Belgorod Oblast, Russia

The Belgorod Region is located in the Central Black Earth Region. It borders in the north and northwest on the Kursk region, in the east on the Voronezh region, in the south and west on the Ukrainian Sloboda region: Luhansk, Kharkiv and Sumy regions.

The youngest region of the Soviet times was created in 1954 by separating some districts from the Kursk and Voronezh regions. Probably the main goal of creating the region is the convenience of developing the Kursk magnetic anomaly from the point of view of the Soviet economy. That is why the anomaly is also "Kurskaya", although it is located in the Belgorod region. Similarly, with the largest tank battle, which became a turning point in the Great Patriotic War, it is called the "Kursk Bulge", although the main battles were near Prokhorovka on the territory of the modern Belgorod region.

The region is famous for its good roads, stability, relative prosperity, and a large number of individual housing developments around cities. It also has a very peculiar ethnography: there is no such diversity in folk costumes in any region.

The locals poetically call their area "Belogorye", meaning a large number of chalk hills and limestone deposits.

The state reserve "Belogorye" is the custodian of the gene pool of the Central Russian oak (pedunculate oak).



Belgorod is the administrative center of the region, a city that is famous for its well-being and many interesting monuments (an honest traffic cop, a janitor, the first teacher, "shuttle traders", etc.), color and musical fountains.
Novy Oskol
Stary Oskol is the industrial center of the region, the largest iron ore quarry in the world is Lebedinsky, 50 kilometers away is the famous cave Kholkovsky monastery.
Shebekino - three ancient settlements are concentrated around the city (from the Scythians and northerners, to the time of the Belgorod border line), a 550-year-old oak and other natural attractions, the best hunting farms in the region.


Other destinations

Town of Rovenki
Village of Ivnya
Prokhorovka and the Military Historical Museum-Reserve "Prokhorovskoe Pole" - the third Military Field of Russia, where the main battle of the "Kursk Bulge" took place in August 1943.
town Chernyanka
Reserve "Belogorye"
Memorial complex "Kursk Bulge"
Kholkovsky cave monastery

Les na Vorskle Nature Reserve

Chalk mountain on the street. Studencheskaya is the site of an ancient wooden fortress built in 1596.
Monument to Prince Vladimir - according to one version, the founder of Belgorod.
Monument to the incorruptible traffic cop
Belgorod Art Museum
Belgorod Museum of Folk Culture
The house of the merchant Selivanov (XVIII century), is located at the address: st. Preobrazhenskaya, 38, next to the Belgorodenergo building. Now it houses the Literary Museum and the Energy Museum.
Krapivensky settlement (City of northerners, Busara), Shebekinsky district, with. Nettle. ☎ +7 (47248) 2-73-30 (Shebekinsky History and Art Museum).
Pansky oak (Dmitrievsky oak)



Russian. In the Rovno region, Ukrainian and surzhik are also used in everyday life.


Getting here

Road to the South (South of Russia, South of Ukraine). The main transport artery is Moscow-South (Donbass, Crimea, South of Russia). Route: (Moscow) - Tula - Orel - Kursk - Belgorod - Kharkov (Ukraine).
The road to Voronezh can pass through Pristen or Volokonovka.
Commuter trains from Belgorod in three directions: to Kursk (via Prokhorovka, 5 times a day), to Kharkov (to the border with Ukraine, 1 time per day), to Gotnya (via Tomarovka, 1 time per day), diesel to Volchansk ( Ukraine, 1 time per day). There is a high-speed comfortable electric train "Prince Vladimir".
Suburban trains from Valuyki: to Topoli, to Liski, to Rogovoe.
Suburban train from Stary Oskol: to Valuiki (3 times a day).



Monuments of the Saltovo-Mayak culture (Yutanovskoye settlement) date back to the 8th century on the territory of the Belgorod region. Since the 8th century, the west of the Belgorod region has been mastered by northerners (Romny-Borshchiv culture). In the VIII-IX centuries, this territory fell under the rule of Khazaria. During the years of Kievan Rus, it was part of the Chernigov Principality. Archaeological finds testify to the presence of the Roman settlement (the village of Gochevo), the Krapivnetsk settlement (Shebekinsky district), the Kholkovsky settlement (the village of Kholki) and the Khotmyzhsky settlement (the village of Khotmyzhsk). On the site of the cities of Belgorod and Stary Oskol, objects dating back to the first millennium of our era were found. The Mongol-Tatar invasion led to the desolation of the region. Chronicle sources of the 14th-15th centuries (the list of cities far and near 1387, the list of cities Svidrigailo 1432, the label of the Crimean Khan 1507) report the presence on the territory of the modern region of the cities of Hotmyshl and Oskol, which were restored by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania after the Mongol-Tatar devastation. Which testifies to the development of the Belgorod region by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Since 1500 it has been part of the Grand Duchy of Moscow.

At the turn of the 16th-17th centuries, for the reliable protection of Russian possessions, a continuous line of military fortifications was built - the Belgorod defensive line, which stretched for almost 800 kilometers. Belgorod became a military-administrative center, in which the Great Belgorod Regiment was stationed. In the 16th century, on the territory of the Belgorod region, on the banks of the Oskol River, there was a fortress, which later turned into the Valuysky Orthodox Monastery. Having emerged as an outpost on the southern borders of Russia, the Belgorod region has inscribed many remarkable heroic pages into its history. For exploits in the battle of Poltava, Peter I granted a banner to the soldiers of the Great Belgorod Regiment.

In 1708-1727, the territory of the modern Belgorod region was part of the Kyiv and Azov provinces. In 1727 the Belgorod province was formed, which lasted until 1779. It occupied the lands not only of the modern Belgorod region, but also the territories of the current Kursk, Oryol, partially Bryansk and Kharkov regions. The province had its own emblem, which is now the emblem of the Belgorod region.

In 1775-1779, the territory of the Belgorod province was divided between the newly formed provinces and governorships, and the province itself was abolished. Belgorod region, including the city of Belgorod, became part of the Kursk governorate; the southeastern counties were assigned to the Voronezh province, the southern - to the Sloboda province. In the 19th century, Belgorod land was part of the Kursk province.

After the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, from April 1918 to January 1919, the Belgorod region was an integral part of the Ukrainian state of Hetman P. P. Skoropadsky.

Until 1928, the territory of the modern Belgorod region was part of the Voronezh and Kursk provinces. In the 1930s, collectivization took place in the Belgorod region, in this decade 40 thousand inhabitants were repressed, of which 15 thousand were shot.

During the Great Patriotic War, the famous Prokhorovka tank battle took place on Belgorod land, which became the starting point of the Victory over Nazi Germany. In memory of him, 40 km from the southern face of the Fiery Arc on the third military field of Russia, Prokhorovsky, a Victory monument was erected - Belfry, and in the village itself, the Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul was built with donations from the people. These and a number of other objects are united in the Prokhorovskoe Pole State Military Historical Museum-Reserve.

On January 6, 1954, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR issued a decree on the formation of the Belgorod Region. The region included: from the Kursk region - the cities of Belgorod and Stary Oskol, Belgorodsky, Belenikhinsky, Bobrovo-Dvorsky, Bolshe-Troitsky, Borisovsky, Valuysky, Velikomikhailovsky, Volokonovsky, Graivoronsky, Ivnyansky, Korochansky, Krasnoyaruzhsky, Mikoyanovsky, Novo-Oskolsky, Prokhorovsky, Rakityansky, Sazhensky, Skorodnyansky, Staro-Oskolsky, Tomarovsky, Urazovsky, Chernyansky and Shebekinsky districts; from the Voronezh region - Alekseevsky, Budenovsky, Veydelevsky, Ladomirovskiy, Nikitovsky, Rovensky, Ukolovsky and Shatalovsky districts.

On April 26, 1954, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR approved the creation of the Belgorod Region.


Physical and geographical characteristics


The Belgorod Region is part of the Central Black Earth Economic Region and the Central Federal District of the Russian Federation. In the south and west it borders on Luhansk
, Kharkov and Sumy regions of Ukraine, in the north and north-west - with the Kursk region, in the east - with the Voronezh region. The total length of its borders is about 1150 km, of which with Ukraine - 540 km.

The area of ​​the region is 27.1 thousand km², the length from north to south is about 190 km, from west to east - about 270 km.



The climate is temperate, temperate continental, with rather mild winters with snowfalls and thaws and long summers. The average annual air temperature varies from +5.4 degrees in the north to +6.8 degrees in the southeast. The coldest month is January. The eastern and southeastern regions of the region are crossed in their average value by the Voeikov axis, which has a certain effect on the climate, especially in these regions. The frost-free period is 155-160 days, the duration of solar time is 1800 hours.



More than 40 percent of the explored iron ore reserves of the country are concentrated in the region. The deposits belong to the Kursk magnetic anomaly.

Large deposits of bauxites, apatites, mineral underground waters (radon and medicinal table waters), numerous deposits of building materials (chalk, sand, clay, etc.) have been identified and explored to varying degrees. Manifestations of gold, graphite and rare metals are known. There are geographic prerequisites for the discovery of platinum, hydrocarbons and other minerals.



The territory of the Belgorod region belongs to the basins of two seas: the Black (western part of the region) and the Azov (central and eastern part of the region).

The region is classified as low-water. This is due not only to the amount of precipitation, but also to the relief of the region.

About 1% of its territory is occupied by rivers, lakes, swamps. More than 480 small rivers and streams flow here. The largest of them in the north-west are Seversky Donets, Vorskla, Vorsklitsa, Psel, in the eastern regions - Oskol, Silent Pine, Black Kalitva, Valuy. The total length of the river network is 5000 km.

There are 1100 ponds and 4 reservoirs in the region.


Animal world

The fauna of the Belgorod region is meadow-steppe. Calcophilic zoocomplexes associated with Cretaceous sediments give the fauna a special uniqueness. The fauna of the Belgorod region has, according to various estimates, from 10 to 15 thousand species. The fauna of mammals of the Belgorod region includes 68 species from 6 orders and 18 families, from the bottom 25 species from the order rodents, 14 species from the order carnivores, 10 species from the order Chiroptera, 9 species from the order Insectivora, 7 species from the order artiodactyls, 2 species from the order lagomorphs. There are about 279 species of birds, including 152 - nesting, the rest - migratory and migrant.

About 10% of animal species are among those in need of special protection; 269 species are included in the Red Book of the Belgorod Region.



The vegetation cover of the region reflects the features of the northern forest-steppe, which is characterized by alternation of forests with meadow steppe.

It is represented by two types of vegetation: zonal and extrazonal. Zonal vegetation is upland oak forests (221 species) and steppe meadows (211 species). Extrazonal vegetation is meadows (232 species), species of shrubs and edges (161 species), phytocenoses of chalk outcrops (93 species), and synanthropic communities (192 species). In general, the flora of the region has 1284 species. The forest cover of the region is 8.6%. More than 800 hectares of forests are classified as specially protected areas due to the growth of rare plant species and animal habitats there, which are listed in the Red Book.

According to the results of the All-Russian action of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation "Alley of Russia" in 2014, the feather grass became a symbol of the Belgorod Region.


Ground cover

Zonal soils are represented by chernozems (77% of the territory) and gray forest soils (almost 15% of the territory).

The type of chernozems is represented in the region by subtypes of podzolized, leached, typical and ordinary chernozems. The first three subtypes are characteristic of the forest-steppe part of the region.

The type of gray forest soils is represented in the region by subtypes of dark gray forest and light gray forest soils. Unlike chernozems, gray forest soils in the Belgorod region are not distributed evenly, but in the form of five large massifs confined to the places of concentration of large forests and their environs.


Awards and achievements

Order of Lenin (January 4, 1967) - for the courage and steadfastness shown by Belgorod residents in the defense of the Motherland during the Great Patriotic War and for the successes achieved in the restoration and development of the national economy;
The most environmentally friendly region of Russia (2010).



In addition to public holidays of the Russian Federation, in the Belgorod region, the following are celebrated at the official level:

January 6 - Day of formation of the Belgorod region;
January 9 - Gorin's Day: the birthday of twice Hero of Socialist Labor Vasily Yakovlevich Gorin;
July 12 - Day of Peter and Paul - Day of a tank battle near the village of Prokhorovka;
July 17 - Day of Remembrance of the builders of the railway "Stary Oskol - Rzhava";
August 5 - Day of the liberation of Belgorod from Nazi invaders;
August 23 - Victory Day of the Soviet troops in the Battle of Kursk - Day of the liberation of the Belgorod region from Nazi invaders;
September 19 - Memorial Day of Joasaph of Belgorod;
October 14 - Flag Day of the Belgorod Region.


Symbols of the Belgorod region

City of military glory and the first salute Belgorod;
City of military and labor glory Stary Oskol;
Prokhorovka field;
Belfry on the Prokhorovsky field;
Kholkovsky Monastery;
Pan oak;
Kursk magnetic anomaly;
Volleyball club "Belogorye"


Government departments

State power in the Belgorod Region is exercised by the executive authorities of the region, state bodies of the region, as well as federal courts and federal executive authorities.

Bodies and officials of the state power of the region are:
The Belgorod Regional Duma is a legislative (representative) body of state power, 35 deputies, the term of office of deputies is 5 years, is elected by the population of the region;
The Governor of the Belgorod Region is the highest official, the term of office is 5 years, is elected by the population, is the Chairman of the Government of the Belgorod Region.
From October 11, 1993 to September 17, 2020, Evgeny Savchenko was the governor of the region. He was appointed to this position in 1993, was re-elected in 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2012, reappointed in 2007. In 1999, one of the rivals of Yevgeny Savchenko in the elections was Vladimir Zhirinovsky.

From September 17 to November 18, 2020, after the departure of Yevgeny Savchenko from his post, Denis Butsaev was the acting governor of the region (by position).

From November 18, 2020 to September 27, 2021 Vyacheslav Gladkov became the acting governor of the region, on September 27, 2021 he becomes the governor.

The Government of the Belgorod Region is the highest permanent collegial body of executive power;
Executive authorities - departments, commissions, administrations;
Territorial executive bodies of state power.



The Belgorod region is an industrial and agricultural region, the economy of which relies on the large reserves of iron ore of the KMA and rich chernozems.

The price of the minimum set of products in November 2014 in the region amounted to 2648 rubles. According to this indicator, the Belgorod region took the fourth place in Russia. In December 2016, this figure amounted to 3090 rubles - 5th place in terms of cheapness in Russia. In December 2017, the cost of the minimum set of products amounted to 3086.8 rubles - the second place in Russia.

Regional budget revenues for 2022 amounted to 133.2 billion rubles, expenses - 156.8 billion rubles.

The most developed industries of the Belgorod region are mechanical engineering, mining, metallurgy, production of building materials, food industry. The industrial production index of the region in 2021 amounted to 103.3% compared to 2020.

Belgorod has an industrial park "Severny" (located in the northern part of the city) with an area of more than 24 hectares. The industrial park is a joint project of the regional government and the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation. The park has nine residents.

Among the industrial enterprises of the region, the largest are:
Stoilensky GOK;
Lebedinsky GOK;
Oskolsky plant of metallurgical engineering;
Wagon and wheel workshop;
Belgorod cement;
OAO SUM TsMM - Specialized Department of Mechanization Tsentrometallurgmontazh;
Starooskolsky plant of metal structures "Stroymetallkom";
Stary Oskol plastics plant "Oskolplast";
Efko is a company that manages several enterprises in the oil and fat industry and is one of the three largest companies in the Russian agro-industrial complex;
Slavyanka is a group of companies that owns a confectionery factory in Stary Oskol.
Belgorodsk Khladokombinat - the company specializes in the production of ice cream under the brand "Bodraya Cow".
Belogorye is a confectionery factory.
CJSC Premix Plant No. 1 of the Prioskolie Group of Companies is the only one in Russia and one of the ten largest lysine production facilities in the world. "Premix Plant No. 1" was established in August 2005 and produces more than 17 thousand tons of premixes per year for all types of animals, birds and fish. In 2012, a lysine production plant began to be built here. The structure of the enterprise includes an elevator with a capacity of 50 thousand tons of grain, a laboratory, a mill, a starch and syrup production, production sites for the production of glucose and lysine by microbiological synthesis. The area of the plant is about 37 hectares. The total investment amounted to 7.5 billion rubles. The high-tech lysine production project won the tender for a subsidy of 275 million rubles. In 2014, the production of 57 thousand tons of lysine per year was launched.
The Lux distillery is one of the largest taxpayers in the region.



Land in the region is 2713.4 thousand hectares, more than 70% of which are chernozems; per capita there are 1.43 hectares of agricultural land, including 1.1 hectares of arable land. Natural forests and forest plantations occupy 248.3 thousand hectares - 12.5% of the region's territory. The total timber reserves are 34.3 million m³.

The volume of agricultural production in 2020 amounted to 266.0 billion rubles, of which livestock - 169.6 billion rubles, crop production - 96.4 billion rubles.

Agricultural organizations provide 85.9% of the volume of production, 95.5% of livestock products and 69% of crop production.

Animal husbandry
In 2020, all farms received 1,753.2 thousand tons of livestock and poultry for slaughter (100%). These are 38.6 thousand tons of cattle (104.3%), 922.4 thousand tons of pigs (102.9%), 789.4 thousand tons of poultry (96.7%); The Belgorod region produces more pigs than any of the Russian federal districts.
As of January 1, 2021, farms of all categories kept 235.5 thousand heads of cattle (99.7%), of which 93.6 thousand cows (96.4%), 4,553.6 thousand pigs (100.2 %), 43,478.8 thousand birds (85.1%). The number of cattle in the agricultural organizations of the region amounted to 176.4 thousand heads (99.9%), including 69.2 thousand cows (96.4%).

In 2020, with a gross production of 685 thousand tons of milk, the Belgorod Region was in the TOP-15 largest milk producers in Russia. The average milk yield per cow in 2020 was estimated at 8,000 kg - the eighth result in Russia.

Crop production
In farms of all categories of the region in 2020, according to the final data of Rosstat, 3,907.6 thousand tons of grain and leguminous crops were received in weight after completion (in 2019 - 3,473.1 thousand tons), with an average yield of 53, 1 c/ha (4,038.5 thousand tons with an average yield of 55.3 c/ha in bunker weight) This is a record gross harvest and yield for the region. The Belgorod region ranks 4th in the Russian Federation in terms of grain and leguminous crops in general and wheat in particular. 462.4 thousand tons of sunflower (475.3 thousand tons), 1,788.4 thousand tons of sugar beet (2,796.5 thousand tons) were grown. 337.7 thousand tons of potatoes (395.0 thousand tons), 264.2 thousand tons of open and protected ground vegetables (250.3 thousand tons) were harvested. 732.5 thousand hectares were allocated for grain and leguminous crops.

The Belgorod Region was in the TOP-5 of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation in terms of the yield of most cultivated crops, with the exception of soybeans, the yield of which in 2021 was in sixth place.

The Belgorod region, together with the Bryansk region, has occupied the first or second place in terms of sunflower yield over the past years. With an average yield in Russia in 2020 of only 17.4 c/ha, the yield in the Belgorod region was 31.8 c/ha, in 2019 - 34.55 c/ha.



As of December 2020, 13 power plants with a total capacity of 255.3 MW were operating in the Belgorod Region, including one wind farm, one solar power plant, two biogas power plants and nine thermal power plants. In 2019, they produced 829.2 million kWh of electricity.

In the rating of the Center for Economic Research, the region in the first quarter of 2011 ranked 70th in Russia in terms of energy sufficiency, the electricity deficit exceeded 6 billion kWh.

In October 2014, almost 1.3 billion kWh of electricity was consumed in the Belgorod Region, and over 12 billion kWh of electricity in ten months since the beginning of the year. The growth of energy consumption was recorded in comparison with January-October 2013 and is 0.4%.

In 2014, the Belgorod Region was among the winners of the federal competition and received almost 85 million rubles from the state budget to support and develop the best projects aimed at improving the energy efficiency of enterprises.

In 2014, about a thousand kilometers of power transmission lines were built and reconstructed in the region - in Novy Oskol, Maslova Pristan, Komsomolsky, Wet Orlovka, Afanasovo and other settlements. In cities, towns and villages, more than 15 thousand obsolete lamps were replaced with energy-efficient ones, the number of the first ones was increased to 97% in the power grid complex of the region. Also, two large power supply centers were put into operation - the Kreida and Nezhegol substations. The first one provides electricity to industrial and household consumers of the regional center, and the second one supplies electricity to the plant for the production of lysine sulfate in the Shebekinsky district.

The main suppliers of electricity to the Belgorod region are the Kursk and Voronezh regions, Rosenergoatom Concern JSC.

In 2015, the electricity deficit in the Belgorod Region amounted to 14,148.7 million kWh.



The Department of Construction and Transport of the Belgorod Region within the framework focuses on the following areas of development in terms of construction and improvement:

"New Life" - providing housing for young professionals;
"Proper operation of buildings" - organization of the system of operation of buildings and structures;
"BIM-technologies" - the introduction of a computer-aided design system;
"Clean construction" - an aesthetic view of construction sites in the region;
Comprehensive modernization of entrance groups (entrances) of apartment buildings;
Reforming the system of control and supervision in the field of shared construction;
Introduction of a single standard form of the state (municipal) contract, methodology for its application, expansion of the scope of banking support for contracts;
Bringing advertising structures and signs on the facades of buildings in line with architectural standards;
Overhaul of polyclinics of the central district hospitals of the Belgorod region;
Construction and modernization of cultural facilities in the municipalities of the Belgorod region;
Conducting state examination of project documentation in electronic form;
Creation of local public centers on the basis of pedestrian accessibility stores in the microdistricts of IZHS in the Belgorod Region;
Landscaping microdistricts IZHS Belgorod region.
In January-November 2014, 1.2 million m² of housing was put into operation in the Belgorod region, which amounted to 111.1% of the level of commissioning in the same period last year. Three quarters of all built housing (918.4 thousand m²) falls on individual housing construction. The volume of commissioning of individual housing in January-November increased by 5%. At the same time, almost half of all low-rise housing is being commissioned in the Belgorod region. Every eighth house in the region is built in Belgorod.



The Belgorod region is crossed by railways and highways of international importance connecting Moscow and other Russian regions with Ukraine, including the M-2 Crimea federal highway and the Moscow-Kharkov-Sevastopol railway. The operational length of public railways is 694.6 km, the length of paved roads (including departmental ones) is 8.5 thousand km, or 87.7% of the total length. In 2017, a railway line was built to bypass Ukraine through the territory of the Voronezh and Rostov regions. Also in the Belgorod region there is one of the few suburban trolleybus lines in Russia with a length of 34 km, passing along the federal highway "Crimea" and connecting the administrative center of the region with the village of Maisky, but traffic along it was stopped for economic reasons.



The following educational institutions of higher professional education are located in the Belgorod region:

NRU "BelSU", Belgorod;
BSTU named after V. G. Shukhov, Belgorod;
Starooskolsky Technological Institute. A. A. Ugarova (member of NUST MISIS), Stary Oskol;
Belgorod State Agrarian University, Belgorod;
BUKEP, Belgorod;
FGBOU VPO "Moscow State Open University"; Gubkin Institute (branch), Gubkin;
BGIIK, Belgorod.
The Belgorod region is one of 15 regions in which since September 1, 2006 the subject "Fundamentals of Orthodox Culture" has been introduced as a regional component of education.



Belfry on the Prokhorovsky field;
Pansky oak - 550-year-old oak in the Shebekinsky district;
State Nature Reserve "Belogorye";
Balka Kamenny Log;
Kholkovsky underground monastery in Chernyansky district;
The village of Vatutino (birthplace of N. F. Vatutin);
The village of Khvorostyanka (the family estate of N. N. Raevsky);
Krapivensky hillfort - the hillfort of one of the largest cities of Kievan Rus;
Dmitrievskoe settlement - settlement of the Alans of the VIII-IX centuries;
Trading rows in Biryucha;
Museum-diorama “Kursk Bulge. Belgorod direction";
Belgorod Museum of Folk Culture;
Shebekinsky Museum of History and Art with a collection of paintings by famous artists of the 19th-20th centuries;
Barkov Mill - a six-story wooden mill in the village. Novoivanovka Volokonovsky district;
Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral in Gubkin.