Buryatia, Russia

Buryatia, in long form the Republic of Buryatia, is a subject, as a republic, of Russia, located in the far eastern federal district, its capital of which is the city of Ulan-Ude. Rosstat assigns it the code 03, and its registration code is 81. The land of the Buryats, the largest ethnic minority group in Siberia, their language Buryat is co-official with Russian in the republic.

Located at the meeting of the steppe landscapes of Central Asia, the taiga of Eastern Siberia and Lake Baikal, the sacred sea of the Buryats, Buryatia is located in the mountainous and steppe region of Transbaikalia, a region also called Dauria. Populated by Mongol peoples in prehistory, it came under the rule of the Xiongnu in 220 BC, a confederation of nomadic peoples. It was then conquered in turn by the Xianbei, the Ruanruan khanate, the Kyrgyz Yenisei Khaganate and then by the Liao dynasty at the turn of the second millennium. It is one of the first regions to enter the Mongol Empire when it was founded in 1206. Subsequently, the Northern Yuan Dynasty recovers the region until the seventeenth century. At this time, the Russian colonists from the conquest of Siberia enter the territory, establishing the first settlements there. In 1729, the Treaty of Kiakhta defined the Russian border with the Qing Dynasty, and Buryatia became Russian. From then on, it is successively part of the government of Siberia, the government of Irkutsk, then the Transbaikalia oblast. After the Russian civil war, the Buryat-Mongolian autonomous Soviet socialist republic was proclaimed in 1923 within the Russian SFSR. During the collapse of the USSR, the Buryat SSR became the Republic of Buryatia within the new Russian state.

In 2023, its population amounted to 974,628 inhabitants, stagnating since the 1980s. The population is unevenly distributed, with an average density of 2.77 inhabitants / km2, with an urban population of 59.3%, largely in the capital Ulan-Ude. Russians are the majority there, with 59.45% of the population, while Buryats represent only 30.61% according to the 2021 census. Religions are diverse, with a fifth of the population being Buddhist.

An agricultural and industrial region, its economy still remains undeveloped, with a gross regional product in 2021 of about 1,000 billion rubles, or the 62nd of the 85 Russian subjects, and an unemployment rate of 9.6%. However, it has a developing tourist sector, thanks to Lake Baikal, the largest liquid freshwater reserves on the planet and the deepest lake in the world, classified as a UNESCO World Heritage site, as do the landscapes of the Daourioe, a cross-border site with neighboring Mongolia. Buryatia generally has an important natural heritage, with large reserves such as the Tunka National Park, the Barguzin nature reserve or the Baikal nature reserve. Its heritage is also cultural, thanks to the Buddhist heritage, such as the datsan of Ivolguinsk, but also thanks to the Russian heritage, with the Semeiskie, community of "Old Believers", whose cultural space and oral culture is on the UNESCO list of intangible cultural heritage of humanity.



Western Buryatia
Okinsky district, Tunkinsky district
Here are the historical settlements of Tunka and Arshan.

Northern Buryatia
Severo-Baikalsky district, Muisky district, Bauntovsky Evenki district, Kurumkansky district, Barguzinsky district
Here are the historical settlements of Barguzin and Ust-Barguzin.

Eastern Buryatia
Eravninsky district, Khorinsky district, Kizhinginsky district
Here is the historical settlement of Khorinsk.

Southern Buryatia
Zakamensky district, Dzhidinsky district, Kyakhtinsky district, Bichursky district, Selenginsky district, Mukhorshibirsky district
Here are the historical settlements of Kyakhta and Novoselenginsk.

Eastern Baikal region
Pribaikalsky district, Kabansky district
Here are the historical settlements of Goryachinsk, Ilyinka, Troitskoye, Kabansk, Posolskoye, Babushkin.

Central Buryatia
Ivolginsky district, Tarbagataisky district, Zaigraevsky district
Here are the historical settlements of Tarbagatai, New Bryan, Narin-Atsagat.



Baikalsky Nature Reserve
Barguzin Nature Reserve
Dzherginsky Nature Reserve


Other destinations

Ivolginsky Datsan
Lake Baikal
Tunkinsky National Park
Zabaykalsky National Park is the most interesting place on the eastern shore of Lake Baikal. Here the mountains rise above the lake by almost one and a half thousand meters, and if you climb the Holy Nose plateau (which not everyone succeeds!), you will see a panorama of rare beauty. The views from the water are no worse: surrounded by mountains, Chivyrkuysky Bay is rightfully considered one of the most picturesque places of the lake, and on the Ushkany Islands you can see the famous Baikal seal.

The Tunka Valley runs away to the west of Lake Baikal, cutting into the massif of the Eastern Sayan Mountains. Arshan resort is located here, equally popular among residents of the Irkutsk region and Buryatia, although the valley is remarkable not only for them. This is the most agricultural part of the republic, lined with a network of neat hedges. Meadows are sometimes interrupted by groves, and majestic mountains rise above them — Tunka Loaches. In the west, the valley narrows, reaching Mount Munku-Sardyk, the highest point of the Sayan Mountains.
The Tugnui Valley is located along the Chita highway on the way from Ulan-Ude to Petrovsk-Zabaikalsky. This is a very beautiful and completely lifeless steppe, where only occasionally there are nondescript villages, rural datsans, and large rocks hung with Buddhist ribbons.
The mouth of the Selenga and the Kaban steppes adjacent to it are one of the resort places on the eastern shore of Lake Baikal, with a low shore and warm water. It is also interesting in terms of architecture, since along the Selenga there was a historical path to Transbaikalia, along which several monasteries were built. The best of them is the Embassy, which stands on the very shore with a wonderful cathedral and a mystical pile of crosses in memory of the royal embassy killed at this place. The Baikal highway and the railway pass nearby.
Khamar-Daban is a mountain range bordering Lake Baikal from the south. This is probably the best place on the lake for active recreation: there are several ski resorts here, and the trail to Chersky Peak (2090 m) is one of the simplest and, at the same time, very beautiful hiking routes. Roads and resort villages are huddled along the shore of the lake, in one of which, Tankhoe, the office of the Baikal Nature Reserve is located. It is not easy to visit the reserve itself, as usual, but the visit center deserves attention as one of the most modern nature museums in Russia, which also has equipped ecological trails that are laid through forests and upper marshes on the slopes of Khamar-Daban.



Lake Baikal
Arshan is a large climatic and balneological resort at the foot of the Eastern Sayan Mountains.
Bichura is the largest semey village in Transbaikalia
Nilova Pustyn - resort in the Tunkinskaya Valley
Zhemchug - a resort village in the Tunkinskaya Valley
Mondy - automobile border crossing into Mongolia
Orlik: Zhoygan, Khoyto-Gol, valley of volcanoes, Sailag waterfall, Nuhu-Daban, Geser Temple
Maksimikha is one of the most beautiful and interesting places on the Baikal coast: Barguzinsky and Chivyrkuisky bays
Enkhaluk is a popular holiday destination on the southeastern shore of Lake Baikal with golden beaches and warm water
Goryachinsk is a popular resort on the shores of Lake Baikal, created in 1751.
Tarbagatai and Novaya Bryansk are the old Russian culture of Semeisk (Old Believers), recognized by UNESCO as a masterpiece of the oral and intangible heritage of humanity.
Peter and Paul Fortress: Sartul-Gegetuisky datsan, Atagan-Dyrestuisky datsan, Tabangut-Ichetuysky datsan, Sartuul-Bulagsky datsan, Sarbaduy cave, Burin-Khan, Lake Tagley, Mount Kharaty, Borgoysky reserve
Sosnovo-Ozerskoye: Egituisky datsan, Eravny lakes, Maraktinskaya valley, poetic rock garden
Barguzin: Barguzin datsan, goddess Yanzhima, Suva castle
Kurumkan: mineral springs Alla, Kucheger, Umkhey, Garga, Buksyken, Mount Baragkhan
Bagdarin: Baunt resort, White Mountain, Dolganskaya Yama cave, extinct volcanoes
Taximo: Vitim River (Ugryum River), Muyskaya Valley, Severomuysky Tunnel, Paramskaya Cave, Zolotoe Plateau
Naushki - railway border crossing to Mongolia
Zarubino is a village on the border with Mongolia, rich in archaeological monuments of the Xiongnu era.
Ivolginsk is the administrative center of the Ivolginsky district
Khorinsk - village
Kijinga - village
Nizhneangarsk is an urban-type settlement
Taksimo is an urban village

Transbaikal National Park is the most interesting place on the eastern shore of Lake Baikal. Here the mountains rise above the lake by almost one and a half thousand meters, and if you climb onto the Holy Nose plateau (which not everyone can do!), you will see a panorama of rare beauty. The views from the water are no worse: the Chivyrkuisky Bay, surrounded by mountains, is rightfully considered one of the most picturesque places of the lake, and on the Ushkany Islands you can see the famous Baikal seal.

The Tunkinskaya Valley goes west of Lake Baikal, crashing into the Eastern Sayan massif. Here is the Arshan resort, equally popular among residents of the Irkutsk region and Buryatia, although the valley is not only remarkable for them. This is the most agricultural part of the republic, lined with a network of neat hedges. The meadows are sometimes interrupted by groves, and majestic mountains rise above them - Tunkinsky Goltsy. In the west, the valley narrows, leading to Mount Munku-Sardyk, the highest point of the Sayan Mountains.

The Tugnuiskaya Valley is located along the Chita tract on the way from Ulan-Ude to Petrovsk-Zabaikalsky. This is a very beautiful and completely lifeless steppe, where only occasionally there are nondescript villages, rural datsans, and large rocks hung with Buddhist ribbons.

The mouth of the Selenga and the adjacent Kaban steppes are one of the resort places on the eastern shore of Lake Baikal, with a low bank and warm water. It is also interesting in terms of architecture, since along the Selenga there was a historical route to Transbaikalia, along which several monasteries were built. The best of them is Posolsky, standing on the very shore, with a wonderful cathedral and a mystical pile of crosses in memory of the royal embassy killed on this site. The Baikal highway and the railway are nearby.

Khamar-Daban is a mountain range that borders Lake Baikal from the south. This is perhaps the best place on the lake for active recreation: there are several ski resorts, and the trail to Chersky Peak (2090 m) is one of the simplest and, at the same time, very beautiful hiking routes. Roads and resort villages cluster close to the shore of the lake, in one of which, Tankhoy, is the office of the Baikal Nature Reserve. Visiting the reserve itself, as usual, is not easy, but the visitor center deserves attention as one of the most modern nature museums in Russia, which also has equipped ecological trails that run through forests and raised bogs on the slopes of Khamar-Daban.


What to do

Recharge yourself with the powerful energy of Lake Baikal
Find peace and peace of mind in the protected corners of Buryatia
Perform a ritual of offering to Buddhist shrines
Bow to the goddess Yanzhima (Barguzin), asking for vitality and fertility for your family
Receive the blessing of the incorruptible body of Pandito Khambo Lama Itigelov
Visit one of the most revered Buddhist shrines in Russia - the statue of the Sandalwood Buddha (Zandan Zhuu) in the Egituysky datsan
Get in touch with other worlds on a shamanic tailagan
Attend a colorful and mesmerizing theatrical Buddhist performance - the Tsam mystery - in the Tamchinsky datsan (Gusinoozersk) or in the Buddhist temple Hambyn Khure (Ulan-Ude)
Get acquainted with the unique and original culture of the Semeisk (Trans-Baikal Old Believers) in Tarbagatai or New Bryan
Feel the breath of eternity, feel the aura of the ancient Xiongnu civilization at the Ivolginsky settlement
Plunge into the era of the mighty Genghis Khan at the Merkit fortress in the Tugnui Valley
Strengthen your body tone at the miraculous resorts and mineral springs
Visit the Valley of Volcanoes in Gornaya Oka, full of secrets and mysteries
Improve your health at the Center for Oriental Medicine, where the thousand-year experience of Tibetan medicine and the advanced achievements of modern healthcare are organically combined
Study the Atlas of Tibetan Medicine in the Museum of the History of Buryatia - a priceless rarity, an outstanding monument of fine art of the Middle Ages
Get acquainted with the grandiose collection of antiquities in the Kyakhtinsky Museum of Local Lore
Take a look at the ethnographic museum of the peoples of Transbaikalia, where an ensemble of the rich cultural heritage of the peoples living on the shores of Lake Baikal is collected
Feel the atmosphere of old Verkhneudinsk by walking through the historical center of Ulan-Ude
Visit the Jarun Khashore Stupa - an analogue of the Bodhnath Stupa, located near Kathmandu in Nepal. In Tibetan, the name is interpreted as “the stupa that fulfills wishes.”



Ethnographic Museum of the Peoples of Transbaikalia, Ulan-Ude, Verkhnyaya Berezovka. ✉ ☎ +7 (3012) 44-33-10, 33-25-10. In summer: from 09.30 to 18.00; on weekends - from 10.00 to 19.00. In winter: from 09.00 to 17.00.. Ticket price for adults - 100 rubles, for students - 60 rubles, for schoolchildren and pensioners - 50 rubles. How to get there: by minibus No. 37
Museum of the History of Buryatia, Ulan-Ude, st. Profsoyuznaya, 29. ☎ +7 (3012) 21-40-08, 21-06-53.
Art Museum, Ulan-Ude, st. Kuibysheva, 29. ☎ + 7 (3012) 21-29-09, 21-43-93.
Kyakhta Local History Museum (Branch and information center in Ulan-Ude - Sovetskaya St. 27 a), Kyakhta, st. Lenina, 49. ✉ ☎ +7 (30142) 92-1-46. Adults - 70 rubles, students - 25 rubles, schoolchildren - 15 rubles, foreign citizens - 100 rubles. Preferential admission: preschoolers, disabled people, WWII veterans, conscripts - free. One of the oldest museums in Siberia and the Far East, founded in 1890. A unique collection from the Xiongnu era. There is a branch in Ulan-Ude on the street. Sovetskaya 27a



Buryat State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater, Ulan-Ude, st. Lenina, 51. ☎ +7 (3012) 21-39-13, 21-44-54, fax: +7 (3012) 21-44-54.
Buryat State Academic Drama Theater, Ulan-Ude, st. Kuibysheva, 38. ☎ +7 (3012) 22-25-37, 64-14-55, 22-25-46.
Puppet theater "Ulger", Ulan-Ude, st. Lenina, 46. ☎ +7 (3012) 21-80-37, 21-22-92, fax: +7 (3012) 21-80-37.
Song and Dance Theater "Baikal", Ulan-Ude, st. Erbanova, 6. ☎ +7 (3012) 21-78-96, 43-05-06.
State Circus of Buryatia, Ulan-Ude, Pobeda Ave., 17. ✉ ☎ +7 (3012) 22-36-56, 46-12-29.



Sagaalgan: Buddhist New Year according to the lunar calendar. The holiday is celebrated for almost a month. The date is "floating" - calculated by Buddhist monks according to the lunar calendar. The day of the Sagaalgan offensive is annually declared a day off by the Head of the Republic of Buryatia. February 24, 2020.
Festival of national traditions "Buuzyn Bayar". February 24, 2020, Ulan-Ude city.
The world flash mob "Grand Exor". February 24, 2020, the city of Ulan-Ude.
Interregional freeride competitions "Formula Mamai 2020". February 22-24, 2020, Bolshoy Mamai River, Kabansky district.
Days of Culture and Art of Buryatia in Moscow. February 25-26, 2020, Moscow, the State Kremlin Palace.
All-Russian rapid chess competitions for prizes of the D.D. Zayaev Buddhist University "Dashi Choinkhorlin". February 26, 2020, Ivolginsky datsan, Ivolginsky district.
The open snow fight tournament "Snow Battle in Sayan". February 29, 2020, Tunka district.
Festival of speed on the ice of Lake Baikal "Baikal mile". February 27 - March 1, 2020, Maksimikha village of Barguzinsky district.
Broad Carnival. On March 1, 2020, the city of Ulan-Ude, the Ethnographic Museum of the Peoples of Transbaikalia.
Ice fishing competitions, relay race "Reserved triathlon", dog sledding race "Chivyrkuysky Dog Sprint" contests, games, concert and entertainment program "Chivyrkuyskie fun. March 15, 2020, Barguzinsky district.
The festival of children's and youth books "Paper Key". March 27, 2020, the city of Ulan-Ude.
XVI ice fishing tournament "Baikal fishing 2020". March 27 — 28, 2020, Turka village of the Baikal region.
Ice fishing tournament "Northern Baikal". On March 28, 2020, the village of Nizhneangarsk in the North Baikal region.
Baikal Tourist Fair "Baikal Travel Mart - Tourism and recreation in Buryatia"". April 26 — 28, 2020, the city of Ulan-Ude.
The international freestyle wrestling tournament "Baikal Open 2020" for the prizes of the Head of Buryatia. March 28-29, 2020, Ulan-Ude city.
VIII PIZZICATO Chamber Music Festival. April 1-30, 2020, Ulan-Ude city.
The championship of the Siberian Federal District in mountaineering in the discipline of skyrunning "Capricorn 2020". On April 13, 2020, the village of Arshan in the Tunka district.
The feast of the meeting of swans. April 14, 2020, Khorinsky district.
Baikal ski Marathon. April 20 — 21, 2020, Maksimikha village of Barguzinsky district.
The Eryn Gurban Naadan tournament in honor of the goddess Yanzhima. On April 28, 2020, the village of Yarikto in the Barguzinsky district.
Munku-Sardyk Festival: climbing mountain trails of varying difficulty, including the "Eternally White Char", and the bard song festival. May 1-5, 2020, the village of Mondy, Tunka district.
The traditional prayer service is Barkhan Tahilgaan. May 2, 2020, Kurumkan district.
"The day of the herdsman." On May 16, 2020, the village of Uldurga, Yeravninsky district.
The official opening of the Ulan-Ude Water rowing season is the Water Open Cup. On June 1, 2020, the city of Ulan-Ude.
All-Russian boxing tournament "Baikal". June 1 - 30, 2020, the city of Ulan-Ude.
The festival of Russian culture "Baikal round dance". June 7, 2020.
IX International Student Scientific and Practical Conference "Sustainable development of service technologies". June 10 - 13, 2020, Maksimikha village of Barguzinsky district.
The International forum "Tourism Week on the Great Silk Road". June 10-16, 2020, Ulan-Ude city.
"Summer school for young artists". On June 12, 2020, the village of Enkhaluk in Kabansky district.
A holiday dedicated to the history of the Hunnu tribes. On June 13, 2020, the city of Ulan-Ude.
Interregional summer school-festival "Baikal fantasies". On June 15-26, 2020, the village of Enkhaluk in Kabansky district.
Interregional festival "Yanzhima Necklace". On June 20, 2020, the village of Yarikto in the Barguzinsky district.
The holiday of craftsmanship "Cottage Cheese axe". On June 21, 2020, the village of Tvorogovo Kabansky district.
Catch the Wave Festival. June 27, 2020, Lake Shchuchye, Selenginsky district.
National holiday "Naadan Surkharban". June 30 - July 3, 2020, the city of Ulan-Ude.
The festival "Night of the Thief". July 3, 2020, the city of Ulan-Ude.
Strawberry Paradise Festival and Fair. On July 11, 2020, the village of Vydrino Kabansky district.
The XII International Music Festival "The Voice of the Nomads. Baikal/Buryatia": World Music Festival. July 11 — 13, 2020.
Fisherman's Day in Chivyrkuy Bay. July 12, 2020, Kurbulik village of Barguzinsky district.
All-Russian archery competitions "Arrows of Baikal. July 17, 2020, the city of Ulan-Ude.
VIII Interregional youth festival of Evenk culture "Baikal Argish". July 23-25, 2020, village of Enkhaluk, Kabansky district.
The festival - fair "Fofonovsky cucumber". On July 26, 2020, the village of Fofonovo Kabansky district.
Traditional games "108 Suburgans". July 27, 2020, the village of Khorinsk, Khorinsky district.
Milk Festival "Sagaan eden nair 2020". August 7-8, 2020, the village of Khilgana, Barguzinsky district.
Republican berry festival "Kikinskoe basket". On August 9, 2020, the village of Kika, Pribaikalsky district.
International Street Film Festival. August 10, 2020, the city of Severobaikalsk.
The Baikal Wind Water Sports Festival. On August 13, 2020, the village of Posolskoye in Kabansky district.
The festival of culture of the Semey - Old Believers of Transbaikalia "Bichursky Yantari". On August 14, 2020, the village of Bichura, Bichura district.
Running marathon "Clean Baikal". On August 15, 2020, the village of Maksimikha in the Barguzinsky district.
Competitions in national sports dedicated to the holiday of Hambo Lama D.-D. Itigelova. August 22 - 31, 2020, Ivolginsky datsan, Ivolginsky district.
Rural holiday "Cherry Blossom Festival on Chikoe". On September 5, 2020, the Kiran area of the Kyakhtinsky district.
A parade in honor of the formation of the Selenga Infantry regiment. On September 21, 2020, the settlement of Novoselenginsk in the Selenginsky district.
The festival "Great Melodies of the Great Steppe". September 26 - 27, 2020, Novoselenginsk settlement of Selenginsky district.
The Bichurskaya Potato Festival. October 2, 2020, the village of Bichura, Bichura district.
Fashion Week "Baikal Fashion Week 2020". December 5-6, 2020, the city of Ulan-Ude.



The Great Tea Way is a route from China to Russia, through the territory of Buryatia.
Baikal—Khubsugul. The route linking the two great lakes of Asia — the Russian Baikal and the Mongolian Khubsugul - is gaining more and more popularity. The route passes through the picturesque Tunka Valley.
"The Pilgrim's Way" (according to the places of Hambo Lama Dasha-Dorjo Itigelov): Ulan-Ude - Aninsky datsan — Egitui datsan — Arangin—Arya Bala - Talyn Khargana — Tamchinsky datsan — Ivolginsky datsan.
On the way of Archpriest Avvakum — acquaintance with the history of the development of Transbaikalia by Old Believers



The main language spoken by the population of Buryatia is Russian, Buryat is possible. In remote villages where Buryats live mainly, you can meet people who do not speak Russian. These are mainly preschool children and the elderly adult population.

Knowledge of English is a rarity among the population. Even in the tourist-oriented service sector, you don't often find English-speaking staff. But the situation is changing.

The development of tourism has become one of the priorities of the policy of the republican authorities. The agencies responsible for the tourism sector encourage the study of foreign languages by specialists of the hospitality industry in every possible way. Menus in English are already appearing in restaurants, and in the near future it is planned to equip the streets and roads of Buryatia with the necessary signs and information boards understandable for foreign guests.


How to get there

All routes mainly lie through the transport hub of Ulan-Ude, or from neighboring regions and Mongolia.

By plane
Ulan-Ude International Airport (IATA:UUD) "Baikal".

As of November 23, 2012, the airport accepts 13 flights.

International flights are operated - Ulaanbaatar, Beijing, Manchuria, Thailand (Bangkok), Vietnam (Da Nang, Cam Ranh).

There is a connection with the following cities in Russia: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Chita, Yakutsk, Khabarovsk, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk.

Flights are made inside Buryatia: Bagdarin, Nizhneangarsk, Taksimo.

By train
The Trans-Siberian Railway passes through the territory of the republic in part of the East Siberian Railway (VSZHD) and the Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM).

The main bus stops in Buryatia: Mysovaya in Babushkin, Ulan-Ude on the Transsib, Severobaikalsk and Taksimo on BAM.

The VSZHD has a TS-8 trunk branch "Ulan-Ude — Naushki — Ulaanbaatar — Beijing", with large stations of Zagustai (Gusinoozersk), Jida and Naushki. There is a railway border crossing to Mongolia in Naushki.

By car
The federal highway M55 Baikal runs through the territory of the republic, which connects the Irkutsk Region in the west of the republic and the Trans-Baikal Territory in the east.

From Mongolia to Buryatia, you can get through the car crossings in the city of Kyakhta and the village of Mondy (Tunka district).

In the near future, two more automobile crossings will open on the border with Mongolia — in Zheltur (Dzhida district) and Ainek Gol (Zakamensky district). The construction of crossings is in full swing on both sides of the borders.


Local transport

The main vehicle for residents of Buryatia is a car. All major settlements of the republic can be reached from Ulan-Ude by minibus or bus.

Buses depart from Ulan-Ude to different places in Buryatia from several points: the bus station, the forecourt of the Ulan-Ude railway station, Tsivileva Street (opposite the Sagaan Morin shopping center), Banzarov Square.

From the railway station, buses depart to Chita (Aginsky Buryat district), Irkutsk (Ust-Ordynsky Buryat district), Arshan, Kyren, to recreation centers on Lake Baikal: Sukhaya, Enkhaluk, Baikal Surf, Kultushnaya.

From Banzarov Square, you can go to Gurulba, Zvezdny, Ivolginsk, Oshurkovo, Sosnovy Bor, Sotnikovo, Tapkhar. To get to Ivolginsky datsan, you need to take the minibus 130 to Ivolginsk, then you need to transfer to another bus that will take you to datsan. On major religious holidays, minibuses run from Banzarov Square directly to the datsan.

From the bus station you can go to almost all regional centers and large settlements of Buryatia, with which there is a car connection: Arshan, Barguzin, Bichura, Goryachinsk, Gremyachinsk, Gusinoozersk, Zagan, Zakamensk, Irkutsk, Kudara, Kultushnaya, Kurumkan, Kyren, Kyakhta, Mukhorshibir, Orlik, Petropavlovsk, Embassy, Potanino, Romanovka, Ust-Barguzin, Ust-Ordynsky (via Irkutsk), Khorinsk, Shchuchye Lake.

In the southern direction, you can leave Ulan-Ude daily by trains "Ulan-Ude—Naushki", "Irkutsk—Naushki", trains run in the western and eastern directions.

The remote northern regions — North Baikal and Muisky - can be reached by rail from Taishet station in the Irkutsk region. Domestic airlines also fly from Ulan-Ude Baikal Airport to Nizhneangarsk and Taksimo.

The main website with bus schedules and online ticket sales is (it does not cover all routes, but there are no more detailed ones)



In Buryatia, there is a wide selection of dishes of various cuisines. But the guests of the republic prefer to try Baikal and Buryat cuisines.

In Baikal cuisine, dishes are prepared mainly from noble species of fish caught in Lake Baikal — omul, sturgeon, grayling, whitefish. The most beloved fish in Buryatia is the Baikal omul. It is eaten fried, boiled, smoked and salted. Especially appreciated by connoisseurs and lovers of this product is "omul with a smell", which is characterized by a special piquancy due to its specific smell. Omul caviar and raskolotka (frozen raw fish) are also popular, which are served to the table as an appetizer.

Most often, guests are offered to taste the omul on the horns, which is cooked like a barbecue over a campfire, only on wooden skewers. The fish is used exclusively from fresh catch. As a rule, the preparation of this dish takes place right on the shore of Lake Baikal under the sound of the surf, the crackling of a campfire and pleasant communication in a friendly company.

The basis of Buryat cuisine is milk and meat, and its main advantage is simplicity in preparation and naturalness.

Guests are usually treated to mutton. Buryats can cook up to 50 different dishes from one ram. The whole ram is used for food — nothing is thrown away. The most delicious and famous mutton comes from the Borgoi Valley. This meat was also loved in the imperial house of the Romanovs. Historical fact: the Borgoian mutton was next to the Baikal omul on the ceremonial table on the occasion of the coronation of Nicholas II.

The most popular dish, which is present on the menu of almost any institution, is buuza. This is a ball of minced meat wrapped in a pancake made of thin dough, with a hole left on top. The shape of the dish resembles a yurt. The bouza is being prepared for a couple.

Buchler (mutton broth), shulen (meat soup with homemade noodles), black pudding and green tea with milk are also loved in Buryatia.


Night life

A diverse and vibrant nightlife, where an atmosphere of unrestrained fun reigns with incendiary music and hot dancing until the morning, is available only in one place in Buryatia — in its capital, Ulan-Ude. There are many night spots here — restaurants, pubs, clubs, cinemas...

In the summer, nightlife also boils over in popular recreation areas — in Arshan, Enkhaluk, Maksimikh.

In the rest of the territory, in the dark hours, guests of the republic admire stunning sunsets and mystically bright starry skies, which makes them no less happy.


Precautionary measures

Buryatia can hardly be classified as a dangerous region.

The locals are quite peaceful. Buddhism, which is practiced by a significant part of the population, plays an important role in this. But, as they say, the family is not without a freak, and sometimes there is a black sheep that can spoil the overall blissful picture. If adventures are not included in the plans of your travel program, you should not enter into a close relationship with the first person you meet, and even more so, drink alcoholic beverages with him.

As everywhere, being in the conditions of pristine nature, you need to be wary of the bite of ticks, bees, snakes and any other game. Although, as practice shows, these representatives of the fauna themselves try to quickly hide from the eyes of the "two-legged animals" if they do not feel threatened by their lives. Therefore, in the forest it is necessary to behave in such a way that your appearance does not come as a surprise to the animals, which can scare them and cause aggression. You can talk loudly (don't shout!) or make other sounds so that all living things around in advance and voluntarily have time to hide in their holes.

Considering that Buryatia is a sunny republic, it is necessary to protect yourself from sunstrokes on hot days. And on rare rainy days, when a thunderstorm happens, you need to know how to protect yourself from this atmospheric scourge.

When taking baths in wild mineral springs, follow a simple but important rule: your stay in the water should not exceed five minutes, otherwise such procedures will do you more harm than good. It is also impossible to cool the body after hot baths, so it is better to wrap yourself in warm clothes right away.

Sometimes poisoning happens to tourists. And then, instead of getting new pleasant sensations in the Buryat expanses, you have to spend a lot of time and effort on chaotic intimate encounters with a white "faience friend" in a hotel room. To warn yourself against this sad prospect, you need to be careful about any unfamiliar food and first ask what ingredients the dish is made of. Also, you should not buy Baikal omul, so popular in Buryatia, with your hands, no matter how tempting it looks to you. This frivolity can end up with botulism for you. It is clear from the sound of the word that it does not promise you anything pleasant.

In general, be reasonable and you will have only pleasant memories from your trip to Buryatia.



When visiting Buryatia, guests can also look into neighboring regions, where there are many interesting places.

Irkutsk region: Olkhon Island, Circum-Baikal Railway, Taltsy Architectural and Ethnographic Museum of the peoples of the Angara region, Sobolinaya Mountain resort.
Trans-Baikal Territory: Alkhanai National Park, Aginsky datsan, Tsugolsky datsan, Darasun and Yamorovka resorts.
Tyva: only the Valley of Volcanoes and the wild resort of Choigan (Joigan), located on the border of the two republics, are accessible from Buryatia.
Mongolia: monument to Genghis Khan, Lake Khubsugul, Amarbayasgalant Buddhist Monastery, Gobi Desert, Karakorum, Bogdo Khan Palace, Gandantegchenlin Monastery, Gorkhi Terelj National Park.



Ancient times
The oldest finds of primitive people in Buryatia are bone remains from the Tuyan site on the right bank of the Irkut River in the Tunka Valley.

Proto-Mongol tribes living in the territory of present-day Buryatia created the so-called culture of tiled graves.

At the turn of our era, the Baikal region formed the northern part of the Hunnu state (Chinese: Xiongnu), an ancient nomadic people who inhabited the Mongolian Plateau from 220 BC to the II century AD. According to widespread opinion, part of the Huns reached Europe and, mixing with the Ugrians, gave rise to a new people, which in Europe is known as the Huns.

After the collapse of the Xiongnu in the 1st century AD, the Baikal region came under the control of the Mongolian-speaking Xianbi people (93-234).

In the IV—VI centuries, the territory of Buryatia was part of the Zhuzhan Khaganate (330-555).

In 924, the state of the Mongol—speaking Khitan - Liao (907-1125) defeated the Kyrgyz Khaganate (840-924).

1206 — the formation of the Great Mongol Empire, which included the territories around Lake Baikal.

In the XIII—XVI centuries, many Mongolian-speaking ethnic groups, including Merkits, Bayats, Khori-Tumats and Barguts migrated from the territory of modern Buryatia.

XIV century — the collapse of the Mongol Empire. The Baikal region and Transbaikalia were part of the Mongolian state of the Northern Yuan until the 17th century.

XVI century
At the end of the XVI century, Buddhism penetrated from Mongolia to the north to the Buryat population of Transbaikalia, mainly in the Gelugpa tradition. The reason for this was the congress of princes and noyons of Eastern, Western, Southern and Northern Mongolia in 1576. At this congress, Gelugpa Buddhism was declared the state religion of the whole of Mongolia, and the territory of today's Buryatia was still part of it. Since then, laws have been passed prohibiting shamanism and supporting Buddhism as the state religion.

XVII century
Russian Russians conquered Siberia in the second half of the XVII century. Records and reports of Russian pioneers (Cossack foreman Moskvitin, boyar son of Beketov, Nikolai Spafariy) also belong to this period. They note the presence of "Bratsk" people, that is, Buryats, felt dugans, Lama temples and priests of lamas who worship in honor of Buddha and other gods of the pantheon.

XVIII century
At the time of joining Russia, various Mongolian-speaking ethnic groups lived in the Pre-Baikal and Transbaikalia, such as Barguts, Khori, Ekhirites, Bulagats, Ashibagats, Sartuls, Tabanguts, Khongodors, Ikinats, Shosholoks, etc.

After the Russian-Chinese border was drawn in 1729, the above-mentioned Mongolian-speaking ethnic groups were cut off from the bulk of the Mongols, and later the Buryat people began to form from them.

XIX century
To protect the state border of Russia with China, the Trans-Baikal Cossack Army was formed by order of Emperor Nicholas I on March 17 (30), 1851. The army included three mounted regiments and three infantry brigades — the Verkhneudinsk 1st, 2nd, 3rd Russian regiments, the 4th Tunguska (Evenki) regiment, the 5th and 6th Buryat regiments.

According to the census of 1897, there were 180 thousand Buryats in Transbaikalia, of which about 160 thousand people considered themselves to be Buddhist.

XX century
In 1917, the first national autonomy of the Buryats was established — the State of Buryat-Mongolia.

In 1918, the Trans-Baikal Congress of Soviets declared the Trans-Baikal Region a province.

Soviet power in the territory of Buryatia was established in February 1918, but in the summer of 1918 it was overthrown. In Transbaikalia, with the support of Japanese troops, the military dictatorship of ataman Semenov was established. In 1919-1920, several national and "white" governments operated on the territory of Buryatia — the State of Buryat-Mongolia, the theocratic Balaghat state, the Great Pan-Mongolian State.

On March 2, 1920, the Red Army, with the support of the partisans, returned Verkhneudinsk. Western Buryatia became part of the RSFSR, eastern Buryatia became part of the Far Eastern Republic (Far East). Verkhneudinsk was the capital of the DVR in April — October 1920.

In 1921, the Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Region (Aginsky, Barguzin, Khorinsky and Chita aimags; the center of the district is Chita) was created as part of the DVR.

On January 9, 1922, the Mongol-Buryat Autonomous Region was formed as part of the RSFSR (Tunkinsky, Alarsky, Ehirit-Bulagatsky, Bokhansky and Selenginsky aimags; the center of the district is Irkutsk).

After the withdrawal of foreign interventionists from the Far East and the annexation of the Far East to the RSFSR in November 1922, both autonomous regions merged and on May 30, 1923, the Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was formed with its capital in Verkhneudinsk, which became part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. This date is considered the day of the formation of the Republic of Buryatia.

On July 30, 1930, the East Siberian Territory (the regional center is Irkutsk) was formed, which included the Buryat-Mongolian ASSR.

In 1934, Verkhneudinsk was renamed Ulan-Ude.

In 1936, the East Siberian Territory was abolished with the division into the Buryat-Mongolian ASSR and the East Siberian region.

On September 26, 1937, when the East Siberian Region was divided into Irkutsk and Chita regions, Ust-Ordynsky Buryat-Mongolian National District and Aginsky Buryat-Mongolian National District were separated from the Buryat-Mongolian ASSR.

On July 7, 1958, the Buryat-Mongolian ASSR was renamed the Buryat ASSR by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. On December 25, 1958, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR approved this decision, making a corresponding amendment to the Constitution of the USSR.

On October 8, 1990, the Supreme Council of the Buryat ASSR adopted the Declaration on State Sovereignty of the Buryat Soviet Socialist Republic. According to this document, Buryatia renounced the status of autonomy and proclaimed the state sovereignty of the Buryat SSR on its territory. On May 24, 1991, the Congress of People's Deputies of the RSFSR approved this decision, amending article 71 of the Constitution of the RSFSR of 1978.

On March 27, 1992, the Supreme Council of Buryatia passed a law renaming the Buryat SSR into the Republic of Buryatia. On April 21, 1992, the new name was approved by the Congress of People's Deputies of Russia.

XXI century
When the federal districts of Russia were formed in 2000, Buryatia was incorporated into the Siberian Federal District. On November 3, 2018, the republic was transferred to the Far Eastern Federal District, and in 2019 to the Far Eastern Economic Region (before that it was part of the East Siberian Economic Region).


Physical and geographical characteristics


Buryatia is located in the very center of Asia, on the eastern shore of Lake Baikal, next to Mongolia.

It borders Tyva in the west, Irkutsk Region in the northwest, and the Trans-Baikal Territory in the east. It has a federal border with Mongolia in the south.

The distance by rail from the capital of Buryatia, Ulan-Ude, to Moscow is 5,519 km, to the Pacific Ocean — 3,500 km, to Lake Baikal — 130 km, to the border with Mongolia — 234 km.

The area of Buryatia is 351.3 thousand km2. For comparison, four Austrians or seventeen Israelis will fit into the borders of the republic.

There are many amazing and unique places in Buryatia. All the landscapes of Eurasia meet here: mountains, taiga, steppes, tundra, desert, plain. Having visited these places, the famous Russian writer A.P. Chekhov described Buryatia as follows: "Selenga is a continuous beauty, in Transbaikalia I found everything I wanted: the Caucasus, the Psla Valley, Zvenigorodsky District, and the Don. During the day you ride across the Caucasus, at night along the Don steppe, and in the morning you wake up from a nap, look — the Poltava province is already there, and so on for the whole thousand versts."

Nature has generously rewarded Buryatia with healing resources. There are 303 known mineral springs and 55 mineral lakes in the republic, located in different regions. Local residents call the water sources "arshany", which means "healing water" in the Buryat language. Arshans are revered as sacred places.

Buryatia is a sunny republic, the sun shines here up to 300 days a year, which is more than in any other region of Russia, and comparable to Central Asia. It also has the highest purity and transparency of the air - from a height of 9 thousand meters, the area is perfectly visible for tens of kilometers around, which is also not available in all other regions of the Russian Federation.

The climate in the republic is sharply continental, winters are dry and cold, summers are short and hot. The average temperature in winter is -22°C, in summer +18.5°C.

Buryatia is the highest mountainous area in Russia. Not in the sense that there are high mountains here, but in the fact that the area is located quite high from sea level. For example, Ulan-Ude is located at an altitude of 500 to 650 meters, Lake Baikal at an altitude of about 400 meters.



The Republic of Buryatia is part of a mountainous zone with an altitude zone that occupies a significant part of the south of Eastern Siberia. The relief is characterized by powerful mountain ranges and extensive deep and, sometimes, almost closed intermountain basins. The area of the mountains is more than 4 times the area occupied by the lowlands. Buryatia is characterized by significant elevation above sea level, and as a result, very low average atmospheric pressure. The lowest mark is the level of Lake Baikal — 456 m in the Pacific mark, and the highest is the glacier—covered peak Munku-Sardyk in the Eastern Sayan — 3491 m above sea level.

South Buryatia, represented by the Selenga Srednegorye, covers a significant part of the Selenga River basin, the largest waterway of Lake Baikal, including all its major tributaries, and is characterized by a predominance of mountains with an average height of 1000-1800 meters above sea level.

Lake Baikal is bordered by the high ridges of the Baikal region with wide intermountain basins separating them. Their belt includes the highlands of the Eastern Sayan Mountains, extending from northwest to southeast for a distance of about 1000 km, with a width of 200-300 km, and rising in the central part of the ridges by more than 2500-3000 m. The belt of the Baikal Mountains is continued by Khamar-Daban, the Sea Ridge, Ulan-Burgas, Ikat, Barguzin and Baikal ranges. The watersheds of the Barguzin range represent classic Alpine landforms.

In northern Buryatia there are ridges of the Stanovoi Highlands: Yuzhno-Muisky, Severo-Muisky, Udokan, Kalarsky. The Vitim Plateau adjoins the northeast of the Baikal region. The entire northern Baikal region is characterized by a continuous spread of permafrost, sometimes lying at a depth of 0.5 meters and with a capacity of up to 500-600 meters.



The climate of Buryatia is sharply continental. Winter is cold, with dry frost. The main snowfalls occur in November and December. The second half of winter is characterized by a small amount of snow. Spring is windy, with prevailing northwesterly winds, with frosts and almost no precipitation. Summer is short, with hot days and cool nights, with heavy rainfall in July and August. Autumn comes imperceptibly, without a sharp change in the weather, in some years it can be long and warm. The average temperature in summer is +26 °C, in winter -25 °C, and the average annual temperature is -1.6 °C. An average of 244 mm of precipitation falls per year.

In general, the climate is formed under the influence of three contrasting components: the dry and cold climate of the northern regions, the hot and dry Mongolian deserts and the humid Pacific.

An essential feature of the climate of Buryatia is the long duration of sunshine — 1900-2200 hours, in this indicator it is not inferior, and sometimes surpasses the southern regions of Russia. In Russia, the sunniest cities are Ulan-Ude — 2797 hours and Khabarovsk — 2449 hours.

Barguzinsky, Bauntovsky Evenki, Kurumkan, Muisky, Okinsky, North Baikal districts are equated to the regions of the Far North.


Nature reserves and national parks

The Nature Reserve Fund of the Republic of Buryatia is represented by the following specially protected natural territories (hereinafter — protected areas):

There are 2 biosphere reserves and 1 nature reserve, 2 national parks, 3 state nature reserves of federal significance.
There are 13 nature reserves, a natural park, a recreational area, and 57 natural monuments of regional importance.
5 recreational areas of local importance.


Flora and fauna

Buryatia has a unique and diverse flora and fauna. Currently, 446 species of terrestrial vertebrates have been registered on the territory of the republic. Amphibians of Buryatia are represented by six species from two orders. There are 7 species of reptiles in the republic. There are more than 348 species of birds in the avifauna of the republic. 85 species from 7 orders of mammals have been recorded in Buryatia.

Lake Baikal and its surrounding area are inhabited by 2,500 different species of animals (including fish), 250 of which are endemic. The most famous are the Baikal omul, a commercial fish of the salmon family, as well as the viviparous golomyanka, a transparent fish without scales and a swim bladder. The symbol of Lake Baikal is the seal. The mystery of the origin of this freshwater seal in the lake has not yet been solved.

Most of the territory of Buryatia is occupied by forests (83% of the area). In spring, the rhododendron of the Daurian (called by the local population the bagulnik) blooms. Medicinal plants are successfully used in folk and Tibetan medicine. The taiga is inhabited by sable, squirrel, fox, column, ermine, lynx, roe deer, musk deer, raisin, elk, wild boar, bear.

Baikal sturgeon, davatchan, white Baikal grayling, taimen and tench are listed in the Red Book of Russia and Buryatia.

Objective data obtained on the basis of satellite image processing show significant damage to the forest fund caused in 2001-2019. Deforestation has caused concern to the World Wildlife Fund and local residents; causing significant economic damage. Thus, according to GFW data, about 16% of all forests (by area) were lost in 2000-2018.


Water resources

The water resources of the Republic of Buryatia are represented by surface and groundwater. In total, more than 30,000 rivers with a total length of about 150 thousand km flow on its territory. Of these, only 25 belong to the category of large and medium.

Thus, more than 99% of the republic's rivers are small rivers with a length of less than 200 km. The rivers of the republic belong to three large water basins: Lake Baikal, Lena and Angara rivers. At the same time, 52% of the territory of Buryatia is located in the Lake Baikal basin.

The resources of the river flow of Buryatia amount to 98 km3; 94.3 thousand m3/year per inhabitant (almost 3 times more than the average in Russia); 279.8 thousand m3/year per 1 km2 of the territory. 61% of the republic's river flow falls on the Lake Baikal basin.

There are about 35 thousand lakes on the territory of the republic with a total mirror area of 1795 km2. The most significant reservoirs include Gusinoe (164.7 km2), Bolshoe Eravnoye, Baunt, and Maloe Eravnoye.

On the territory of Buryatia there is a large part (60% of the coastline) of Lake Baikal.



The permanent population of Buryatia at the 2010 census was 963.5 thousand people. The population density is three people per square kilometer. 60% of people live in cities. National composition: 65% — Russians, 30% — Buryats. The indigenous inhabitants of the republic are Buryats, Soyots, and Evenks.

Buddhism, Shamanism, Orthodoxy and Old Believers peacefully coexist in Buryatia.

Buryatia is the center of Russian Buddhism. The main Buddhist temple of the country, the Ivolginsky Datsan, houses the residence of the head of the Buddhist traditional Sangha of Russia, Pandito Khambo Lama Damba Ayusheev. It is also home to the country's largest university, Dashi Choinkhorlin, where future clergy comprehend the basics of Buddhist philosophy, study Oriental medicine, ethnography, Tibetan, Old Mongolian and Buryat languages, as well as iconography, the basics of Tantrism and meditation.

Of great interest is the phenomenon of Pandito Hambo-Lama Dashi-Dorjo Itigelov, who 80 years ago went into nirvana and still remains in a meditation pose. As many scientific studies have shown, the brain and body of a Lama correspond to the physical characteristics of a living organism. Scientists believe that the Lama's body is in a state unknown to science. People from all over the world make pilgrimages to the body and spirit of the Lama, believing that touching the great Lama has miraculous power.



In the Republic of Buryatia region, according to the data available for 2018, it is registered annually:

611 patients diagnosed with HIV infection;
3152 patients diagnosed with malignant neoplasm, that is, suffering from various cancers. This category of the population receives modern and effective treatment in the best clinics in the region;
758 patients with tuberculosis;
69 patients treated for drug addiction;
554 people with alcoholism disease;
529 patients diagnosed with syphilis.



The State power of the Republic is exercised by the Head, the People's Khural, the Government and the courts.

The Head is the highest official of the republic and at the same time the Chairman of the Government. Legislative power is exercised by the Parliament of the Republic — the People's Khural.

On February 22, 1994, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Buryatia adopted the Constitution of the Republic of Buryatia.



Order of Lenin (July 3, 1959) — for the successes achieved in economic and cultural construction, and in commemoration of the 300th anniversary of the voluntary entry of Buryatia into the Russian state;
Order of Friendship of Peoples (December 29, 1972) — in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the USSR.
Order of the October Revolution (1973) — in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Buryat ASSR;



The Republic of Buryatia is one of the regions of Russia with an industrial-agrarian type of economy. Economic development: The total gross regional product (GRP) of the Republic of Buryatia in 2012 amounted to 167 billion rubles. According to this indicator, Buryatia ranks 60th in Russia, between the Nenets Autonomous Okrug and the Novgorod Region. In terms of the gross regional product (GRP), the Republic of Buryatia ranks 47th in the ranking of the subjects of the Russian Federation, between the Republic of Mordovia and the Orel region. In 2011, the gross income per capita amounted to 159.2 thousand rubles. ($10,684 according to the purchasing power index, which roughly corresponds to the indicators of Serbia, Iran and South Africa).

In the GRP structure, the industries producing services have the maximum share (46%): more than half of them (54.5%) provide transport, 28% — trade and catering, 3% — communications. The share of industries producing goods accounts for 33.1% of GRP, of which about 60% is provided by industry, about 27% by agriculture and forestry, and 15% by construction. Other industries account for 20.9% of the GRP structure of the region.



More than 700 deposits of various minerals have been explored on the territory of Buryatia. Among the identified deposits are 247 gold deposits (228 placer, 16 ore and 3 complex). The list of strategic types of mineral raw materials includes 7 deposits of tungsten, 13 of uranium, 4 of polymetals, 2 each of molybdenum and beryllium, one each of tin and aluminum. 8 deposits of fluorspar, 10 deposits of brown and 4 deposits of coal, 2 deposits of asbestos, a number of jade and construction raw materials, as well as apatites, phosphorites, graphite and zeolites have also been explored.

In the Kizhinginsky district, near the village of Novokizhinginsk, there is Russia's largest Ermakovskoye beryllium deposit. It is characterized by a uniquely high beryllium content (more than 1%) and a large number of beryllium minerals. This is the only beryllium deposit in Russia suitable for profitable development, characterized by favorable mining, hydrogeological conditions, ease of ore enrichment and concentrate processing, as well as being located in an easily accessible area. Among the well-known beryllium deposits on a large scale, it stands out for its rich ores. After its discovery in 1964, exploration and the beginning of development (1975), the problem with the supply of beryllium to the USSR industry was successfully solved.
Gold mining is one of the main income items of the Republic of Buryatia. Geologists have identified more than 240 deposits of this precious metal on its territory. Buryatia, occupying a little more than 2 percent of the area of Russia, contains a large gold potential in its bowels. In terms of balance reserves of gold, the Republic of Buryatia ranks 14th among the subjects of the Russian Federation. In general, as of January 1, 2010, gold reserves in the republic amounted to 100.7 tons, the proven forecast resources of ore gold are estimated at another 1,311 tons. In terms of gold production, Buryatia ranks 9th in Russia and third in the Siberian Federal District. In the Soviet years, gold mining was carried out almost exclusively from placers and did not exceed 1.5—2 tons per year. In 1991, with the creation of CJSC Buryatzoloto, work on the development of the main ore deposits — Zun-Holby and Irokindy reached a new qualitative level. With the commissioning of the Zun-Kholbinsky mine in 1994, production in Buryatia increased sharply to 5 tons. Gold production in Buryatia in 2011 amounted to 6.1 tons.
Coal production in Buryatia in 2009 amounted to about 16.5 million tons. Of these, the Tugnui section produces 8.5 million tons per year, and the Nikolsky section produces about. 8 million tons . According to geological exploration data, coal reserves at the Tugnui section today amount to 230 million tons. The total area of the Nikolskoye field is 15 km2, with reserves of more than 274 million tons. Brown coal production reached 1.5 million tons in 2010. Okino-Klyuchevskoye (Bichursky district), Talinskoye and Daban-Gorkhonskoye (Yeravninsky district), Zagustayskoye and separate sections of Gusinoozersky (Selenginsky district) brown coal deposits are being developed in an open-pit manner. The main brown coal deposits of Buryatia are Okino—Klyuchevskoye (coal reserves - 125.75 million tons), Gusinoozerskoye (proven reserves — 451 million tons), Akhalikskoye (1.1 million tons), Zagustayskoye (1.0 million tons). On the territory of Buryatia, there are 10 brown deposits and 4 coal deposits on the balance sheet. This is 1.1% of Russia's balance coal reserves, but production is only 0.1% of the national total. With a sufficiently large fuel and energy base, Buryatia is forced to import, mainly for energy producers, about 3 million tons of coal and 1.5 million tons of brown coal annually.
Uranium mining in Buryatia is carried out in the Bauntovsky Evenki district at the Khiagda deposit by the method of borehole underground leaching. In 2013, the Khiagda deposit produced 440 tons of uranium, which is 38% higher than in 2012. The mineral resource base of uranium at the Khiagda deposit is about 47 thousand tons
. The main deposits of non-ferrous metals in Buryatia are Ozernoye, Kholodninskoye, Dzhidinskoye.
The Lake pyrite-polymetallic deposit is located in the Yeravninsky district, 450 km east of Ulan-Ude. It is unique in reserves of lead (1.6 million tons) and zinc (8.3 million tons), with their average ore contents of 1.2 and 6.2%. The impurity elements are cadmium, antimony, arsenic, silver, thallium. In the period 2008-2010, a mining and processing plant was built.
The Kholodninsk deposit of pyrite-polymetallic ores contains industrial concentrations of lead, zinc, sulfur and other valuable components. Pb Ratio:Zn is 1:7. A combined mining system was designed: a quarry to a depth of 200-300 m, with a sequential transition to underground mining. However, in 2006, by order of the Government of the Russian Federation, the boundaries of the Central Ecological Zone (CEZ) of Lake Baikal were approved, in which the Kholodninskoye field is located, and where any economic activity was prohibited.
Tungsten mining at the Dzhidinsky deposit in Zakamensk was discontinued in 1998, due to the economic crisis.
Jade mining in Russia on an industrial scale began in the middle of the XIX century in the Eastern Sayan. Before that, all the jade supplied to the stone-cutting enterprises of Russia was purchased abroad. In the Soviet years, starting in 1964 (since the creation of the Jade Batch of the Irkutsk Geological Department), jade production in Buryatia ranged from 30 to 100 tons, and in some years it reached 500 tons. After the 1990s, accounting is only approximate, since most of the stone turnover is carried out on the shadow market.


Energy industry

The republic's energy system operates as part of the Unified Energy System of Russia. In 2013, electricity consumption in the Buryat power system amounted to 5,484 million kWh, power generation — 5,391.8 million kWh, maximum power consumption — 969 MW, installed capacity of power plants at the end of the year — 1,333.77 MW. The historical maximum power consumption is 1,255 MW and was reached in 1992.

There are two wholesale market power plants operating on the territory of the republic:
Gusinoozerskaya GRES (branch of JSC Inter RAO — Electric Generation, Gusinoozersk) is a thermal power plant (GRES) with an installed capacity of 1,130 MW at the end of 2013. In 2013, the GRES produced 4823.1 million kWh of electric energy (or 89.45% of the total output of Buryatia).
Ulan-Ude CHP-1 (branch of JSC TGK-14, Ulan-Ude) is a thermal power plant with an installed capacity of 148.77 MW at the end of 2013. In 2013, the CHP generated 442.8 million kWh of electric energy (or 8.2% of the total output of Buryatia).

There are also six solar power plants located on the territory of Buryatia: Bichurskaya SES with a capacity of 10 MW (commissioned in 2017), BVS SES, Tarbagatai SES, Kabanskaya SES and Khorinskaya SES with a capacity of 15 MW each (all commissioned in 2019), as well as Toreyskaya SES with a capacity of 45 MW (commissioned in 2020).

Electric energy is supplied to the retail market by the TPP of JSC Selenginsky CCK (36 MW, a station of an industrial enterprise owned by LLC Bail, Ulan-Ude) and diesel power plants used in emergency and repair modes. The total capacity of diesel power plants at the end of 2013 was 18.4 MW.

The republic's power plants use brown and hard coal as the main fuel, fuel oil as a backup and kindling.

The general layout of electric power facilities until 2020 assumed the construction of the Moka and Ivanovo HPPs with a design capacity of 1,410 MW.

Electric energy transmission services in the republic are provided by JSC FGC UES (electric networks and substations with a voltage of 220 kV and above), a branch of JSC IDGC of Siberia — Buryatenergo, JSC Ulan-Ude Energo, LLC ENCOM and 24 other territorial grid companies.

The guaranteeing supplier in the territory of the Republic of Buryatia since June 2014 is JSC Chitaenergosbyt. The largest consumers of electric energy are the East Siberian Railway, Ulan-Ude Aviation Plant, Ulan-Ude Locomotive and Car Repair Plant, Timlyuysky Cement Plant, Selenginsky CCK, Buryatzoloto, Tugnuysky Section.

The functions of operational dispatch management in the territory of the Republic of Buryatia are performed by the Branch of JSC SO UES "Regional Dispatch Management of the Energy System of the Republic of Buryatia", which is part of the operational activity area of the Branch of JSC SO UES An ODE to Siberia.

The consumption of thermal energy from district heating systems in the Republic of Buryatia amounted to 7,395 thousand in 2013. Gcal. The largest suppliers of thermal energy are the enterprises of JSC TGK-14 (Ulan-Ude CHP-1 — 1596.7 thousand Gcal, Ulan-Ude CHPP-2 — 893.1 thousand. Gcal, Timlyuyskaya CHP — 74.9 thousand. Gcal), Gusinoozerskaya GRES — 240.2 thousand. Gcal, CHP of JSC Selenginsky CCK — 158.2 thousand. Gcal. In addition to the listed stations, about 673 boiler houses release thermal energy.

At the end of 2013, the total installed capacity of heat sources of district heating systems is 2798.1 Gcal/h, of which 1030.5 Gcal/h are boiler houses, 688 Gcal/h is Ulan—Ude CHPP—1, 419 Gcal/h is the CHPP of JSC Selenginsky CCK, 221 Gcal/h is Gusinoozerskaya GRES, 380 Gcal/h — Ulan-Ude CHPP-2, 59.6 Gcal/h — Timlyuyskaya CHPP. At the same time, the last two CHP plants have zero installed electric power and actually function as boiler houses.