adygea.

The National Museum of the Republic of Adygea has unique archaeological, ethnographic, and natural collections. A special department of the Adyghe diaspora has been opened, the visual result of which was a significant replenishment of the museum's funds with exhibits from the period of the Caucasian War (1817-1864) and the life of the Adygs abroad.

There is a branch of the State Museum of Oriental Art in Maykop.

To date, the network of cultural institutions in the Republic of Adygea consists of 319 units, of which 1 federal cultural institution, 21 regional, 297 municipal: • theaters — 4 (3 regional, 1 municipal); • museums — 9 (1 federal, 2 regional, 6 municipal); • cultural and leisure institutions - 133 (1 regional, 132 municipal); • libraries — 144 (4 regional, 140 municipal); • concert organizations — 3 (3 regional); • film and video service institutions — 3 (3 municipal); • educational institutions — 22 (8 regional, 14 municipal). There are also 4 creative unions and 1 association in the republic.

Theaters and concert organizations
A number of theatrical and concert organizations work in Maykop:
the National Theater of the Republic of Adygea named after I.S.Tsey,
the Russian State Drama Theater named after A.S. Pushkin,
Chamber Music Theater of the Republic of Adygea named after A.A. Khanakhu,
M.S. Akhedzhakov Drama Youth Theatre,
The State Academic Folk Dance Ensemble of Adygea "Nalmes",
The State Ensemble of the folk song of Adygea "Islamey",
The State Philharmonic Society of the Republic of Adygea,
Variety ensemble "Oshten",
Chamber Music Salon,
The State Symphony Orchestra,
Russian Russian National Orchestra of Folk Instruments "Russian Prowess,
The Golden Jug Puppet Theater.



The national teams of Russia include 66 pupils of the sports of Adygea in 18 sports.
Druzhba football club Maykop (2nd division zone "South").
Women's handball club "ASU-Adyif" (super league).
Dynamo-MGTU Basketball Club (Super League-2).
The Parachuting Federation of the Republic of Adygea .

Since 1992, the multi-day cycling race "Friendship of the Peoples of the North Caucasus" has been held annually. Its route: Maykop — Krasnodar — Stavropol — Cherkessk — Pyatigorsk — Nalchik — Vladikavkaz.

Water tourism competitions "Interrally-Belaya" are held in Adygea.

The Institute of Physical Culture and Judo was established at the Adyghe State University in 1971.

Great attention is paid in the republic to the development of weightlifting, which is considered a traditional sport. Since 1983, the republican weightlifting competitions named after A. B. Pshikanov, who made a significant contribution to the development of this sport in Soviet times, have been held annually in the village of Ulyap. There are several weightlifting sections throughout the republic, headed by renowned champion coaches.