Omsk Oblast, Russia

The Omsk region is a subject of the Russian Federation in the southwest of Siberia, part of the Siberian Federal District and the West Siberian Economic Region. It borders on Kazakhstan in the south, Tyumen region in the west and north, Novosibirsk region in the east and Tomsk region in the northeast.

The territory is 141,140 km², which is 0.82% of the area of Russia. According to this indicator, the region ranks 28th in the country.

According to data compiled in 2022 by RIA Novosti, the Omsk region found itself at the bottom of the ranking of regions in terms of quality of life, taking 66th place out of 85. Thus, the region found itself in the twenty least attractive regions for life and development.

The administrative center is the city of Omsk.





How to get there

By plane
Omsk International Airport (IATA:OMS) accepts flights from Moscow, Kaliningrad, Nizhnevartovsk, Surgut, Khanty-Mansiysk. There are also international connections with Tashkent, Delhi, Bangkok, Andijan, Sharm El-Sheikh.

By train
The Trans-Siberian Railway passes through the region. The main stations in the region are Omsk and Nazyvaevsk. From Moscow from the Kazansky or Yaroslavsky train stations on trains traveling along the Trans-Siberian Railway or according to a special schedule on the direct branded train No. 048N Moscow-Omsk “Irtysh”. The distance is more than 2500 km, travel time is less than two days.

By car
The federal highway P254 “Irtysh” passes through the region, connecting Chelyabinsk and Kurgan in the west and Novosibirsk in the east. The section from Kurgan to Omsk can be traveled in two ways:
Through the territory of Kazakhstan through the city of Petropavlovsk - this is how the route from west to east historically ran in the Soviet Union.
Bypassing Kazakhstan along the P402 road through Chastoozerye, Berdyuzhye and Ishim.

The first route is 100 km shorter, but you need to go through customs twice. Considering that the entire road from Kurgan to Omsk is in decent condition, and the Berdyuzhie-Ishim section, famous until recently for its potholes and potholes, has recently been repaired and has an excellent smooth surface, there is little point left in driving through Kazakhstan.

Please note that road signs for Omsk give conflicting information: if you follow them, you can go to Kazakhstan. Use maps and navigation apps.


Physiographic characteristics

Geographical position

It borders on Kazakhstan in the south, Tyumen region in the west and north, Novosibirsk and Tomsk regions in the east. It is part of the Siberian Federal District.

The region's territory extends 600 km from south to north and 300 km from west to east. The main water artery is the Irtysh and its tributaries Ishim, Om, Osha, and Tara. The region is located on the West Siberian Plain, which has a flat topography. In the south there are steppes, gradually turning into forest-steppes, forest and swampy taiga in the north. The soil is sandy and silty. Along the Irtysh, in the so-called In the Irtysh region, there is an “oasis” microclimate, with a more wooded and ravine landscape. Here are the most fertile lands in the region. There are also many lakes in the Omsk region: Saltaim, Tenis, Ik, Ebeyty, Ulzhay, Tobol-Kushly.

The highest point in the Omsk region is 150 m near the village of Nagornoye, the lowest is the water's edge on the Irtysh - 41 m, near the village of Malaya Bicha.

The Omsk Region owns 28 specially protected natural areas of regional significance, including natural parks in Bolsherechye and Omsk (“Bird Harbor”).



The Omsk region is located in the MSC+3 time zone. The applied time offset relative to UTC is +6:00.



The climate of the region is continental and sharply continental. The average January temperature is −19… −20 °C, July +17…+18 °C in the northern part, +19 °C in the south. The distribution of precipitation is uneven: in the north - 400-500 mm, in the extreme south of the region - less than 300 mm.

The climate of the steppes, compared to the forest-steppe zone, is characterized by a long growing season and frost-free periods, high average annual and average monthly temperatures, and great dryness. Therefore, the steppe lands suffer from a lack of moisture: on average, 250-300 mm of precipitation falls here per year, 1.5-2 times less than in the central regions of Russia.

Winter in the steppe is usually harsh, frosts up to -35... -40 °C, and a thin, uneven snow cover of 25-30 cm does not cover the soil well. The snow melts in 10-12 days. Winds increase evaporation, dry out the soil and often stir up dust storms. In spring, rains are rare in the steppe. The weather is clear. Late spring frosts are frequent. Already at the end of April, during the hottest blowouts, almost everywhere in the Omsk region the temperature can reach +30°, and in May, during hot springs, such cases become common everywhere. In summer, on clear, sunny days, the temperature rises to +30...+35 °C. In the first half of summer, dry winds (strong, hot winds that scorch plants and cause severe drying out of the soil) are common occurrences.

The great wealth of surface water in the forest-steppe zone is explained by a more humid climate: the annual precipitation here is 350-400 mm, half of which falls in the first months: the snow cover is also more abundant in the south - its thickness reaches 30-40 cm.

The Tara north is a zone of abundant moisture; 400-450 mm of precipitation falls here per year, that is, twice as much as in the south of the region. Summer is moderately warm - in July +17...+18 °C. The growing season is 150 days. The climate is characterized by hot summers and cold winters. In the Tara region, winter temperatures everywhere can drop below -50°, and in some places reached -52°-53°, this is the pole of cold OO, but in May, even here, heat above +36° is already possible. Humidity here is noticeably higher than in other areas of the region, and the average annual temperature is zero, in some years it is slightly lower.



As of February 1, 2016, in the Omsk region there are 30 territories that have the status of specially protected natural areas (SPNA) of regional and local significance.

As of the spring of 2016, sources of atmospheric emissions in the region are distributed as follows: 48.5% - motor transport, 29.2% - production and distribution of electricity, gas and water, 12% - other stationary sources of pollution, 10.3% - production enterprises coke and petroleum products.

In 2017, sources of atmospheric emissions in the region were distributed as follows: 49.75% - motor transport, 27.37% - provision of electrical energy, gas and steam; air conditioning, 11.26% - enterprises for the production of coke and petroleum products; 11.62% - other stationary sources of pollution.

The forest fund of the Omsk region is located on the territory of 32 administrative districts of the region. All forest lands are included in 19 forest districts. The area of forest land is 5.9 million hectares, or 42% of the total area of the Omsk region. Forested lands occupy 4.5 million hectares with a total forest reserve of 640 million m³. In the southern regions of the region, forest cover ranges from 0.3% to 5.5%, hence their main function is protective. Production forests are located mainly in the northern regions, where forest cover reaches 61-67% and more than 90% of the mature wood supply is concentrated. The share of coniferous plantations accounts for 24.2% (1102.1 thousand hectares), the volume of soft-leaved plantations is 75.7% (3453.4 thousand hectares).



Within the region, a latitudinal-horizontal landscape-bioclimatic zonation is clearly manifested: steppe - southern and northern forest-steppe - southern taiga. The distribution of precipitation is uneven: in the north - 400-500 mm, in the extreme south of the region - less than 300 mm.

The taiga-forest zone has the most limited area of agricultural land - about 600 thousand hectares. This zone is the most depressed and swampy, waterlogged for a long time, groundwater lies at a depth of 1-3 meters. The main land fund is represented by podzolic, bog and meadow soils, which are usually acidic, thin, with a low supply of humus (up to 3%), nitrogen and phosphorus.

The forest-steppe zone occupies the largest part of the region's territory (51%). The soil cover of the zone is dominated by meadow-chernozem, chernozem-meadow and meadow soils, as well as solonetz complexes. The average humus content is 4-5%. For agricultural needs in the zone, 3 million 744 thousand hectares of land have been developed, including 56% for arable land.

The steppe zone occupies only 8.6% of the region's territory, but it is the most agriculturally developed and plowed. Plowing of land on individual farms reaches 95%. The land fund of the steppe zone is dominated by ordinary and southern chernozems, often carbonate and solonetzic. The amount of humus is from 4 to 9%.

Almost 87% of the region’s arable land requires additional application of phosphorus-containing fertilizers. The soils of the northern zone are almost 87% poor in potassium. The annual loss of humus as a result of agriculture is 0.4 t/ha. To date, there has been a decrease in the gross reserves of humus in arable soils to 10-15% of the initial ones (from the beginning of land development), especially in the south of the region. In the region, 17% of all agricultural land requires restoration, especially in the steppe and southern forest-steppe zones.

Based on scientific research in 1986-1990. the volume of manure application increased to 2 t/ha and 40 kg/ha of mineral fertilizers. Much attention was paid to chemical reclamation: - liming of acidic soils, gypsuming of soils of the solonetz complex. A positive balance of phosphorus has been achieved, which is one of the main nutrients that limits the yield of agricultural crops. Liming work ceased in 1994, and gypsum work in 1996. The application of mineral fertilizers in the last decade has decreased by almost 40 times, and organic fertilizers by 5 times.

At the same time, the Tara region of the region has rich deposits of peat, the most valuable composition of sapropel, marsh marls and phosphates.