Omsk is one of the largest cities in Russia, the
administrative center of the Omsk region.
A millionaire city, the second largest in Siberia after Novosibirsk and the eighth in the country. Large transport hub on the Trans -Siberian Railway.
Located on the Irtysh River, at the site of the confluence of the Om River.
Omsk is often called a completely uninteresting city, without any attractions. This is not entirely true. Indeed, twenty years ago there were much more unique places in Omsk than it is now. Developers and authorities tried to properly, destroying most of the architectural monuments and placing in their place tasteless modern high -rise buildings. Because of this, the city has many dirty wastelands with hundreds of Khrushchev. Indeed, the architectural integrity of Omsk was destroyed, and only a couple of streets remained, to which the developers did not reach, and on which, in one form or another, the situation of the 19th century was preserved. However, even despite serious losses, there are still many wonderful historical and architectural monuments in Omsk, including first -class and most of them are concentrated in the historical center, on a relatively small area. Omsk is not the city that might like at first sight, but if you know a little about it, and if you do not try to examine the whole city by traveling in a couple of hours, you can find completely amazing places, few similar ones.
Omsk was divided by the Irtysh into the right -bank and left -bank part. There are a bus station and airport on the left bank, but otherwise there is nothing to do there. The right bank, in turn, is also divided into two - this time northern and southern, but already relative to Omi. Both of them claim to be a center or, more correctly, are two different hypostasis of the Omsk center. On the north coast of Omi, the fortress was before, the areas around it retained the front door of the line of the 19th and 20th centuries. On the southern shore were located, among other things, Cossack settlements, and there are especially many wooden houses, although there are enough Soviet buildings.
According to the total number of flights, Omsk Airport is significantly inferior to Novosibirsk and even Tyumen. From Moscow, 5-6 flights per day, most of them are flying to Omsk at night, and in Moscow-in the early morning. Daily flight to St. Petersburg, and a day later-to Novosibirsk. The only regular international flight is in Astana 4 times a week (Air Astana).
The terminal of local lines is closed and boarded up with boards.
Omsk-central airport (IATA: OMS), within the city, on the left bank of the Irtysh. ✉ ☎ +7 (3812) 55-69-11. The name "Central" should be understood literally: the airport is located directly in the city, a few kilometers from the center. The new Omsk airport away from the city (Fedorovka) is a long -term construction as eternal as the Omsk metro, and will not be opened in the near future. At the old airport, a small terminal of domestic flights can hardly digest passengers of even one large aircraft to Moscow, and when resort flights are added to them, it becomes very crowded in the building. Opposite the entrance is the unassuming cafe “Coffee Break” with inexpensive cakes and quite decent (albeit more expensive coffee than in the city). Storage room: 177 rubles/day (2016). The whole terminal is free Wi-Fi.
How to get there: previously stably going to the airport from the station through the center of the bus 60 in 2016 was transferred to private carriers, and since then it has been much less common. His schedule is not, and it is possible that at some point he will be completely canceled. There is also a minibus 225 (passes through the center) and bus 305 (goes to the northern outskirts past the center). Their schedules are not there either, and it is not known whether they go on the weekend. A taxi to the city center costs 100-150 rubles (2018).
Omsk is the only city in its own way, which will not pass a single train next to southern Siberia for the Irtysh. Here converge the northern (new) and southern (old) branches of the Trans -Siberian Railway, the railways of Yekaterinburg -Tyumen and Chelyabinsk -Kurgan -Petropavlovsk - only in order to then again divide into the main move of the Trans -Siberian and the secondary line to Barnaul. From the European part of Russia, trains can go both through Yekaterinburg and through Samara-Chelyabinsk. From Moscow 40-45 hours, from Yekaterinburg 12-13 hours, from Tyumen 7-8 hours.
The path through Chelyabinsk-Kurgan-Petropavlovsk implies Kazakh transit, and there are few trains there-usually only two pairs per day, 4-5 hours from Petropavlovsk and 12 hours from Chelyabinsk. In addition, a couple of times a day, Russian and Kazakh electric trains are joined at the Border station of Isilkul. Both Russian and Kazakhstani railways sell tickets to Petropavlovsk at domestic tariffs, which is convenient for those who are going to go deep into Kazakhstan (from Petropavlovsk 8-10 hours to Astana).
Eastern direction, the nearest large city - Novosibirsk in 8 hours.
Omsk-Passenger, st. Lekonta, 1 (from the center to the south along Karl Marx Avenue, there are many public transport). The huge building of the station was built after the war and was very reconstructed (with the addition of modern features) in recent times. Its luxurious interiors deserve a separate inspection. Inside the station, a good cafe-dining room “Snoof and Sanzhki” (around the clock), waiting halls with racks for recharging the phone on the second floor (possibly paid), as well as rest rooms. The station area is very chaotic, it has several primitive snacks and cafes. Do not miss an unusual monument in the form of a map of the Omsk region.
Bus Station, Ave. Komarova, 2. The bus station is located in the northwestern part of the city, on Lukashevich Street (the left bank of the Irtysh, the street leading from the north bridge). You can get to the city center by public transport (trolleybus or minibus), walk too far on foot. Buses throughout the region, as well as to Kazakhstan. Keep in mind that the region is large, and the travel time may turn out to be unexpectedly long, for example, there is 12 hours to Ust-Ishim.
On the ship
In the summer and autumn, until mid-October, the Irtysh 1-2 times a month of the Omsk-Salekhard, Severrechflot, go around the Irtysh. Once they departed from the city center, from the River Station, but since 2016, motor ships have been moored in the backwater of the shipyard, where passengers are delivered by buses.
River Station. The building was turned into a hotel and a restaurant. The schedule of motor ships hangs on a pillar in the former pier area.
There is a system of municipal public transport
consisting of buses, trolleybuses and trams, but the intervals are such
that in most cases you have to use a minibus. The fare in the minibus is
30 rubles per cash (on separate routes, the fare for cash is 25 rubles),
in the bus - 30 rubles also for cash (2019). Outwardly, buses and
minibuses are indistinguishable.
There is an unfinished metro, one station of which is considered ready. There are many rumors and legends about the metro. Some consider it a symbol of the city, since the Omsk metro map consists of one point (as well as the coat of arms - of one wall: “Flowers are in the yard, the flowers are pattern: there is nothing on the coat of arms, on nothing fence”). Others settled otherworldly forces in it (since there were parking of ancient developed peoples in the city and archaeological excavations are underway). Finally, there is an opinion that the flooding, which led during the construction of the metro to the loss of a hill shield, was caused by an anger of the white dragon - the owner of the underground lake. Thus, the metro is inhabited by a dragon. In any case, in 2018 it was decided to finally stop building.
The task of getting to many architectural monuments is not
particularly difficult. Buses go to the city center from the airport.
The railway station is located on the right bank and from it the
distance to the center can go on foot, or drive by minibus or by bus.
The bus station is located on the left bank of the Irtysh, but buses run
from it to all areas of the city. Therefore, getting to unique places of
Omsk is easy.
The northern shore of Omi
Omsk fortress (near the mouth of Omi). The first Omsk fortress, founded in 1717, was wooden, and not only nothing was preserved from it, but there is no consensus on what structures were there and where they were located. In any case, she was on the right bank of Omi, somewhere near the modern building of the city Duma. By the 1740s, she was completely unusable, so it was decided not to try to update the fortresses, but to build a new fortress from scratch on the right bank of Omi, right at the confluence of the Irtysh. The project was compiled by the commander of the Siberian lines Ivan Shpringer and engineer Malm, and construction began in 1765. On the part of the Irtysh and Omi, the fortress was protected by an earthen rampart 12 m high, on the inside - 3.5 m. Neither the shaft nor the fortifications were preserved, but the gates of the fortress were preserved (the Tobolsk gates in its original form, the rest were disassembled and restored in the 20th century) . Inside the fortress, at different times, a certain number of buildings were erected, from which the guardhouse (1781), Lutheran Kirkh, the General and commandant's houses were preserved. At the fortress there was a hard labor prison, which contained the arrested. In 1850, Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, who spent four years in Omsk, entered here, and in 1854 was transferred to Semipalatinsk. The fortress had already looked like complete archaism by that time and was abolished in 1864, after which its territory was mostly built up. Now the gate has remained from the fortress on the four cardinal points, the central parade ground with a group of buildings around it (Zeikhgauz, arsenal, barracks, engineering workshop, cash pantry, kitchen-dining room and rational shed), where historical theme exhibitions, workshops of artisans are now located, hosts concerts And other entertainment measures, as well as four buildings of the late XVIII - early XIX centuries in the eastern part of the fortress. All these buildings must be sought between low -oriented buildings of modern times, including multi -storey residential buildings.
Tobolsk gates (Western end of Partizanskaya Street, at the cash pantry). Tobolsk gates are the western gate of the fortress. They were built in 1771–73, and this is the oldest preserved Omsk building. These are also the only surviving gates of the fortress, the rest were demolished and later reconstructed. The initial gates were baroque, and in the middle of the 19th century they were rebuilt in the style of classicism. On the sides, but the buttresses have been preserved.
Tara gates (Southern End of Tarskaya Street). Tara gates are the northern gates of the fortress. Built in 1792, the name, like the streets - from the city of Tara below the Irtysh. Disassembled in 1959, restored in 1991.
Omsk gate (intersection of partisans and Peter Nekrasov). Disassembled in 1936, restored in 2011. The name is from the Omsk settlement to which the gates came out.
Irtysh gate (nab. Tukhachevsky, near the corner with Taube Street). Disassembled in the 1930s, restored in 2011 on the preserved historical foundation. The name is from the Irtysh to which they come.
A parade ground and a cash pantry. In the center of the complex is a parade ground surrounded by buildings of varying degrees of safety and not always understandable age and purpose. The most noticeable, cash pantry with an arched gallery is also a remake. It was originally built in the 1790s, but in the 1940s it was dismantled and recreated from photographs already in the 2010s.
The guardhouse, Partizanskaya St., 14. The guardhouse was built in 1781-83, this is apparently the oldest preserved Omsk building. The lower two floors of the building are brick, and on top there is a wooden dome with a weather vane. It refers to the Baroque style, which is a rarity for Omsk, yes, in general, for Siberia. A memorial plaque was installed on the building, reminiscent that Dostoevsky spent four years in the Omsk fortress.
Lutheran Kirkh St. Ekaterina Element of Wikidan, st. Dostoevsky, 2 (1). Kirkh was required in the fortress at the end of the 18th century, since the number of German soldiers increased markedly. The building was built in 1790-1792 in the Baroque style. There was a tower with a dome on the building, which during the reconstruction at the beginning of the 20th century was replaced with Gothic, and in 1970 they completely demolished. Inside the building is the Museum of the Internal Affairs Directorate of the Omsk Region.
House of the commandant of the fortress, st. Dostoevsky, 1. The building of 1799, the Dostoevsky Museum is located inside.
Voskresensky Cathedral, Spartakovskaya Street, 3a. The most noticeable building inside the fortress is a remake built from scratch in 2016. When building, however, they tried to reproduce the forms of a previously destroyed cathedral in the style of classicism, even used authentic materials, and it turned out pretty well.
The ensemble of the buildings of Lyubinsky Prospekt, Lenin Street. Lyubinsky Avenue is now usually called part of Lenin Avenue between Cathedral Square and the bridge over Om. (Historically, Lyubinsky, he was Chernavinsky Prospekt continued for Cathedral Square). Its development took place according to a special plan and for the most part was preserved. Among other things, on the odd side, there is an ensemble of two -story stores, which, however, would not have prevented the restoration, but to the north - the drama theater and opposite it the building of the former trading corps, which is now occupied by the Art Museum.
Development of Karl Liebknecht Street. This is almost the only street of Omsk, which neither the Soviet government nor the post -Soviet developers have ruined, and, accordingly, a large cluster of buildings at the beginning of the 20th century has been preserved: the building of the Salamander insurance partnership (do not miss a logo with the image of Salamandra), the building of the partnership Tver Manusofaucer, building of the Partnership of the Manufactory "Triangle".
The Assumption Cathedral, International St., 12. The cathedral was originally built in 1891-1898 according to the project of architect Ernest Virrich in the Premurian style. It turned out such a hybrid of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and the Church of the Savior on the Blood, however, due to the color scheme (white walls with color decor) is quite nice. In 1935, the cathedral was demolished, in the 2000s they re-built in photographs.
Fire Kalancha, International St., 41. Brick Kalancha was built in 1912-15 instead of the Old Severe. On the ground floor there was a fire pump and a couple of horses in constant readiness, on the second - the apartment of the firewall. Two people were constantly on duty at the Kalanchi site (now there is a firefighter’s dummy). Omsk Fire Kalancha is considered a symbol of the city. For some reason, it was not demolished in the 20th century, but right behind it they built an ugly late Soviet building, slightly reducing the visual effect.
House of the Joint-Stock Company of the Kuznetsk Stone-Angular Coopy, ul. Ordzhonikidze, 14. The building was built in 1915 as an apartment building (house Pechokas, named the owner). Along with apartments, there for a short time (before nationalization in 1920) was located the office of the joint-stock company of Kuznetsk Stone-Angel Coopies. This is one of the best modern monuments in Omsk, with a mass of different decor elements (look at the windows, balconies, stone threads on the walls, wall completion), although located in rather poor condition.
The Krestovozda Cathedral, Tarskaya St., 33. In every large Siberian city there should be a church in the style of Siberian Baroque or, at least, reminiscent. In Omsk, only the Crusader Cathedral was preserved in this style, although it was not built in the 18th century, as it was supposed to baroque churches, but much later, in 1865-1870, according to the project of the chief architect Omsk and Friedrich Wagner. One way or another, it turned out well, and the church deserves ten minutes spent for a walk from the center.
The building of the City Duma and the Council, Dumskaya St., 1.
The mansion of the merchant Batyushkov, st. Irtysh embankment, 9.
Nikolsky Cossack Cathedral, st. Lenin, 27. A large cathedral in the style of classicism was built from 1833 to 1843. It is believed that the author of the project was Vasily Stasov, although it has already been reliably established, he was never in Omsk. The cathedral turned out to be a rectangular shape, three entrances are decorated with porticoes with columns. There is a central dome and a bell tower attached to the building-it was dismantled under the Soviet regime and restored in the 1990s. There is nothing left inside.
The building of the Omsk Railway, Ave. K. Marx, 35.
Alley of Writers.
Omsk Cadet Military Corps, st. Lenin, 26.
Agrarian University, Institute Square. All major cities have interesting architectural monuments on the outskirts, and Omsk is no exception. In 1913, it was decided to build in the city of agricultural sector - the event at that time is very important, since there were no higher educational institutions except Tomsk Universities in Siberia then. They did not regret the funds for construction, so before the revolution itself on the edge of Omsk, a whole town, not lost and a hundred years later, against the background of more modern development. In this ensemble dominates the gray four -story building of the school itself, made at the junction of the Russian style and neo -Gothic. Before him is a funny and only fountain with a crocodile and frogs sitting around it (1937), and around - a whole array of pre -revolutionary buildings, now mostly stone, since almost all the wooden are burned out. Although the complex is difficult to call beautiful, almost everything is unusual in it - from the already mentioned fountain to a cozy park, planted with broad -leaved trees, which in natural conditions in this area do not grow. Do not also miss a monument painted with silver paint with imprisoned Lenin (from the building of the school 150 m to the east), indicating, contrary to tradition, not raised with his hand, but lowered.
Museum named after Vrubel.
Palace of General Governor of the Steppe Territory, st. Lenin, 23. ☎ +7 (3812) 31-36-77.
Vrubel Corps, st. Lenin, 3 (closest stops of public transport: Glavpochtamp, hospital, Victory Square). ☎ +7 (3812) 24-15-64. The building has the main exhibition of the museum and exhibition halls. There are halls in the main exhibition; ceremonial (mainly DPI), icons, Russian art of the 18th century, Russian art of the first half of the XIX century, two halls of Russian art of the second half of the 19th century, the hall of the Russian avant -garde; Two halls of Western art: old masters and the 19th century.
Center Hermitage Siberia, st. Museum, 4. ☎ +7 (3812) 95-12-25. Opened in 2019. On the fourth floor in the two halls of the exhibition from the funds of the State Hermitage, one at a year, installation in September, dismantling in August. On the third floor in two halls, long -term exhibitions from the funds of Soviet art. On the second floor, an exhibition hall for personal monographic exhibitions.
Omsk Academic Drama Theater.
Arena Omsk, st. Lukashevich, 35 (on the left bank of the Irtysh, far from the center, but relatively close to the bus station). The Ice Palace, in which home matches of the avant -garde hockey club are held.
Omsk Museum of Local Lore, Lenin Street, 23a. ☎ +7 (3812) 31-47-47. 🕑 VT - Sun 10:00 - 18:00. 200 rubles. The classic local history museum, including archeology with ethnography are represented.
On the right bank of Omi, public catering is localized in the area of
Lyubinsky Prospekt, and on the left - along Gagarin Street, also
spreading to several neighboring ones. The price level is the same as in
any other large Russian city. There are many original establishments,
including coffee houses. Local cuisine, on the contrary, is completely
non -original. The most famous Omsk product is the melted cheese
"Omichka", which is and sweet.
Bar restaurant "Geography", st. Lenin, 7. 12:00 - 24:00. An institution with a few stiff maintenance and the original geographical menu, in which each country is represented by one dish: Mexico - Burrito, Greece - Musaku, USA - Brownie, and so on. They cook well, in the afternoon there is an inexpensive business lunch. Wi-Fi.
Restaurant "Shinok", st. Tarskaya, 10. 12:00 - 24:00, PT and Sat: Until 1:00. A good decorated, but essentially ordinary restaurant of Ukrainian cuisine with extremely careless maintenance. Many dishes from the menu are not available. In the hall to the right of the entrance, Wi-Fi from the neighboring Tinto is caught. There is no own transmitter in the restaurant.
"Lugovskaya Sloboda", st. Lenin, 20
Skuratov, avenue. Karl Marx, 10. 6:55 - 23:05. A modern hipster coffee shop with all possible types of coffee and, less trivial, a good choice of imported tea. You can bite with chocolate cookies and cheesecake. Wi-Fi. The same local network has several more coffee houses, including in the city center.
Zhukov hotel, st. Marshal Zhukov 105 (Mayakovsky St. 18). ☎ +7 (3812) 58-06-58. The boutique hotel of the city “with a non-standard thematic interior” claiming “exclusivity and uniqueness”. There is a common kitchen and restaurant.
All large cellular operators, such as Beeline, MTC, Megafon, Yota, Tele2, etc., work on the territory of Omsk.
The following areas are undesirable for visiting at a later time: oilmen (a large area in the north of the city), the Amur village (remote area in the northeast), Port Arthur (a large private sector on the right bank of the Irtysh), Old Kirovsk (a large private sector on the Left Bank ), as well as the area of the tire factory and Chkalovsk.
The name is from the hydronym "Om", founded in 1716 as a fortress at the confluence of the Om River in the Irtysh and is named the Omsk prison. Since 1782 - the city of Omsk. The hydronym "OM" is interpreted from the language of the Barabinsky Tatars, "OM" - "Quiet".
The need for the Russian fortress at the mouth of Omi arose for foreign policy reasons associated with the steppe nomadic peoples, in particular, with the Oirats, which threatened the border volosts of the Tarsky district and the lands of the Baraba. After the successful campaign of the Tarsky governor of Prince S. N. Gagarin, diplomatic relations were established with the Oirat nomads, and they asked to establish the city on Omi to ensure the protection of their nomadic from the East Mongolian dynasty of Altan Khanov. The Oirat promised to pay Yasak and defend the city with the Russians.
However, soon the situation has changed. In the 1621s-1930s, due to the centralization of power, the dependence of the Oirates on Russia weakened; They entered the Dzungarian Khanate, strengthened their power and again began to threaten Tar volosts. Now the Russian governors raised the question of building the city on Omi. This was also due to the protection of exchange trading with the eastern merchants and solay, who were conducted on the steppe lakes of Yamyshevsky, Koryakovsky and others. The long way from Tara to the Yamyshev lakes was uncomfortable without any intermediate point both in the case of swimming for salt and pursuit of Kalmyks during their ruin raids.
In 1627, the Tar governor Prince Yu. I. Shakhovsky persistently asked the country's leadership to establish the Omsk prison. The Tarsky Cossack head Nazariy Zhadovsky examined the place of the future prison and found that it is suitable for the planned one. Finally, the new Tarsky governor Kaisarov in 1628 again asked the tsar to allow the construction of a prison at the mouth of Omi, without which it was impossible to climb the Irtysh. Finally, August 31 (September 10), 1628, Mikhail Fedorovich gave a corresponding decree. However, the foreign policy and domestic political problems of Russia did not allow it to fulfill it quickly. The uprising of Stepan Razin, the Russo-Turkish war of 1672-1681, Crimean campaigns and other events interfered with the structure and defense of the South Siberian borders, the situation on which was constantly changing depending on how the actions of the Jungarian with the East Mongol dynasty developed. When the situation in the steppe became relatively calm, the construction of a prison was again postponed for an indefinite time. However, the need for the OIrats in trade ties with Russia and the development of trade with it even more clearly showed the need for an intermediate point on the way between Yamyshev and Tara.
The situation changed only at the beginning of the 18th century, when the Russian conquest of Siberia was activated. Since Peter I paid great attention to geographical research in the south, the expeditions of that time combined the socio-political tasks and tasks of scientific research. One of these was the expedition of Ivan the Bukholts, the purpose of which was to search for ore and gold deposits, the opening and study of trade routes to India and China, as well as the construction of cities on the Irtysh River. The main initiator of the expedition was the Siberian Governor Matvey Gagarin, who believed that in the area of Yarkenda, who was captured by the Oyrats of the city of Yarkend, there were rich gold mines. The economic difficulties following the Russian-Swedish war served as a good argument in favor of the expedition.
Colonel Ivan Bukhgolz with a team of officers and soldiers of the Preobrazhensky and Moscow regiments, as well as hastily collected in Tobolsk and other Siberian cities of recruits and artisans, left Tobolsk south to the Irtysh in July 1715. In November, the expedition reached Lake Yamyshevsky and built a fortress there. However, the Dzungars regarded this as an encroachment on their lands and, taking it in a siege, three months later they forced the Bukholts to leave the fortress, after which they destroyed. With the remnants of his detachment, who survived hunger and illness, Bhahgolz retreated to the mouth of Omi and laid a new fortress here. According to the Omsk historian Yevgeny Nikolayevich Evseev, the date of this event should be considered May 4-5, 1716 according to the old style.
In 1768, the second (new) city fortress on the right bank of Omi was laid.
Omsk in the XIX century
In the 19th century, Omsk became the administrative center of the Akmola region and the West Siberian, and then the Steppe Governor General, which covered a significant part of Western Siberia and the north of modern Kazakhstan. In Omsk, the residence of the military governor of the Akmola region and the governor of Western Siberia were located.
In 1813, the military school of the Siberian linear Cossack army (later - the Siberian Cadet Corps) was established.
From 1850 to 1854, the writer F. M. Dostoevsky sat in the Omsk prison. The writer described his impressions of the conclusion in the book “Notes from the Dead House”. Due to the fact that, thus, Omsk began to related to Dostoevsky, at the beginning of the 21st century the Government of the Omsk Region decided to appropriate his name to the Omsk State University.
From 1854 to 1868 - the administrative center of the Siberian Kyrgyz region (the Russians initially called the Kazakhs "Kyrgyz").
The only city in Siberia and Asia, which had the right to raise the state flag of the Russian Empire, along with St. Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw, Helsingfors and Tiflis.
Dostoevsky in 1854 spoke like this about the city: “Omsk is an ugly town. There are almost no trees. In summer, heat and wind with sand, in winter, Buran. I have not seen nature. The town is dirty, military and depraved to the highest degree. I'm talking about black people. If I had not found people here, I would have died at all. ”
In 1914, the construction of the Directorate of the Railway for the forces of the Austro-Hungarian prisoners of war began. In 1915, the Omsk water supply was opened.
Omsk during the Civil War
During the Civil War, Omsk was a residence at first the Provisional Siberian Government (led by Peter Vologda), then - the Provisional All -Russian Government (led by Nikolai Avksentiev), then - the Russian government of the Supreme Governor of Admiral A.V. Kolchak. Thus, during the civil war, Omsk was the official capital of the Russian state and white Russia. In November 1919, an offensive operation was carried out by the 3rd and 5th armies of the Eastern Front of the Red Army, which led to the decline in the leadership of White Russia in Omsk.
In 2011, by decision of the Governor of Polezhaev in the building of the mansion of the merchant Batyushkin (now the Irtysh Naberezhnaya, No. 9) - where Kolchak moved from the house of Cossack Colonel V.I. Volkov (Atamanskaya Street, 3; now Pushkin Street, 74) After his election to the post of supreme ruler, the Center for the Study of the History of the Civil War was opened.
Finally, Soviet power was established in 1920.
In the summer of 1921, an event took place, which had a decisive influence on the cultural and economic life of Omsk. The functions of the administrative center of Siberia passed from him to the city of Novonikolaevsk (future Novosibirsk), and there, and not in Omsk, the main literary forces began to be focused. In the fall of this year, the city left Sibsizdat and the editors of the newspaper Sovetskaya Siberia.
The material difficulties of the first years of the NEP have poorly affected many institutions of the culture of Siberia. Filted from the state budget, they were mainly closed due to a lack of funding. Already in February 1922, the Omsk Proletult was closed, and with it his theater is a prerevte.
On August 14, 1930, the city of Leninsk-Omsky was united with the city of Omsk. On April 10, 1933, the city of Novo-Omsk was united with the city of Omsk. By a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR of March 20, 1947, Omsk was allocated to an independent administrative and economic center with its special budget and classified as cities of republican subordination of the RSFSR. On June 3, 1958, this status was canceled.
The Great Patriotic War radically changed the life of the whole country. For the rear Omsk, it became not only the time of loss, but also the time of formation and development. In these years, his intellectual and industrial potential has sharply increased. About a hundred industrial enterprises and thousands of people were evacuated to Omsk from the front line. All material and human resources of the region were aimed at providing the front. The city turned into a forge of weapons and military equipment.
Omsk plants produced planes, tanks, mines, radio stations, optical sights and binoculars. In Omsk there were a design bureau and a plant of experimental aircraft construction, where outstanding domestic designers A. N. Tupolev, S.P. Korolev and others worked. It was from the war years that the development of the Omsk giants of the industry, such as the Motor -Building Enterprise named after P.I. Baranov, Electrotopolitor factories, them. N. G. Kozitsky, Future Association “Flight” and others. During these years, a tire factory, a cord factory were built in Omsk. The war left its mark in the form of huge factory corps in the very center of the city. On the outskirts of Omsk, new industrial areas arose, the cord and Chkalovsky villages, the village of Baranov, appeared.
During the war years, Omsk became the center for the formation of military formations, the Omsk region sent about 287 thousand people to the front, 144 thousand of them did not return. For courage and courage, tens of thousands of Omsk were awarded orders and medals. Among the awarded 136 heroes of the Soviet Union, 33 full cavalry of the Orders of Glory. More than 3,500 workers and engineering workers are awarded with government awards, several thousand were awarded the medal "For Valiant Labor in the Great Patriotic War."
In 1948, mass landscaping of the city began. In October 1953, at a joint meeting of the Executive Committee of the Omsk City Council and the Omsk City Committee of the CPSU, an appeal was adopted to the Omsk residents: “We will make Omsk a city city!” And already in 1956. For the successes achieved in landscaping and landscaping, the city of Omsk was awarded a diploma of the 1st degree and the chairman of the city executive committee N. Rozhdestvensky-a large gold medal of the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition.
In 1979, the Omskagropromkhimiy Association was created in Omsk, the Avangard basin was commissioned in the Leninsky district, the Tourist hotel complex was opened, and the newspaper “Evening Omsk” appeared.
The economic crisis that covered the country after the collapse
of the USSR was negatively reflected in the economy of the city and
the region as a whole, a significant decline in industrial
production was observed, construction volumes fell and the
unemployment rate grew.
In the mid-1990s, the administrative-territorial division of Omsk was changed. On December 18, 1996, the Central Administrative District was formed within the borders of the Kuibyshevsky and Central regions of Omsk. On May 21, 1997, by a decision of the Omsk City Council, the Soviet administrative district was formed within the boundaries of the Sovetsky district and a significant part of the Pervomaisky district, part of the Pervomaisky district was included in the Central Administrative District, at the same time Kirovsky, Leninsky and Oktyabrsky districts were renamed Kirovsky, Leninsky and October Administrative Districts .
In April 2008, for creating conditions for the development of territorial public self-government, the city of Omsk was first awarded the diploma of the International Forum "Megapolis-XXI Century" of the first international review "Best City of the CIS".
Omsk is located in the south of the West Siberian plain in the
southern subzone of the forest-steppe zone at the site of the confluence
of the Om River in the Irtysh of 150 km from the border with Kazakhstan.
It occupies a river valley: I understand, the first and second
floodplain terraces and the indigenous shore. The first Nargovy terrace
of the Right Bank of the Irtysh with a gentle slope passes to the
second; Most of the city is located here. To the east and north-east of
heights grow, here is the second floodplain terrace and the beginning of
the watershed zone, divided into two parts of the Omi valley. The
terrain is flat, the monotonous relief is slightly disturbed by the
decreases of small flat traps, the river naval, ancient hollows of the
drain and the hryvnia. The lower mark of the height above sea level is
located in the floodplain (69 m), the upper one is on the watershed
plateaus (124 m).
Within the city there are two large rivers, numerous small rivers, as well as lakes and ducts. The length of the Irtysh in the city line is more than 25 km. Irtysh spills have repeatedly caused floods in the city. So, in 1818, most of the Podgorny Forstadt was flooded. In 1845, water reached such a level that they moved through the streets. The flood of 1892 lasted several days. The buildings of Lyubinsky Prospekt and Lyubin Grove were badly affected by him. The flood of 1928 was also destructive.
The maximum duration of the day is 17 hours 21 minutes, the minimum is 7 hours 10 minutes (during the solstice). The predominant direction of the wind in winter is the southwest, in the summer-the northwest. The largest wind speed is marked in winter and spring, which is the cause of frequent snowstorms and dust storms.
The soils of the city in 1941 were as follows: gray forests, ordinary chernozems, meadow-black, black-and-luminous, meadow, lunar, malt, alluvial and marsh. However, over time, the soils change due to various factors, such as a change in groundwater level, degradation, salinization and overcoming, reducing the power of the humus layer, loss of structure, a change in the addition of the soil profile and others.
Omsk is located in the clock zone of MSC+3. The displacement of the used time relative to the UTC is +6: 00. In accordance with the time and geographical longitude used, the average sunny afternoon in Omsk occurs at 13:07.
Omsk belongs to the temperate climatic zone with the continental
climate of the forest-steppe of the West Siberian belt. He is
distinguished by an abundance of sunlight. The average duration of sunny
radiance in Omsk, as in Yalta, is 2223 hours for a year - more than in
many resorts of the Caucasus and the Mediterranean coast of Western
Europe, not much less than in Rome (2362 hours), much more than in
Batumi (1890 h.) or Kharkov (1748 hours). The average air temperature in
January is −19.2 ° C, in July 18.3 ° C. Absolute temperatures in January
range from +4 to −45 ° C, and in July from +1 to +41 ° C. The highest
temperature in Omsk for the entire observation period was recorded on
July 18, 1940 - +40.4 ° C, the lowest temperature was marked on February
3, 1931 (−45.5 ° C). The Omsk area belongs to the zone of insufficient
Average annual temperature - +2.1 ° C;
The average annual wind speed is 2.8 m/s;
Average annual humidity - 71 %;
The average duration of sunlight per year is 2223 hours.
The most windy month is April, the most cloudy is October, the most clear is March. The snow cover is the highest (38 cm on average) in February and March, and in May - June the greatest probability of dusting storms.
Omsk vegetation reflects the location of the city near the border of
the forest -steppe and steppe natural zones, as well as the influence of
human civilization. There are no natural forests in the vicinity of the
city. Small rare birch-axine codes are removed from Omsk a considerable
distance, and there are almost no forests south of the city in the
Irtysh. Around there are open sown areas.
Cultivated urban plants, weed ores and fragments of natural vegetation grow on the territory of the city itself. Forest vegetation is concentrated mainly on the outskirts and is mainly secondary. Forests are mainly formed by the birch of the whisper with an admixture of aspen. In the herbal tier, the skids are dominated by a dubious, double -flowered solo, Siberian hogweed, Ural's sorester, Russian Iris, Kostyanika, Vasiliznik Small, Louis Wormwood, Tupernoye Weekel, Narrow -leaved one and some others.
In the city center, between the Vodokanal building and the square named after The 30th anniversary of the Komsomol, the oldest tree of Omsk is growing-white willow (132 years). In the girth, the barrel is 5.5 meters, in height - more than 10 meters. The willow was planted in 1884 and is a monument of nature. Another long-lived tree grows near the local history museum. This is a Siberian apple tree, in which the height of the barrel to the branches is 2.3 meters, and the width of the crown is 6 meters. This apple tree is the only one remaining from the apple orchard, which began to be divided even under Gasford. The tree was planted in 1889 by a member of the Geographical Society Pavel Yasherov, who brought from Transbaikalia a new variety at that time - Siberian apple tree. The garden was demolished in the 1970s. In honor of him, the Yablonka store known to Omsks was named to Omsk, and later a public transport stop.
There are many poplars in Omsk. Dube atypical for Omsk, oaks can still occur. In particular, in the park, which is located next to the Omsk State Agrarian University and in the square of the Omsk State Technical University, as well as on the contrary, next to the Palace of Creativity. For more than 20 years, oaks have been growing in the 5th microdistrict of the Left Bank, as well as on the territory of the Leninsky district on ul. 10th alternate.
In Omsk there is a natural park within the city - "bird harbor." In the city and the surroundings, 288 species of birds are noted and another 12 require clarification. Among the lifting species is a curly pelican, black stork, flamingo, owl and black raven, as well as various blackbirds. Various types of pursuits, herbs, larks, wagtails and skates, tits, various ducks, lines and falcons, seagulls, pigeon, baecas and rye fly nesting or flying through the city. They fly through Omsk Okop, Orlan-Whilokhvost and Sapsan, can fly up to the steppe eagle, and in the past the golden eagle was nested. There are nook quails, partridges and black grouse, in the past, perhaps the hazel grouse also nested. Vernovye are represented by magpies, jackdaws, rooks and gray crows. He nests and hibernates in the southern forest -steppe of the Sertysh and Raven. On the city streets, blue pigeons and sparrows are numerous. Sometimes the ducklings run out of the road near the green zones, forcing motorists to stop and wait until the chicks are driven to a safe place. In June 2016, the Red Book Swans Sipunes, probably formerly a span from the Maryanovsky district of the Omsk region, were seen in the Bird Harbor.
The environmental situation in Omsk is associated with the size of
the millionaire city and the presence of a large number of large
industries in it. In the past, it was unfavorable. Since 2011, the city
environmental development rating has risen significantly, and by 2014,
Omsk has turned from outsiders into one of the leaders. This was the
result of large-scale modernization of many large industries (including
the Omsk oil factory, TGK-11, etc.). If, before, the greatest air
pollution was noted in the Soviet district, which concentrates the main
production, then in February 2016 the level of air pollution in it
became low, as well as in the Lenin and October districts. The central
and Kirov districts with the most intense automobile traffic turned out
to be problematic.
The degree of pollution of Omsk rivers - Irtysh and Omi - does not change much. It is forbidden to swim in them over the past ten years. While industrial drains are becoming more environmentally friendly, city storm collectors pass waste into rivers, including diesel fuel and oil products. Another source of pollution is numerous landfills in the water protection zone and garbage training grounds devoid of water treatment facilities. The lack of federal financing of treatment infrastructure cannot be covered with the city budget, so the problem remains. Some improvement in the quality of the Irtysh water is mainly associated with an economic downturn (reduced capacity of urban enterprises and a water crisis), as well as increased control of sand mining from the coastal zone and cleansing the river water area from sunken vessels and carriage wagons that fell into the Irtysh during the railway accidents. Krasnogorsk hydroelectric station in Irtysh can improve the situation, but after the bankruptcy of NPO Mostovik, its construction stopped. In addition, as a result of the construction of the dam, there may be a threat of flooding of a number of environmentally hazardous objects, the erosion of the coast, flooding of numerous summer cottages and support of water at the mouth of Omi.
Twice a year, a general cleaning of the city with the participation of citizens takes place. However, problems with the municipal solution of garbage issues have been accompanied by Omsk for a long time. Garbage for months lies on many streets, especially in the private sector, garden and garage cooperatives. In a number of places, entire quarters of old residential buildings of a barracks type become dumps, since garbage is not exported from them for years. The city system of collecting and exporting solid household waste, as well as a system for monitoring this is ineffective, and as a result, after the elimination of unauthorized landfills, garbage again appears in the same place. In April 2014, two training grounds (Leninsky and Kirovsky), who took 80 % of city garbage, lost their licenses, but continued to work illegally. The actions of the municipality were aimed at avoiding the execution of a court decision on the reclamation of landfills, instead of solving an approaching environmental problem. In April 2016, the last, environmentally hazardous training ground in the village of Nadezhdino was closed, and the city has no specific solutions of the “garbage collapse” long -predicted by ecologists.
From 1967 to the collapse of the USSR, Omsk wore the status of a city city, however, in the 1990s, due to mass deforestation, the status was lost, and the dissatisfied Omsk came up with the comic status of “city-Pen”. Historically, the city was in conditions when more than 60 % of green spaces should be replaced by new ones. The reasons are mainly the mass aging of trees planted in the middle of the 20th century, the collapse of the system of maintenance and reproduction of green spaces and the meager budget of the city. Nevertheless, control of the problem areas was strengthened, and landscaping is gaining momentum, including with the involvement of public organizations and individual initiative citizens. At the beginning of 2016, the total area of green spaces is more than 13 thousand hectares, or 15 m²/people. Green spaces of public. According to the last parameter, Omsk exceeds the federal norm.
Also, a serious problem of the city is dust spreading with dusty storms and containing many harmful substances, including lead.